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Sample records for atr experiment description

  1. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  2. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  3. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  4. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Irradiation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Murray

    2012-09-01

    Reactor material testing in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) involves modeling and simulation of each experiment to accurately determine the irradiation temperature. This paper describes thermal analysis of capsule experiments using gas gap temperature control and provides data on recent material tests that validate the modeling results. Static capsule experiments and lead-out capsule experiments are discussed. The source of temperature variation in capsule experiments and ways to mitigate these variations are also explained. Two examples of instrumented lead-out capsule experiments, TMIST-1 and UCSB-2, are presented. A comparison of measured and calculated temperatures is used to validate the thermal models and to ascertain the accuracy of the calculated temperature.

  6. Rapid profiling of Swiss cheese by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Eliardi, A; Drake, M A; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Harper, W J

    2009-08-01

    The acceptability of cheese depends largely on the flavor formed during ripening. The flavor profiles of cheeses are complex and region- or manufacturer-specific which have made it challenging to understand the chemistry of flavor development and its correlation with sensory properties. Infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technology for the rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analysis of foods, providing information related to its composition and conformation of food components from the spectra. Our objectives were to establish infrared spectral profiles to discriminate Swiss cheeses produced by different manufacturers in the United States and to develop predictive models for determination of sensory attributes based on infrared spectra. Fifteen samples from 3 Swiss cheese manufacturers were received and analyzed using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The spectra were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to build a classification model. The cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. The relationship between the descriptive sensory scores and ATR-IR spectra was assessed using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. SIMCA discriminated the Swiss cheeses based on manufacturer and production region. PLSR analysis generated prediction models with correlation coefficients of validation (rVal) between 0.69 and 0.96 with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranging from 0.04 to 0.29. Implementation of rapid infrared analysis by the Swiss cheese industry would help to streamline quality assurance.

  7. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  8. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  9. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  10. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  11. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  12. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  13. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  14. The MUNU experiment, general description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsler, C.; Avenier, M.; Bagieu, G.; Barnoux, C.; Becker, H.-W.; Brissot, R.; Broggini, C.; Busto, J.; Cavaignac, J.-F.; Farine, J.; Filippi, D.; Gervasio, G.; Giarritta, P.; Grgić, G.; Guerre Chaley, B.; Joergens, V.; Koang, D. H.; Lebrun, D.; Luescher, R.; Mattioli, F.; Negrello, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Paić, A.; Piovan, O.; Puglierin, G.; Schenker, D.; Stutz, A.; Tadsen, A.; Treichel, M.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; MUNU Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    We are building a low background detector based on a gas time projection chamber surrounded by an active anti-Compton shielding. The detector will be installed near a nuclear reactor in Bugey for the experimental study of overlineνee- scattering. We give here a general description of the experiment, and an estimate of the expected counting rate and background. The construction of the time projection chamber is described in details. Results of first test measurements concerning the attenuation length and the spatial as well as energy resolution in the CF 4 fill gas are reported.

  15. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  16. Hardening Neutron Spectrum for Advanced Actinides Transmutation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

    2004-05-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast rest reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas released modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neturon spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are peformed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neturon spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  17. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  18. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  19. Description of the COMRADE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, Janet; Maag, Carl R.; Bibring, J.-P.; Tanner, William G.; Alexander, M.

    1994-01-01

    The COMRADE experiment is designed to return minimally degraded particles to earth along with complete in situ information concerning mass, velocity, and trajectory of encountered particles. The objectives of the program are very diverse. A set of flight-tested active detectors will be combined in an array to identify some of the physical properties of an incident grain, e.g., velocity vector, momentum, and mass. The use of passive detectors gives access to the chemical and isotopical properties of the grains in the micrometer size range. We are concerned simultaneously with a destructive capture, using metallic collectors, and a nondestructive capture, using a new low-density target in which the impacting grains stop, practically intact. The primary objectives for this mission are (1) to identify the particle remnants of the micrometer-sized grains having impacted on purposely designed metallic collectors, for complete and detailed chemical, isotopic, and organic analysis, thereby determining grain composition as well as the existence of organic and inorganic molecules, to be related with the possible cometary origin of the grains showing an extraterrestrial signature; (2) to return captured intact particles to earth for complete and detailed chemical, isotopic, spectral, mineralogical, and organic analysis, thereby determining grain composition as well as the existence of organic and inorganic molecules; and (3) to capture micrometer/submicrometer dust grains in a manner that ensures minimal particle degradation and guarantees state-of-the-art confidence in measurement of the in situ particle parameters including trajectory, velocity vector, mass, and flux distributions.

  20. Tensile and impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at low temperatures in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Subsize tensile and Charpy specimens made from several V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on mechanical properties. These specimens were contained in lithium-bonded subcapsules and irradiated at temperatures between {approx}200 and 300 C. Peak neutron damage was {approx}4.7 dpa. Postirradiation testing of these specimens has begun. Preliminary results from a limited number of specimens indicate a significant loss of work-hardening capability and dynamic toughness due to the irradiation. These results are consistent with data from previous low-temperature neutron irradiation experiments on these alloys.

  1. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  2. Monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum by combined ATR-FTIR and tape-stripping experiments.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Holper, Evelyn; Baurecht, Dieter; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and tape-stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of different surfactants in the stratum corneum (SC). To reveal a possible connection between the size of the formed micelles and skin penetration, dynamic light-scattering measurements of the aqueous surfactant solutions were also taken. Compared to an alkyl polyglycoside and sucrose laurate, a deeper skin penetration of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) und sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) could be related to a smaller size of the formed micelles. Beside the differences in spatial distribution, a link between the physical presence of anionic surfactants in the SC and a decrease of skin hydration was found. Furthermore, the incorporation of SDS and SLES into the SC, even after a brief, consumer-orientated washing procedure with commercially available hair shampoos, was confirmed.

  3. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  4. PUREX new substation ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  5. A method for checking homogeneity of subsurface regions by variable angle ATR: Experiments on polymers vs. optical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfe, I.; Eichhorn, K.-J.; Hopfe, V.; Grählert, W.

    1998-06-01

    The subsurface structure of many technically applied materials is characterized by alterations of the composition (swelling or surface reactions on polymers, leaching of glasses etc.). Attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for analyzing such surface regions. Because of problems with optical contact the ATR method is difficult to handle in practice. Based on variable angle ATR-FTIR spectroscopy a straightforward method has been established which can detect compositional inhomogeneities in subsurface regions or across layers. The method works as follows: (i) making ATR measurements at two different angles of incidence without changing the sample, (ii) normalizing the ATR absorbance spectra by using an appropriate band of the substrate as an internal standard, (iii) calculating difference spectra of the normalized spectra. In the case of a homogeneous material the difference spectrum virtually vanishes whereas in the case of an inhomogeneous surface region the difference spectrum reflects the compositional gradient. The method has been tested at polyamide-12 foils: (a) chemically cleaned, (b) treated with initiator, and (c) treated with pluronic. The experimental findings have been supported by spectra modelling. Based on an optical multilayer model the ATR spectra of a homogeneous polymer and of the same material with a slightly altered surface layer have been calculated for different angles of incidence. By applying steps (ii) to (iii) the experimental results are confirmed.

  6. Analysis of the DHCE experiment in the position A10 of the ATR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    Calculations were performed to assess the possibility of performing DHCE experiments in mixed spectrum fission reactors. Calculated values of key parameters were compared with limit values for each quantity. The values calculated were: He-4 production from the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction, tritium leakage, required tritium concentration in lithium, initial tritium charge per capsule, and helium to dpa ratio after 10 dpa of irradiation.

  7. Project Description Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    AFCI AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments Project Executi

    2007-03-01

    The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the AFC-1 fuel test series currently in progress in the ATR. This document discusses the experiments and the planned activities that will take place.

  8. Sequentially Simulated Outcomes: Kind Experience versus Nontransparent Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Robin M.; Soyer, Emre

    2011-01-01

    Recently, researchers have investigated differences in decision making based on description and experience. We address the issue of when experience-based judgments of probability are more accurate than are those based on description. If description is well understood ("transparent") and experience is misleading ("wicked"), it…

  9. Fabrication Report for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B Capsule Irradiations in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2007-10-01

    This document provides a general narrative description of the AFC-2A and 2B fuel fabrication processes for the AFC 2A and AFC 2B fuel irradiation experiments fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR).

  10. Spacelab mission 1 experiment descriptions, third edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Experiments and facilities selected for flight on the first Spacelab mission are described. Chosen from responses to the Announcement of Opportunity for the Spacelab 1 mission, the experiments cover five broad areas of investigation: atmospheric physics and Earth observations; space plasma physics; astronomy and solar physics; material sciences and technology; and life sciences. The name of the principal investigator and country is listed for each experiment.

  11. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  12. Description of the Joint Damping Experiment (JDX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkman, Steven L.; Redd, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop a small-scale shuttle flight experiment which allows researchers to: (1) characterize the influence of gravity and joint gaps on a small-scale truss model, and (2) evaluate the applicability of low-g aircraft test results for predicting on-orbit behavior. The experiment consists of a three-bay truss and associated hardware for truss excitation and measurement of oscillations. Other aspects of the investigation are presented in viewgraph form.

  13. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  14. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  15. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  16. Overview of the ATR power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac (protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which feeds the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1997. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X, and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two storage rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS`s), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS`s. The remaining 63 PS`s were newly purchased. These PS`s range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS`s to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS`s. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  17. Overview of the ATR Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, B.

    1997-05-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer Line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac(protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which will eventually feed the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1996. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS's), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS's. The remaining 63 PS's were newly purchased. These PS's range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS's to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS's. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  18. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    SciTech Connect

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-15

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. - Highlights: • It is shown that logical inference, that is, inductive reasoning, provides a rational explanation for the success of quantum theory. • The Schrödinger equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments. • The singlet and triplet states follow from logical inference applied to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment. • Robustness also leads to the quantum theoretical description of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.

  19. As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2011-05-01

    The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4

  20. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 2: Experiment system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed technical description of the 30/20 GHz flight experiment system is presented. The overall communication system is described with performance analyses, communication operations, and experiment plans. Hardware descriptions of the payload are given with the tradeoff studies that led to the final design. The spacecraft bus which carries the payload is discussed and its interface with the launch vehicle system is described. Finally, the hardwares and the operations of the terrestrial segment are presented.

  1. Electromagnetic model based SAR ATR through attributed scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Conghui; Wen, Gongjian; Gao, Feng; Huang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoliang

    2016-10-01

    Electromagnetic model (em-model) provides a concise and physically relevant description of target through representative scatterers. In a forward built em-model, detailed information about each scatterer's position, scattering amplitude along with its provenance can be predicted. This makes em-model a good candidate for use in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR). In this paper, we introduce scatterers' provenance as attributed information into target recognition, and an attributed em-model based target recognition method is proposed. Firstly, according to the purpose of ATR, each scatterer in em-model is endowed with an importance factor based on its provenance. Secondly, a detection is implemented to decide whether the em-model predicted scatterer has a corresponding scatterer in measured data. If the scatterer exist in measured target, evaluate how similar the scatterer pair resembled with each other. Next, similarities of all the scatterer pairs are synthesized as a whole match score between em-model and SAR data. In the synthesis, the importance factor servers as a weighting factor that scatterer with more attention will be more discriminative for recognition. In the end, target in measured SAR data is recognized as the model type or not based on the match score. The novelty of this method comes from taking into account of the provenance information of scatterers as attributed information and endowing the scatterers with different important factors according to their importance in recognition. This makes the attributed scatterer based recognition method pertinent to the purpose of ATR. Experiments on simulated Tank SAR data that produced by a high frequency electromagnetic simulation software verified the effectiveness of this method.

  2. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.

  3. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  4. Microwave remote sensing of snow experiment description and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Stiles, W. H.; Hanson, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    The active and passive microwave responses to snow were investigated at a site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado during the February and March winter months. The microwave equipment was mounted atop truck-mounted booms. Data were acquired at numerous frequencies, polarizations, and angles of incidence for a variety of snow conditions. The experiment description, the characteristics of the microwave and ground truth instruments, and the results of a preliminary analysis of a small portion of the total data volume acquired in Colorado are documented.

  5. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-01

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature [45]. Physics is to be regarded not so much as the study of something a priori given, but rather as the development of methods of ordering and surveying human experience. In this respect our task must be to account for such experience in a manner independent of individual subjective judgment and therefore objective in the sense that it can be unambiguously communicated in ordinary human language [46]. The physical content of quantum mechanics is exhausted by its power to formulate statistical laws governing observations under conditions specified in plain language [46]. The first two sentences of the first quote may be read as a suggestion to dispose of, in Mermin's words [47], the "bad habit" to take mathematical abstractions as the reality of the events (in the everyday sense of the word) that we experience through our senses. Although widely circulated, these sentences are reported by Petersen [45] and there is doubt that Bohr actually used this wording [48]. The last two sentences of the first quote and the second quote suggest that we should try to describe human experiences (confined to the realm of scientific inquiry) in a manner and language which is unambiguous and independent of the individual subjective judgment. Of course, the latter should not be construed to imply that the observed phenomena are independent of the choices made by the individual(s) in performing the scientific experiment [49].The third quote

  6. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the Advanced Test Reactor. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Steven L.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  7. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  8. Automated management of life cycle for future network experiment based on description language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongxia; Liang, Junxue; Lin, Zhaowen; Ma, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Future network is a complex resources pool including multiple physical resources and virtual resources. Establishing experiment on future network is complicate and tedious. That achieving the automated management of future network experiments is so important. This paper brings forward the way for researching and managing the life cycle of experiment based on the description language. The description language uses the framework, which couples with a low hierarchical structure and a complete description of the network experiment. In this way, the experiment description template can be generated by this description framework accurately and completely. In reality, we can also customize and reuse network experiment by modifying the description template. The results show that this method can achieve the aim for managing the life cycle of network experiment effectively and automatically, which greatly saves time, reduces the difficulty, and implements the reusability of services.

  9. LINDA: The experiment description language of the MDS-Plus data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Manduchi, G.; Flor, G. )

    1990-10-01

    MDS-Plus is a general-purpose, data acquisition software package for pulsed physics experiments. It is based on the concept of an experiment model. The experiment model can be defined by means of the experiment description. The experiment description is a text description of the logical structure of the experiment, which defines the hardware structure together with the data acquisition actions, their sequence, and their interdependencies. The experiment description is then compiled into optimized internal data structures. A language-sensitive editor provides a user-friendly tool for producing syntactically correct experiment descriptions. The major design choices of syntax and implementation are presented and its integration with the preparation of the experiment is discussed.

  10. Applications of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to biomedical samples.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, S G; Chan, K L A

    2006-07-01

    FTIR spectroscopic imaging in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode is a powerful tool for studying biomedical samples. This paper summarises recent advances in the applications of ATR-FTIR imaging to dissolution of pharmaceutical formulations and drug release. The use of two different ATR accessories to obtain chemical images of formulations in contact with water as a function of time is demonstrated. The innovative use of the diamond ATR accessory allowed in situ imaging of tablet compaction and dissolution. ATR-FTIR imaging was also applied to obtain images of the surface of skin and the spatial distribution of protein and lipid rich domains was obtained. Chemical images of cross-section of rabbit aorta were obtained using a diamond ATR accessory and the possibility of in situ imaging of arterial samples in contact with aqueous solution was demonstrated for the first time. This experiment opens an opportunity to image arterial samples in contact with solutions containing drug molecules. This approach may help in understanding the mechanisms of treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  12. Processing Differences between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Fiedler, Susann; Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence-accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value between gambles in description-based choices but not in experience. Third, the relation between attention and subjective weights given to outcomes was stronger for experience-based than for description-based tasks. Overall, our results indicate that processes in experience-based risky choice can be captured by sampling-and-averaging evidence-accumulation model. This model cannot be generalized to description-based decisions, in which more complex mechanisms are involved.

  13. Descriptions of Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The experiments for all the Space Processing Applications Rocket experiments, including those flown on previous Space Processing flights as well as those under development for future flights are described. The experiment objective, rationale, approach, and results or anticipated results are summarized.

  14. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  15. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  16. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  17. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  18. ATR Performance Estimation Seed Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    for this collec ion of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data ...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collec ion of information. Send comments regarding this burden...to produce simulated MCM sonar data and demonstrate the impact of system, environmental, and target scattering effects on ATR detection

  19. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  20. High School Teachers' Experiences with Suicidal Students: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Breslin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are widely considered key gatekeepers to mental health services for students at risk for suicide. Using data from 120 teachers at two Denver-area high schools, this study investigated teachers' experiences with suicidal students. Analyses revealed that the majority of teachers (58.8%) reported that at least one student had disclosed…

  1. Towards violation of Born's rule: description of a simple experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-03-28

    Recently a new model with hidden variables of the wave type was elaborated, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Roughly speaking PCSFT is a classical signal theory applied to a special class of signals - 'quantum systems'. PCSFT reproduces successfully all probabilistic predictions of QM, including correlations for entangled systems. This model peacefully coexists with all known no-go theorems, including Bell's theorem. In our approach QM is an approximate model. All probabilistic predictions of QM are only (quite good) approximations of 'real physical averages'. The latter are averages with respect to fluctuations of prequantum fields. In particular, Born's rule is only an approximate rule. More precise experiments should demonstrate its violation. We present a simple experiment which has to produce statistical data violating Born's rule. Since the PCSFT-presentation of this experiment may be difficult for experimenters, we reformulate consequences of PCSFT in terms of the conventional wave function. In general, deviation from Born's rule is rather small. We found an experiment amplifying this deviation. We start with a toy example. Then we present a more realistic example based on Gaussian states with very small dispersion.

  2. FABS (Formulated Abstracting): An Experiment in Regularized Content Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brian; Hofmann, Thomas R.

    This preliminary report of research conducted at the Linguistics Documentation Centre of the University of Ottawa describes a bilingual experiment into the elaboration of well structured formulary routines for making the writing of abstracts easier, and at the same time standardizing and generally augmenting the information given in them. The…

  3. Space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC): Description of instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. W. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Baker, B. B.; Burch, J. L.; Gibson, W. C.; Black, R. K.; Tomlinson, W. M.; Bounds, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) flew on Spacelab 1 (SL 1) in November and December 1983. SEPAC is a joint U.S.-Japan investigation of the interaction of electron, plasma, and neutral beams with the ionosphere, atmosphere and magnetosphere. It is scheduled to fly again on Atlas 1 in August 1990. On SL 1, SEPAC used an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, and neutral gas source as active elements and an array of diagnostics to investigate the interactions. For Atlas 1, the plasma accelerator will be replaced by a plasma contactor and charge collection devices to improve vehicle charging meutralization. This paper describes the SEPAC instrumentation in detail for the SL 1 and Atlas 1 flights and includes a bibliography of SEPAC papers.

  4. Description and Analysis of Core Samples: The Lunar Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allton, Judith H.

    1997-01-01

    Although no samples yet have been returned from a comet, extensive experience from sampling another solar system body, the Moon, does exist. While, in overall structure, composition, and physical properties the Moon bears little resemblance to what is expected for a comet, sampling the Moon has provided some basic lessons in how to do things which may be equally applicable to cometary samples. In particular, an extensive series of core samples has been taken on the Moon, and coring is the best way to sample a comet in three dimensions. Data from cores taken at 24 Apollo collection stations and 3 Luna sites have been used to provide insight into the evolution of the lunar regolith. It is now well understood that this regolith is very complex and reflects gardening (stirring of grains by micrometeorites), erosion (from impacts and solar wind sputtering), maturation (exposure on the bare lunar surface to solar winds ions and micrometeorite impacts) and comminution of coarse grains into finer grains, blanket deposition of coarse-grained layers, and other processes. All of these processes have been documented in cores. While a cometary regolith should not be expected to parallel in detail the lunar regolith, it is possible that the upper part of a cometary regolith may include textural, mineralogical, and chemical features which reflect the original accretion of the comet, including a form of gardening. Differences in relative velocities and gravitational attraction no doubt made this accretionary gardening qualitatively much different than the lunar version. Furthermore, at least some comets, depending on their orbits, have been subjected to impacts of the uppermost surface by small projectiles at some time in their history. Consequently, a more recent post-accretional gardening may have occurred. Finally, for comets which approach the sun, large scale erosion may have occurred driven by gas loss. The uppermost material of these comets may reflect some of the features

  5. Description and experience: How experimental investors learn about booms and busts affects their financial risk taking.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Tomás; Woike, Jan K; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    A few years ago, the world experienced the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression. According to the depression baby hypothesis, people who live through such macroeconomic shocks take less financial risk in their future lives (e.g., lower stock market participation). This hypothesis has previously been tested against survey data. Here, we tested it in a simulated experimental stock market (based on the Spanish stock index, IBEX-35), varying both the length of historical data available to participants (including or excluding a macroeconomic shock) and the mode of learning about macroeconomic events (through sequential experience or symbolic descriptions). Investors who learned about the market from personal experience took less financial risk than did those who learned from graphs, thus echoing the description-experience gap observed in risky choice. In a second experiment, we reversed the market, turning the crisis into a boom. The description-experience gap persisted, with investors who experienced the boom taking more risk than those who did not. The results of a third experiment suggest that the observed gap is not driven by a wealth effect, and modeling suggests that the description-experience gap is explained by the fact that participants who learn from experience are more risk averse after a negative shock. Our findings highlight the crucial role of the mode of learning for financial risk taking and, by extension, in the legally required provision of financial advice.

  6. Radar derived spatial statistics of summer rain. Volume 1: Experiment description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Arnold, A.; Goldhirsh, J.; Konrad, T. G.; Vann, W. L.; Dobson, E. B.; Rowland, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was performed at Wallops Island, Virginia, to obtain a statistical description of summer rainstorms. Its purpose was to obtain information needed for design of earth and space communications systems in which precipitation in the earth's atmosphere scatters or attenuates the radio signal. Rainstorms were monitored with the high resolution SPANDAR radar and the 3-dimensional structures of the storms were recorded on digital tape. The equipment, the experiment, and tabulated data obtained during the experiment are described.

  7. 77 FR 67557 - Special Conditions: ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Regional, Models ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... external systems and networks in their Models ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A airplanes. Both airplanes are two... functions and services had very limited connectivity with external sources. The architecture and network..., Models ATR42-500 and ATR72-212A Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection...

  8. Tim-Tipin dysfunction creates an indispensible reliance on the ATR-Chk1 pathway for continued DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin D; Fu, Michael A; Brown, Eric J

    2009-10-05

    The Tim (Timeless)-Tipin complex has been proposed to maintain genome stability by facilitating ATR-mediated Chk1 activation. However, as a replisome component, Tim-Tipin has also been suggested to couple DNA unwinding to synthesis, an activity expected to suppress single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulation and limit ATR-Chk1 pathway engagement. We now demonstrate that Tim-Tipin depletion is sufficient to increase ssDNA accumulation at replication forks and stimulate ATR activity during otherwise unperturbed DNA replication. Notably, suppression of the ATR-Chk1 pathway in Tim-Tipin-deficient cells completely abrogates nucleotide incorporation in S phase, indicating that the ATR-dependent response to Tim-Tipin depletion is indispensible for continued DNA synthesis. Replication failure in ATR/Tim-deficient cells is strongly associated with synergistic increases in H2AX phosphorylation and DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that ATR pathway activation preserves fork stability in instances of Tim-Tipin dysfunction. Together, these experiments indicate that the Tim-Tipin complex stabilizes replication forks both by preventing the accumulation of ssDNA upstream of ATR-Chk1 function and by facilitating phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATR.

  9. From Roots to Blossoms: A Description of the Shared Teaching Experiences of Jamaican Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Hope Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    The study explored teaching and teacher education in the postcolonial context, Jamaica, based on arguments that Jamaica's education system and teacher training is constructed on its colonial past and the heavy reliance on knowledge from the West. It provided a rich description of the shared teaching experiences of teacher educators in Jamaica,…

  10. The Skylab Student Project. [high school winners selection and experiments description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) undertook in 1971 a cooperative effort which brought high school students of the Nation into the mainstream of Skylab research through the Skylab Student Project. This paper presents the background, objectives and scope of the project, experiment selection procedures, as well as experiment descriptions and status. The paper includes observations on student caliber and inclinations and implications of some developments for the benefit of future researchers.

  11. ATR2000 Mercury/MPI Real-Time ATR System User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Doerfler, D.W.

    2000-12-01

    The Air Force's Electronic Systems Center has funded Sandia National Laboratories to develop an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) System for the Air Force's Joint STARS platform using Mercury Computer systems hardware. This report provides general theory on the internal operations of the Real-Time ATR system and provides some basic techniques that can be used to reconfigure the system and monitor its runtime operation. In addition, general information on how to interface an image formation processor and a human machine interface to the ATR is provided. This report is not meant to be a tutorial on the ATR algorithms.

  12. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  13. Quantum theory as a description of robust experiments: Derivation of the Pauli equation

    SciTech Connect

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Donker, Hylke C.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2015-08-15

    It is shown that the Pauli equation and the concept of spin naturally emerge from logical inference applied to experiments on a charged particle under the conditions that (i) space is homogeneous (ii) the observed events are logically independent, and (iii) the observed frequency distributions are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiment is carried out. The derivation does not take recourse to concepts of quantum theory and is based on the same principles which have already been shown to lead to e.g. the Schrödinger equation and the probability distributions of pairs of particles in the singlet or triplet state. Application to Stern–Gerlach experiments with chargeless, magnetic particles, provides additional support for the thesis that quantum theory follows from logical inference applied to a well-defined class of experiments. - Highlights: • The Pauli equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments on a charged particle. • The concept of spin appears as an inference resulting from the treatment of two-valued data. • The same reasoning yields the quantum theoretical description of neutral magnetic particles. • Logical inference provides a framework to establish a bridge between objective knowledge gathered through experiments and their description in terms of concepts.

  14. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  15. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3' ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5' end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5' dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5' end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair.

  16. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycle 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh Pham; Jeff Einerson

    2014-01-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-2 (AGR-2) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 154B as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This is the last cycle of AGR-2 irradiation, as the test train was pulled from the ATR core during the outage portion of ATR Cycle 155A. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) downstream flows from Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) detectors, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the six capsules in the AGR-2 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) comprised of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  17. System issues of developing grayscale optical correlator for ATR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    We have been developing Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and exploring a variety of automatic target recognition (ATR) applications to take advantage of the inherent performance advantages of the GOC parallel processing, high-speed, vast parallelism and high-speed [1-4]. To date, we have built compact 512 x 512, 1000 fps GOC systems and tested/demonstrated for field ATR experiments. We have also worked with our industrial partners to develop a 1024 x 1024 Ferroelectric Spatial Light Modulator (FLCSLM) to meet the challenging applications demanding larger input scene Field-of-View (FOV) and higher resolution. In this paper, two major system issues that we have encountered during the development efforts for real-world applications will be discussed. These include: 1) SLM dynamic range limitations and 2) ATR performance for CAD/CAC, computer-aided detection & classification (CAD/CAC) applications. Our simulation study has shown that the current 8-bit dynamic range possessed by the FLCSLM is adequate for both the input image and the correlation filter encodings. We will also describe the addition of a neural network (NN) post-processor to greatly decrease the false positive detection rate while retaining the high positive detection rate obtained by the by the GOC. Experimental results demonstrating the high-performance of the fused GOC and NN processor will be provided.

  18. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3′ ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5′ end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5′ dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5′ end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair. PMID:28115467

  19. A depolarization and attenuation experiment using the CTS satellite. Volume 1: Experiment description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostian, C. W.; Holt, S. B., Jr.; Kauffman, S. R.; Manus, E. A.; Marshall, R. E.; Stutzman, W. L.; Wiley, P. H.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for measuring precipitation attenuation and depolarization on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) 11.7 GHz downlink is described. Attenuation and depolarization of the signal received from the spacecraft is monitored on a 24 hour basis. Data is correlated with ground weather conditions. Theoretical models for millimeter wave propagation through rain are refined for maximum agreement with observed data. Techniques are developed for predicting and mimimizing the effects of rain scatter and depolarization on future satellite communication systems.

  20. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  1. AFC-1 Fuel Rodlet Fission Power Deposition Validation in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo; D. J. Utterbeck

    2008-11-01

    One of the viable options of long-term geological disposal of the nuclear power reactors generated spent fuel is to extract plutonium, the minor actinides (MA) and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in an appropriate reactor for the reduction of the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. An important component of that technology will be a non-fertile / low-fertile actinide transmutation fuel form containing the plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes to be transmuted. Such advanced fuel forms, especially ones enriched in the long-life minor actinide (LLMA) elements (i.e., Np, Am, Cm), have minimal irradiation performance data available from which to establish a transmutation fuel form design. Recognizing these needs, an Advanced Fuel Cycle test series-1 (AFC-1) irradiation test on a variety of candidate fuel forms is now being conducted in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first advanced fuel experiment (AFC-1) has been finalized and the test assembly analyzed for insertion and irradiation in ATR. The ATR core consists of a serpentine and rotationally symmetric fuel assembly about the z-axis of the core center. The plan view of the ATR core configuration is shown in Fig. 5, in Ref. 1. A cadmium filter with a 0.178 cm (0.045") thickness and 121.5 cm (48") in length, is currently used in the actinide-fuel capsule design for the East Flux Trap (EFT) position in ATR, to depress the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) lower than the project’s 330 W/cm limit for the experimental fuel rodlets. The LHGR is proportional to the fission power deposited in the fuel rodlets from the neutron fissions. The fraction of the fission power generated from the neutron fission reactions deposited in the fuel rodlet is an important parameter for test assembly thermal analysis, which will be validated in this summary.

  2. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  3. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  4. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L  -  1, 0.48 mol L  -  1, 0.38 mol L  -  1, and 1.12 mol L  -  1, respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries.

  5. The distribution of atrazine (ATR) and ATR metabolites in the Wistar rat following gestational/lactational exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational/lactational exposure to ATR is reported to alter reproductive/developmental function, yet our understanding of the transfer of ATR and/or its metabolites from the dam to the fetus/offspring is limited. Previously we examined the lactational transfer of CI4-ATR, but sp...

  6. Detailed description of a long-term low-level waste degradation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, F.; Torok, J.; Haas, M.K.; Manni, G.

    1997-12-31

    This work gives a detailed description of the important aspects of a long-term Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) degradation experiment, performed at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This experiment utilized actual LLRW. The wastes consist of unconditioned compacted refuse (paper, mop heads, paper towels, used clothing, etc.), which represents the bulk of the waste volume intended for near-surface disposal at CRL. Waste material was collected and compacted to make a total of 11 bales for this experiment. Each bale was then placed and sealed in separate steel containers which were connected to sampling lines. After a dry monitoring period, water was added to promote leaching and decomposition of the wastes. The leachate sampled had a composition similar to landfill leachates. Some applications of this experiment, used to support the safety case of near-surface disposal, are briefly discussed in this paper, e.g., the production of colloidal material, the nature and role of dissolved organics of microbial origin, etc.

  7. Description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1991-01-01

    A description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment is presented. The LGMSS provides five degrees of freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element which is levitated above a floor-mounted array of air core electromagnets. The uncontrolled degree of freedom is rotation about the long axis of the cylinder (roll). Levitation and control forces are produced on a permanent magnet core which is embedded in the cylinder. The cylinder also contains light emitting diodes (LEDs), assorted electrons, and a power supply. The LEDs provide active targets for an optical position measurement system which is being developed in-house at the Langley Research Center. The optical position measurement system will provide six degrees of freedom position information for the LGMSS control system.

  8. Measured Thermal and Fast Neutron Fluence Rates for ATF-1 Holders During ATR Cycle 157D

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Larry Don; Miller, David Torbet

    2016-03-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 157D which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains measurements of the fluence rates corresponding to the particular elevations relative to the 80-ft. core elevation. The data in this report consist of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution.

  9. IN-CORE FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois VIllard

    2014-12-01

    As part of an Idaho State University (ISU)–led Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) collaborative project that includes Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), flux detector evaluations were completed to compare their accuracy, response time, and longduration performance. Special fixturing, developed by INL, allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) core positions to perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector crosscalibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program included miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), and specially developed commercial SPNDs. Results from this program provide important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and yield new flux data required for benchmarking models in the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Modeling Update Project.

  10. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; S. T. Laflin

    1999-08-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple "low cost" shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Cost were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4-5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations.

  11. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David . E-mail: david.cortez@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-05-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress.

  12. The two-phase extended evaluation in microgravity (TEEM) flight experiment: Description and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    1997-01-01

    The future missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms or stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Current thermal control technology, using single-phase liquid coolant loops, is not a viable option for some of these future missions due to the associated power system weight and size penalty. Two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow thermal control systems can offer significant advantages over single-phase thermal systems in reducing the required power system mass and size. The Two-Phase Extended Evaluation in Microgravity (TEEM) Flight Experiment is currently being developed by NASA, and the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program (STP) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Phillips Laboratory, with the cooperation of university researchers, to demonstrate operations of a closed-loop, two-phase system in a relevant mission environment. TEEM will also provide fully developed, two-phase flow data for zero-g conditions. This paper presents a description of the flight experiment, and a summary of the science of interest to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  13. NASA Controller Acceptability Study 1(CAS-1) Experiment Description and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Controller Acceptability Study 1 (CAS-1) experiment that was conducted by NASA Langley Research Center personnel from January through March 2014 and presents partial CAS-1 results. CAS-1 employed 14 air traffic controller volunteers as research subjects to assess the viability of simulated future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operating alongside manned aircraft in moderate-density, moderate-complexity Class E airspace. These simulated UAS were equipped with a prototype pilot-in-the-loop (PITL) Detect and Avoid (DAA) system, specifically the Self-Separation (SS) function of such a system based on Stratway+ software to replace the see-and-avoid capabilities of manned aircraft pilots. A quantitative CAS-1 objective was to determine horizontal miss distance (HMD) values for SS encounters that were most acceptable to air traffic controllers, specifically HMD values that were assessed as neither unsafely small nor disruptively large. HMD values between 0.5 and 3.0 nautical miles (nmi) were assessed for a wide array of encounter geometries between UAS and manned aircraft. The paper includes brief introductory material about DAA systems and their SS functions, followed by descriptions of the CAS-1 simulation environment, prototype PITL SS capability, and experiment design, and concludes with presentation and discussion of partial CAS-1 data and results.

  14. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Tillman, J.; Conley, C. A.; Granger, L.; Segalat, L.; Higashitani, A.; Honda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kagawa, H.; Adachi, R.; Higashibata, A.; Fujimoto, N.; Kuriyama, K.; Ishioka, N.; Fukui, K.; Baillie, D.; Rose, A.; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.

    2008-09-01

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads.

  15. Targeting ATR in DNA damage response and cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Prevo, Remko; Hammond, Ester M; Brunner, Thomas B; McKenna, W Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J

    2014-02-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity during DNA replication through the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 and regulation of the DNA damage response. Preclinical studies have shown that disruption of ATR pathway can exacerbate the levels of replication stress in oncogene-driven murine tumors to promote cell killing. Additionally, inhibition of ATR can sensitise tumor cells to radiation or chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that targeting ATR can selectively sensitize cancer cells but not normal cells to DNA damage. Furthermore, in hypoxic conditions, ATR blockade results in overloading replication stress and DNA damage response causing cell death. Despite the attractiveness of ATR inhibition in the treatment of cancer, specific ATR inhibitors have remained elusive. In the last two years however, selective ATR inhibitors suitable for in vitro and - most recently - in vivo studies have been identified. In this article, we will review the literature on ATR function, its role in DDR and the potential of ATR inhibition to enhance the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy.

  16. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  17. Signal processing and statistical descriptive reanalysis of steady state chute-flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    truong, hoan; eckert, nicolas; keylock, chris; naaim, mohamed; bellot, hervé

    2014-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of snow rheology is needed for the mitigation against avalanche hazard. Indeed snow avalanches have a significant impact on the livelihoods and economies of alpine communities. To do so, 60 small-scale in-situ flow experiments were performed with various slopes, temperatures and flow depths. The investigation of these data previously seemed to show the dense flow of dry snow may be composed of two layers; a sheared basal layer made of single snow grains and a less sheared upper layer made of large aggregates. These outcomes were mainly based on the mean velocity profile of the flow and on interpretation in terms of rheological behavior of granular materials and snow microstructure [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007]. Here, the main objective remains the same, but the rheological and physical viewpoints are put aside to extract as much information contained in the data as possible various using signal processing methods and descriptive statistics methods as the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), transfer entropy (TE) and maximum cross-correlation (MCC). Specifically, we aim at the improving the velocity estimations as function of the depth particularly the velocity fluctuations around the mean profile to better document the behavior of dense dry snow flows during a steady and uniform chute regime. The data are composed of pairs of voltage signals (right and left), which makes that the velocity is known indirectly only. The MCC method is classically used to determine the time lag between both signals. Previously, the MCC method that showed the mean velocity profile may be fitted by a simple bilinear function [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007], but no interesting temporal dynamics could be highlighted. Hence, a new process method was developed to provide velocity series with much better temporal resolution. The process is mainly made of a MODWT-based denoising method and the choice of window size for correlation. The results prove to be

  18. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    and having the PCPs also function as ECPs will require significant safety basis changes requiring DOE approval. 2. Evaluation Criteria #4 (Use of new technology). The use of VFD and VFD “pump catcher” technology for the PCPs is not currently in use and has not been previously formally reviewed/approved by DOE for ATR. It is noted that VFD technology has several decades of commercial use and experience. However, the ATR probabilistic risk assessment will have to be updated, reflecting the changes for supplying ECP flows including VFD reliability, to confirm that the proposed activity maintains or reduces the CDF for the ATR. 3. Evaluation Criteria #5 (Create the need for new or revised safety SSCs). It is expected that the proposed activity will result in a revised list of safety-related SSCs. Specifically, as currently proposed, the existing ECPs will be deleted from the list. The PCPs and their associated components, picking up the ECP function, will be classified as safety-related active Seismic Category I.

  19. Australian men's long term experiences following prostatectomy: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter 'kevin'; Laws, Tom A

    The experiences of men in the immediate postoperative period following surgery for primary prostate cancer are well reported in the literature. Recognition of the unresolved morbidity encountered by men in the medium term suggests that a more complete understanding of how men cope in the long term is needed. Health professionals are deserving of a more complete literature for the purpose of providing holistic care for this group of men, providing informed advocacy and better support for men living with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Emerging literature reveals that men's knowledge of the long term problems associated with prostatectomy was inadequate at the time they consented to treatment; the likely outcomes at all phases of recovery should be taken into account when deciding on choice of treatment or no treatment. This qualitative study aims to describe men's long term recovery following prostatectomy for the purpose identifying the effects of unresolved post surgical morbidity. The content analysis of focus group interviews revealed that incontinence and impotence were a major source of emotional tension affecting the men's social interactions and sense of self-worth. The men expressed great regret over the lack of information accessible to them for evaluating the risk and nature of long term problems. The thick description provided in this study identifies the need for empathetic assessment of men with ongoing post surgical issues and alerts the reader to the inadequacies of information provided prior to consent to prostatectomy.

  20. Volatile decision dynamics: experiments, stochastic description, intermittency control and traffic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Schönhof, Martin; Kern, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    The coordinated and efficient distribution of limited resources by individual decisions is a fundamental, unsolved problem. When individuals compete for road capacities, time, space, money, goods, etc, they normally make decisions based on aggregate rather than complete information, such as TV news or stock market indices. In related experiments, we have observed a volatile decision dynamics and far-from-optimal payoff distributions. We have also identified methods of information presentation that can considerably improve the overall performance of the system. In order to determine optimal strategies of decision guidance by means of user-specific recommendations, a stochastic behavioural description is developed. These strategies manage to increase the adaptibility to changing conditions and to reduce the deviation from the time-dependent user equilibrium, thereby enhancing the average and individual payoffs. Hence, our guidance strategies can increase the performance of all users by reducing overreaction and stabilizing the decision dynamics. These results are highly significant for predicting decision behaviour, for reaching optimal behavioural distributions by decision support systems and for information service providers. One of the promising fields of application is traffic optimization.

  1. ATR maintains select progenitors during nervous system development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsoo; Shull, Erin RP; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Katyal, Sachin; Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Zhao, Jingfeng; Russell, Helen R; Brown, Eric J; McKinnon, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The ATR (ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and rad3-related) checkpoint kinase is considered critical for signalling DNA replication stress and its dysfunction can lead to the neurodevelopmental disorder, ATR-Seckel syndrome. To understand how ATR functions during neurogenesis, we conditionally deleted Atr broadly throughout the murine nervous system, or in a restricted manner in the dorsal telencephalon. Unexpectedly, in both scenarios, Atr loss impacted neurogenesis relatively late during neural development involving only certain progenitor populations. Whereas the Atr-deficient embryonic cerebellar external germinal layer underwent p53- (and p16Ink4a/Arf)-independent proliferation arrest, other brain regions suffered apoptosis that was partially p53 dependent. In contrast to other organs, in the nervous system, p53 loss did not worsen the outcome of Atr inactivation. Coincident inactivation of Atm also did not affect the phenotype after Atr deletion, supporting non-overlapping physiological roles for these related DNA damage-response kinases in the brain. Rather than an essential general role in preventing replication stress, our data indicate that ATR functions to monitor genomic integrity in a selective spatiotemporal manner during neurogenesis. PMID:22266795

  2. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  3. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  4. Defining ATR solutions using affine transformations on a union of subspaces model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Charles F.; Risko, Kelly K. D.

    2012-05-01

    The ability to recognize a target in an image is an important problem for machine vision, surveillance systems, and military weapons. There are many "solutions" to an automatic target recognition (ATR) problem proposed by practitioners. Often the definition of the problem leads to multiple solutions due to the incompleteness of the definition. Solutions are also made approximate due to resource limitations. Issues concerning "best" solution and solution performance are very open issues, since problem definitions and solutions are ill-defined. Indeed from information based physical measurement theory such as found in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) the exact solution is intractable1. Generating some clarity in defining problems on restricted sets seems an appropriate approach for improving this vagueness in ATR definitions and solutions. Given that a one to one relationship between a physical system and the MDL exists, then this uniqueness allows that a solution can be defined by its description and a norm assigned to that description. Moreover, the solution can be characterized by a set of metrics that are based on the algorithmic information of the physical measurements. The MDL, however, is not a constructive theory, but solutions can be defined by concise problem descriptions. This limits the scope of the problem and we will take this approach here. The paper will start with a definition of an ATR problem followed by our proposal of a descriptive solution using a union of subspaces model of images as described below based on Lu and Do2. This solution uses the concept of informative representations3 implicitly which we review briefly. Then we will present some metrics to be used to characterize the solution(s) which we will demonstrate by a simple example. In the discussions following the example we will suggest how this fits in the context of present and future work.

  5. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  6. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  7. Twenty Careers and Classroom Experiences for Teaching Science. Includes: Job Descriptions, Teaching Suggestions and Answers, Work Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrake, Greg

    Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…

  8. Cultural conditions required for the induction of an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in Sinorhizobium meliloti and the question as to whether or not the ATR helps rhizobia improve their symbiosis with alfalfa at low pH.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Walter O; Del Papa, María Florencia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lozano, Mauricio; de Los Angeles Giusti, María; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo A; Jofré, Edgardo; Boiardi, José Luis; Lagares, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in S. meliloti, as shown previously for Sinorhizobium medicae, when the bacteria are grown in batch cultures at the slightly acid pH of 6.1. In marked contrast, no increased tolerance to hydrogen ions is obtained if rhizobia are grown in a chemostat under continuous cultivation at the same pH. The adaptive ATR appears as a complex process triggered by an increased hydrogen-ion concentration, but operative only if other--as yet unknown--concomitant factors that depend on the culture conditions are present (although not provided under continuous cultivation). Although the stability of the ATR and its influence on acid tolerance has been characterized in rhizobia, no data have been available on the effect of the adapted state on symbiosis. Coinoculation experiments showed that acid-adapted indicator rhizobia (ATR+) were present in >90% of the nodules when nodulation was performed at pH 5.6, representing a >30% increase in occupancy compared with a control test. We show that the ATR represents a clear advantage in competing for nodulation at low pH. It is not yet clear whether such an effect results from an improved performance in the acid environment during preinfection, an enhanced ability to initiate infections, or both conditions. The practical use of ATR+ rhizobia will depend on validation experiments with soil microcosms and on field testing, as well as on the possibility of preserving the physiology of ATR+ bacteria in inoculant formulations.

  9. Un cours fonctionnel a distance: Description d'une experience (A Functional Course at a Distance: A Description of an Experiment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, F. M.

    This paper describes an on-going experiment about training adult (Latin American engineers about to come to France) beginners in oral expression. The first goal is to acquire the communicative means necessary to cope with four top priority situations and then master the communicative functions involved in understanding and making oneself…

  10. RELAP5 Model Description and Validation for the BR2 Loss-of-Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, J. R.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G.; Sikik, E.; Koonen, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the RELAP5 model, the calibration method used to obtain the minor loss coefficients from the available hydraulic data and the LOFA simulation results compared to the 1963 experimental tests for HEU fuel.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  12. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lecona, Emilio; Murga, Matilde; Callen, Elsa; Azorin, Daniel; Alonso, Javier; Lopez, Andres J.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source of endogenous DNA damage in cancer, which is suppressed by ATR and CHK1 kinases. We here show that ES suffer from high endogenous levels of RS, rendering them particularly dependent on the ATR pathway. Accordingly, two independent ATR inhibitors show in vitro toxicity in ES cell lines as well as in vivo efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas. PMID:27577084

  13. ATR FTIR Mapping of Leather Fiber Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, G.; Grünewald, T.; Petutschnigg, A.; Schnabel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Leather fiber panels are very promising materials for many applications, not only for the easy availability of the constituents but also for their outstanding fi re-retardant properties. These innovative composite panels can be an excellent material for building insulation, and in recent times, the interest of industries in this composite board has considerably arisen. For this reason the discrimination of the components in the leather fiber panels is becoming fundamental in order to ensure their homogeneous properties. A method to characterize the surface of these materials is then required. An ATR FTIR mapping system for the leather fiber panels has been performed with a Perkin-Elmer microscope coupled with a Frontier FTIR spectrometer. The system has successfully allowed transforming the optical image to a chemical one. This technique can be considered as a right tool for routine controls of the surface quality, especially when the leather shavings cannot be optically distinguished.

  14. Singer Perceptions of Collegiate Mid-Level Choral Experiences: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marci L.; Dakon, Jacob M.

    2016-01-01

    In this descriptive study, researchers surveyed choristers (N = 630) from 16 mid-level collegiate choirs nationwide to investigate their perceptions and behaviors as they related to the strategies used by directors to facilitate ensemble identity. Also investigated were the factors affecting choristers' dedication to choir and their intentions…

  15. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and

  16. ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sebastian A; Oehler, Hannah; Voigt, Andrea; Dalic, Denis; Freiwald, Anja; Serve, Hubert; Beli, Petra

    2016-02-01

    The slowing down or stalling of replication forks is commonly known as replication stress and arises from multiple causes such as DNA lesions, nucleotide depletion, RNA-DNA hybrids, and oncogene activation. The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) plays an essential role in the cellular response to replication stress and inhibition of ATR has emerged as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers that exhibit high levels of replication stress. However, the cellular signaling induced by replication stress and the substrate spectrum of ATR has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we employed quantitative MS-based proteomics to define the cellular signaling after nucleotide depletion-induced replication stress and replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition. We demonstrate that replication stress results in increased phosphorylation of a subset of proteins, many of which are involved in RNA splicing and transcription and have previously not been associated with the cellular replication stress response. Furthermore, our data reveal the ATR-dependent phosphorylation following replication stress and discover novel putative ATR target sites on MCM6, TOPBP1, RAD51AP1, and PSMD4. We establish that ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress and leads to the activation of the ATM-driven double-strand break repair signaling.

  17. Binding of a biosynthetic intermediate to AtrA modulates the production of lidamycin by Streptomyces globisporus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Yu, Tengfei; He, Qing; McDowall, Kenneth J; Jiang, Bingya; Jiang, Zhibo; Wu, Linzhuan; Li, Guangwei; Li, Qinglian; Wang, Songmei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lifei; Hong, Bin

    2015-06-01

    The control of secondary production in streptomycetes involves the funneling of environmental and physiological signals to the cluster-situated (transcriptional) regulators (CSRs) of the biosynthetic genes. For some systems, the binding of biosynthetic products to the CSR has been shown to provide negative feedback. Here we show for the production of lidamycin (C-1027), a clinically relevant antitumor agent, by Streptomyces globisporus that negative feedback can extend to a point higher in the regulatory cascade. We show that the DNA-binding activity of the S. globisporus orthologue of AtrA, which was initially described as a transcriptional activator of actinorhodin biosynthesis in S. coelicolor, is inhibited by the binding of heptaene, a biosynthetic intermediate of lidamycin. Additional experiments described here show that S. globisporus AtrA binds in vivo as well as in vitro to the promoter region of the gene encoding SgcR1, one of the CSRs of lidamycin production. The feedback to the pleiotropic regulator AtrA is likely to provide a mechanism for coordinating the production of lidamycin with that of other secondary metabolites. The activity of AtrA is also regulated by actinorhodin. As AtrA is evolutionarily conserved, negative feedback of the type described here may be widespread within the streptomycetes.

  18. Descriptions of experiments selected for the Space Transportation System (STS) materials processing in space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Summaries are presented for the first group of materials processing experiments planned for a shuttle mission. Outlined are the objectives, the approach, the rationale for the use of space, and the anticipated results for each experiment.

  19. Substrate contributions in micro-ATR of thin samples: implications for analysis of cells, tissue and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Lee, Joe; Gardner, Peter

    2013-07-21

    Low-e microscope slides are a common substrate for biological samples. Typically they are used for transflection infrared microspectroscopy but increasingly they are also being used for micro-ATR experiments since it is assumed that the FTIR-ATR absorbance spectra of cells and tissue on low-e substrates will not contain any spectral contributions from the substrate materials. This, in part, is due to the expectation that all the infrared light will be reflected at the highly reflective surface. At low sample thicknesses, however (e.g. less than 2 μm) the electric field does indeed penetrate through the substrate layers and undergoes absorption, from the glass supporting layer making up the majority of the slide. In this paper we show experimental evidence of the substrate contributions in ATR spectra and also a theoretical model giving insight into the spectral contributions of the substrate as a function of sample thickness.

  20. Development of scale model imagery for ATR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Delp, Nathaniel T.; Lewis, Derek R.

    2006-05-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) methods hold promise for rapid extraction of critical information from imagery data to support military missions. Development of ATR tools generally requires large amounts of imagery data to develop and test algorithms. Deployment of operational ATR systems requires performance validation using operationally relevant imagery. For early algorithm development, however, restrictions on access to such data is a significant impediment, especially for the academic research community. To address this limitation, we have developed a set of grayscale imagery as a surrogate for panchromatic imagery that would be acquired from airborne sensors. This surrogate data set consists of imagery of ground order of battle (GOB) targets in an arid environment. The data set was developed by imaging scale models of these targets set in a scale model background. The imagery spans a range of operating conditions and provides a useful image set for initial explorations of new approaches for ATR development.

  1. IR-ATR investigation of surface anisotropy in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Kriltz, Antje; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Several samples of flat soda-lime silicate glass were investigated by the Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy technique. The specular reflectance spectra together with the results of the performed dispersion analysis and the generated reflectance spectra, using Fresnel equations, suggest that the samples are isotropic. In contrast, spectra recorded by the ATR technique suggest an anisotropic structure on the surface of the specimen different from that in the bulk. This is established through differences in the s- and p-polarized IR-ATR spectra, which cannot be simply transformed into one another employing Fresnel formula for an isotropic case. It appears that this thin film having a structure different from the bulk is larger than the ATR effective penetration depth of the evanescent ray for each incidence angle above the critical one. The investigation suggests C2 symmetry of the SiO4 unit.

  2. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered {open_quotes}necessary{close_quotes} for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost.

  3. Submission of FeCrAl Feedstock for Support of AFC ATR-2 Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Barrett, Kristine E.; Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-16

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is currently being used to test accident tolerant fuel (ATF) forms destined for commercial nuclear power plant deployment. One irradiation program using the ATR for ATF concepts, Accident Tolerant Fuel-2 (ATF-2), is a water loop irradiation test using miniaturized fuel pins as test articles. This complicated testing configuration requires a series of pre-test experiments and verification including a flowing loop autoclave test and a sensor qualification test (SQT) prior to full test train deployment within the ATR. In support of the ATF-2 irradiation program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supplied two different Generation II FeCrAl alloys in rod stock form to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These rods will be machined into dummy pins for deployment in the autoclave test and SQT. Post-test analysis of the dummy pins will provide initial insight into the performance of Generation II FeCrAl alloys in the ATF-2 irradiation experiment as well as within a commercial nuclear reactor.

  4. ATR-IR spectroscopy as applied to nucleic acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyugin, Andriy V.; Samijlenko, Svitlana P.; Martynenko, Olena I.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2005-07-01

    For the first time the ATR technique was applied to obtain IR absorption spectra of DNA and RNA dry films. There was worked out procedure of the nucleic acid removal from germanium plate, which obviously was a main obstacle to application of ATR-IR spectroscopy to nucleic acids. This technique of IR spectroscopy was applied to confirmation of RNA tropism of aurin tricarboxylic acid observed by molecular biological methods.

  5. Performance model for joint tracking and ATR with HRR radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shan; Hong, Lang; Blasch, Erik

    2008-04-01

    Joint tracking and ATR with HRR radar is an important field of research in recent years. This paper addresses the issue of end-to-end performance modeling for HRR radar based joint tracking and ATR system under various operating conditions. To this end, an ATR system with peak location and amplitude as features is considered. A complete set of models are developed to capture the statistics in all stages of processing, including HRR signal, extracted features, Baysian classifier and tracker. In particular, we demonstrate that the effect of operating conditions on feature can be represented through a random variable with Log-normal distribution. Then, the result is extended to predicting the system performance under specified operating conditions. Although this paper is developed based on a type of ATR and tracking system, the result indicates the trend of the performance for general joint ATR and tracking system over operating conditions. It also provides guidance to how the empirical performance model of a general joint tracking and ATR system shall be constructed.

  6. Description of an Experiment Investigating Term Relationships as Interpreted by Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; And Others

    An experiment is reported in which 78 subjects examined synonymic and generic-specific relationships among 513 terms compiled from subject indexes of programming textbooks and manuals. Terms were assigned in groups of 20 so that given decisions for terms could be compared for three subjects. The experiment suggested such methodological…

  7. Neutron irradiation of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the BOR-60 fast reactor: Description of the fusion-1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The FUSION-1 irradiation capsule was inserted in Row 5 of the BOR-60 fast reactor in June 1995. The capsule contains a collaborative RF/U.S. experiment to investigate the irradiation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the temperature range 310 to 350{degrees}C. This report describes the capsule layout, specimen fabrication history, and the detailed test matrix for the U.S. specimens. A description of the operating history and neutronics will be presented in the next semiannual report.

  8. [Dostoevsky's epileptic experiences and his descriptions of epilepsy in the mirror of modern neurology].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present Fyodor Mihailovich Dostoevsky's epilepsy through the results of the related historical and contemporary medical literature, further, to show how the illness is reflected in the writer's biographical data and in the famous patient characters displayed in his great romans. Nowadays it is well presumed that the writer could have had temporal lobe epilepsy with secondary generalized seizures, the symptoms of which he by no means was producing throughout his life. This can be tracked easily by his own descriptions of his seizures, from the memories of his wife and his contemporaries, as well as the symptoms of his epileptic characters in his novels. This theme has been widely dealt with by neurologists, epileptologists and literary experts all over the world. Author details the literature research, the related works and establishes her own concept concerning Dostoevsky's epilepsy.

  9. A Data Quality Filter for PMU Measurements: Description, Experience, and Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Follum, James D.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2016-07-17

    Networks of phasor measurement units (PMUs) continue to grow, and along with them, the amount of data available for analysis. With so much data, it is impractical to identify and remove poor quality data manually. The data quality filter described in this paper was developed for use with the Data Integrity and Situation Awareness Tool (DISAT), which analyzes PMU data to identify anomalous system behavior. The filter operates based only on the information included in the data files, without supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data, state estimator values, or system topology information. Measurements are compared to preselected thresholds to determine if they are reliable. Along with the filter's description, examples of data quality issues from application of the filter to nine months of archived PMU data are provided. The paper is intended to aid the reader in recognizing and properly addressing data quality issues in PMU data.

  10. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  11. The 1985 Army Experience Survey: Tabular Descriptions of First-Term Attritees. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    then followed up by telephone. In addition to the main survey effort, three experiments were conducted on random subsamples. One experiment was con...Nonrespondents to the survey mailings were followed up by telephone interviewers. To accommodate this methodology, both mail and telephone versions of...space to record up to five different responses. In the summary table presented in the tabulations, all responses are combined and categorized

  12. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  13. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging of solvent and permeant diffusion across model membranes.

    PubMed

    McAuley, W J; Lad, M D; Mader, K T; Santos, P; Tetteh, J; Kazarian, S G; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2010-02-01

    The uptake and diffusion of solvents across polymer membranes is important in controlled drug delivery, effects on drug uptake into, for example, infusion bags and containers, as well as transport across protective clothing. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor the effects of different solvents on the diffusion of a model compound, 4-cyanophenol (CNP) across silicone membrane and on the equilibrium concentration of CNP obtained in the membrane following diffusion. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging of membrane diffusion was used to gain an understanding of when the boundary conditions applied to Fick's second law, used to model the diffusion of permeants across the silicone membrane do not hold. The imaging experiments indicated that when the solvent was not taken up appreciably into the membrane, the presence of discrete solvent pools between the ATR crystal and the silicone membrane can affect the diffusion profile of the permeant. This effect is more significant if the permeant has a high solubility in the solvent. In contrast, solvents that are taken up into the membrane to a greater extent, or those where the solubility of the permeant in the vehicle is relatively low, were found to show a good fit to the diffusion model. As such these systems allow the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic approach to give mechanistic insight into how the particular solvents enhance permeation. The solubility of CNP in the solvent and the uptake of the solvent into the membrane were found to be important influences on the equilibrium concentration of the permeant obtained in the membrane following diffusion. In general, solvents which were taken up to a significant extent into the membrane and which caused the membrane to swell increased the diffusion coefficient of the permeant in the membrane though other factors such as solvent viscosity may also be important.

  14. The Plasma Interaction Experiment /PIX/ - Description and flight qualification test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the Landsat-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus 1 kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage-biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  15. Planning for an energy-efficient future: The experience with implementing energy conservation programs for new residential and commercial buildings: Volume 2, Program descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Harris, J.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains the descriptions of programs contained in Volume 1 of our main report: Planning for an Energy-Efficient Future: The Experience With Implementing Energy Conservation Programs For New Residential and Commercial Buildings (LBL-25525).

  16. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  17. A Model for Teaching Ethical Meta-Principles: A Descriptive Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Irma S.; Rivas, Olivia; Mancillas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As students, educators, outreach and community service experts enter their distinct professional worlds, each will be compelled to make a wide variety of decisions. The shaping of peoples' ethical beliefs occurs through personal experiences as well as family, culture, religion and peer pressure. In order for these students, educators, outreach and…

  18. A Descriptive Study of a Canadian Elementary Music Educator's Experience with the Trinidadian Tradition of Steelband.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Francine L.

    Conducted during the Institute for Steelband Playing held in 1988, this study's aim was to understand how Trinidadian people view, experience, explain, and order specific elements of their musical world, with the goal of providing an information base for establishing steelband programs in Canadian schools. The study focused on (1) How did the…

  19. The School Counselors Description of Their Experiences of Emotional Exhaustion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Telina F.

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is a topic that brings about much debate. Although the literature on burnout has examined its significance to educators and mental health professionals, little school counselor research has focused on the field of school counseling and the individual experiences of school counselors. School counselors are unique participants within the…

  20. A Descriptive Study of Four Principals' Experiences in Leading One High-Impact Minority High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtwright, Lewis K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this portraiture study is to describe four African-American principals' experiences, in the context of their principal's role, with the interventions they championed in meeting the needs of their struggling students. This research attempts to answer questions concerning: What role did the four principals play in the targeted school…

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of the Experience Based Training and Development Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    This article describes and analyzes the field of experience-based training and development (EBTD) in an attempt to determine its scope, goals, activities, participants, providers, and philosophical bases. EBTD is a process that uses hands-on challenge or adventure, usually in the outdoors, combined with review and feedback, to improve work place…

  2. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  3. The Harvard experiment on OSO-6 - Instrumentation, calibration, operation, and description of observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, M. C. E.; Dupree, A. K.; Goldberg, L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Harvard experiment carried by OSO-6 was an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer-spectroheliometer with a wavelength range of 285 to 1385 A, a spatial and spectral bandwidth of 35 x 35(arc sec) squared and 3 A, respectively. The instrument acquired data that have been deposited with the National Space Science Data Center and World Data Center A at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and are now available in their entirety to the scientific community. Aspects of the experiment that are relevant to potential users of the data are described - namely, instrument configuration and parameters, laboratory and inflight calibrations, as well as operational capabilities and procedures. The observations obtained are reported, and the nature, number, and dates of observation, where relevant, are listed.

  4. A Brief Description of the Two Primate Experiments to Be Carried Out on SL-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsea, L.

    1985-01-01

    Two primate experiments to be carried on Spacelab 4 are discussed. One of these investigates thermoregulation of primates during altered gravity. In previous ground-based tests, primate heat distribution was shown to change during centrifugation (a way of subjecting subjects to higher-than-Earth gravity), the inner body cooling off and the skin temperature rising. The adaptive and homeostatic mechanisms triggered by spaceflight are studied. Ways in which to correct any undesirable shifts in the homeostatic capabilities of the thermoregulatory control system are addressed. The other experiment involving primates addressess the changes in fluid distribution and electrolyte content of blood that occur in spaceflight. During previous space missions, fluid shifts from the legs to the chest and head have been noted. Ground-based studies have shown decreases in blood potassium levels and increases in potassium excretion.

  5. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  6. Experiment on the Vernov satellite: Transient energetic processes in the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere. Part I: Description of the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Barinova, V. O.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Veden'kin, N. N.; Golovanov, I. A.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Klimov, P. A.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Petrov, V. L.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Sigaeva, E. A.; Khrenov, B. A.; Yashin, I. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Vavilov, D. I.; Grushin, V. A.; Grechko, T. V.; Khartov, V. V.; Kudryashov, V. A.; Bortnikov, S. V.; Mzhel'skiy, P. V.; Papkov, A. P.; Krasnopeev, S. V.; Krug, V. V.; Korepanov, V. E.; Belyaev, S.; Demidov, A.; Ferenz, Ch.; Bodnar, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rotkel, H.; Moravskiy, M.; Park, Il; Jeon, Jin-A.; Kim, Ji-In; Lee, Jik

    2016-07-01

    The program of physical studies on the Vernov satellite launched on July 8, 2014 into a polar (640 × 830 km) solar-synchronous orbit with an inclination of 98.4° is presented. We described the complex of scientific equipment on this satellite in detail, including multidirectional gamma-ray detectors, electron spectrometers, red and ultra-violet detectors, and wave probes. The experiment on the Vernov satellite is mainly aimed at a comprehensive study of the processes of generation of transient phenomena in the optical and gamma-ray ranges in the Earth's atmosphere (such as high-altitude breakdown on runaway relativistic electrons), the study of the action on the atmosphere of electrons precipitated from the radiation belts, and low- and high-frequency electromagnetic waves of both space and atmospheric origin.

  7. Description and Evaluation of an MPharm Practice-based Experience Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of support among pharmacists in central Scotland to serve as mentors and provide practice-based experience to students enrolled in a master of pharmacy degree program. Methods. A study was conducted during the 2011-2012 academic year in which first-year MPharm students in Scotland were paired with practicing pharmacists for 2 half-day visits per month. The students were integrated into the pharmacy workflow and engaged in activities ranging from date checking to counseling patients. The pharmacists and students who participated were asked to complete a survey in spring 2012 regarding their experiences and, in addition, the students were asked to maintain diary entries describing their experiences. Results. Thirty-nine students were paired successfully with 38 pharmacists. Every pharmacist stated their student was welcome to return in the 2012-2013 academic year and 29 agreed to accept a second student. Nine of 12 participating chain community pharmacies asked for program expansion and 11 chain community pharmacies and one other community pharmacy that did not participate in 2011-2012 asked to join in 2012-2013. Conclusion. Large numbers of pharmacists in central Scotland are willing to mentor and provide practice-based pharmacy education for students in a manner consistent with General Pharmaceutical Council accreditation standards for the master of pharmacy degree curriculum. PMID:28090100

  8. Profiling of UV-induced ATM/ATR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Matthew P.; Rush, John; MacNeill, Joan; Ren, Jian Min; Sprott, Kam; Nardone, Julie; Yang, Vicky; Beausoleil, Sean A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Livingstone, Mark; Zhang, Hui; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Comb, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    To ensure survival in the face of genomic insult, cells have evolved complex mechanisms to respond to DNA damage, termed the DNA damage checkpoint. The serine/threonine kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activate checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating substrate proteins at SQ/TQ motifs. Although some ATM/ATR substrates (Chk1, p53) have been identified, the lack of a more complete list of substrates limits current understanding of checkpoint pathways. Here, we use immunoaffinity phosphopeptide isolation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify 570 sites phosphorylated in UV-damaged cells, 498 of which are previously undescribed. Semiquantitative analysis yielded 24 known and 192 previously uncharacterized sites differentially phosphorylated upon UV damage, some of which were confirmed by SILAC, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting. ATR-specific phosphorylation was investigated by using a Seckel syndrome (ATR mutant) cell line. Together, these results provide a rich resource for further deciphering ATM/ATR signaling and the pathways mediating the DNA damage response. PMID:18077418

  9. The Experiences of Patients With Advanced Head and Neck Cancer With a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Janna P Y; Stokes, Edith J; Posluns, Elaine C; Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Vandenbussche, Katherine A

    2014-08-01

    Background: While the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become an established part of the management regimen for patients with head and neck cancer (HNCA) with impaired nutrition and functional status, limited research has explored the impact and experiences of living with a PEG tube from the patient's perspective. This qualitative study serves as a follow-up investigation undertaken to describe the experiences of patients with advanced HNCA living with a PEG tube. Materials and Methods: Eligible patients from convenience sampling were invited to participate until data saturation was reached. In-depth interviews were conducted with consenting participants. Qualitative descriptive design guided the content analysis of the interview transcripts. Results: Of the 49 patients invited, a total of 15 participants' interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Each interview was 15-90 minutes in length. Four of 22 content codes were chosen to describe the overarching ideas of the progressive experience of a patient's journey from the initial decision-making process around tube insertion through to its removal. Difficulty swallowing and weight loss emerged as primary factors for PEG tube insertion, and all participants became accustomed to living with the tube. Resuming a complete oral diet was a gradual transition. All participants recognized the value of the tube, and most acknowledged its necessity for their survival. Conclusions: Results describe the overall PEG tube experience as a dichotomy. While there were issues with the PEG tube, all participants found the tube to be beneficial. This study provides invaluable insight from a practice perspective.

  10. The breastfeeding experience of women with major difficulties who use the services of a breastfeeding clinic: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Caroline; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; St-Pierre, Monik

    2008-01-01

    Background Many women experience breastfeeding difficulties. Sometimes these difficulties lead to breastfeeding cessation. Breastfeeding clinics provide support for women facing such problems. This study aims to describe the breastfeeding experience of women, particularly those who use the services of the breastfeeding clinic located in the Greater Quebec City area. Methods This is a descriptive study based on information gathered through telephone questionnaires that were administered in 2006 to a sample of 86 women and semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 of these women. Results Painful nipples/breasts, low milk supply and latching difficulties were the three most frequent major breastfeeding problems identified by women. Their personal characteristics as well as the moral and physical support provided by family and friends and by health professional and clinicians at the breastfeeding clinic were the factors identified most often as having a positive influence on the breastfeeding experience. Conclusion The results suggest that breastfeeding clinics have a critical role to play in improving the breastfeeding experience of women with major difficulties. PMID:18680602

  11. 'Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?' An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing.

    PubMed

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test.

  12. A descriptive framework for the problem-solving experiences of physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savrda, Sherry L.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the applicability of a general model of physics students' problem-solving experiences that suggests there are four dynamic factors affecting the problem-solving process: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. Furthermore, it suggests an overarching control factor called stabilization, which describes the inter-relatedness of the other factors over the problem-solving process. Think-aloud protocols of problem-solving experiences were used to investigate the model. Results of the study showed that conceptual resources had a significant impact on the success of problem-solving attempts. Participants who exhibited a lack of understanding of physics concepts were less likely to check their work, use diagrams effectively, set subgoals, or to use geometric or trigonometric resources, and were more likely to use a formula-driven search for a solution than those who exhibited evidence of conceptual understanding. However, conceptual understanding did guarantee problem-solving success. Mathematical and procedural knowledge was also seen as important. While many of the specific observations were consistent with the existing literature, the model provides an alternative framework with which to understand and synthesize those observations. The model was shown to be partially successful in describing participants' problem-solving experiences. Categorization, resource relevance and goal interpretation were supported to varying degrees; however, there was less evidence to support the construct of complexity. Determination of evidence for stabilization was guided by a working definition based on the participants' search for a stable understanding of the problem. Implications of these results for research and practice were noted

  13. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  14. Description of the meteoroid detection experiment flown on the Pioneer 10 and 11 Jupiter flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, R. L. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The meteoroid detection experiment has the objective of measuring the population of 10 to the minus 9th power and 10 to the minus 8th power grams mass particles in interplanetary space with emphasis on making these measurements in the Asteroid Belt. The instrument design, which uses the pressurized-cell-penetration detection technique, and the tests involved in obtaining a flight-qualified instrument are described. The successful demonstration of flight-quality penetration detectors to function properly under long-term simulated space environments is also described.

  15. Theoretical description of pump/probe experiments in electron-mediated charge-density-wave insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freericks, J. K.; Matveev, O. P.; Shen, Wen; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we develop the formalism employed to describe charge-density-wave insulators in pump/probe experiments that use ultrashort driving pulses of light. The theory emphasizes exact results in the simplest model for a charge-density-wave insulator (given by a noninteracting system with two bands and a gap) and employs nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to solve the Falicov–Kimball model in its ordered phase. We show how to develop the formalism and how the solutions behave. Care is taken to describe the details behind these calculations and to show how to verify their accuracy via sum-rule constraints.

  16. CRRES/SPACERAD (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite/Space Radiation Effects Program) Experiment Descriptions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-24

    the Earth’s Magnetosphere, R.G. Johnson, Ed., TERRAPUB, Tokyo. 2. Balsiger , H., Geiss, J., and Young, D. T. (1983) The composition of thermal and hot...from the SCATHA spacecraft, in Energetic Ion Composition in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, R.G. Johnson, Ed., TERRAPUB, Tokyo. 7. Shelley, E.G., Balsiger , H...A., Hertzberg, E., Battel, S.J., Altwegg-Von Burg, K., and Balsiger , H. (1984) AMPTE/CCE hot plasma composition experiment (HPCE), submitted to IEEE

  17. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  18. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  19. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tim J; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  20. Analytical description of the I = 5/2 quadrupole nutation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mijden, J. A. M.; Janssen, R.; Veeman, W. S.

    The theory of nutation N.M.R. for a quadrupolar nucleus with spin quantum I = 5/2 is presented in an exact, analytical way. It is shown that the nutation spectrum is described by 9 different frequencies each dependent on the orientation of the quadrupole tensor relative to the external field. The frequencies are calculated from the eigenvalues of a 6th-degree secular equation that is reduced to 2 secular equations of order 3. This reduction is obtained by a transformation of bases. An extension of the nutation experiment, x&(x)macr;-nutation, is compared with the standard technique. The theoretical spectra are compared with experimental 27Al spectra of NH4Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O and zeolite NaA.

  1. The patient experience of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC): a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Grech, Carol; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Cummings, Melita; Esterman, Adrian

    2014-07-19

    Abstract Aim: To investigate the patient experience of PICC insertion, the significance of arm choice and the impact of the device on activities of daily living. Background: Arm choice for PICC insertion is often determined by PICC nurses with little input from consumers. There are few studies that have investigated the patient experience of living with a PICC and none that have examined the impact of arm choice from the consumer's perspective. Method: Participants were recruited in a hospital whilst they waited for PICC insertion. A purposeful sampling approach was used to select participants based on diagnosis types. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted November 2012-August 2013. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Ten participants were interviewed. Four themes were identified: (i) apprehension/ adaptation/ acceptance, (ii) impact of treatment, (iii) asking questions (trusting doctors) and (iv) freedom. Although initially apprehensive, participants adapted to the PICC and came to accept that the device allowed convenient access for treatment. This allowed them the freedom to receive treatment at home. The use of the dominant or non-dominant arm for PICC insertion had marginal impact on activities of daily living for participants. Auxiliary factors such as the infusion pump had a significant impact for those who received outpatient treatment. For those participants who did not understand the procedure, many did not seek clarification and trusted medical and nursing staff to make decisions for them. Conclusion: Nurses should involve consumers in clinical decision-making and provide individualised information and support that facilitates adaptation for patients living with a PICC.

  2. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  3. ATR spectra on boundary with mixture containing organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelokov, R. V.; Yatsishen, V. V.

    2005-02-01

    The problem of not destroying diagnostics and dosing of radiation at laser therapy is one of important in medicine. Therefore the purpose of our work is development of method ATR for diagnostics and researches in biomedicine. In this work as objects of consideration were: a mixture of nicotine with water, a mixture of an ascorbic acid with water and surface lesions of an eye cornea by a herpes virus. Results of our consideration are the ATR spectra defined at different concentration of organic substances and virions.

  4. Description and field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment: 1993--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Huston, M.A.; Joslin, J.D.; Croker, J.L.; Auge, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiment in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil water content is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall from one 6400-m{sup 2} treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx}1850 subcanopy troughs suspended above the forest floor of the dry plot and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Soil water content is being monitored at two depths with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both dry and wet conditions. Maximum soil water content differentials between wet and dry plots in the 0- to 0.35-m horizon were 8 to 10% during summers with abundant precipitation and 3 to 5% during drought periods. Treatment impacts on soil water potential were restricted to the surface soil layer. Comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil and litter temperature measurements showed the ability of the experimental design to produce changes in soil water content and water potential without creating large artifacts in the forest understory environment.

  5. CSU FIRE 2 cirrus field experiment: Description of field deployment phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S.; Beck, G.; Cornwall, C.; Davis, J.; Hein, P.; Lappen, C.; Song, R.; Withrow, J.; Wood, D.; Alvarez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) surface observing systems are described. These systems were deployed at the Parsons, Kansas site during the FIRE 2 Cirrus Special Observing Period (SOP) from 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. The geographical coordinates of the site containing most of the CSU instrumentation are 37 deg. 18 min N. latitude and 96 deg. 30 min. W. longitude; site elevation was 269 meters. In addition, one surface meteorological and broadband flux observing site was maintained at the Tri City Airport which is approximately 18 miles due west of Parsons (37 deg. 20 min. N. latitude, 95 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. W. longitude). A map of the locations of the CSU deployment sites is presented. At the main Parsons site, the instrumentation was located directly adjacent to and north of a lake. Under most cirrus observing conditions, when the wing had a significant southernly component, the lake was upwind of the observing site. The measurements and observations collected during the experiment are listed. These measurements may be grouped into five categories: surface meteorology; infrared spectral and broadband measurements; solar spectral and broadband measurements; upper air measurements; and cloud measurements. A summary of observations collected at the Parsons site during the SOP are presented. The wind profiler, laser ceilometer, surface meteorology and surface broadband radiation instrumentation were operated on a continuous basis. All other systems were operated on an 'on demand' basis when cloud conditions merited the collection of data.

  6. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  7. Occupational injuries on thoroughbred horse farms: a description of Latino and non-Latino workers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Clouser, Jessica M; Westneat, Susan C; Marsh, Mary W; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-11-29

    Animal production is a dangerous industry and increasingly reliant on a Latino workforce. Within animal production, little is known about the risks or the occupational hazards of working on farms involved in various aspects of thoroughbred horse breeding. Extant research suggests that horse workers are at risk of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms, kicks, and other injuries. However, limited known research has examined the experiences of the industry's workers, including immigrant workers, despite their prominence and increased vulnerability. Using data collected from thoroughbred farm representatives via a phone-administered survey, a 2-hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, and farm injury logs, this article identifies and describes types of injuries experienced by workers (N = 284) and their surrounding circumstances. Results indicate that general injuries and musculoskeletal strains, sprains, and tears account for a majority of injuries among workers on thoroughbred farms. Upper limbs and extremities are most frequently injured, while direct contact with the horse accounted for over half of all injuries. No differences in the diagnoses or distribution of injury were found by ethnicity; however, Latinos were more often struck by or trampled by a horse while non-Latinos were more often injured by an insect or plant. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  8. CSU FIRE 2 cirrus field experiment: Description of field deployment phase

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Beck, G.; Cornwall, C.; Davis, J.; Hein, P.; Lappen, C.; Song, R.; Withrow, J.; Wood, D.; Alvarez, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) surface observing systems are described. These systems were deployed at the Parsons, Kansas site during the FIRE 2 Cirrus Special Observing Period (SOP) from 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. The geographical coordinates of the site containing most of the CSU instrumentation are 37 deg. 18 min N. latitude and 96 deg. 30 min. W. longitude; site elevation was 269 meters. In addition, one surface meteorological and broadband flux observing site was maintained at the Tri City Airport which is approximately 18 miles due west of Parsons (37 deg. 20 min. N. latitude, 95 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. W. longitude). A map of the locations of the CSU deployment sites is presented. At the main Parsons site, the instrumentation was located directly adjacent to and north of a lake. Under most cirrus observing conditions, when the wind had a significant southernly component, the lake was upwind of the observing site. The measurements and observations collected during the experiment are listed. These measurements may be grouped into five categories: surface meteorology; infrared spectral and broadband measurements; solar spectral and broadband measurements; upper air measurements; and cloud measurements. A summary of observations collected at the Parsons site during the SOP are presented. The wind profiler, laser ceilometer, surface meteorology and surface broadband radiation instrumentation were operated on a continuous basis. All other systems were operated on an on demand basis when cloud conditions merited the collection of data.

  9. Occupational Injuries on Thoroughbred Horse Farms: A Description of Latino and Non-Latino Workers’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Clouser, Jessica M.; Westneat, Susan C.; Marsh, Mary W.; Reed, Deborah B.

    2013-01-01

    Animal production is a dangerous industry and increasingly reliant on a Latino workforce. Within animal production, little is known about the risks or the occupational hazards of working on farms involved in various aspects of thoroughbred horse breeding. Extant research suggests that horse workers are at risk of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms, kicks, and other injuries. However, limited known research has examined the experiences of the industry’s workers, including immigrant workers, despite their prominence and increased vulnerability. Using data collected from thoroughbred farm representatives via a phone-administered survey, a 2-hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, and farm injury logs, this article identifies and describes types of injuries experienced by workers (N = 284) and their surrounding circumstances. Results indicate that general injuries and musculoskeletal strains, sprains, and tears account for a majority of injuries among workers on thoroughbred farms. Upper limbs and extremities are most frequently injured, while direct contact with the horse accounted for over half of all injuries. No differences in the diagnoses or distribution of injury were found by ethnicity; however, Latinos were more often struck by or trampled by a horse while non-Latinos were more often injured by an insect or plant. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24351785

  10. Description of the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE), A Dedicated EOS Validation Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, K.; Charlock, T.; Smith, B.; Jin, Z.; Rose, F.; Denn, F.; Rutan, D.; Haeffelin, M.; Su, W.; Xhang, T.; Jay, M.

    2001-12-01

    A unique test site located in the mid-Atlantic coastal marine waters has been used by several EOS projects for validation measurements. A common theme across these projects is the need for a stable measurement site within the marine environment for long-term, high quality radiation measurements. The site was initiated by NASA's Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. One of CERES's challenging goals is to provide upwelling and downwelling shortwave fluxes at several pressure altitudes within the atmosphere and at the surface. Operationally the radiative transfer model of Fu and Liou (1996, 1998), the CERES instrument measured radiances and various other EOS platform data are being used to accomplish this goal. We present here, a component of the CERES/EOS validation effort that is focused to verify and optimize the prediction algorithms for radiation parameters associated with the marine coastal and oceanic surface types of the planet. For this validation work, the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) was developed to provide detailed high-frequency and long-duration measurements for radiation and their associated dependent variables. The CERES validations also include analytical efforts which will not be described here (but see Charlock et.al, Su et.al., Smith et.al-Fall 2001 AGU Meeting) The COVE activity is based on a rigid ocean platform which is located approximately twenty kilometers off of the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia. The once-manned US Coast Guard facility rises 35 meters from the ocean surface allowing the radiation instruments to be well above the splash zone. The depth of the sea is eleven meters at the site. A power and communications system has been installed for present and future requirements. Scientific measurements at the site have primarily been developed within the framework of established national and international monitoring programs. These include the Baseline Surface Radiation Network of the World

  11. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2016-01-26

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability.

  12. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2016-01-01

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability. PMID:26675548

  13. Mec1/ATR, the Program Manager of Nucleic Acids Inc.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are equipped with surveillance mechanisms called checkpoints to ensure proper execution of cell cycle events. Among these are the checkpoints that detect DNA damage or replication perturbations and coordinate cellular activities to maintain genome stability. At the forefront of damage sensing is an evolutionarily conserved molecule, known respectively in budding yeast and humans as Mec1 (Mitosis entry checkpoint 1) and ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein). Through phosphorylation, Mec1/ATR activates downstream components of a signaling cascade to maintain nucleotide pool balance, protect replication fork integrity, regulate activation of origins of replication, coordinate DNA repair, and implement cell cycle delay. This list of functions continues to expand as studies have revealed that Mec1/ATR modularly interacts with various protein molecules in response to different cellular cues. Among these newly assigned functions is the regulation of RNA metabolism during checkpoint activation and the coordination of replication–transcription conflicts. In this review, I will highlight some of these new functions of Mec1/ATR with a focus on the yeast model organism. PMID:28036033

  14. ATR-FTIR investigations of plasticizer diffusion in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miser, C. S.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Pesce-Rodriguez, Rose A.; Fifer, Robert A.

    1992-03-01

    An attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) technique has been developed for measuring the diffusion coefficients of liquids in polymer films. Data is being obtained for diffusion of plasticizers in nitrocellulose (NC), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), and NC/CAB mixtures.

  15. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  16. 78 FR 65183 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... installing a fuel quantity indicator (FQI) equipped with a locking adaptor on the electrical connector. We... indicator, need to be taken. Although it is recognised that the fuel (indicating) system of the ATR 42/72... mitigated by making installation of an ATR 42 Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) on an ATR 72...

  17. 78 FR 70892 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... directive (AD) 2009-18- 18, which applies to certain ATR--GIE Avions de Transport R gional Model ATR42 and ATR72 airplanes. AD 2009-18-18 requires repetitive inspections for damage and absence of repair of the cockpit forward side windows, and replacement if necessary. Since we issued that AD, we received...

  18. Validation of HELIOS for ATR Core Follow Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, Samuel E.; Swain, Emily T.; Crawford, Douglas S.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the validation analyses for the HELIOS code to support core design and safety assurance calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Past and current core safety assurance is performed by the PDQ-7 diffusion code; a state of the art reactor physics simulation tool from the nuclear industry’s earlier days. Over the past twenty years, improvements in computational speed have enabled the use of modern neutron transport methodologies to replace the role of diffusion theory for simulation of complex systems, such as the ATR. More exact methodologies have enabled a paradigm-shift away from highly tuned codes that force compliance with a bounding safety envelope, and towards codes regularly validated against routine measurements. To validate HELIOS, the 16 ATR operational cycles from late-2009 to present were modeled. The computed power distribution was compared against data collected by the ATR’s on-line power surveillance system. It was found that the ATR’s lobe-powers could be determined with ±10% accuracy. Also, the ATR’s cold startup shim configuration for each of these 16 cycles was estimated and compared against the reported critical position from the reactor log-book. HELIOS successfully predicted criticality within the tolerance set by the ATR startup procedure for 13 out of the 16 cycles. This is compared to 12 times for PDQ (without empirical adjustment). These findings, as well as other insights discussed in this report, suggest that HELIOS is highly suited for replacing PDQ for core safety assurance of the ATR. Furthermore, a modern verification and validation framework has been established that allows reactor and fuel performance data to be computed with a known degree of accuracy and stated uncertainty.

  19. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  20. Integrate knowledge acquisition with target recognition through closed-loop ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ssu-Hsin; McLaughlin, Pat; Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Hsiao, Kai-yuh; Boskovic, Jovan

    2015-05-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm performance is highly dependent on the sensing conditions under which the input data is collected. Open-loop fly-bys often produce poor results due to less than ideal measurement conditions. In addition, ATR algorithms must be extremely complicated to handle the diverse range of inputs with a resulting reduction in overall performance and increase in complexity. Our approach, closed-loop ATR (CL-ATR), focuses on improving the quality of information input to the ATR algorithms by optimizing motion, sensor settings and team (vehicle-vehicle-human) collaboration to dramatically improve classification accuracy. By managing the data collection guided by predicted ATR performance gain, we increase the information content of the data and thus dramatically improve ATR performance with existing ATR algorithms. CL-ATR has two major functions; first, an ATR utility function, which represents the performance sensitivity of ATR produced classification labels as a function of parameters that correlate to vehicle/sensor states. This utility function is developed off-line and is often available from the original ATR study as a confusion matrix, or it can be derived through simulation without direct access to the inner working of the ATR algorithm. The utility function is inserted into our CLATR framework to autonomously control the vehicle/sensor. Second, an on-board planner maps the utility function into vehicle position and sensor collection plans. Because we only require the utility function on-board, we can activate any ATR algorithm onto a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform no matter how complex. This pairing of ATR performance profiles with vehicle/sensor controls creates a unique and powerful active perception behavior.

  1. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  2. Kinetics of phosphate adsorption on goethite: comparing batch adsorption and ATR-IR measurements.

    PubMed

    Luengo, Carina; Brigante, Maximiliano; Antelo, Juan; Avena, Marcelo

    2006-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of phosphate on goethite has been studied by batch adsorption experiments and by in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy at different pH, initial phosphate concentrations and stirring rates. Batch adsorption results are very similar to those reported by several authors, and show a rather fast initial adsorption taking place in a few minutes followed by a slower process taking place in days or weeks. The adsorption kinetics could be also monitored by integrating the phosphate signals obtained in ATR-IR experiments, and a very good agreement between both techniques was found. At pH 4.5 two surface complexes, the bidentate nonprotonated (FeO)(2)PO(2) and the bidentate protonated (FeO)(2)(OH)PO complexes, are formed at the surface. There are small changes in the relative concentrations of these species as the reaction proceeds, and they seem to evolve in time rather independently. At pH 7.5 and 9 the dominating surface species is (FeO)(2)PO(2), which is accompanied by an extra unidentified species at low concentration. They also seem to evolve independently as the reaction proceeds. The results are consistent with a mechanism that involve a fast adsorption followed by a slow diffusion into pores, and are not consistent with surface precipitation of iron phosphate.

  3. Focusing, imaging, and ATR for the Gotcha 2008 wide angle SAR collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianelli, Christopher D.; Xu, Luzhou

    2013-05-01

    The following work discusses IAA's approach to tackling the wide angle, circular spotlight, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) problem from the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set, which is publicly released, with unlimited distribution. This data set comes with a MATLAB image formation routine and attendant graphical user inter- face (GUI). We begin by introducing a simple approach to focusing the collected phase history data that utilizes point targets (quadrahedral targets) present in the scene. Two SAR imaging algorithms are then presented, namely, the data-independent backprojection (BP) algorithm and the data-adaptive sparse learning via itera- tive minimization (SLIM) algorithm. These imaging approaches are compared using the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data to perform both a clutter discrimination experiment, as well as an automatic target recognition (ATR) experiment. The ATR system is composed of a target pose and target center estimation preprocessing system, and includes a novel target feature for the final classification stage. Empirical results obtained by applying the focusing approach and imaging algorithms to the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set are presented and described. The results presented highlight the benefit of applying the SLIM algorithm over its data-independent counterpart, as well as the utility of the novel target feature.

  4. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    majority of RPA-coated ssDNA is generally present only during DNA replication, ATR activation in G1 and G2-phase might still require formation of RPA-coated ssDNA, probably initiated by the MRN-CtIP complex and then extended by the Exo1- or BLM-dependent mechanisms at the sites of DSBs. Evidence accumulates that activation of ATM and ATR are oppositely regulated by the length of single stranded overhangs generated at the break sites by processes mentioned above and these stretches of single stranded overhangs hold the clue for ATM to ATR switch at broken DNA ends. We irradiated 82-6hTERT human fibroblast cells with low LET gamma-rays and high LET Fe and Si particles. Preliminary results with cells exposed to 1Gy gamma-rays show that the kinetics of pChk2-pT68 foci formation is comparable to that of gamma-H2AX although they appear to recede quicker. The number and intensity of observed foci reaches a maximum at 30 min and 60 min post IR for Chk2-pT68 and gamma-H2AX foci respectively and all Chk2-pT68 foci colocalize with gamma-H2AX foci. The kinetics of Chk1-pS345 and ATRIP are being determined. Results of Chk2-pT68 foci kinetics was also corroborated by western blot experiments, although phosphorylation was detected as early as 10 min and started receding 30 min post IR with 2Gy of gamma-rays. On the other hand, level of ATR-pS428 reached its maximum between 60 and 120 min and was maintained until the last measured time point of 4 hours post IR as determined by western blotting. Experiments performed with high LET Fe and Si particles will be reported.

  5. The Experience of Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian Language as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronina, Marianna V.; Tretyakova, Zlata O.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of training foreign students subject "Descriptive geometry and Engineering Graphics" in a modern engineering university of Russia. The relevance of the problem conditioned by the fact that virtually there are no special studies of teaching Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian…

  6. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    a Readiness Assessment in November 2009. The HSIS is a key component of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and is available to a wide variety of university researchers for nuclear fuels and materials experiments as well as medical isotope research and production.

  7. Comparison of HEU and LEU Fuel Neutron Spectrum for ATR Fuel Element and ATR Flux-Trap Positions

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the high total core power and high neutron flux, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. An optimized low-enriched uranium (LEU) (U-10Mo) core conversion case, which can meet the project requirements, has been selected. However, LEU contains a significant quantity of high density U-238 (80.3 wt.%), which will harden the neutron spectrum in the core region. Based on the reference ATR HEU and the optimized LEU full core plate-by-plate (PBP) models, the present work investigates and compares the neutron spectra differences in the fuel element (FE), Northeast flux trap (NEFT), Southeast flux trap (SEFT), and East flux trap (EFT) positions. A detailed PBP MCNP ATR core model was developed and validated for fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. The current ATR core with HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0wt.% was used as the reference model. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, an optimized LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and the U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt.% was used to calculate the impact of the neutron spectrum in FE and FT positions. MCNP-calculated results show that the neutron spectrum in the LEU FE is slightly harder than in the HEU FE, as expected. However, when neutrons transport through water coolant and beryllium (Be), the neutrons are thermalized to an equilibrium neutron spectrum as a function of water volume fraction in the investigated FT positions. As a result, the neutron spectrum differences of the HEU and LEU in the NEFT, SEFT, and EFT are negligible. To demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the

  8. Surface analysis of powder binary mixtures with ATR FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Planinsek, Odon; Planinsek, Daniela; Zega, Anamarija; Breznik, Matej; Srcic, Stane

    2006-08-17

    Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (ATR FTIR) has been used for surface analysis of powder mixtures. The appearance of one component on the surface of the mixture in greater amounts than that expected from the mass or volume ratio was quantified. Coloured mixtures containing methyl orange were analysed. They contained proportions of components from 0% to 100% in steps of 10%. Mixtures of non-sieved powders of methyl orange and Povidone were dark red when containing only 20% of methyl orange, indicating that particles of methyl orange were present on the surface of the mixture in higher amounts than expected from the mass ratios. Mixtures of methyl orange and Mg stearate, on the other hand, were a light colour, showing the presence of more Mg stearate on the surface than expected. Visual observations correlated with semiquantitative surface concentration determination by ATR FTIR spectroscopy using specific peaks of each component. Quantitative determination of components on the surface of the mixture, using the Beer Lambert law, was possible when characteristic peaks for the first component did not overlap with those of the other component. A non-linear correlation between peak height and concentration of a component in a mixture was explained by distribution of the particle size of components. With a small component, the larger number of particles in the same volume allowed them to surround the larger particles of the second component. These conclusions were confirmed by preparing mixtures with non-coloured components (Povidone-Eudragit, NaCl-Povidone, NaCl-Eudragit. Results again correlated with the ATR FTIR spectroscopy measurements. It was additionally shown that a small proportion of finer particles can drastically influence the surface of powder mixtures, due to their large contribution to the specific surface area. ATR FTIR is thus demonstrated to be a useful method for studying surfaces of powder mixtures also in terms of

  9. A SAR ATR algorithm based on coherent change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, D.W.

    2000-12-01

    This report discusses an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery that is based on coherent change detection techniques. The algorithm relies on templates created from training data to identify targets. Objects are identified or rejected as targets by comparing their SAR signatures with templates using the same complex correlation scheme developed for coherent change detection. Preliminary results are presented in addition to future recommendations.

  10. Simulator of IRST system with ATR embedded functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, B.; Fossati, E.; Barani, G.; Santini, N.; Ondini, A.; Colombi, G.; Quaranta, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a soft-real time simulator for IRST (InfraRed Search and Track) systems with ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) embedded functions to test airborne applications performance. The IR camera model includes detector, optics, available Field-of-Regard, etc., and it is integrated with the motion platform local stabilization system to consider all factors impacting IR images. The atmosphere contributions are taken into account by means of a link to ModTran computer program. Sensor simulation allows derivation and assessment of IR Figures of Merit (NEI, NETD, SNR...). IR signatures of targets derive both from data collected in specific trial campaigns and from laboratory built models. The simulation of the scan procedure takes into account different policies (ground points paths or defined angular volume) and different platform motion strategies (continuous or step steering scan). The scan process includes Kalman technique to face unexpected variations of aircraft motion. Track and ATR processors are simulated and run consistently on the output of the sensor model. The simulator functions are developed in MatLab and SIMULINK and then exported in C code to be integrated in soft real-time environment. The use of this simulator supports the definition and design of the IRST systems especially for the evaluation of the most demanding operative requirements. An application of this simulator is for the NEURON UCAV (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) technological demonstrator, which accommodates on board both IRST and ATR tasks.

  11. Natural convection heat transfer analysis of ATR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    Natural convection air cooling of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel assemblies is analyzed to determine the level of decay heat that can be removed without exceeding the melting temperature of the fuel. The study was conducted to assist in the level 2 PRA analysis of a hypothetical ATR water canal draining accident. The heat transfer process is characterized by a very low Rayleigh number (Ra {approx} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a high temperature ratio. Since neither data nor analytical models were available for Ra < 0.1, an analytical approach is presented based upon the integral boundary layer equations. All assumptions and simplifications are presented and assessed and two models are developed from similar foundations. In one model, the well-known Boussinesq approximations are employed, the results from which are used to assess the modeling philosophy through comparison to existing data and published analytical results. In the other model, the Boussinesq approximations are not used, thus making the model more general and applicable to the ATR analysis.

  12. A Description of the Full Particle Orbit Following SPIRAL Code for Simulating Fast-ion Experiments in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Budny, R.V.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2012-07-27

    The numerical methods used in the full particle-orbit following SPIRAL code are described and a number of physics studies performed with the code are presented to illustrate its capabilities. The SPIRAL code is a test-particle code and is a powerful numerical tool to interpret and plan fast-ion experiments in Tokamaks. Gyro-orbit effects are important for fast ions in low-field machines such as NSTX and to a lesser extent in DIII-D. A number of physics studies are interlaced between the description of the code to illustrate its capabilities. Results on heat loads generated by a localized error-field on the DIII-D wall are compared to measurements. The enhanced Triton losses caused by the same localized error-field are calculated and compared to measured neutron signals. MHD activity such as tearing modes and Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) have a profound effect on the fast-ion content of Tokamak plasmas and SPIRAL can calculate the effects of MHD activity on the confined and lost fast-ion population as illustrated for a burst of TAE activity in NSTX. The interaction between Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating and fast ions depends solely on the gyro-motion of the fast ions and is captured exactly in the SPIRAL code. A calculation of ICRF absorption on beam ions in ITER is presented. The effects of high harmonic fast wave heating on the beam-ion slowing-down distribution in NSTX is also studied.

  13. AGR-2 Final Data Qualification Report for U.S. Capsules - ATR Cycles 147A Through 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data in four U.S. capsules from all 15 Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, 149A, 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Thus, this report covers data qualification status for the entire AGR-2 irradiation and will replace four previously issued AGR-2 data qualification reports (e.g., INL/EXT-11-22798, INL/EXT-12-26184, INL/EXT-13-29701, and INL/EXT-13-30750). During AGR-2 irradiation, two cycles, 152A and 153A, occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power, so AGR-2 irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. Also, two cycles, 150A and 153B, are Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycles when the ATR power is higher than during normal cycles. During the first PALM cycle, 150A, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the ATR water canal and during the second PALM cycle, 153B, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the I-24 location to avoid being overheated. During the “Outage” cycle, 153A, seven flow meters were installed downstream from seven Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) monitors to measure flows from the monitors and these data are included in the NDMAS database.

  14. Universal method for protein immobilization on chemically functionalized germanium investigated by ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Jonas; Güldenhaupt, Jörn; Mei, Bastian; Rögner, Matthias; Muhler, Martin; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2013-03-13

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy allows a detailed analysis of surface attached molecules, including their secondary structure, orientation, and interaction with small molecules in the case of proteins. Here, we present a universal immobilization technique on germanium for all oligo-histidine-tagged proteins. For this purpose, new triethoxysilane derivates were developed: we synthesized a linker-silane with a succinimidyl ester as amine-reactive headgroup and a matrix-silane with an unreactive ethylene glycol group. A new methodology for the attachment of triethoxysilanes on germanium was established, and the surface was characterized by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the next step, the succinimidyl ester was reacted with aminonitrilotriacetic acid. Subsequently, Ni(2+) was coordinated to form Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid for His-tag binding. The capability of the functionalized surface was demonstrated by experiments using the small GTPase Ras and photosystem I (PS I). The native binding of the proteins was proven by difference spectroscopy, which probes protein function. The function of Ras as molecular switch was demonstrated by a beryllium trifluoride anion titration assay, which allows observation of the "on" and "off" switching of Ras at atomic resolution. Furthermore, the activity of immobilized PS I was proven by light-induced difference spectroscopy. Subsequent treatment with imidazole removes attached proteins, enabling repeated binding. This universal technique allows specific attachment of His-tagged proteins and a detailed study of their function at the atomic level using FTIR difference spectroscopy.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of the daptomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus by an autoregulator, AtrA.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Luo, Shuai; Zhou, Ri-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yu, Pin; Sun, Ning; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Yi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-03-20

    Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. To reveal the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of daptomycin biosynthesis, we used the biotinylated dptE promoter (dptEp) as a probe to affinity isolate the dptEp-interactive protein AtrA, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, from the proteome of mycelia. AtrA bound directly to dptEp to positively regulate gene cluster expression and daptomycin production. Meanwhile, both ΔatrA and ΔadpA mutants showed bald phenotype and null production of daptomycin. AdpA positively regulated atrA expression by direct interaction with atrA promoter (atrAp), and removal of ArpA in S. roseosporus, a homolog of the A-factor receptor, resulted in accelerated morphological development and increased daptomycin production, suggesting that atrA was the target of AdpA to mediate the A-factor signaling pathway. Furthermore, AtrA was positively autoregulated by binding to its own promoter atrAp. Thus, for the first time at the transcriptional level, we have identified an autoregulator, AtrA, that directly mediates the A-factor signaling pathway to regulate the proper production of daptomycin.

  16. Selective killing of ATM- or p53-deficient cancer cells through inhibition of ATR.

    PubMed

    Reaper, Philip M; Griffiths, Matthew R; Long, Joanna M; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Maccormick, Somhairle; Charlton, Peter A; Golec, Julian M C; Pollard, John R

    2011-04-13

    Here we report a comprehensive biological characterization of a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of the DNA damage response (DDR) kinase ATR. We show a profound synthetic lethal interaction between ATR and the ATM-p53 tumor suppressor pathway in cells treated with DNA-damaging agents and establish ATR inhibition as a way to transform the outcome for patients with cancer treated with ionizing radiation or genotoxic drugs.

  17. Status report of the ATR SPING-3A and detailed calibration guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) onducted testing and an evaluation of the ATR SPING-3 after installation of the new ''A'' series software (firmware) and retrofit kit. The purpose of this report is to provide the ATR SPING-3A users with a document describing the present status of the unit, how the system was tested, a suggested calibration guideline, how the system should be operated for the ATR application, and why it should be used in this manner.

  18. Tungstate (VI) sorption on hematite: An in situ ATR-FTIR probe on the mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sallman, Bryan; Davantés, Athénais; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2017-02-01

    Owing to the suspected toxicity and carcinogenicity of tungstate (VI) oxyanions [i.e. mono tungstate and several polytungstate, generally represented by W (VI)], the environmental fate of W (VI) has been widely studied. Sorption is regarded as a major mechanism by which W (VI) species are retained in the solid/water interface. Iron (hydr)oxides have been considered important environmental sinks for W (VI) species. Here we report sorption mechanisms of W (VI) on a common iron oxide mineral-hematite under environmentally relevant solution properties using in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic probes. Initial W (VI) loadings varied from 10 to 200 μM at fixed pH values ranged from 4.6 to 8.1. For pH envelop (pHs = 4.6, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.1) experiments, fixed W (VI) concentrations (i.e. 10 & 200 μM) were used to understand the effects of pH. The results indicated that at acidic pH values (pH < 6.0) the sorbed polytungstate surface species are prominent at 200 μM initial W (VI) conc. The pH envelop experiments revealed that sorbed polytungstates can be present even at lower initial W (VI) conc. (i.e. 10 μM) at pH values <5.5. Overall, our in situ ATR-FTIR experiments indicated that W (VI) forms inner-sphere type bonds on hematite surface and the strength of the interaction increases with decreasing pH. In addition, initial W (VI) concentration affected the sorption mechanisms of W (VI) on hematite. Our study will aid the molecular level understanding of W (VI) retention on iron oxide surfaces.

  19. ATR cooperates with CTC1 and STN1 to maintain telomeres and genome integrity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Kara A; Leehy, Katherine; Song, Xiangyu; Nelson, Andrew D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2012-04-01

    The CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex is an essential constituent of plant and vertebrate telomeres. Here we show that CST and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3-related) act synergistically to maintain telomere length and genome stability in Arabidopsis. Inactivation of ATR, but not ATM, temporarily rescued severe morphological phenotypes associated with ctc1 or stn1. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening accelerated in plants lacking CST and ATR. In first-generation (G1) ctc1 atr mutants, enhanced telomere attrition was modest, but in G2 ctc1 atr, telomeres shortened precipitously, and this loss coincided with a dramatic decrease in telomerase activity in G2 atr mutants. Zeocin treatment also triggered a reduction in telomerase activity, suggesting that the prolonged absence of ATR leads to a hitherto-unrecognized DNA damage response (DDR). Finally, our data indicate that ATR modulates DDR in CST mutants by limiting chromosome fusions and transcription of DNA repair genes and also by promoting programmed cell death in stem cells. We conclude that the absence of CST in Arabidopsis triggers a multifaceted ATR-dependent response to facilitate maintenance of critically shortened telomeres and eliminate cells with severe telomere dysfunction.

  20. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  1. The Long and Short of It: Closing the Description-Experience "Gap" by Taking the Long-Run View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Adrian R.; Newell, Ben R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many choice biases are attenuated when short-run decisions are reframed to the long run. However, this literature has been limited to description-based choice tasks in which possible outcomes and their probabilities are explicitly specified. A recent literature has emerged showing that many core results found using…

  2. Spot SAR ATR Using Wavelet Features and Neural Network Classifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    figur6s au moyen de courbes FER ( fonction d’efficacit6 du rdcepteur ) et de matrices de confusion. Les rdsultats analys6s montrent que les...feature variability for similar target types, and the highest variability for different target types. The ATR algorithm was implemented in Matlab using...neuronal MLP permet ensuite d’identifier les types d’une cible donn~e en fonction de ces signatures. On a d~termin6 I’ondelette optimale pour

  3. UCSB ATR-­NSUF Irradiation DMC Sample Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Tarik A.; Quintana, Matthew Estevan; Romero, Tobias J.

    2015-02-23

    A variety of tensile samples of Ferritic and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS or nanoferritic) steels were placed the ATR reactor over 2 Years achieving doses of roughly 4-6 dpa at temperatures of roughly 290°C. After irradiation, samples were shipped from the MFC hot cells at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to the Wing 9 hot cells in the CMR facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Samples were cleaned to removed alpha contamination from the MFC hot cells, and then, as needed removed from their irradiation containers, sorted and inspected. This report will summarize the inspection of the Disc Multipurpose Coupon (DMC) inspection from packet 7-1.

  4. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  5. Studies on breast tumor tissues with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ge; Xu, Jialin; Niu, Yun; Zhang, Cunzhou; Zhang, Chunping

    2005-01-01

    The original and deconvoluted spectra of Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) FTIR have been determined for both benign and malignant tumor tissues samples and the spectral differences have been investigated between the two types of samples. In comparison with the benign samples, the characteristic changes of malignant ones mainly involve: The prominent bands 1652 and 1645cm-1 due to the proteins in the α-helical and the unordered-random-coils substructures become stronger compared to those in the β-sheet and the turns substructures, suggesting that the former type of proteins increase in content in contrast to the later. The phospodiester band 1083 cm-1 of the nucleic acids becomes strongest on cancer tissues spectra and its area ratio to the amide II band 1548cm-1 rises greatly, indicating that the DNA content rises remarkably. The collagen proteins reduce in content while phosphorylated ones rise, and some hydrogen bonding is nearly broken in amino acid residue C-O (H) groups. The glycogen content decreases, and the CH2 content is higher than CH3 one. These results suggest that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to become a powerful tool for biochemical studies and in vivo diagnosis of human breast cancers.

  6. Open source tools for ATR development and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, James M.; Dilsavor, Ronald L.; Stubbles, James; Mossing, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Early in almost every engineering project, a decision must be made about tools; should I buy off-the-shelf tools or should I develop my own. Either choice can involve significant cost and risk. Off-the-shelf tools may be readily available, but they can be expensive to purchase and to maintain licenses, and may not be flexible enough to satisfy all project requirements. On the other hand, developing new tools permits great flexibility, but it can be time- (and budget-) consuming, and the end product still may not work as intended. Open source software has the advantages of both approaches without many of the pitfalls. This paper examines the concept of open source software, including its history, unique culture, and informal yet closely followed conventions. These characteristics influence the quality and quantity of software available, and ultimately its suitability for serious ATR development work. We give an example where Python, an open source scripting language, and OpenEV, a viewing and analysis tool for geospatial data, have been incorporated into ATR performance evaluation projects. While this case highlights the successful use of open source tools, we also offer important insight into risks associated with this approach.

  7. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 15, System design description. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-22

    This System Design Description, prepared in accordance with the TPX Project Management Plan provides a summary or TF Magnet System design features at the conclusion of Phase I, Preliminary Design and Manufacturing Research. The document includes the analytical and experimental bases for the design, and plans for implementation in final design, manufacturing, test, and magnet integration into the tokamak. Requirements for operation and maintenance are outlined, and references to sources of additional information are provided.

  8. The experiences of patients and relatives/significant others of overcrowding in accident and emergency in Ireland: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Michael; Corry, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    Overcrowding in Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in Ireland has reached crisis proportions since the dawning of the new millennium. Although this phenomenon is not unique to Ireland and many authors have suggested causes and management strategies to deal with these crises, little appears to have been written regarding the experiences of patients or their families waiting in the A&E. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experiences of patients and/or their relatives/significant others who had spent 12 h or more in A&E awaiting admission to hospital. Four patients and three relatives/significant others volunteered to participate in the study. Participants described the A&E departments as resembling a disaster zone or a hospital scene from a third world country. Descriptions portrayed an environment that was overcrowded, dirty and lacking in resources. Participants were generally positive in their attitudes towards the care they received, but some descriptions appeared to suggest that the quality of care was not always ideal. Recommendations from participants included reduced waiting times with a maximum of 6 h from admission to transfer or discharge; better communications systems with perhaps a liaison person who could advise them about the expected duration of stay in A&E and what was happening regarding their care; and better privacy and security within the departments.

  9. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part I--Fundamentals and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. Several examples of the use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in different undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses are presented here. These…

  10. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified...

  11. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified...

  12. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  13. Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment.

    PubMed

    Breunig, I; Sturman, B; Sedlmeir, F; Schwefel, H G L; Buse, K

    2013-12-16

    Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of mm-sized axisymmetric resonators are well localized at the equator. Employing this distinctive feature, we obtain simple analytical relations for the frequencies and eigenfunctions of WGMs which include the major radius of the resonator and the curvature radius of the rim. Being compared with results of finite-element simulations, these relations show a high accuracy and practicability. High-precision free-spectral-range measurements with a millimeter-sized disc resonator made of MgF(2) allow us to identify the WGMs and confirm the applicability of our analytical description.

  14. Thermodynamic Descriptions of NI Alloys Containing AL, CR, and RU: A Computational Thermodynamic Approach Coupled with Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-03

    the present study is to adopt the Calphad approach to develop thermodynamic descriptions of Ni alloys containing elements such as Al, Cr , Ru, etc and...Fig. 2(b), the agreement between calculated 0.0 Al 0 cr three phases SLiquidus o two phases 0.2 0.2 bcc 02 02 O . O 0.2 040. 08 000 0.2 0406 O . 10 44 40...experimentation is achieved. 8 0.7, 0.7, U_. 0.01 0.01 - yphase Y phase Miyazaki 1994 Miyazaki 1994 •Ni, 0 AI, -V Cr , XRe & Ni, o AI, Cr , X Re IE-3 I

  15. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  16. A Phenomenological Study of the Guided Movement from Literal to Metaphorical Descriptions of a Past Meaningful Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Mei-Yan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to elicit the subjective experience of and personal meaning found in the process of first using literal expressions and then creating metaphors to describe a past meaningful experience. Six coresearchers in the field of psychology were selected for a one-time, 90- to 120-minute, one-on-one interview…

  17. Modern approaches in deep learning for SAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmanski, Michael; Kreucher, Chris; Lauer, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recent breakthroughs in computational capabilities and optimization algorithms have enabled a new class of signal processing approaches based on deep neural networks (DNNs). These algorithms have been extremely successful in the classification of natural images, audio, and text data. In particular, a special type of DNNs, called convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have recently shown superior performance for object recognition in image processing applications. This paper discusses modern training approaches adopted from the image processing literature and shows how those approaches enable significantly improved performance for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR). In particular, we show how a set of novel enhancements to the learning algorithm, based on new stochastic gradient descent approaches, generate significant classification improvement over previously published results on a standard dataset called MSTAR.

  18. Wurfelspiel-based training data methods for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-09-01

    A data object is constructed from a P by M Wurfelspiel matrix W by choosing an entry from each column to construct a sequence A0A1"AM-1. Each of the PM possibilities are designed to correspond to the same category according to some chosen measure. This matrix could encode many types of data. (1) Musical fragments, all of which evoke sadness; each column entry is a 4 beat sequence with a chosen A0A1A2 thus 16 beats long (W is P by 3). (2) Paintings, all of which evoke happiness; each column entry is a layer and a given A0A1A2 is a painting constructed using these layers (W is P by 3). (3) abstract feature vectors corresponding to action potentials evoked from a biological cell's exposure to a toxin. The action potential is divided into four relevant regions and each column entry represents the feature vector of a region. A given A0A1A2 is then an abstraction of the excitable cell's output (W is P by 4). (4) abstract feature vectors corresponding to an object such as a face or vehicle. The object is divided into four categories each assigned an abstract feature vector with the resulting concatenation an abstract representation of the object (W is P by 4). All of the examples above correspond to one particular measure (sad music, happy paintings, an introduced toxin, an object to recognize)and hence, when a Wurfelspiel matrix is constructed, relevant training information for recognition is encoded that can be used in many algorithms. The focus of this paper is on the application of these ideas to automatic target recognition (ATR). In addition, we discuss a larger biologically based model of temporal cortex polymodal sensor fusion which can use the feature vectors extracted from the ATR Wurfelspiel data.

  19. AKAP12 mediates PKA-induced phosphorylation of ATR to enhance nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Stuart G.; Wolf Horrell, Erin M.; D'Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS protein-coupled receptor that regulates signal transduction through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in melanocytes, is a major inherited melanoma risk factor. Herein, we report a novel cAMP-mediated response for sensing and responding to UV-induced DNA damage regulated by A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). AKAP12 is identified as a necessary participant in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) at S435, a post-translational event required for cAMP-enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER). Moreover, UV exposure promotes ATR-directed phosphorylation of AKAP12 at S732, which promotes nuclear translocation of AKAP12–ATR-pS435. This complex subsequently recruits XPA to UV DNA damage and enhances 5′ strand incision. Preventing AKAP12's interaction with PKA or with ATR abrogates ATR-pS435 accumulation, delays recruitment of XPA to UV-damaged DNA, impairs NER and increases UV-induced mutagenesis. Our results define a critical role for AKAP12 as an UV-inducible scaffold for PKA-mediated ATR phosphorylation, and identify a repair complex consisting of AKAP12–ATR-pS435-XPA at photodamage, which is essential for cAMP-enhanced NER. PMID:27683220

  20. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan, D Abbott, G Heyes, E Jastrzembski, B Moffit, C Timmer, E Wolin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of ATR-C Capabilities to Provide Integral Benchmark Data for Key Structural/Matrix Materials that May be Used for Nuclear Data Testing and Analytical Methods Validation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify some suggested types of experiments that can be performed in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical (ATR-C) facility. A fundamental computational investigation is provided to demonstrate possible integration of experimental activities in the ATR-C with the development of benchmark experiments. Criticality benchmarks performed in the ATR-C could provide integral data for key matrix and structural materials used in nuclear systems. Results would then be utilized in the improvement of nuclear data libraries and as a means for analytical methods validation. It is proposed that experiments consisting of well-characterized quantities of materials be placed in the Northwest flux trap position of the ATR-C. The reactivity worth of the material could be determined and computationally analyzed through comprehensive benchmark activities including uncertainty analyses. Experiments were modeled in the available benchmark model of the ATR using MCNP5 with the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross section library. A single bar (9.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, and 121.92 cm high) of each material could provide sufficient reactivity difference in the core geometry for computational modeling and analysis. However, to provide increased opportunity for the validation of computational models, additional bars of material placed in the flux trap would increase the effective reactivity up to a limit of 1$ insertion. For simplicity in assembly manufacture, approximately four bars of material could provide a means for additional experimental benchmark configurations, except in the case of strong neutron absorbers and many materials providing positive reactivity. Future tasks include the cost analysis and development of the experimental assemblies, including means for the characterization of the neutron flux and spectral indices. Oscillation techniques may also serve to provide additional means for experimentation and validation of computational methods and acquisition of

  2. Comparative study on ATR-FTIR calibration models for monitoring solution concentration in cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue Z.; Liu, Jingxiang; Jiang, Xiaobin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper calibration model building based on using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is investigated for in-situ measurement of the solution concentration during a cooling crystallization process. The cooling crystallization of L-glutamic Acid (LGA) as a case is studied here. It was found that using the metastable zone (MSZ) data for model calibration can guarantee the prediction accuracy for monitoring the operating window of cooling crystallization, compared to the usage of undersaturated zone (USZ) spectra for model building as traditionally practiced. Calibration experiments were made for LGA solution under different concentrations. Four candidate calibration models were established using different zone data for comparison, by using a multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) regression algorithm for the collected spectra together with the corresponding temperature values. Experiments under different process conditions including the changes of solution concentration and operating temperature were conducted. The results indicate that using the MSZ spectra for model calibration can give more accurate prediction of the solution concentration during the crystallization process, while maintaining accuracy in changing the operating temperature. The primary reason of prediction error was clarified as spectral nonlinearity for in-situ measurement between USZ and MSZ. In addition, an LGA cooling crystallization experiment was performed to verify the sensitivity of these calibration models for monitoring the crystal growth process.

  3. Students' with Disabilities Experience and Description of Integrating into an Academic Community in Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Terresa Shavawn

    2012-01-01

    Using a qualitative design, this study offers an understanding of the lived experience of students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability (LD), or traumatic brain injuries (TBI) who are integrating into an academic community within a higher education institution located in the southern United States. Additionally,…

  4. Prevalence of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence among a Community Sample of Latinas: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…

  5. Measuring Photochemical Kinetics in Submonolayer Films by Transient ATR Spectroscopy on a Multimode Planar Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Anne M.; Marucci, Nicole E.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the kinetics of reactions in molecular thin films can aid in the molecular engineering of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. Using two analytical methods, transient absorbance spectroscopy (TAS) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR), in a relatively simple arrangement when compared with previous TAS/ATR instruments to interrogate molecular structure and photochemistry at interfaces. The multimode planar waveguide geometry provides a significant path length enhancement relative to a conventional transmission geometry, making it feasible to perform measurements on low-surface-coverage films. This work demonstrates that TAS/ATR can be used to probe structure and photochemical kinetics in molecular films at extremely low surface coverages.

  6. Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Sampling in Infrared Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Materials Requires Reproducible Pressure Control.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Cassidy, Brianna M; DeJong, Stephanie A; Belliveau, Raymond G; Myrick, Michael L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, in which the sample is pressed against an internal reflection element, is a popular technique for rapid IR spectral collection. However, depending on the accessory design, the pressure applied to the sample is not always well controlled. While collecting data from fabrics with heterogeneous coatings, we have observed systematic pressure-dependent changes in spectra that can be eliminated by more reproducible pressure control. We also described a pressure sensor adapted to work with an ATR tower to enable more precise control of pressure during ATR sampling.

  7. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  8. Self-consistent description of the core and boundary plasma in the high-field ignition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, R.; Zagórski, R.

    2000-03-01

    A model has been developed which is capable to describe in a self-consistent way plasma dynamics in the center and edge region of fusion reactor. The core plasma is treated in the frame of 1D radial transport model whereas a 1D analytical model along magnetic field lines for plasma and impurity transport outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) is applied. The model has been used to investigate operation regimes of the high-field IGNITOR experiment.

  9. Description and development of the means of a model experiment for load balancing in distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagiyev, A. E.; Sherstnyova, A. I.; Botygin, I. A.; Galanova, N. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The results of the statistical model experiments research of various load balancing algorithms in distributed computing systems are presented. Software tools were developed. These tools, which allow to create a virtual infrastructure of distributed computing system in accordance with the intended objective of the research focused on multi-agent and multithreaded data processing were developed. A diagram of the control processing of requests from the terminal devices, providing an effective dynamic horizontal scaling of computing power at peak loads, is proposed.

  10. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 1: System description

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume gives a general description of the ATR system.

  11. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017

  12. Self-consistent description of the core and boundary plasma in the high-field ignition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, R.; Zagórski, R.

    2001-03-01

    A model has been developed which is capable to describe in a self-consistent way plasma dynamics in the center and edge regions of fusion reactor. The core plasma is treated in the frame of 1-D radial transport model whereas a 1-D analytical model along magnetic field lines for plasma and impurity transport outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) is applied. The model is suitable to fast scans of the parameter space of the tokamak type reactor and has been used to investigate operation regimes of the high-field IGNITOR experiment.

  13. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  14. ATR inhibitors as a synthetic lethal therapy for tumours deficient in ARID1A

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Chris T.; Miller, Rowan; Pemberton, Helen N.; Jones, Samuel E.; Campbell, James; Konde, Asha; Badham, Nicholas; Rafiq, Rumana; Brough, Rachel; Gulati, Aditi; Ryan, Colm J.; Francis, Jeff; Vermulen, Peter B.; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Reaper, Philip M.; Pollard, John R.; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic biomarkers of synthetic lethal drug sensitivity effects provides one approach to the development of targeted cancer therapies. Mutations in ARID1A represent one of the most common molecular alterations in human cancer, but therapeutic approaches that target these defects are not yet clinically available. We demonstrate that defects in ARID1A sensitize tumour cells to clinical inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, ATR, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ARID1A deficiency results in topoisomerase 2A and cell cycle defects, which cause an increased reliance on ATR checkpoint activity. In ARID1A mutant tumour cells, inhibition of ATR triggers premature mitotic entry, genomic instability and apoptosis. The data presented here provide the pre-clinical and mechanistic rationale for assessing ARID1A defects as a biomarker of single-agent ATR inhibitor response and represents a novel synthetic lethal approach to targeting tumour cells. PMID:27958275

  15. Key mediators of somatic ATR signaling localize to unpaired chromosomes in spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fedoriw, Andrew M.; Menon, Debashish; Kim, Yuna; Mu, Weipeng; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic silencing of unpaired chromatin (MSUC) occurs during the first meiotic prophase, as chromosomes that fail to pair are sequestered into a transcriptionally repressive nuclear domain. This phenomenon is exemplified by the heterologous sex chromosomes of male mammals, where the ATR DNA damage response kinase is crucial for this silencing event. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of MSUC remain unknown. Here, we show that essential components of ATR signaling in murine somatic cells are spatially confined to unpaired chromosomes in spermatocytes, including the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex replication protein A (RPA) and the checkpoint kinase CHK1. These observations support a model in which ssDNA plays a central role in the recruitment of ATR during MSUC, and provide a link to meiotic progression through activation of CHK1. PMID:26209650

  16. UAV based distributed ATR under realistic simulated environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Gong, Shanshan; Schmid, Natalia A.; Valenti, Matthew C.

    2007-04-01

    Over the past several years, the military has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor networks in the air. Such systems tend to be used primarily for the purpose of acquiring sensory data with the goal of automatic detection, identification, and tracking objects of interest. These trends have been paralleled by advances in both distributed detection, image/signal processing and data fusion techniques. Furthermore, swarmed UAV systems must operate under severe constraints on environmental conditions and sensor limitations. In this work, we investigate the effects of environmental conditions on target detection and recognition performance in a UAV network. We assume that each UAV is equipped with an optical camera, and use a realistic computer simulation to generate synthetic images. The detection algorithm relies on Haar-based features while the automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm relies on Bessel K features. The performance of both algorithms is evaluated using simulated images that closely mimic data acquired in a UAV network under realistic environmental conditions. We design several fusion techniques and analyze both the case of a single observation and the case of multiple observations of the same target.

  17. Methods to probe protein transitions with ATR infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rich, Peter R; Iwaki, Masayo

    2007-06-01

    We describe techniques that can be used in conjunction with modern attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared micro-prisms to allow proteins to be manipulated cyclically between different states whilst simultaneously monitoring both mid-IR and UV/visible/near IR changes. These methods provide increased flexibility of the types of changes that can be induced in proteins in comparison to transmission methods. Quantitative measurements can be made of vibrational changes associated with conversion between stable catalytic reaction intermediates, ligand binding and oxidation-reduction. Both hydrophobic and soluble proteins can be analysed and the ability to induce transitions repetitively allows IR difference spectra to be acquired at a signal/noise sufficient to resolve changes due to specific cofactors or amino acids. Such spectra can often be interpreted at the atomic level by standard IR methods of comparisons with model compounds, by isotope and mutation effects and, increasingly, by ab initio simulations. Combination of such analyses with atomic 3D structural models derived from X-ray and NMR studies can lead to a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of enzymatic reactions.

  18. User's Guide for ERB 7 Matrix. Volume 1: Experiment Description and Quality Control Report for Year 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, R. J.; Shen, M. Y. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus 7 ERB MATRIX Tape is a computer program in which radiances and irradiances are converted into fluxes which are used to compute the basic scientific output parameters, emitted flux, albedo, and net radiation. They are spatially averaged and presented as time averages over one-day, six-day, and monthly periods. MATRIX data for the period November 16, 1978 through October 31, 1979 are presented. Described are the Earth Radiation Budget experiment, the Science Quality Control Report, Items checked by the MATRIX Science Quality Control Program, and Science Quality Control Data Analysis Report. Additional material from the detailed scientific quality control of the tapes which may be very useful to a user of the MATRIX tapes is included. Known errors and data problems and some suggestions on how to use the data for further climatologic and atmospheric physics studies are also discussed.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  20. AGR-3/4 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham

    2014-02-01

    This data report provides the qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-3/4 (AGR-3/4) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Of these cycles, ATR Cycle 152A is a low power cycle that occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power. The irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculation, but the qualification status of these cycle data is still covered in this report. On the other hand, during ATR Cycles 153A (unplanned Outage cycle) and 153B (Power Axial Locator Mechanism [PALM] cycle), the AGR-3/4 was pulled out from the ATR core and stored in the canal to avoid being overheated. Therefore, qualification of the AGR-3/4 irradiation data from these 2 cycles was excluded in this report. By the end of ATR Cycle 154B, AGR-3/4 was irradiated for a total of 264.1 effective full power days. The AGR-3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR-3/4 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  1. Progress Report on Disassembly and Post-Irradiation Experiments for UCSB ATR-2 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Odette, G. R.; Robertson, Janet Pawel; Yamamoto, T

    2015-09-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables and issues, particularly considering extension of operation to 80y.

  2. Achilles Tendon Reflex (ATR) in response to short exposures of microgravity and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, M.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that latency and amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) are reduced after exposure to microgravity for 28 days. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure the latency of ATR during brief (20 sec) exposure to microgravity in KC-135 parabolic flights. Methods: The ATR was elicited in ten men during parabolic flight with the ankle held neutrally, planarflexed, and dorsiflexed. During flight, the ATR was elicited during the zero G and 1.8 G phases. Postflight testing was performed flying back to the airfield. Latencies to onset of the ATR were calculated and analyses of variance were performed to determine the effect of gravity and ankle position on latency. Result: The mean latencies for zero-G, 1.8-G and postflight with the ankle in the neutral position were 32.7 plus or minus 0.5 ms, and 33.1 plus or minus 0.7 ms respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a trend toward prolongation of latencies postflight. The mean latency for those who were motion sick was 32.1 plus or minus 0.1 ms compared to 34.0 plus or minus 0.3 ms for those who were not sick. Conclusions: These studies indicate that neither the level of gravity nor ankle position significantly affected the latency of the ATR.

  3. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  4. A Descriptive and Explorative Case Study of a Scratch Programming Experience Involving the Creation of a Lunar Simulation/Model with Grade Six Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen Alexander

    This mixed methods descriptive and exploratory case study examined the experiences of two classes in an elementary school (39 students) using the Scratch programming language to create a lunar simulation of the Earth/Moon System over six days. Using the Computational Thinking Framework developed by Brennan and Resnick (2012) the researcher examined the computational thinking (CT) concepts and practices students were exposed to. This study finds that all of the student groups experienced at least partial success in building their simulation. The researcher found that all of the groups explored the CT concepts of sequence, events, parallelism, conditionals and operators while building their simulation and more than 80% of the groups used data and loops. There is evidence that the students were involved in three of the computational practices: incremental and iterative, testing and debugging and, abstracting and modularizing. This study offers recommendations for practice and for future research.

  5. Experiment Description and Results for Arrival Operations Using Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Capron, William R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Shay, Richard F.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    The predicted increase in the number of commercial aircraft operations creates a need for improved operational efficiency. Two areas believed to offer increases in aircraft efficiency are optimized profile descents and dependent parallel runway operations. Using Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) software and procedures during these operations, flight crews can achieve by the runway threshold an interval assigned by air traffic control (ATC) behind the preceding aircraft that maximizes runway throughput while minimizing additional fuel consumption and pilot workload. This document describes an experiment where 24 pilots flew arrivals into the Dallas Fort-Worth terminal environment using one of three simulators at NASA?s Langley Research Center. Results indicate that pilots delivered their aircraft to the runway threshold within +/- 3.5 seconds of their assigned time interval, and reported low workload levels. In general, pilots found the FIM concept, procedures, speeds, and interface acceptable. Analysis of the time error and FIM speed changes as a function of arrival stream position suggest the spacing algorithm generates stable behavior while in the presence of continuous (wind) or impulse (offset) error. Concerns reported included multiple speed changes within a short time period, and an airspeed increase followed shortly by an airspeed decrease.

  6. Minimally Invasive Spinal Arthrodesis in Osteoporotic Population Using a Cannulated and Fenestrated Augmented Screw: Technical Description and Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lubansu, Alphonse; Rynkowski, Michal; Abeloos, Laurence; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Dewitte, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We describe a percutaneous or minimally invasive approach to apply an augmentation of pedicle fenestrated screws by injection of the PMMA bone cement through the implant and determine the safety and efficiency of this technique in a clinical series of 15 elderly osteoporotic patients. Clinical outcome and the function were assessed using respectively the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Peri- and post-operative complications were monitored during a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Radiographic follow-up was based on plain fluoroscopic control at 3, 6 and 12 months and every year. In this approach, four steps were considered with care: optimal positioning of the screws, correct alignment of the screw heads, waiting time before the injection of cement, fluoroscopic control of the cement injection. Using these precautions, only 2 minor complications occurred. VAS scores and ODI questionnaires showed a statistically significant improvement up to 13.3 months postoperatively. No radiological complications were observed. Based on this experience, PMMA augmentation technique through the novel fenestrated screws provided an effective and long lasting fixation in osteoporotic patients. Applying this procedure through percutaneous or minimally invasive approach under fluoroscopic control seems to be safe. PMID:22970360

  7. Regional chemical weather forecasting system CFORS: Model descriptions and analysis of surface observations at Japanese island stations during the ACE-Asia experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, I.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.; Tang, Y.; Yienger, J. J.; Satake, S.; Wang, Z.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Guttikunda, S.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Yoshioka, K.; Iida, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Chemical Weather Forecast System (CFORS) is designed to aid in the design of field experiments and in the interpretation/postanalysis of observed data. The system integrates a regional chemical transport model with a multitracer, online system built within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. CFORS was deployed in forecast and postanalysis modes during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE)-Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project (IGAC)-International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of Anthropogenic Pollution 2002 (ITCT 2K2) field studies. A description of the CFORS model system is presented. The model is used to help interpret the Variability of Maritime Aerosol Properties (VMAP) surface observation data. The CFORS model results help to explain the time variation of both anthropogenic pollutants (sulfate, black carbon, and CO) and natural constituents including radon and mineral dust. Time series and time-height cross-section analysis of gases and aerosols are presented to help identify key processes. Synoptic-scale weather changes are found to play an important role in the continental-scale transport of pollution in the springtime in East Asia. The complex vertical and horizontal structure of pollutants in these outflow events is also presented and discussed.

  8. Collected Wisdom: Some Cross-Domain Issues of Collection Level Description; Archives Described at Collection Level; Collection Level Description-The Museum Perspective; Directories of Libraries and Related Organizations; Collection Level Description-The RIDING and Agora Experience; RSLP Collection Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Sweet, Meg; Thomas, David; Dunn, Heather; Pearce, Judith; Brack, E. V.; Palmer, David; Robinson, Bridget; Powell, Andy; Heaney, Michael; Dempsey, Lorcan

    2000-01-01

    These six articles discuss collection level descriptions. Highlights include cross-domain issues; archive standards and automation issues; museum considerations, including metadata and Web pages, based on the Canadian Heritage Information Network; data standards for directories; electronic libraries in the United Kingdom; and the Research…

  9. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Julie A.; Robertson, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    This is the 2013 Annual Report for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility. This report includes information on university-run research projects along with a description of the program and the capabilities offered researchers.

  10. ATR-IR spectroscopy of pendant NH2 groups on silica involved in the Knoevenagel condensation.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Ronny; Ferri, Davide; Baiker, Alfons

    2006-04-11

    The liquid-phase Knoevenagel condensation between benzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate catalyzed by aminopropyl-modified silica has been investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The aim of the work was to demonstrate the different levels of information on the reaction mechanism that can be achieved by operating the spectroscopic cell in the absence and in the presence of a solvent, in flow-through and stop-flow modes and in combination with concentration modulation spectroscopy. The reaction mechanism involves the formation of an imine intermediate whose existence has been verified in situ by combining in one experiment continuous and stop-flow operations. Identical information has been gained more elegantly using concentration modulation spectroscopy, which additionally provided information on the possible origin of the solvent effect observed in the Knoevenagel reaction. Faster production and consumption of the imine intermediate was observed in cyclohexane solvent than in toluene. Identification of other species evolving on the catalyst surface and monitoring of the effluents of the spectroscopic cell provided some insight in possible catalyst deactivation.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, “Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.”; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  13. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  14. Exploring the experience of sleep and fatigue in male and female adults over the 2 years following traumatic brain injury: a qualitative descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Theadom, Alice; Rowland, Vickie; Levack, William; Starkey, Nicola; Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; McPherson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experience of fatigue and sleep difficulties over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Longitudinal qualitative descriptive analysis of interviews completed as part of a larger longitudinal study of recovery following TBI. Data relating to the experience of fatigue and/or sleep were extracted and coded by two independent researchers. Setting Community-based study in the Hamilton and Auckland regions of New Zealand. Participants 30 adult participants who had experienced mild, moderate or severe brain injury within the past 6 months (>16 years of age). 15 participants also nominated significant others to take part. Interviews were completed at 6, 12 and 24 months postinjury. Results Participants described feeling unprepared for the intensity, impact and persistent nature of fatigue and sleep difficulties after injury. They struggled to learn how to manage their difficulties by themselves and to adapt strategies in response to changing circumstances over time. Four themes were identified: (1) Making sense of fatigue and sleep after TBI; (2) accepting the need for rest; (3) learning how to rest and; (4) need for rest impacts on ability to engage in life. Conclusions Targeted support to understand, accept and manage the sleep and fatigue difficulties experienced may be crucial to improve recovery and facilitate engagement in everyday life. Advice needs to be timely and revised for relevance over the course of recovery. PMID:27059468

  15. Consumer providers' experiences of recovery and concerns as members of a psychiatric multidisciplinary outreach team: A qualitative descriptive study from the Japan Outreach Model Project 2011-2014

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to clarify consumer providers (CPs) subjective experiences as members of a psychiatric multidisciplinary outreach team that provided services to individuals with a mental illness living in the community. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Participants were clients hired as CPs in the Japanese Outreach Model Project from September 2011 until March 2014. Of the seventeen CPs, nine participated in this study. We looked at the CPs' subjective experiences of fulfillment and difficulty. Results In the process of providing services, CPs experienced both achievements and concerns. They had a sense of achievement by caring for their clients and they experienced that they themselves were recovering. They were also concerned about having inadequate knowledge and skills to provide psychiatric services to their clients. Further, there were concerns about their dual role on the multidisciplinary team and being support staff while they were still using mental health services themselves. Conclusion The results show that the activities of CPs included fulfillment, recovery, and dilemmas. Clarifications will likely contribute to an increase in understanding and cooperation between CPs and other professionals with whom they work. Further studies are needed to investigate policies related to mental health consumers who are also providers of mental health services. PMID:28257462

  16. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of ATR-C Capabilities to Provide Integral Benchmark Data for Key Structural/Matrix Materials that May be Used for Nuclear Data Testing and Analytical Methods Validation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide a fundamental computational investigation into the possible integration of experimental activities with the Advanced Test Reactor Critical (ATR-C) facility with the development of benchmark experiments. Criticality benchmarks performed in the ATR-C could provide integral data for key matrix and structural materials used in nuclear systems. Results would then be utilized in the improvement of nuclear data libraries and as a means for analytical methods validation. It is proposed that experiments consisting of well-characterized quantities of materials be placed in the Northwest flux trap position of the ATR-C. The reactivity worth of the material could be determined and computationally analyzed through comprehensive benchmark activities including uncertainty analyses. Experiments were modeled in the available benchmark model of the ATR using MCNP5 with the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross section library. A single bar (9.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, and 121.92 cm high) of each material could provide sufficient reactivity difference in the core geometry for computational modeling and analysis. However, to provide increased opportunity for the validation of computational models, additional bars of material placed in the flux trap would increase the effective reactivity up to a limit of 1$ insertion. For simplicity in assembly manufacture, approximately four bars of material could provide a means for additional experimental benchmark configurations, except in the case of strong neutron absorbers and many materials providing positive reactivity. Future tasks include the cost analysis and development of the experimental assemblies, including means for the characterization of the neutron flux and spectral indices. Oscillation techniques may also serve to provide additional means for experimentation and validation of computational methods and acquisition of integral data for improving neutron cross sections. Further assessment of oscillation

  18. ATR-ATRIP kinase complex triggers activation of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Shigechi, Tomoko; Tomida, Junya; Sato, Koichi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Eykelenboom, John K; Pessina, Fabio; Zhang, Yanbin; Uchida, Emi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Lowndes, Noel F; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Takata, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    ATR kinase activates the S-phase checkpoint when replication forks stall at sites of DNA damage. This event also causes phosphorylation of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCI, triggering its monoubiquitination of the key DNA repair factor FANCD2 by the FA core E3 ligase complex, thereby promoting this central pathway of DNA repair which permits replication to be restarted. However, the interplay between ATR and the FA pathway has been unclear. In this study, we present evidence that their action is directly linked, gaining insights into this relationship in a DT40 mutant cell line that is conditionally deficient in the critical ATR-binding partner protein ATRIP. Using this system, we showed that ATRIP was crucial for DNA damage-induced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and FANCI phosphorylation. ATR kinase phosphorylated recombinant FANCI protein in vitro, which was facilitated by the presence of FANCD2. Mechanistic investigations revealed that the RPA region but not the TopBP1 region of ATRIP was required for FANCD2 monoubiquitination, whereas Chk1 phosphorylation relied upon both domains. Together, our findings identify ATR as the kinase responsible for activating the FA pathway of DNA repair.

  19. Portable scalable architecture for model-based FLIR ATR and SAR/FLIR fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Larisa; Childs, Martin B.; Pujara, Neeraj

    1999-08-01

    For an on-board automatic target recognition (ATR) system to be useful to the crew of a military platform, the ATR must reduce the mission risk or increase its lethality. This utility may be increased by shortening the operator's time to interrogate possible threat targets or by enabling weapon deployment at a greater range. Obstacles to deployment of ATRs have included an excess of false cues and difficulty in adapting developmental configurations to processing architectures that can operate in the required environmental conditions without serious performance degradation. We present a real-time FLIR ATR software architecture that is scaleable across multiple processors and readily portable to a number of hardware platforms. Fusion with cues from an on- or off-board synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a significant reduction in the amount of processing required to classify targets while simultaneously increasing the confidence in each target hypothesis. The FLIR ATR and fusion are implemented on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) processors that are available in ruggedized versions, and the software is constructed to allow portability to other processor families without major disturbance to those parts of the code that embody the algorithm content.

  20. ATR suppresses endogenous DNA damage and allows completion of homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam D; Sager, Brian W; Gorthi, Aparna; Tonapi, Sonal S; Brown, Eric J; Bishop, Alexander J R

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication fork stalling or collapse that arises from endogenous damage poses a serious threat to genome stability, but cells invoke an intricate signaling cascade referred to as the DNA damage response (DDR) to prevent such damage. The gene product ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) responds primarily to replication stress by regulating cell cycle checkpoint control, yet it's role in DNA repair, particularly homologous recombination (HR), remains unclear. This is of particular interest since HR is one way in which replication restart can occur in the presence of a stalled or collapsed fork. Hypomorphic mutations in human ATR cause the rare autosomal-recessive disease Seckel syndrome, and complete loss of Atr in mice leads to embryonic lethality. We recently adapted the in vivo murine pink-eyed unstable (pun) assay for measuring HR frequency to be able to investigate the role of essential genes on HR using a conditional Cre/loxP system. Our system allows for the unique opportunity to test the effect of ATR loss on HR in somatic cells under physiological conditions. Using this system, we provide evidence that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells lacking ATR have decreased density with abnormal morphology, a decreased frequency of HR and an increased level of chromosomal damage.

  1. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  2. Progress towards a realistic theoretical description of C60 photoelectron-momentum imaging experiments using time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wopperer, P.; Gao, C. Z.; Barillot, T.; Cauchy, C.; Marciniak, A.; Despré, V.; Loriot, V.; Celep, G.; Bordas, C.; Lépine, F.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied theoretical photoelectron-momentum distributions of C60 using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in real time and including a self-interaction correction. Our calculations furthermore account for a proper orientation averaging allowing a direct comparison with experimental results. To illustrate the capabilities of this direct (microscopic and time-dependent) approach, two very different photo-excitation conditions are considered: excitation with a high-frequency XUV light at 20 eV and with a low-frequency IR femtosecond pulse at 1.55 eV. The interaction with the XUV light leads to one-photon transitions and a linear ionization regime. In that situation, the spectrum of occupied single-electron states in C60 is directly mapped to the photoelectron spectrum. On the contrary, the IR pulse leads to multiphoton ionization in which only the two least-bound states contribute to the process. In both dynamical regimes (mono- and multiphoton), calculated and experimental angle-resolved photoelectron spectra compare reasonably well. The observed discrepancies can be understood by the theoretical underestimation of higher-order many-body interaction processes such as electron-electron scattering and by the fact that experiments are performed at finite temperature. These results pave the way to a multiscale description of the C60 ionization mechanisms that is required to render justice to the variety of processes observed experimentally for fullerene molecules.

  3. Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a step–by-step technique description of this first brazilian experience

    PubMed Central

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Hidaka, Alexandre Kiyoshi; Sato, Leticia Lumy Kanawa; Almeida, Roberto; Colombo, Jose Roberto; Zampolli, Hamilton de Campos; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy(RARP) is a newly approach that preserve the Retzus structures and provide better recovery of continence and erectile function. In Brazil, this approach has not yet been previously reported. Objective: Our goal is to describe Step-by-Step the Retzus-sparing RARP surgical technique and report our first Brazilian experience. Methods: We present a case of a 60-year-old white man with low risk prostate cancer. Surgical materials were four arms Da Vinci robotic platform system, six transperitoneal portals, two prolene wires and Polymer Clips. This surgical technique was step-by-step described according to Galfano et al. One additional step was added as a modification of Galfano et al. Primary technique description: The closure of the Denovellier fascia. Results: We have operated one patient with this technique. The operative time was 180minutes, console time was135 min, the blood loss was 150ml, none perioperative or postoperative complications was found, hospital stay of 01 day. The anatomopathological classification revealed a pT2aN0M0 specimen with free surgical margins. The patient achieved continence immediately after bladder stent retrieval. Full erection reported after 30 days of surgery. Conclusion: Retzus-sparing RARP approach is feasible and reproducible. However, further comparative studies are necessary to demonstrate potential benefits in continence and sexual outcomes over the standard approaches. PMID:27649115

  4. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  5. Irradiaton of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Heather J. MacLean; Steven L. Hayes

    2007-09-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels.

  6. Effects of atrazine (ATR), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a single dose of the herbicide ATR stimulated the HPA axis in the male rat while equimolar doses of its primary metabolite, DACT, had a minimal effect. In this study, we evaluated the effects of one or four daily doses of ATR, DACT, and an intermediat...

  7. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE (ATR), DEISOPROPYLATRAZINE (DIA), AND DIAMINOCHLOROTRIAZINE (DACT) ON THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that a single dose of ATR herbicide stimulated HPA axis activation in the male rat while its primary metabolite, DACT, did so to a lesser extent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ATR, DACT, and an intermediate metabolite, DIA, on adrenocorticotrop...

  8. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  9. Temperature-dependent deliquescent and efflorescent properties of methanesulfonate sodium studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guang; Kelley, Judas; Kish, J Duncan; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-23

    Modeling of aerosols and cloud formation processes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) require extensive data on hygroscopic properties of relevant methanesulfonate particles, which are currently scarce. In this work, methanesulfonate sodium (CH3SO3Na, MSA-Na), the most abundant methanesulfonate salt, was selected, and its deliquescent and efflorescent properties at temperatures relevant to the lower troposphere were studied using an ATR-FTIR flow system. To validate the approach, we investigated hygroscopic properties of NaCl particles, and our measured deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of the NaCl particles obtained from the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks in infrared spectra agreed with literature data well. We then reported DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles as a function of temperature for the first time using both the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks and the changes in peak position and shape of CH3SO3(-) symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes. Our experiments showed that MSA-Na particles present quite different temperature-dependent hygroscopic behaviors from NaCl. Both the DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles increase with decreasing temperatures. Due to the significant differences in temperature-dependent DRH and ERH, NaCl particles, if processed in MBL by methanesulfonic acid, are expected to deliquesce slightly earlier during a hydration process but effloresce at a much earlier stage during a dehydration process, especially at lower temperatures. This could considerably influence phase, size, and water content of sea salt aerosols and consequently their reactivity, lifetime, and impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate systems.

  10. ATR controls cellular adaptation to hypoxia through positive regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) expression.

    PubMed

    Fallone, F; Britton, S; Nieto, L; Salles, B; Muller, C

    2013-09-12

    Tumor cells adaptation to severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) plays a major role in tumor progression. The transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), whose α-subunit is stabilized under hypoxic conditions is a key component of this process. Recent studies showed that two members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), regulate the hypoxic-dependent accumulation of HIF-1. These proteins initiate cellular stress responses when DNA damage occurs. In addition, it has been demonstrated that extreme hypoxia induces a replicative stress resulting in regions of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks and the activation of ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein), another member of the PIKKs family. Here, we show that even less severe hypoxia (0.1% O2) also induces activation of ATR through replicative stress. Importantly, in using either transiently silenced ATR cells, cells expressing an inactive form of ATR or cells exposed to an ATR inhibitor (CGK733), we demonstrate that hypoxic ATR activation positively regulates the key transcription factor HIF-1 independently of the checkpoint kinase Chk1. We show that ATR kinase activity regulates HIF-1α at the translational level and we find that the elements necessary for the regulation of HIF-1α translation are located within the coding region of HIF-1α mRNA. Finally, by using three independent cellular models, we clearly show that the loss of ATR expression and/or kinase activity results in the decrease of HIF-1 DNA binding under hypoxia and consequently affects protein expression levels of two HIF-1 target genes, GLUT-1 and CAIX. Taken together, our data show a new function for ATR in cellular adaptation to hypoxia through regulation of HIF-1α translation. Our work offers new prospect for cancer therapy using ATR inhibitors with the potential to decrease cellular adaptation in hypoxic

  11. Potentiation of tumor responses to DNA damaging therapy by the selective ATR inhibitor VX-970.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amy B; Newsome, Dave; Wang, Yuxin; Boucher, Diane M; Eustace, Brenda; Gu, Yong; Hare, Brian; Johnson, Mac A; Milton, Sean; Murphy, Cheryl E; Takemoto, Darin; Tolman, Crystal; Wood, Mark; Charlton, Peter; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Furey, Brinley; Golec, Julian; Reaper, Philip M; Pollard, John R

    2014-07-30

    Platinum-based DNA-damaging chemotherapy is standard-of-care for most patients with lung cancer but outcomes remain poor. This has been attributed, in part, to the highly effective repair network known as the DNA-damage response (DDR). ATR kinase is a critical regulator of this pathway, and its inhibition has been shown to sensitize some cancer, but not normal, cells in vitro to DNA damaging agents. However, there are limited in vivo proof-of-concept data for ATR inhibition. To address this we profiled VX-970, the first clinical ATR inhibitor, in a series of in vitro and in vivo lung cancer models and compared it with an inhibitor of the downstream kinase Chk1. VX-970 markedly sensitized a large proportion of a lung cancer cell line and primary tumor panel in vitro to multiple DNA damaging drugs with clear differences to Chk1 inhibition observed. In vivo VX-970 blocked ATR activity in tumors and dramatically enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin across a panel of patient derived primary lung xenografts. The combination led to complete tumor growth inhibition in three cisplatin-insensitive models and durable tumor regression in a cisplatin-sensitive model. These data provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of VX-970 in lung cancer patients.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation. PMID:28153896

  13. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, A L; Romalde, J L

    2017-02-02

    We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation.

  15. U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Songlin; Sun, Changyue; Zou, Chongwei; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin

    2015-10-15

    An implantable U-shaped fiber ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface was presented for continuous glucose monitoring to overcome the drawbacks of traditional glucose sensing technique based on enzyme electrodes. A U-shaped structure was addressed to increase effective optical length at limited implantable space to enhance the sensitivity of fiber ATR sensor. A novel method to fabricate silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface of U-shaped fiber ATR sensor based on chemical reduction of its silver halide material directly without any preliminary nanoparticles synthesis and following covalent bond or self-assembly was proposed. Five glucose absorption wavelengths in the mid-infrared band were employed for specific glucose monitoring. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the silver-nanoparticle-enhanced U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor are approximately three times those of a conventional one. The high sensitivity and low-noise performance makes it promising for in vivo glucose monitoring in the future clinical applications.

  16. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  17. Feature Extraction Using Attributed Scattering Center Models for Model-Based Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    systems employing synthetic aperture radar . This report summarizes the major technical accomplishments that were realized. We developed a set of...automatic target recognition, ATR performance prediction, synthetic aperture radar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...Std. Z39-18 Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 ATTRIBUTED SCATTERING MODELS FOR SYNTHETIC APER- TURE RADAR 6 2.1 Introduction

  18. Structural investigations of oriented membrane assemblies by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs Peter; Goette, Jeannette; Reiter, Gerald; Siam, Monira; Baurecht, Dieter

    1998-06-01

    In situ attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy is presented as an adequate tool for studying molecular structure and function of biomembranes. In this article emphasis was directed to the production of suitable model bilayer membranes for optimum mimicking of natural biomembranes, and to special FTIR ATR techniques to achieve enhanced selectivity as well as time resolved information on complex membrane assemblies. In this context, the preparation of supported bilayers according to the LB/vesicle method is presented and the use of such model membranes to build more complex assemblies, e.g. with creatine kinase, a surface bound enzyme, and alkaline phosphatase, a membrane anchored enzyme. A comprehensive summary of equations used for quantitative ATR spectroscopy is given and applied to determine the surface concentration and orientation of membrane bound molecules. The use of supported bilayers for drug membrane interaction studies is demonstrated by the local anesthetic dibucaine. Besides of structural information's, such studies result also thermodynamic date, such as adsorption isotherm and partition coefficient. A special ATR set-up for more precise background compensation is presented enabling the conversion of a single beam spectrometer into a pseudo double beam spectrometer. This optical component may be placed in the sample compartment of the spectrometer, and is referred to as single-beam-sample-reference (SBSR) attachment. Finally, a short theoretical introduction into time resolved modulation spectroscopy is given. Temperature modulated excitation of reversible conformational changes in the polypeptide poly-L-lysine and the enzyme RNase are shown as examples.

  19. A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

  20. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Keith A. Daum

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  1. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  2. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system.

  3. The ABC transporter ATR1 is necessary for efflux of the toxin cercosporin in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Daub, Margaret E

    2009-02-01

    The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter gene and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4368bp with one intron. CnCFP encodes a MFS transporter with homology to Cercospora kikuchii CFP, previously implicated in cercosporin export, and has an ORF of 1975bp with three introns. Disruption of ATR1 indicated atr1-null mutants had dramatic reductions in cercosporin production (25% and 20% of WT levels) in solid and liquid cultures, respectively. The ATR1 disruptants also showed moderately higher sensitivity to cercosporin. Constitutive expression of ATR1 in the crg1 mutant restored cercosporin biosynthesis and moderately increased resistance. In contrast, CnCFP overexpression in the mutant did not restore toxin production, however, it moderately enhanced toxin resistance. The results together indicate ATR1 acts as a cercosporin efflux pump in this fungus and plays a partial role in resistance.

  4. Evaluating drug delivery with salt formation: Drug disproportionation studied in situ by ATR-FTIR imaging and Raman mapping.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-01-01

    Two different vibrational spectroscopic approaches, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and Raman mapping, were used to investigate the components within a tablet containing an ionised drug during dissolution experiments. Delivering certain drugs in their salt form is a method that can be used to improve the bioavailability and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble materials. However, these ionised species have a propensity to covert back to their thermodynamically favourable free acid or base forms. Dissolution experiments of the ionised drug in different aqueous media resulted in conversion to the more poorly soluble free acid form, which is detrimental for controlled drug release. This study investigates the chemical changes occurring to formulations containing a development ionised drug (37% by weight), in different aqueous pH environments. Firstly, dissolution in a neutral medium was studied, showing that there was clear release of ionised monosodium form of the drug from the tablet as it swelled in the aqueous medium. There was no presence of any drug in the monohydrate free acid form detected in these experiments. Dissolution in an acidic (0.1M HCl) solution showed disproportionation forming the free acid form. Disproportionation occurred rapidly upon contact with the acidic solution, initially resulting in a shell of the monohydrate free acid form around the tablet edges. This slowed ingress of the solution into the tablet before full conversion of the ionised form to the free acid form was characterised in the spectroscopic data.

  5. Analyses of requirements for computer control and data processing experiment subsystems: Image data processing system (IDAPS) software description (7094 version), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A description of each of the software modules of the Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) is presented. The changes in the software modules are the result of additions to the application software of the system and an upgrade of the IBM 7094 Mod(1) computer to a 1301 disk storage configuration. Necessary information about IDAPS sofware is supplied to the computer programmer who desires to make changes in the software system or who desires to use portions of the software outside of the IDAPS system. Each software module is documented with: module name, purpose, usage, common block(s) description, method (algorithm of subroutine) flow diagram (if needed), subroutines called, and storage requirements.

  6. Generation of Synthetic SAR Imagery for ATR Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Identification Experiment (pp. 22-1 – 22-10). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-SET-096, Paper 22. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http...2002. [4] Fries: „ Messung und Modellierung der Leistung von Kantenoperatoren“, Fraunhofer Institute, Karlsruhe,2003. Figure 22

  7. Approximating the detection limit of an infrared spectroscopic imaging microscope operating in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) modality: theoretical and empirical results for an instrument using a linear array detector and a 1.5 millimeter germanium hemisphere internal reflection element.

    PubMed

    Lanzarotta, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical detection limits have been estimated for aripiprazole (analyte) in alpha lactose monohydrate (matrix model pharmaceutical formulation) using a micro-attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging instrument equipped with a linear array detector and a 1.5 mm germanium hemisphere internal reflection element (IRE). The instrument yielded a theoretical detection limit of 0.0035% (35 parts per million (ppm)) when operating under diffraction-limited conditions, which was 49 times lower than what was achieved with a traditional macro-ATR instrument operating under practical conditions (0.17%, 1700 ppm). However, these results may not be achievable for most analyses because the detection limits will be particle size limited, rather than diffraction limited, for mixtures with average particle diameters greater than 8.3 μm (most pharmaceutical samples). For example, a theoretical detection limit of 0.028% (280 ppm) was calculated for an experiment operating under particle size-limited conditions where the average particle size was 23.4 μm. These conditions yielded a detection limit of 0.022% (220 ppm) when measured empirically, which was close to the theoretical value and only eight times lower than that of a faster, more simplistic macro-ATR instrument. Considering the longer data acquisition and processing times characteristic of the micro-ATR imaging approach (minutes or even hours versus seconds), the cost-benefit ratio may not often be favorable for the analysis of analytes in matrices that exhibit only a few overlapping absorptions (low-interfering matrices such as alpha lactose monohydrate) using this technique compared to what can be achieved using macro-ATR. However, the advantage was significant for detecting analytes in more complex matrices (those that exhibited several overlapping absorptions with the analyte) because the detection limit of the macro-ATR approach was highly formulation

  8. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P < .001) and AT services (18.60 versus 9.56; P < .001) per injury. An average of 2.24 ± 1.33 AT services were reported per ATR visit. Compared with TL injuries, NTL injuries had a larger average number of AT services per ATR visit (2.28 versus 2.05; P < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the broad spectrum of care provided by ATs to high school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  9. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  10. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  11. Phylogeny of cultivated and wild wheat species using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Pinar; Onde, Sertac; Severcan, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, an increasing amount of genetic data has been used to clarify the problems inherent in wheat taxonomy. The techniques for obtaining and analyzing these data are not only cumbersome, but also expensive and technically demanding. In the present study, we introduce infrared spectroscopy as a method for a sensitive, rapid and low cost phylogenetic analysis tool for wheat seed samples. For this purpose, 12 Triticum and Aegilops species were studied by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis clearly revealed that the lignin band (1525-1505 cm-1) discriminated the species at the genus level. However, the species were clustered according to their genome commonalities when the whole spectra were used (4000-650 cm-1). The successful differentiation of Triticum and its closely related genus Aegilops clearly demonstrated the power of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy as a suitable tool for phylogenetic research.

  12. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables. (ACR)

  13. Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.

    1989-08-01

    We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.

  14. Surface processes occurring on Rh/alumina during chiral modification by cinchonidine: an ATR-IR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Erik; Ferri, Davide; Baiker, Alfons

    2007-07-17

    Cinchona alkaloids are frequently used for chiral modification of supported noble metal catalysts employed in heterogeneous enantioselective hydrogenation. In order to gain molecular insight into the surface processes occurring at the metal/liquid interface, cinchonidine (CD) adsorption on vapor-deposited Rh/Al2O3 films has been studied in the presence of solvent and hydrogen by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The spectrum of CD adsorbed on Rh exhibited two dominant signals at 1593 and 1511 cm(-1), which are characteristic of a surface species having a quinoline ring tilted with respect to the metal. Interestingly, no adsorbed modifier in the flat geometry (quinoline parallel to the metal plane) was observed. During desorption, these signals vanished, and a new prominent signal appeared at 1601 cm(-1) which belongs to a species with the quinoline ring hydrogenated on the heteroaromatic side. Concentration-dependent experiments and the reversibility of the observed phenomenon indicate that CD was readily hydrogenated to 1',2',3',4',10,11-hexahydrocinchonidine (CDH(6)) on Rh. The ATR-IR spectra also reveal that the flat species was indeed immediately hydrogenated when CD was provided from solution, and the only visible adsorbed species was the tilted species, which displaced the hydrogenation product from the metal surface. In the absence of dissolved CD, during desorption, the tilted species was converted to the flat species and rapidly hydrogenated. The hydrogenation product was stable on the metal surface only in the absence of CD. Therefore, the adsorption strength of the different species is as follows: flat > tilted > CDH(6). Evidence for the formation of the flat species and its role as an intermediate to the hydrogenation product is given by an experiment in which CD was adsorbed in the absence of dissolved hydrogen after surface cleaning. The adsorption and hydrogenation of CD on Rh deviate significantly from that

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  16. Robust Multi-Look HRR ATR Investigation through Decision-Level Fusion Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    algorithms through multilook assessments to assess relative fusion performance gains. Keywords: ATR, Information Fusion, HRR, eigen-value, SVD, Fusion...reason, many surveillance systems incorporate High Range Resolution (HRR) radar and synthetic aperture radar ( SAR ) modes to be able to capture moving...Stationary Automatic Target Recognition (MSTAR) data set [11] that provides SAR collections, and the ImageFusion.org site that contains electro

  17. ATR-X syndrome in two siblings with a novel mutation (c.6718C>T mutation in exon 31)

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Seema; Ishrie, Mala; Saxena, Renu; Danda, Sumita; Linda, Rose; Viswabandya, Auro; Verma, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    ATR-X syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by mental retardation, alpha thalassaemia and distinct facial features which include microcephaly, frontal hair upsweep, epicanthic folds, small triangular nose, midface hypoplasia and carp-shaped mouth. Here we report two brothers with clinical features of ATR-X syndrome, in whom a novel missense (C>T) mutation was identified in exon 31 of the ATRX gene. PMID:22089611

  18. The MRE11 GAR motif regulates DNA double-strand break processing and ATR activation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenbao; Vogel, Gillian; Coulombe, Yan; Dubeau, Danielle; Spehalski, Elizabeth; Hébert, Josée; Ferguson, David O; Masson, Jean Yves; Richard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex is the primary sensor rapidly recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). MRE11 is known to be arginine methylated by PRMT1 within its glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif. In this study, we report a mouse knock-in allele of Mre11 that substitutes the arginines with lysines in the GAR motif and generates the MRE11RK protein devoid of methylated arginines. The Mre11RK/RK mice were hypersensitive to γ-irradiation (IR) and the cells from these mice displayed cell cycle checkpoint defects and chromosome instability. Moreover, the Mre11RK/RK MEFs exhibited ATR/CHK1 signaling defects and impairment in the recruitment of RPA and RAD51 to the damaged sites. The MRKRN complex formed and localized to the sites of DNA damage and normally activated the ATM pathway in response to IR. The MRKRN complex exhibited exonuclease and DNA-binding defects in vitro responsible for the impaired DNA end resection and ATR activation observed in vivo in response to IR. Our findings provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the MRE11 GAR motif in DSB repair, and demonstrate a mechanistic link between post-translational modifications at the MRE11 GAR motif and DSB processing, as well as the ATR/CHK1 checkpoint signaling. PMID:21826105

  19. Resistance to PARP inhibitors by SLFN11 inactivation can be overcome by ATR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Junko; Feng, Ying; Yu, Guoying K.; Ru, Yuanbin; Tang, Sai-Wen; Shen, Yuqiao; Pommier, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPIs) kill cancer cells by trapping PARP1 and PARP2. Talazoparib, the most potent PARPI inhibitor (PARPI), exhibits remarkable selectivity among the NCI-60 cancer cell lines beyond BRCA inactivation. Our genomic analyses reveal high correlation between response to talazoparib and Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) expression. Causality was established in four isogenic SLFN11-positive and -negative cell lines and extended to olaparib. Response to the talazoparib-temozolomide combination was also driven by SLFN11 and validated in 36 small cell lung cancer cell lines, and in xenograft models. Resistance in SLFN11-deficient cells was caused neither by impaired drug penetration nor by activation of homologous recombination. Rather, SLFN11 induced irreversible and lethal replication inhibition, which was independent of ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The resistance to PARPIs by SLFN11 inactivation was overcome by ATR inhibition, mechanistically because SLFN11-deficient cells solely rely on ATR activation for their survival under PARPI treatment. Our study reveals that SLFN11 inactivation, which is common (~45%) in cancer cells, is a novel and dominant resistance determinant to PARPIs. PMID:27708213

  20. A theoretical framework for 3D LADAR ATR problem definition and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

    2005-05-01

    LADAR imagery provides the capability to represent high resolution detail of 3D surface geometry of complex targets. In previous work we exploited this capability for automatic target recognition (ATR) by developing matching algorithms for performing surface matching of 3D LADAR point clouds with highly-detailed target CAD models. A central challenge in evaluating ATR performance is characterizing the degree of problem difficulty. One of the most important factors is the inherent similarity of target signatures. We've developed a flexible approach to target taxonomy based on 3D shape which includes a classification framework for defining the target recognition problem and evaluating ATR algorithm performance. The target model taxonomy consists of a hierarchical, tree-structured target classification scheme in which different levels of the tree correspond to different degrees of target classification difficulty. Each node in the tree corresponds to a collection of target models forming a target category. Target categories near the tree root represent large and very general target classes, exhibiting large interclass distance. Targets in these categories are easily separated. Target categories near the tree bottom represent very specific target classes with small interclass distance. These targets are difficult to separate. In this paper we focus on creation of optimal categories. We develop approaches for optimal aggregation of target model types into categories which provide for improved classification performance. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles.

  1. Assessing and calibrating the ATR-FTIR approach as a carbonate rock characterization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Delano G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; John, Cédric M.

    2017-01-01

    ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and economical tool for qualitative identification of carbonates, calcium sulphates, oxides and silicates, as well as quantitatively estimating the concentration of minerals. Over 200 powdered samples with known concentrations of two, three, four and five phase mixtures were made, then a suite of calibration curves were derived that can be used to quantify the minerals. The calibration curves in this study have an R2 that range from 0.93-0.99, a RMSE (root mean square error) of 1-5 wt.% and a maximum error of 3-10 wt.%. The calibration curves were used on 35 geological samples that have previously been studied using XRD (X-ray diffraction). The identification of the minerals using ATR-FTIR is comparable with XRD and the quantitative results have a RMSD (root mean square deviation) of 14% and 12% for calcite and dolomite respectively when compared to XRD results. ATR-FTIR is a rapid technique (identification and quantification takes < 5 min) that involves virtually no cost if the machine is available. It is a common tool in most analytical laboratories, but it also has the potential to be deployed on a rig for real-time data acquisition of the mineralogy of cores and rock chips at the surface as there is no need for special sample preparation, rapid data collection and easy analysis.

  2. Identification of species' blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mistek, Ewelina; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-09-01

    Blood is one of the most common and informative forms of biological evidence found at a crime scene. A very crucial step in forensic investigations is identifying a blood stain's origin. The standard methods currently employed for analyzing blood are destructive to the sample and time-consuming. In this study, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used as a confirmatory, nondestructive, and rapid method for distinction between human and animal (nonhuman) blood. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built and demonstrated complete separation between human and animal donors, as well as distinction between three separate species: human, cat, and dog. Classification predictions of unknown blood donors were performed by the model, resulting in 100 % accuracy. This study demonstrates ATR FT-IR spectroscopy's great potential for blood stain analysis and species discrimination, both in the lab and at a crime scene since portable ATR FT-IR instrumentation is commercially available.

  3. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  4. ATR-IR Investigation of Solvent Interactions with Surface-Bound Polymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solvent interactions with bulk and surface-bound polymer brushes are crucial for functionalities such as controlled friction and thermoresponsive adhesion. To study such interactions, the temperature-induced solvent-quality changes and the effect of surface tethering on the mechanical and tribological properties of poly(dodecyl methacrylate) (P12MA) brushes have been investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM). These results have been compared with temperature-dependent UV–visible spectrophotometry (UV–vis) data for the corresponding bulk polymer solutions. The ATR-IR results clearly show that increasing temperature enhances ethanol uptake in P12MA, which results in film swelling. This is accompanied by a marked increase in both adhesion and friction. We have also shown that a combination of solvents, such as toluene and ethanol, can lead to a temperature-dependent solvent partitioning within the polymer brush. To our knowledge this is the first time preferential solvent uptake in a grafted-from brush has been monitored via in situ ATR-IR. Moreover, we have observed remarkably different behavior for polymer chains in solution compared to the behavior of similar chains bound to a surface. The presented findings on the temperature-dependent solvent interactions of surface-grafted P12MA reveal previously unknown solvation phenomena and open up a range of possible applications in the area of stimuli-responsive materials. PMID:27397856

  5. MELT WIRE SENSORS AVAILABLE TO DETERMINE PEAK TEMPERATURES IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. Knudson; J. Daw; J. Palmer; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. To meet the need for these locations, the INL has developed melt wire temperature sensors for use in ATR irradiation testing. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental testing of prototypical sensors was used to develop a library of 28 melt wire materials, capable of detecting peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 85 to 1500°C. This paper will discuss the development work and present test results.

  6. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy applied to quality control of grape-derived spirits.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Santos, António J A; Estevinho, Letícia M; Caldeira, Ilda

    2016-08-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was used for predicting the alcoholic strength, the methanol, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols content of grape-derived spirits. FTIR-ATR spectrum in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm(-1)) was used for the quantitative estimation by applying partial least square (PLS) regression models and the results were correlated with those obtained from reference methods. In the developed method, a cross-validation with 50% of the samples was used for PLS analysis along with a validation test set with 50% of the remaining samples. Good correlation models with a great accuracy were obtained for methanol (r(2)=99.4; RPD=12.8), alcoholic strength (r(2)=97.2; RPD=6.0), acetaldehyde (r(2)=98.2; RPD=7.5) and fusel alcohols (r(2) from 97.4 to 94.1; RPD from 6.2 to 4.1). These results corroborate the hypothesis that FTIR-ATR is a useful technique for the quality control of grape-derived spirits, whose practical application may improve the efficiency and quickness of the current laboratory analysis.

  7. RPA70 depletion induces hSSB1/2-INTS3 complex to initiate ATR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Ananya; Kaur, Manpreet; Ghosh, Tanushree; Khan, Md. Muntaz; Sharma, Aparna; Shekhar, Ritu; Varshney, Akhil; Saxena, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The primary eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), binds to single-stranded DNA at the sites of DNA damage and recruits the apical checkpoint kinase, ATR via its partner protein, ATRIP. It has been demonstrated that absence of RPA incapacitates the ATR-mediated checkpoint response. We report that in the absence of RPA, human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) and its partner protein INTS3 form sub-nuclear foci, associate with the ATR-ATRIP complex and recruit it to the sites of genomic stress. The ATRIP foci formed after RPA depletion are abrogated in the absence of INTS3, establishing that hSSB-INTS3 complex recruits the ATR-ATRIP checkpoint complex to the sites of genomic stress. Depletion of homologs hSSB1/2 and INTS3 in RPA-deficient cells attenuates Chk1 phosphorylation, indicating that the cells are debilitated in responding to stress. We have identified that TopBP1 and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex are essential for the alternate mode of ATR activation. In summation, we report that the single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, hSSB1/2-INTS3 can recruit the checkpoint complex to initiate ATR signaling. PMID:25916848

  8. Mechanisms responsible for the synergistic antileukemic interactions between ATR inhibition and cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Li, Xinyu; Su, Yongwei; Zhao, Jianyun; Luedtke, Daniel A.; Epshteyn, Valeria; Edwards, Holly; Wang, Guan; Wang, Zhihong; Chu, Roland; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hai; Wang, Yue; Ge, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a challenging disease to treat, thus new treatment strategies are needed. In this study, we investigated the antileukemic effects of ATR inhibition alone or combined with cytarabine in AML cells. Treatment with the ATR-selective inhibitor AZ20 caused proliferation inhibition in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. It partially abolished the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and caused DNA replication stress and damage, accompanied by CDK1-independent apoptosis and downregulation of RRM1 and RRM2. AZ20 synergistically enhanced cytarabine-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, abolished cytarabine-induced S and G2/M cell cycle arrest, and cooperated with cytarabine in inducing DNA replication stress and damage in AML cell lines. These key findings were confirmed with another ATR-selective inhibitor AZD6738. Therefore, the cooperative induction of DNA replication stress and damage by ATR inhibition and cytarabine, and the ability of ATR inhibition to abrogate the G2 cell cycle checkpoint both contributed to the synergistic induction of apoptosis and proliferation inhibition in AML cell lines. Synergistic antileukemic interactions between AZ20 and cytarabine were confirmed in primary AML patient samples. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of action underlying the synergistic antileukemic activity of ATR inhibition in combination with cytarabine in AML. PMID:28176818

  9. The ATM- and ATR-related SCD domain is over-represented in proteins involved in nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Cara, Lukas; Baitemirova, Medina; Follis, Jack; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Ribes-Zamora, Albert

    2016-01-08

    ATM and ATR are cellular kinases with a well-characterized role in the DNA-damage response. Although the complete set of ATM/ATR targets is unknown, they often contain clusters of S/TQ motifs that constitute an SCD domain. In this study, we identified putative ATM/ATR targets that have a conserved SCD domain across vertebrates. Using this approach, we have identified novel putative ATM/ATR targets in pathways known to be under direct control of these kinases. Our analysis has also unveiled significant enrichment of SCD-containing proteins in cellular pathways, such as vesicle trafficking and actin cytoskeleton, where a regulating role for ATM/ATR is either unknown or poorly understood, hinting at a much broader and overarching role for these kinases in the cell. Of particular note is the overrepresentation of conserved SCD-containing proteins involved in pathways related to neural development. This finding suggests that ATM/ATR could be directly involved in controlling this process, which may be linked to the adverse neurological effects observed in patients with mutations in ATM.

  10. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEU’s ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved

  11. Validation of the combined ATR-FTIR/tape stripping technique for monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Baurecht, Dieter; Holper, Evelyn; Mahrhauser, Denise; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-09-10

    The physical presence of surfactants in the skin is linked to their skin irritation potential. Combined ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and tape stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) in the stratum corneum and to assess its effects on conformational order of stratum corneum intercellular lipids, secondary structure of keratin and skin hydration. It was possible to monitor the spatial distribution of SLES in the stratum corneum for the first time by subtracting spectra of untreated from treated skin samples and without the need of a perdeuterated form. This method of analysis was evaluated by addressing potential error sources such as differences in removed amounts of corneocytes and intra-individual changes in stratum corneum composition as a function of depth. The obtained results indicate a penetration of SLES into deep layers of the stratum corneum. Furthermore, SLES treatment led to significantly decreased skin hydration levels, whereas the secondary structure of keratin remained nearly unaffected. The reliability of this semi-quantitative method of analysis was confirmed by receiving a coefficient of determination of 0.9963 after making a correlation of deep depended absorbances of two different characteristic bands with different absorption coefficients.

  12. Molecular cloning of AtRS4, a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 μM) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ΔAtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ΔAtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress. PMID:26483807

  13. Mutation in the 5' alternatively spliced region of the XNP/ATR-X gene causes Chudley-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Fatima E; Cardoso, Carlos; Lossi, Anne-Marie; Lowry, Robert Brian; Depetris, Danielle; Mattéi, Marie-Geneviève; Lubs, Herbert A; Stevenson, Roger E; Fontes, Michel; Chudley, Albert E; Schwartz, Charles E

    2005-02-01

    The Chudley-Lowry syndrome (ChLS, MIM 309490) is an X-linked recessive condition characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, mild obesity, hypogonadism, and distinctive facial features characterized by depressed nasal bridge, anteverted nares, inverted-V-shaped upper lip, and macrostomia. The original Chudley-Lowry family consists of three affected males in two generations. Linkage analysis had localized the gene to a large interval, Xp21-Xq26 and an obligate carrier was demonstrated to have highly skewed X inactivation. The combination of the clinical phenotype, consistent with that of the patients with ATR-X syndrome, the skewed X-inactivation pattern in a carrier female, as well as the mapping interval including band Xq13.3, prompted us to consider the XNP/ATR-X gene being involved in this syndrome. Using RT-PCR analysis, we screened the entire XNP/ATR-X gene and found a mutation in exon 2 (c.109C > T) giving rise to a stop codon at position 37 (p.R37X). Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses using a specific monoclonal antibody directed against XNP/ATR-X showed the protein to be present in lymphoblastoid cells from one affected male, despite the premature stop codon. To explain these discordant results, we further analyzed the 5' region of the XNP/ATR-X gene and found three alternative transcripts, which differ in the presence or absence of exon 2, and the length of exon 1. Our data suggest that ChLS is allelic to the ATR-X syndrome with its less severe phenotype being due to the presence of some XNP/ATR-X protein.

  14. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  15. Descriptive Summary of Georgia Tech's Semiotics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Charls

    This document is a descriptive summary of the Georgia Institute of Technology's semiotics laboratory. A review of the goals and objectives of the laboratory is followed by a description of the facilities, including the computer software. The capabilities and uses of the laboratory are outlined for classroom experiments, instructional experiments,…

  16. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  17. Modelling mercury accumulation in minerogenic peat combining FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Despite its potential, infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics has been seldom used to model peat properties with environmental value, such us the concentration of potentially toxic metals. In this research, we applied attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the ability of the technique to predict mercury concentrations in late-Pleistocene/Holocene peat from a minerogenic peatland from Minas Gerais (Brazil). Mercury concentrations were analysed using a Milestone DMA-80 analyzer and attenuated total reflectance FTIR-ATR was performed using a Gladi-ATR (Pike Technologies) in the mid IR spectrum (4000-400 cm- 1). Concentrations were modelled using principal components (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of the models varied between moderate and very good (R2 0.67-0.90), with low RMSD values (0.35-1.06). A PLS model based on three latent vectors (LV1 to LV3) provided the best (R2 0.90, RMSD 0.35) results. LV1 reflected total organic matter content versus mineral matter (mainly quartz from local fluxes), LV2 was related to dust deposition from regional sources, and LV3 reflected peat organic matter decomposition. Compared to a previous investigation based on geochemical data, the spectroscopy-based PLS model performed better, but it has to be complemented with additional data (as δ13 C ratios) to reliably reproduce the changes of the factors controlling mercury accumulation over time. This, time- and cost-effective, methodology may help to develop multi-core approaches to study the within and between mire (of a similar type and area) variability in mercury accumulation, and probably also other peat properties.

  18. ROC analysis of ATR from SAR images using a model-based recognizer incorporating pose information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganski, David; King, Brian M.; Vaz, Richard F.; Orr, John A.

    1995-06-01

    An automatic taget recognition (ATR) technique developed by the authors features analytically derived object models which are formed from entire image suites, yet are compact and allow a direct target recognition and pose determination procedure. In contrast to the pose-invariant information used to form the models in conventional approaches, view-dependent information is retained in the formation of the compact models for this new approach. All model-based ATR systems are confronted with the problem of image variation as a function of viewing angle. This problem can be addressed by use of an exhaustive library of views, at the expense of a large suite of literal images and a computationally intensive search-based recognition process. Means for overcoming these storage and processing obstacles have traditionally invloved some type of view-independent target representation, often developed from some composite view of the target over the viewing angles of interest. This results in a much more compact target model, and a more direct recognition process. Unfortunately, the gains in storage and computational requirements of these invariant algorithms come at the price of diminished target discrimination capability. The new algorithm incorporates pose as a fundamental parameter which is solved for as part of the recognition process, and does not discard the pose-related information which is relevant to target recognition. In this paper, the newly developed technique is applied to synthetic aperture radar images to develop receiver operating characteristic curves in the presence of both multiplicative noise and clutter. Comparative curves are also developed for a conventional generalized quandratic classifier ATR system.

  19. Towards distributed ATR using subjective logic combination rules with a swarm of UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Stephen; Simon, Michael; Zhu, Qiuming

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we present our initial findings demonstrating a cost-effective approach to Aided Target Recognition (ATR) employing a swarm of inexpensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We call our approach Distributed ATR (DATR). Our paper describes the utility of DATR for autonomous UAV operations, provides an overview of our methods, and the results of our initial simulation-based implementation and feasibility study. Our technology is aimed towards small and micro UAVs where platform restrictions allow only a modest quality camera and limited on-board computational capabilities. It is understood that an inexpensive sensor coupled with limited processing capability would be challenged in deriving a high probability of detection (P d) while maintaining a low probability of false alarms (P fa). Our hypothesis is that an evidential reasoning approach to fusing the observations of multiple UAVs observing approximately the same scene can raise the P d and lower the P fa sufficiently in order to provide a cost-effective ATR capability. This capability can lead to practical implementations of autonomous, coordinated, multi-UAV operations. In our system, the live video feed from a UAV is processed by a lightweight real-time ATR algorithm. This algorithm provides a set of possible classifications for each detected object over a possibility space defined by a set of exemplars. The classifications for each frame within a short observation interval (a few seconds) are used to generate a belief statement. Our system considers how many frames in the observation interval support each potential classification. A definable function transforms the observational data into a belief value. The belief value, or opinion, represents the UAV's belief that an object of the particular class exists in the area covered during the observation interval. The opinion is submitted as evidence in an evidential reasoning system. Opinions from observations over the same spatial area will have

  20. Characterisation Of Polysacharides And Lipids From Selected Green Algae Species By FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chromochloris zofingiensis (Dönz) Fucíková et L.A. Lewis (SAG 211-14, Gottingen, Germany), Acutodesmus obliguus (Turpin) Hegewald (SAG 276-1, Gottingen, Germany) and Chlorella sorokiniana (K. Brandt) Pröschold et Darienko (SAG 211-40c, Gottingen, Germany). Polysaccharides and lipids from these three algae species were determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal in spectral range from 400 - 4000 cm-1 and resolution 4.

  1. Structure-Activity Relations In Enzymes: An Application Of IR-ATR Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs P.; Ahlstrom, Peter; Vincenz, Claudius; Fringeli, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Relations between structure and specific activity in immobilized acetylcholinesterase (ACNE) have been studied by means of pH- and Ca++-modulation technique combined with attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy and enzyme activity measurement. Periodic modulation of pH and Ca++-concentration enabled a periodic on-off switching of about 40% of the total enzyme activity. It was found that about 0.5 to 1% of the amino acids were involved in this process. These 15 to 30 amino acids assumed antiparallel pleated sheet structure in the inhibited state and random and/or helical structure in the activated state.

  2. Testing a High-Sensitivity ATR FTIR Water Monitor for Ionic CWA Breakdown Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    coating material(s) Hug5 SO42− 1 µM hematite Blesa6 carboxylates 1 µM TiO2 Martin7 carboxylates 10 µM (LOD) hematite Elzinga8 SO42− 30 µM goethite...better and were used as received from Sigma/Aldrich or similar vendors. The polyalkylated ferrocenium salts 1,1′,3,3′-tetrakis(2- methyl -2-nonyl...probe is shown in black. A blank spectrum is shown in blue , and the baseline (y = 0) is shown in red. Figure 9 (right). ATR-FTIR spectrum of the

  3. Registration of heavy metal ions and pesticides with ATR planar waveguide enzyme sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, Alexei; Haron, Saharudin; Ray, Asim

    2004-11-01

    The proposed novel type of enzyme optical sensors is based on a combination of SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 planar waveguide ATR (attenuated total reflection) transducer, fabricated by standard silicon planar technology, with the composite polyelectrolyte self-assembled coating containing both organic chromophores and enzyme molecules. Such devices were deployed to monitor typical industrial and agricultural water pollutants, such as heavy metal ions and pesticides, acting as inhibitors of enzyme reactions. The sensitivity of registration of these pollutants in the range of 1 ppb was achieved. The use of different enzymes in the sensitive membrane provides a background for pattern recognition of the above pollutants.

  4. PLS-LS-SVM based modeling of ATR-IR as a robust method in detection and qualification of alprazolam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhizkar, Elahehnaz; Ghazali, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Sakhteman, Amirhossein

    2017-02-01

    According to the United States pharmacopeia (USP), Gold standard technique for Alprazolam determination in dosage forms is HPLC, an expensive and time-consuming method that is not easy to approach. In this study chemometrics assisted ATR-IR was introduced as an alternative method that produce similar results in fewer time and energy consumed manner. Fifty-eight samples containing different concentrations of commercial alprazolam were evaluated by HPLC and ATR-IR method. A preprocessing approach was applied to convert raw data obtained from ATR-IR spectra to normal matrix. Finally, a relationship between alprazolam concentrations achieved by HPLC and ATR-IR data was established using PLS-LS-SVM (partial least squares least squares support vector machines). Consequently, validity of the method was verified to yield a model with low error values (root mean square error of cross validation equal to 0.98). The model was able to predict about 99% of the samples according to R2 of prediction set. Response permutation test was also applied to affirm that the model was not assessed by chance correlations. At conclusion, ATR-IR can be a reliable method in manufacturing process in detection and qualification of alprazolam content.

  5. Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) user manual, S-056 experiment. Volume 1: System description. Volume 2: Batch IDAPS. Volume 3: Interactive IDAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Image data processing system (IDAPS) developed to satisfy the image processing requirements of the Skylab S-056 experiment is described. The S-056 experiment was designed to obtain high-resolution photographs of the sun in the far ultraviolet, or soft X-ray, portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thirty-five thousand photographs were obtained by the three flights of the program; and, faced with such a massive volume of imagery, the designers of the experiment decided to develop a computer-based system which would reduce the image processing workload. The purpose of the IDAPS User Manual is to give the IDAPS user the necessary information and instructions to effectively utilize the system.

  6. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Binh T. Pham

    2012-06-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B), as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 3,307,500 5-minute thermocouple and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. There are no AGR-2 data for cycle 150A because the experiment was removed from the reactor. Of these data, 82.2% were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. There were 450,557 Failed temperature records due to thermocouple failures, and 138,528 Failed gas flow records due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred in the capsules after cycle 150A. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for the first three reactor cycles (cycles 149B, 150B, and 151B). This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The qualification status of these FPMS data has been set to In Process until receipt of QA-approved data generator reports. All of the above data have been processed and tested using a SAS®-based enterprise application software system, stored in a secure Structured Query Language database, and made available on the NDMAS Web portal (http://ndmas.inl.gov) for both internal and external VHTR project participants.

  7. The Experience of Mothers and Teachers of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children, and Their Management Practices for the Behaviors of the Child a Descriptive Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah

    2016-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…

  8. Molecular orientation of molybdate ions adsorbed on goethite nanoparticles revealed by polarized in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davantès, Athénaïs; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2016-11-01

    The speciation of species adsorbed on nanoparticles is a major concern for several fields, as environmental pollution and remediation, surface functionalization, or catalysis. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was amongst the rare methods able to give in situ information about the geometry of surface complexes on nanoparticles. A new possibility using this technique is illustrated here with the MoO42 -/goethite system. Using deuterated goethite to avoid spectral interferences, adsorption of molybdate ions on a spontaneous oriented film of nanoparticles has been followed using a polarized infrared beam. From the decomposition of spectra in the x, y and z directions, a monodentate surface complex on the {101} faces has been found as the most probable geometry. This result demonstrates that polarized ATR-IR allows to characterize in more details adsorption mode at the atomic scale, in comparison with usual ATR-IR spectroscopy.

  9. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  10. Diesel fuel processor for PEM fuel cells: Two possible alternatives (ATR versus SR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, A.; Specchia, S.; Antonini, M.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    There are large efforts in exploring the on-board reforming technologies, which would avoid the actual lack of hydrogen infrastructure and related safety issues. From this view point, the present work deals with the comparison between two different 10 kW e fuel processors (FP) systems for the production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas starting from diesel oil, based respectively on autothermal (ATR) and steam-reforming (SR) process and related CO clean-up technologies; the obtained hydrogen rich gas is fed to the PEMFC stack of an auxiliary power unit (APU). Based on a series of simulations with Matlab/Simulink, the two systems were compared in terms of FP and APU efficiency, hydrogen concentration fed to the FC, water balance and process scheme complexity. Notwithstanding a slightly higher process scheme complexity and a slightly more difficult water recovery, the FP based on the SR scheme, as compared to the ATR one, shows higher efficiency and larger hydrogen concentration for the stream fed to the PEMFC anode, which represent key issues for auxiliary power generation based on FCs as compared, e.g. to alternators.

  11. Characterization of Printing Inks Using DART-Q-TOF-MS and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Rhett; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose R

    2016-05-01

    The rise in improved and widely accessible printing technology has resulted in an interest to develop rapid and minimally destructive chemical analytical techniques that can characterize printing inks for forensic document analysis. Chemical characterization of printing inks allows for both discrimination of inks originating from different sources and the association of inks originating from the same source. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used in tandem to analyze four different classes of printing inks: inkjets, toners, offset, and intaglio. A total of 319 samples or ~ 80 samples from each class were analyzed directly on a paper substrate using the two methods. DART-MS was found to characterize the semi-volatile polymeric vehicle components, while ATR-FTIR provided chemical information associated with the bulk components of these inks. Complimentary data results in improved discrimination when both techniques are used in succession resulting in >96% discrimination for all toners, 95% for all inkjets, >92% for all offset, and >54% for all intaglio inks.

  12. Evanescent wave absorption measurements of corroded materials using ATR and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Juock; Hoke, Mike; Schwartz, Andy

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop an in-situ corrosion sensing capability. The technique will permit detection of corrosion on and within aircraft structures. This includes component junctions that are susceptible to corrosion but which are not accessible for visual inspection. The prototype experimental configuration we are developing includes long wave infrared transmitting optical fiber probes interfaced with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) interferometer for evanescent wave absorption spectroscopic measurements. The mature and fielded technique will allow periodic remote sensing for detection of corrosion and for general onboard aircraft structural health monitoring. An experimental setup using an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal integrated with an FTIR spectrometer has been assembled. Naturally occurring corrosion including Aluminum Hydroxide [Al(OH)3] is one of the main corrosion products of aluminum the principle structural metal of aircraft. Absorption spectra of our model corrosion product, pure Al(OH)3, have been collected with this ATR/FTIR experimental setup. The Al(OH)3spectra serve as reference spectral signatures. The spectra of corrosion samples from a simulated corrosion process have been collected and compared with the reference Al(OH)3 spectra. Also absorption spectra of naturally occurring corrosion collected from a fielded corroded aircraft part have been obtained and compared with the spectra from the simulated corrosion.

  13. Analytical performance evaluation of SAR ATR with inaccurate or estimated models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Michael D.

    2004-09-01

    Hypothesis testing algorithms for automatic target recognition (ATR) are often formulated in terms of some assumed distribution family. The parameter values corresponding to a particular target class together with the distribution family constitute a model for the target's signature. In practice such models exhibit inaccuracy because of incorrect assumptions about the distribution family and/or because of errors in the assumed parameter values, which are often determined experimentally. Model inaccuracy can have a significant impact on performance predictions for target recognition systems. Such inaccuracy often causes model-based predictions that ignore the difference between assumed and actual distributions to be overly optimistic. This paper reports on research to quantify the effect of inaccurate models on performance prediction and to estimate the effect using only trained parameters. We demonstrate that for large observation vectors the class-conditional probabilities of error can be expressed as a simple function of the difference between two relative entropies. These relative entropies quantify the discrepancies between the actual and assumed distributions and can be used to express the difference between actual and predicted error rates. Focusing on the problem of ATR from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, we present estimators of the probabilities of error in both ideal and plug-in tests expressed in terms of the trained model parameters. These estimators are defined in terms of unbiased estimates for the first two moments of the sample statistic. We present an analytical treatment of these results and include demonstrations from simulated radar data.

  14. Analytical characterization of polymers used in conservation and restoration by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chércoles Asensio, Ruth; San Andrés Moya, Margarita; de la Roja, José Manuel; Gómez, Marisa

    2009-12-01

    In the last few decades many new polymers have been synthesized that are now being used in cultural heritage conservation. The physical and chemical properties and the long-term behaviors of these new polymers are determined by the chemical composition of the starting materials used in their synthesis along with the nature of the substances added to facilitate their production. The practical applications of these polymers depend on their composition and form (foam, film, sheets, pressure-sensitive adhesives, heat-seal adhesives, etc.). Some materials are used in restoration works and others for the exhibition, storage and transport of works of art. In all cases, it is absolutely necessary to know their compositions. Furthermore, many different materials that are manufactured for other objectives are also used for conservation and restoration. The technical information about the materials provided by the manufacturer is usually incomplete, so it is necessary to analytically characterize such materials. FTIR spectrometry is widely used for polymer identification, and, more recently, ATR-FTIR has been shown to give excellent results. This paper reports the ATR-FTIR analysis of samples of polymeric materials used in the conservation of artworks. These samples were examined directly in the solid material without sample preparation.

  15. ATR-FTIR measurements of albumin and fibrinogen adsorption: Inert versus calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Boix, Marcel; Eslava, Salvador; Costa Machado, Gil; Gosselin, Emmanuel; Ni, Na; Saiz, Eduardo; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Arthritis, bone fracture, bone tumors and other musculoskeletal diseases affect millions of people across the world. Nowadays, inert and bioactive ceramics are used as bone substitutes or for bone regeneration. Their bioactivity is very much dictated by the way proteins adsorb on their surface. In this work, we compared the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on inert and calcium phosphates ceramics (CaPs) using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to follow in situ protein adsorption on these materials. To this effect, we developed a sol-gel technique to control the surface chemistry of an ATR-FTIR detector. Hydroxyapatite adsorbed more albumin and β-tricalcium phosphate adsorbed more fibrinogen. Biphasic calcium phosphate presented the lowest adsorption among CaP for both proteins, illustrating the effect of surface heterogeneities. Inert ceramics adsorbed a lower amount of both proteins compared with bioactive ceramics. A significant change was observed in the conformation of the adsorbed protein versus the surface chemistry. Hydroxyapatite produced a larger loss of α-helix structure on albumin and biphasic calcium phosphate reduced β-sheet percentage on fibrinogen. Inert ceramics produced large α-helix loss on albumin and presented weak interaction with fibrinogen. Zirconia did not adsorb albumin and titanium dioxide promoted huge denaturalization of fibrinogen.

  16. Centromeric DNA replication reconstitution reveals DNA loops and ATR checkpoint suppression.

    PubMed

    Aze, Antoine; Sannino, Vincenzo; Soffientini, Paolo; Bachi, Angela; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Half of the human genome is made up of repetitive DNA. However, mechanisms underlying replication of chromosome regions containing repetitive DNA are poorly understood. We reconstituted replication of defined human chromosome segments using bacterial artificial chromosomes in Xenopus laevis egg extract. Using this approach we characterized the chromatin assembly and replication dynamics of centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. Proteomic analysis of centromeric chromatin revealed replication-dependent enrichment of a network of DNA repair factors including the MSH2-6 complex, which was required for efficient centromeric DNA replication. However, contrary to expectations, the ATR-dependent checkpoint monitoring DNA replication fork arrest could not be activated on highly repetitive DNA due to the inability of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to accumulate on chromatin. Electron microscopy of centromeric DNA and supercoil mapping revealed the presence of topoisomerase I-dependent DNA loops embedded in a protein matrix enriched for SMC2-4 proteins. This arrangement suppressed ATR signalling by preventing RPA hyper-loading, facilitating replication of centromeric DNA. These findings have important implications for our understanding of repetitive DNA metabolism and centromere organization under normal and stressful conditions.

  17. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting

    2015-05-05

    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  18. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  19. In vivo interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrebova Eikje, Natalja

    2011-03-01

    Successful development of real-time non-invasive glucose monitoring would represent a major advancement not only in the treatment and management of patients with diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, but also for understanding in those biochemical, metabolic and (patho-)physiological processes of glucose at the molecular level in vivo. Here, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has been challenged not only for in vivo measurement of interstitial glucose levels, but also for their non-invasive molecular qualitative and quantitative comparative characterization in the skin tissue. The results, based on calculated mean values of determined 5 glucose-specific peaks in the glucose-related 1000-1160 cm-1 region, showed intra- and inter-subject differences in interstitial glucose activity levels with their changes at different times and doses of OGTT, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the introduction of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has opened up an access to the interstitial fluid space in the skin tissue for interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in vivo. Though interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring has different characteristics, it can be argued that accurate and precise measurements of interstitial glucose levels may be more important clinically.

  20. ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode for the study of verdigris and its secondary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, S.; Bonacini, I.; Sciutto, G.; Genty-Vincent, A.; Cotte, M.; Eveno, M.; Menu, M.; Mazzeo, R.

    2016-01-01

    To study degradation processes occurring on painting materials, the use of high-resolution micro-analytical techniques is highly requested since it provides a detailed identification and localisation of both the original and deteriorated ingredients. Among the various pigments recently studied, the characterisation of verdigris has received a major interest. This pigment has not a unique chemical formula, but its composition depends on the recipe employed for its manufacturing. Moreover, verdigris paints are not stable and are subject to a colour change from blue-green to green, which occurs in the first few months after the application. In this paper, we focused our attention on the use of ATR-FTIR mapping as a useful method to identify verdigris secondary products and pathways. Several mock-ups and real samples have been analysed, and the correlation among the detected compounds and their spatial location, obtained by the application of ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode, allowed formulating some hypotheses on the degradation pattern of verdigris, which may feed the discussion on the transformation and stability of this pigment. From an analytical point of view, we showed how FTIR mapping approaches may be extremely useful both for the identification of compounds in complex matrix in which single spectra may limit the exhaustive characterisations due to bands overlapping and for the study of degradation pathways by taking into consideration the relative distribution of degradation products.

  1. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-07-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan.

  2. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of regenerated bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Carolina; Kazarain, Sergei G.; Alves, Marco A. V.; Blay, Alberto; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2014-03-01

    The cutting of bone is routinely required in medical procedures, especially in dental applications. In such cases, bone regeneration and new bone quality can determine the success of the treatment. This study investigated the main spectral differences of undamaged and healed bone using the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique. Three rabbits were submitted to a surgical procedure; a small piece of bone (3x3 mm2) was removed from both sides of their jaws using a high speed drill. After 15 days, the rabbits were euthanized and the jaws were removed. A bone slice was cut from each side of the jaw containing regions of undamaged and newly formed bone, resulting in six samples which were polished for spectroscopic comparison. The samples were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy using a diamond ATR accessory. Spectral characteristics were compared and particular attention was paid to the proportion of phosphate to amide I bands and the width of the phosphate band. The results show that the ratio of phosphate to amide I is smaller in new bone tissue than in the undamaged bone, indicating a higher organic content in the newly formed bone. The analysis of the width of the phosphate band suggests a crystallinity difference between both tissues, since the width was higher in the new bone than in the natural bone. These results suggest that the differences observed in bone aging processes by FTIR spectroscopic can be applied to the study of healing processes.

  3. ATR signaling cooperates with ATM in the mechanism of low dose hypersensitivity induced by carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Yu, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Little work has been done on the mechanism of low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and later appeared radioresistance (termed induced radioresistance (IRR)) after irradiation with medium and high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. The aim of this study was to find out whether ATR pathway is involved in the mechanism of HRS induced by high LET radiation. GM0639 cells and two ATM deficient/mutant cells, AT5BIVA and AT2KY were irradiated by carbon ion beam. Thymidine block technique was developed to enrich the G2-phase population. Radiation induced early G2/M checkpoint was quantitatively assess with dual-parameter flow cytometry by detecting the cells positive for phospho-histone H3. The involvement of ATR pathway in HRS/IRR response was detected with pretreatment of specific inhibitors prior to carbon ion beam. The link between the early G2/M checkpoint and HRS/IRR under carbon ion beam was first confirmed in GM0639 cells, through the enrichment of cell population in G2-phase or with Aurora kinase inhibitor that attenuates the transition from G2 to M phase. Interestingly, the early G2/M arrest could still be observed in ATM deficient/mutant cells with an effect of ATR signaling, which was discovered to function in an LET-dependent manner, even as low as 0.2Gy for carbon ion radiation. The involvement of ATR pathway in heavy particles induced HRS/IRR was determined with the specific ATR inhibitor in GM0639 cells, which affected the HRS/IRR occurrence similarly as ATM inhibitor. These data demonstrate that ATR pathway may cooperate with ATM in the mechanism of low dose hypersensitivity induced by carbon ion beam.

  4. ATR inhibition induces synthetic lethality and overcomes chemoresistance in TP53- or ATM-defective chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Marwan; Davies, Nicholas; Agathanggelou, Angelo; Smith, Edward; Oldreive, Ceri; Petermann, Eva; Stewart, Grant; Brown, Jeff; Lau, Alan; Pratt, Guy; Parry, Helen; Taylor, Malcolm; Moss, Paul; Hillmen, Peter; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2016-02-04

    TP53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) defects are associated with genomic instability, clonal evolution, and chemoresistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Currently, therapies capable of providing durable remissions in relapsed/refractory TP53- or ATM-defective CLL are lacking. Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) mediates response to replication stress, the absence of which leads to collapse of stalled replication forks into chromatid fragments that require resolution through the ATM/p53 pathway. Here, using AZD6738, a novel ATR kinase inhibitor, we investigated ATR inhibition as a synthetically lethal strategy to target CLL cells with TP53 or ATM defects. Irrespective of TP53 or ATM status, induction of CLL cell proliferation upregulated ATR protein, which then became activated in response to replication stress. In TP53- or ATM-defective CLL cells, inhibition of ATR signaling by AZD6738 led to an accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, which was carried through into mitosis because of defective cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in cell death by mitotic catastrophe. Consequently, AZD6738 was selectively cytotoxic to both TP53- and ATM-defective CLL cell lines and primary cells. This was confirmed in vivo using primary xenograft models of TP53- or ATM-defective CLL, where treatment with AZD6738 resulted in decreased tumor load and reduction in the proportion of CLL cells with such defects. Moreover, AZD6738 sensitized TP53- or ATM-defective primary CLL cells to chemotherapy and ibrutinib. Our findings suggest that ATR is a promising therapeutic target for TP53- or ATM-defective CLL that warrants clinical investigation.

  5. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, Flavio Faglia, Ezio Losa, Sergio Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela Lanza, Gaetano Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-02-15

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  6. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment-modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  7. Small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with periodic initial conditions and analytical description of the Zabusky-Kruskal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guo; Biondini, Gino; Trillo, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We study the small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with periodic boundary conditions and we apply the results to the Zabusky-Kruskal experiment. In particular, we employ a WKB approximation for the solution of the scattering problem for the KdV equation [i.e., the time-independent Schrödinger equation] to obtain an asymptotic expression for the trace of the monodromy matrix and thereby of the spectrum of the problem. We then perform a detailed analysis of the structure of said spectrum (i.e., band widths, gap widths and relative band widths) as a function of the dispersion smallness parameter ɛ. We then formulate explicit approximations for the number of solitons and corresponding soliton amplitudes as a function of ɛ. Finally, by performing an appropriate rescaling, we compare our results to those in the famous Zabusky and Kruskal's paper, showing very good agreement with the numerical results.

  8. Assessment of XM-19 as a Substitute for AISI 348 in ATR Service

    SciTech Connect

    F. A. Garner; L. R. Greenwood; R. E. Mizia; C. R. Tyler

    2007-11-01

    It has been proposed that XM-19 alloy be considered as a possible replacement steel for AISI 348 in the construction of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) capsules. AISI 348 works well, but is currently very difficult to obtain commercially. The superior and desirable mechanical properties of XM-19 alloy have been proven in non-nuclear applications, but no data are available regarding its use in radiation environments. While most 300 series alloys will meet the conditions required in ATR , it cannot be confidently assumed that XM-19 can be substituted without prior qualification in a radiation test. Compared to AISI 348, XM-19 will have an enhanced tendency for phase instabilities due to its higher levels of Ni and, especially, Si. However, transmutation of important elemental components in the highly thermalized ATR spectrum may have a very pronounced effect on its performance during irradiation. Not only will strong transmutation of Mn to Fe reduce the ductility and strength advantages provided by the higher initial Mn content of XM-19, but the extensive loss of Mn will also release from solution much of the N upon which the higher strength of XM-19 depends. In addition, the combined influence of transmutation and Inverse Kirkendall processes may lead to gas-bubble-covered grain boundaries, producing a very fragile alloy after significant irradiation has accumulated. At present, there are no radiation data available to substantiate this possible scenario. An alternate proposal is therefore advanced. Since the response of AISI 348 and 347 to radiation are expected to be relatively indistinguishable, the AISI 347 might serve as an acceptable replacement. While AISI 348 is usually chosen for nuclear service in order to reduce the overall radioactivity arising from relatively small amounts of highly transmutable elements such as cobalt, these elements have very little effect on the radiation performance of the steel. In the proposed application, however, the activity

  9. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-15

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  10. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  11. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  12. [Description of assessment processes at the Medical School of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile: a ten year experience].

    PubMed

    Sánchez D, Ignacio; Riquelme P, Arnoldo; Moreno B, Rodrigo; Salas I, Sofía; Pertuzé R, Julio; García C, Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Globalization of health care seems to be irreversible and beyond cultural differences and local realities; consequently, medical education needs to have a common set of core principles or standards that may be applied worldwide. The aim of participating in assessment processes is to guarantee that medical education takes place in a sufficiently rich environment to promote extensive academic purposes. The Medical School of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) participated in three assessment processes that included three stages: internal assessment, external assessment, and accreditation judgment. Two of these assessments were voluntarily carried out following the standards set by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education-LCME, and they took place in 1997 and 2007. The other assessment was based on standards set by the Chilean accrediting organism, the National Committee for Undergraduate Program Accreditation (Comité Nacional de Acreditación de Pregrado-CNAP) and took place in the year 2001. In all three experiences, internal assessment was the most enriching stage, stimulating refections among students and teachers in order to recognize areas of strengths and weaknesses. External assessment processes, especially those based on international standards, are very important for the institutional and program development of Medical Schools. The PUC Medical School on its whole learnt how to carry out an assessment process and was able to improve several weaknesses without pressure, moving from quality assurance to quality enhancement. The present paper analyzes the major challenges involved in an external assessment process.

  13. Photoinduced Graft-Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on Polyethylene and Polypropylene Surfaces: Comparative Study Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, A. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Shkrabatovskaya, L. V.; Prikhodchenko, L. K.

    2014-11-01

    Photoinduced graft-polymerization of acrylic acid on the surface of polyethylene and polypropylene films containing a photoinitiator pre-adsorbed from a thin layer of non-de-aerated aqueous monomer solution was investigated. Data about the monomer conversion and grafting depth as functions of the UV irradiation time and polymer nature were obtained using IR-ATR spectroscopy.

  14. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  15. Stability of indomethacin with relevance to the release from amorphous solid dispersions studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-08-18

    This work presents the use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging to study the stability and dissolution behaviour of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). ASDs are employed to improve the bioavailability of drugs which are poorly soluble in aqueous solutions. Selecting the appropriate polymeric excipients for use in pharmaceutical tablets is crucial to control drug stability and subsequent release. In this study, indomethacin was used as a model poorly-aqueous soluble drug since the amorphous-form has improved dissolution properties over its crystalline forms. ASDs of indomethacin/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and indomethacin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in a 1:3 wt ratio were compared. Firstly, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed to monitor the stability of indomethacin in the ASDs over 96 h. While the indomethacin/HPMC ASD showed the ability to maintain the amorphous indomethacin form for longer periods of time, ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that indomethacin in the drug/PEG ASD crystallised to the stable γ-form, via the α-form. Secondly, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging was used to study the dissolution of ASD tablets in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.5). Crystallisation of amorphous indomethacin was characterised in the spectra collected during the dissolution of the indomethacin/PEG ASD which consequently hindered release into the surrounding solution. In contrast, release of amorphous indomethacin was more effective from HPMC.

  16. Bleomycin-induced over-replication involves sustained inhibition of mitotic entry through the ATM/ATR pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuji; Igarashi, Asae; Kikuchi, Ikue; Obata, Yuuki; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2009-09-10

    Polyploid cells result in aneuploidy through aberrant chromosome segregation, possibly leading to tumorigenesis. Although polyploid cells are induced through over-replication by a variety of agents, including DNA-damaging drugs, the mechanisms that induce polyploidy have been hitherto unknown. Here, we show that treatment with bleomycin, a glycopeptide anticancer drug, induces over-replication at low cytotoxic doses. During bleomycin-induced over-replication, mitotic entry is inhibited through tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK1 along the ATM/ATR pathway in the early phase of treatment. Bleomycin-induced over-replication is inhibited by the inhibitors of the ATM/ATR pathway through abrogation of bleomycin-induced G2 arrest, and the ATM/ATR inhibitors promote cell death instead of over-replication. Following the phosphorylation of CDK1, the level of cyclin B1 is decreased in the late phase of treatment. Time-lapse imaging of clone cells that express a live cell marker of endogenous cyclin B1 revealed that cyclin B1 is degraded in G2-arrested cells upon bleomycin treatment. Our findings lead to a model of how the ATM/ATR pathway acts as a molecular switch for regulating cell fates, flipping between cell death via progress into mitosis, and over-replication via sustained G2 arrest upon DNA damage, where cyclin B1 degradation is an important factor for inducing over-replication.

  17. Activation of ATR-Chk1 pathway facilitates EBV-mediated transformation of primary tonsillar B-cells

    PubMed Central

    Mordasini, Vanessa; Ueda, Seigo; Aslandogmus, Roberta; Berger, Christoph; Gysin, Claudine; Hühn, Daniela; Sartori, Alessandro A

    2017-01-01

    Primary infection of the immunocompromised host with the oncovirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that targets mainly B-cells is associated with an increased risk for EBV-associated tumors. The early events subsequent to primary infection with potential for B-cell transformation are poorly studied. Here, we modeled in vitro the primary infection by using B-cells isolated from tonsils, the portal of entry of EBV, since species specificity of EBV hampers modeling in experimental animals. Increasing evidence indicates that the host DNA damage response (DDR) can influence and be influenced by EBV infection. Thus, we inoculated tonsillar B-cells (TBCs) with EBV-B95.8 and investigated cell proliferation and the DDR during the first 96 hours thereafter. We identified for the first time that EBV infection of TBCs induces a period of hyperproliferation 48-96 hours post infection characterized by the activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-releated (ATR) and checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1). Whereas inhibition of Chk1 did not affect B-cell transformation, the specific inhibition of ATR robustly decreased the transformation efficiency of EBV. Our results suggest that activation of ATR is key for EBV-induced B-cell transformation. Thus, targeting the interaction between ATR/Chk1 and EBV could offer new options for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:28031537

  18. Mobility and surfactant migration in EA/MAA latex films; ATR FT-IR spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Thorstenson, T.A.; Tebelius, L.K.; Urban, M.W.

    1993-12-31

    Although numerous factors such as compatibility, mechanical deformation, and the nature of the substrate have been addressed with respect to surfactant migration and distribution within latex films, latex suspension stability and the effects of particle flocculation are also key issues. In this paper, surfactant behavior in an ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (EA/MAA/SDOSS) latex system is monitored as a function of stability of the liquid latex suspensions. Particle size data obtained using light scattering reveals an appreciable degree of flocculation over the period of study. It is found that flocculation is paralleled by a significantly increased degree of interfacial surfactant enrichment, a monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). It is concluded that the enhanced surfactant exudation observed for flocculated latexes is due to displacement of adsorbed surfactant during the course of flocculation.

  19. Characterization of poly(L-lactide/Propylene glycol) based polyurethane films using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manap, Siti Munirah; Ahmad, Azizan; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2016-11-01

    A polyurethane films consisting of PLLA, PPG and PLLA-PPG were prepared using solution casting method. Three types of polyurethane were prepared: PPLA:PMDI, PPG:PMDI and PLLA-PPG:PMDI in the presence of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) as the coupling agent and catalyst, Sn(Oct)2. The aim of this research was to improve the physicals properties of PLLA and PPG homopolymers through copolymerization between the two polymers. The homopolymers and polyurethane films were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical reaction between PLLA, PPG and PMDI before and after the reaction were confirmed by observing the shifting of wavenumber for the carbonyl and ether group. Other than that, the additional band for N-H after the reaction indicated that the reaction was successful.

  20. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa in levodopa-carbidopa tablets by ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Mobedi, Elaheh; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Mobedi, Hamid; Kargosha, Kazem

    2007-01-01

    A novel analytical procedure has been developed for quantitative determination of levodopa and carbidopa in aqueous binary solutions acidified by HCl and without any other sample pretreatment. The method is based partially on least squares treatment of data obtained by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry in 1211-1315 cm(-1) and 1488-1550 cm(-1) spectral regions. The simple, rapid, and accurate proposed method was applied to determine levodopa and carbidopa in Levodopa-C tablets. The statistical parameters, such as R2, RSD, SEE, SECV, LOD, and recovery were evaluated. Number of factors, scans, and resolution were optimized. In this method R2 and RSD for levodopa and carbidopa were (0.9965, 1.209) and (0.9537, 0.813), respectively.

  1. Reasoning support and uncertainty prediction in model-based vision SAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keydel, Eric R.; Williams, Wayne D.; Sieron, Russell; Rajlich, Vasik G.; Stanhope, Stephen A.

    1999-08-01

    The MSTAR automatic target recognition (ATR) system recognizes targets by matching features predicted from a CAD model against features extracted from the unknown signature. In addition to generating signature features with high fidelity, the online Predictor in the MSTAR system must provide information that assists in efficient search of the hypothesis space as well as accounting for uncertainties in the prediction process. In this paper, we describe two capabilities implemented in the MSTAR Predictor to support this process. The first exploits the inherent traceback between predicted features and the CAD model that is integral to the predictor to enable component-wise scoring of candidate hypotheses. The second is the generation of probability density functions that characterize the fluctuation of amplitudes in the predicted signatures. The general approach for both of these is described, and example results are presented.

  2. Probing proton dissociation in ionic polymers by means of in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grosmaire, Lidwine; Castagnoni, Samuel; Huguet, Patrice; Sistat, Philippe; Boucher, Mario; Bouchard, Patrick; Bébin, Philippe; Deabate, Stefano

    2008-03-21

    The hydration process of cationic membrane protogenic groups was investigated using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The aim of this study is to provide a relationship between the hydration degree of the membrane and the dissociation state of exchange sites inside the polymer material. IR spectra were recorded by means of an environmental device specifically manufactured to allow the control of water vapour pressure in equilibrium with the sample. The behaviour of Nafion 112 and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (S-PEEK), in both proton and sodium forms, was compared. IR data, analyzed and fitted in the 800-1850 cm(-1) spectral range, gave precise information on the assignment of sulfonic group vibrational modes. The results of this study improve the understanding of the transition phenomena between dissociated and undissociated states of the grafted sites in protonic conductors.

  3. FTIR-ATR evaluation of topical skin protectants useful for sulfur mustard and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braue, Ernest H., Jr.; Litchfield, Marty R.; Bangledorf, Catherine R.; Rieder, Robert G.

    1992-03-01

    The US Army has a need to develop topical protectants that can decrease the effects of cutaneous exposure to chemical warfare (CW) agents. Such materials would enhance a soldier's ability to carry out the mission in a chemically hostile environment, would lessen the burden on medical personnel, and may allow the casualties to return to duty in a shorter period of time than might otherwise be possible. In a preliminary report (E. H. Braue, Jr. and M. G. Pannella, Applied Spectrosc., 44, 1061 (1990)), we described a unique analytical method using FT-IR spectroscopy and the horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory for evaluating the effectiveness of topical skin protectants (TSPs) against penetration by chemical agents. We now describe the application of this method to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD).

  4. ATR and a Chk1-Aurora B pathway coordinate postmitotic genome surveillance with cytokinetic abscission

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Douglas R.; Ullman, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B regulates cytokinesis timing and plays a central role in the abscission checkpoint. Cellular events monitored by this checkpoint are beginning to be elucidated, yet signaling pathways upstream of Aurora B in this context remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a new connection between postmitotic genome surveillance and cytokinetic abscission. Underreplicated DNA lesions are known to be transmitted through mitosis and protected in newly formed nuclei by recruitment of 53BP1 and other proteins until repair takes place. We find that this genome surveillance initiates before completion of cytokinesis. Elevating replication stress increases this postmitotic process and delays cytokinetic abscission by keeping the abscission checkpoint active. We further find that ATR activity in midbody-stage cells links postmitotic genome surveillance to abscission timing and that Chk1 integrates this and other signals upstream of Aurora B to regulate when the final step in the physical separation of daughter cells occurs. PMID:25904336

  5. Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Pitcher, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a calibration for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR for analysis of H2O in hydrous glass. A Ge ATR accessory was used to measure evanescent wave absorption by H2O within hydrous rhyolite and other standards. Absorbance at 3450 cm−1 (representing total H2O or H2Ot) and 1630 cm−1 (molecular H2O or H2Om) showed high correlation with measured H2O in the glasses as determined by transmission FTIR spectroscopy and manometry. For rhyolite, wt%H2O=245(±9)×A3450-0.22(±0.03) and wt%H2Om=235(±11)×A1630-0.20(±0.03) where A3450 and A1630 represent the ATR absorption at the relevant infrared wavelengths. The calibration permits determination of volatiles in singly polished glass samples with spot size down to ~5 μm (for H2O-rich samples) and detection limits of ~0.1 wt% H2O. Basaltic, basaltic andesite and dacitic glasses of known H2O concentrations fall along a density-adjusted calibration, indicating that ATR is relatively insensitive to glass composition, at least for calc-alkaline glasses. The following equation allows quantification of H2O in silicate glasses that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite: wt%H2O=(ω×A3450/ρ)+b where ω = 550 ± 21, b = −0.19 ± 0.03, ρ = density, in g/cm3, and A3450 is the ATR absorbance at 3450 cm−1. The ATR micro-FTIR technique is less sensitive than transmission FTIR, but requires only a singly polished sample for quantitative results, thus minimizing time for sample preparation. Compared with specular reflectance, it is more sensitive and better suited for imaging of H2O variations in heterogeneous samples such as melt inclusions. One drawback is that the technique can damage fragile samples and we therefore recommend mounting of unknowns in epoxy prior to polishing. Our calibration should hold for any Ge ATR crystals with the same incident angle (31°). Use of a different crystal type or geometry would require measurement of several H2O-bearing standards to provide a crystal

  6. Implementing routine provider-initiated HIV testing in public health care facilities in Kenya: a qualitative descriptive study of nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Ndirangu, Eunice

    2011-10-01

    Routine "provider-initiated testing and counselling" (PITC) for HIV has been implemented amidst concern over how consent, confidentiality and counselling (the 3Cs) can be maintained in under-resourced health care settings. In Kenya, PITC has been rolled out since 2005, HIV prevalence is 7.1% and more than 86% of adults have not been tested. Kenyan nurses are the main cadre implementing PITC, but little is known about their experiences of incorporating HIV testing into everyday practice and the challenges faced in maintaining the 3Cs within their work environments. This study aimed to explore these issues and adopted a qualitative multi-method design using a convenience sampling approach. Two focus group discussions (total n=12) and 13 in-depth individual interviews were undertaken with nurses from 11 different public health care facilities in Nairobi and its surrounding areas (including in-patient and outpatient settings). Data were analysed thematically. Nurses identified a range of personal, client and health system challenges in the everyday application of PITC. These included (i) the contradictions of normalising a highly stigmatised disease and the difficulty in providing client-centred care within a routinised and target-oriented work culture; (ii) the challenge of dealing with ethically complex client situations in which the principles of the 3Cs could be difficult to uphold; and (iii) lack of time, resources, space and recognition within workplace environments (especially in-patient settings) that, likewise, led to problems with maintaining the 3Cs. In-patient nurses in particular identified problems associated with testing in a multi-disciplinary context, suggesting that other health professionals appeared to routinely flout the PITC guidelines. In conclusion, this study shows that the process of translating policy into practice is invariably complex and that more research is needed to explore PITC practices, particularly in in-patient settings. Nurses

  7. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara

    2016-12-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  8. Cutaneous approach towards clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Sota, Takayuki; Aizawa, Katsuo

    2007-07-01

    Attempts were made to non-invasively detect glucose-specific spectral signals in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In vivo spectra were collected from the inner wrists of healthy, prediabetes and diabetes subjects in the 750-4000 cm -1 region, with a closer assessment of the glucose-related region between 1000 and 1180 cm -1. Spectra in vivo showed glucose-specific peaks at 1030, 1080, 1118 and 1151 cm -1, as a variety of glucose solutions are found in vitro. Based on the differences of intensities at 1030 and 1118 cm -1 two spectral patterns were seen: I 1118 > I 1030 for a diabetes and I 1030> I 1118 for non-diabetes subjects. The peak at 1030 cm -1 was used to assess glucose concentrations in the skin due to its good correlation with glucose concentrations in vitro. Calculated mean values of the peak at 1030 cm -1 showed evidence of correlation with blood glucose levels when grouped as <= 140, 140-200 and >= 200 mg/dL, though there was no constant correlation between them when compared before/after OGTT or at the fasting/postprandial states. Absorbances at 1030 cm -1 were not only increased in a dose-dependent manner in a diabetes patient, but were also generally higher than in non-diabetes subjects at 30 min OGTT assessment. Also we could monitor absorbances at 1030 cm -1 and determine their changes in the skin tissue at different times of OGTT. We assume that our approach to in vivo measurement and monitoring of glucose concentrations at 1030 cm -1 may be one of the indicators to assess glucose activity level and its changes in the skin tissue, and has further implications in the study of clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in diabetes and non-diabetes subjects by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

  9. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues.

  10. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples.

  11. Rapid classification and quantification of cocaine in seized powders with ATR-FTIR and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Eliaerts, Joy; Dardenne, Pierre; Meert, Natalie; Van Durme, Filip; Samyn, Nele; Janssens, Koen; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-12-15

    Traditionally, fast screening for the presence of cocaine in unknown powders is performed by means of colour tests. The major drawbacks of these tests are subjective colour evaluation depending on the operator ('50 shades of blue') and a lack of selectivity. An alternative fast screening technique is Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry. This technique provides spectra that are difficult to interpret without specialized expertise and shows a lack of sensitivity for the detection of cocaine in mixtures. To overcome these limitations, a portable FTIR spectrometer using Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling was combined with a multivariate technique, called Support Vector Machines (SVM). Representative street drug powders (n = 482), seized during the period January 2013 to July 2015, and reference powders (n = 33) were used to build and validate a classification model (n = 515) and a quantification model (n = 378). Both models were compared with the conventional chromatographic techniques. The SVM classification model showed a high sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency (99%). The SVM quantification model determined cocaine content with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 6% calculated over a wide working range from 4 to 99 w%. In conclusion, the developed models resulted in a clear output (cocaine detected or cocaine not detected) and a reliable estimation of the cocaine content in a wide variety of mixtures. The ATR-FTIR technique combined with SVM is a straightforward, user-friendly, and fast approach for routine classification and quantification of cocaine in seized powders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes breast cancer cells to ATM-related kinase (ATR) inhibitor and cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    O'Flanagan, Ciara H.; O'shea, Sandra; Lyons, Amy; Fogarty, Fionola M.; McCabe, Nuala; Kennedy, Richard D.; O'Connor, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the IGF-1 signalling axis is clearly a roadblock in targeting this receptor in cancer therapy. Here, we sought to identify mediators of resistance, and potential co-targets for IGF-1R inhibition. By using an siRNA functional screen with the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BMS-754807 in MCF-7 cells we identified several genes encoding components of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways as mediators of resistance to IGF-1R kinase inhibition. These included ATM and Ataxia Telangiectasia and RAD3-related kinase (ATR). We also observed a clear induction of DDR in cells that were exposed to IGF-1R TKIs (BMS-754807 and OSI-906) as indicated by accumulation of γ-H2AX, and phosphorylated Chk1. Combination of the IGF-1R/IR TKIs with an ATR kinase inhibitor VE-821 resulted in additive to synergistic cytotoxicity compared to either drug alone. In MCF-7 cells with stably acquired resistance to the IGF-1R TKI (MCF-7-R), DNA damage was also observed, and again, dual inhibition of the ATR kinase and IGF-1R/IR kinase resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity. Interestingly, dual inhibition of ATR and IGF-1R was more effective in MCF-7-R cells than parental cells. IGF-1R TKIs also potentiated the effects of cisplatin in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Overall, our findings identify induction of DDR by IGF-1R kinase inhibition as a rationale for co-targeting the IGF-1R with ATR kinase inhibitors or cisplatin, particularly in cells with acquired resistance to TKIs. PMID:27472395

  13. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.

    2001-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole

  14. Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.

  15. Deposition from dopamine solutions at Ge substrates: an in situ ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Kessler, Bernd

    2011-10-18

    Deposition from dopamine (DA) solutions at germanium (Ge) model substrates was monitored under stationary conditions using surface sensitive in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectra of the interfacial organic layer formed upon contact of TRIS buffered aqueous DA solutions to a Ge internal reflection element (IRE) showed conveniently strong diagnostic IR absorption bands, which were increasing with deposition time up to at least 6 h. Comparison of IR spectra of unreacted pristine DA, surface reacted, and bulk reacted material confirmed chemical reactions of DA to a polymerizate according to the literature. The found IR bands could be assigned to aromatic as well as C-O single bond moieties. The kinetic courses of the diagnostic band integrals showed an initial increase and saturation of the deposition after around 300 min, which could be empirically represented by an exponential damping function revealing a rather small kinetic constant. Highest deposition levels were found at pH = 8.5 (TRIS buffer or NaOH) in contrast to pH = 6.2, where no deposition occurred. Minor deposition was found in the presence of salt or at ZnSe instead of Ge due to the absence of reactive hydroxyl groups. The concentration dependence of DA deposition showed an initial increase and a saturation beginning at around 0.4 mg/mL (0.0022 M), where around 50 nm thick films featuring granular surface morphologies are formed. The adsorbed species are suggested to be smaller bulk reacted DA polymerizate particles with reactive end groups. Rinsing the formed films by pure TRIS buffer resulted in a time dependent release of deposited organic material by ≈23%, which could be represented by an exponential decay function. A saturation of the release after around 100 min and a larger kinetic constant compared to deposition could be determined. The released material is suggested to be larger aggregated bulk reacted DA polymerizate particles

  16. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  17. Major Roles for Pyrimidine Dimers, Nucleotide Excision Repair, and ATR in the Alternative Splicing Response to UV Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel J; Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Dujardin, Gwendal; Bastianello, Giulia; Lavore, Stefania; Torres-Méndez, Antonio; Menck, Carlos F M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Irimia, Manuel; Foiani, Marco; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2017-03-21

    We have previously found that UV irradiation promotes RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) hyperphosphorylation and subsequent changes in alternative splicing (AS). We show now that UV-induced DNA damage is not only necessary but sufficient to trigger the AS response and that photolyase-mediated removal of the most abundant class of pyrimidine dimers (PDs) abrogates the global response to UV. We demonstrate that, in keratinocytes, RNAPII is the target, but not a sensor, of the signaling cascade initiated by PDs. The UV effect is enhanced by inhibition of gap-filling DNA synthesis, the last step in the nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER), and reduced by the absence of XPE, the main NER sensor of PDs. The mechanism involves activation of the protein kinase ATR that mediates the UV-induced RNAPII hyperphosphorylation. Our results define the sequence UV-PDs-NER-ATR-RNAPII-AS as a pathway linking DNA damage repair to the control of both RNAPII phosphorylation and AS regulation.

  18. Cocaine profiling: Implementation of a predictive model by ATR-FTIR coupled with chemometrics in forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, Stefano; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Apriceno, Azzurra; Risoluti, Roberta

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a strategy based on Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transformed and Attenuated Total Reflectance associated with chemometrics (ATR-FTIR) is proposed to identify the chemical "fingerprint" of cocaine samples. To this end, standard mixtures of cocaine and cuttings at differents ratio were investigated in order to develop a multivariate classification model to simultaneously predict the composition of the samples and to obtain a profile of adulteration of cocaine seizures. In addition, the application of a Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) calibration approaches were found to be a useful tool to predict the content of cocaine, caffeine, procaine, lidocaine and phenacetin in drug seizures. The achieved results on real confiscated samples, in cooperation with the Italian Scientific Investigation Department (Carabinieri-RIS) of Rome, allow to consider ATR-FTIR followed to chemometrics as a promising forensic tool in such situations involving profile comparisons and supporting forensic investigations.

  19. Determination of chemical changes in heat-treated wood using ATR-FTIR and FT Raman spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.

  20. Prediction of peroxide value in omega-3 rich microalgae oil by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Cebi, Nur; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Sagdic, Osman; Yuce, Hande; Yelboga, Emrah

    2017-06-15

    Our work explored, for the first time, monitoring peroxide value (PV) of omega-3 rich algae oil using ATR-FTIR spectroscopic technique. The PV of the developed method was compared by that obtained by standard method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In this study, peak area integration (PAI), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Principal Component Regression (PCR) were used as the calibration techniques. PV obtained by the AOAC method and by FTIR-ATR technique were well correlated considering the peak area related to trans double bonds and chemometrics techniques of PLSR and PCR. Calibration model was established using the band with a peak point at 966cm(-1) (990-940cm(-1)) related to CH out of plane deformation vibration of trans double bond. Algae oil oxidation could be successfully quantified using PAI, PLSR and PCR techniques. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed and significant discrimination was observed coherently with oxidation process.

  1. Determination of chemical changes in heat-treated wood using ATR-FTIR and FT Raman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet

    2017-01-15

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.

  2. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  3. A modified golden gate attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell for monitoring phase transitions in multicomponent fluids at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Novitskiy, Alexander A; Ke, Jie; Comak, Gurbuz; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2011-08-01

    A new continuous flow method using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy has been developed for monitoring phase transitions in multicomponent fluids at high pressures and temperatures. Our approach uses Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and a modified Golden Gate attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell and exploits the fact that the absorbance of a vapor is much lower than that of the corresponding liquid to monitor the phase transition between vapor and liquid. We demonstrate that this method can provide quantitative measurements on both the dew point and the bubble point. We have validated our approach using three single-component systems (EtOH, MeOH, and H(2)O) and a binary system of EtOH + H(2)O, monitoring phase transitions at temperature up to 300 °C and pressure up to 10 MPa.

  4. Historical perspective and modern applications of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Blum, Marc-Michael; John, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has a long history as an important spectroscopic method in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis. Instrumentation for infrared (IR) spectroscopy was revolutionized by the introduction of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. In addition, easier sampling combined with better sample-to-sample reproducibility and user-to-user spectral variation became available with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) probes and their application for in situ IR spectroscopy. These innovations allow many new applications in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis, such as the use of IR spectroscopy in Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), the quantitation of drugs in complex matrix formulations, the analysis of protein binding and function and in combination with IR microscopy to the emergence of IR imaging technologies. The use of ATR-FTIR instruments in forensics and first response to 'white powder' incidents is also discussed. A short overview is given in this perspective article with the aim to renew and intensify interest in IR spectroscopy.

  5. Influence of mineral characteristics on the retention of low molecular weight organic compounds: a batch sorption-desorption and ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Sabina; Singh, Balwant; Kookana, Rai S; Farrell, Mark; Sparks, Donald L; Johnston, Cliff T

    2014-10-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption-desorption behaviour of (14)C-labelled carboxylic acids (citric and oxalic) and amino acids (glutamic, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine) on pure minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite and goethite). The sorption experiments were complemented by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to gain possible mechanistic insight into the organic acids-mineral interactions. In terms of charge, the organic solutes ranged from strongly negative (i.e., citric) to positively charged solutes (i.e., lysine); similarly the mineral phases also ranged from positively to negatively charged surfaces. In general, sorption of anionic carboxylic and glutamic acids was higher compared to the other compounds (except lysine). Cationic lysine showed a stronger affinity to permanently charged phyllosilicates than Fe oxides. The sorption of alanine and phenylalanine was consistently low for all minerals, with relatively higher sorption and lower desorption of phenylalanine than alanine. Overall, the role of carboxylic functional groups for the sorption and retention of these carboxylic and amino acids on Fe oxides (and kaolinite) and of amino group on 2:1 phyllosilicates was noticeable. Mineral properties (surface chemistry, specific surface area), chemistry of the organic compounds (pKa value, functional groups) and the equilibrium pH of the system together controlled the differences in sorption-desorption patterns. The results of this study aid to understand the effects of mineralogical and chemical factors that affect naturally occurring low molecular weight organic compounds sorption under field conditions.

  6. RHINO forms a stoichiometric complex with the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and mediates ATR-Chk1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Kemp, Michael G; Capp, Christopher; Sancar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and replication stress and is composed of a number of core factors that are conserved throughout eukaryotic organisms. However, humans and other higher eukaryotic species possess additional factors that are implicated in the regulation of this signaling network but that have not been extensively studied. Here we show that RHINO (for Rad9, Rad1, Hus1 interacting nuclear orphan) forms complexes with both the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and TopBP1 in human cells even in the absence of treatments with DNA damaging agents via direct interactions with the Rad9 and Rad1 subunits of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and with the ATR kinase activator TopBP1. The interaction of RHINO with 9-1-1 was of sufficient affinity to allow for the purification of a stable heterotetrameric RHINO-Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex in vitro. In human cells, a portion of RHINO localizes to chromatin in the absence of DNA damage, and this association is enriched following UV irradiation. Furthermore, we find that the tethering of a Lac Repressor (LacR)-RHINO fusion protein to LacO repeats in chromatin of mammalian cells induces Chk1 phosphorylation in a Rad9- and Claspin-dependent manner. Lastly, the loss of RHINO partially abrogates ATR-Chk1 signaling following UV irradiation without impacting the interaction of the 9-1-1 clamp with TopBP1 or the loading of 9-1-1 onto chromatin. We conclude that RHINO is a bona fide regulator of ATR-Chk1 signaling in mammalian cells.

  7. Induction of ATM/ATR pathway combined with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells enhances cytotoxicity of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingwei; Das, Manjusri; Kanji, Suman; Aggarwal, Reeva; Joseph, Matthew; Ray, Alo; Shapiro, Charles L; Pompili, Vincent J; Das, Hiranmoy

    2014-07-01

    Many ovarian cancer cells express stress-related molecule MICA/B on their surface that is recognized by Vγ2Vδ2 T cells through their NKG2D receptor, which is transmitted to downstream stress-signaling pathway. However, it is yet to be established how Vγ2Vδ2 T cell-mediated recognition of MICA/B signal is transmitted to downstream stress-related molecules. Identifying targeted molecules would be critical to develop a better therapy for ovarian cancer cells. It is well established that ATM/ATR signal transduction pathways, which is modulated by DNA damage, replication stress, and oxidative stress play central role in stress signaling pathway regulating cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATM/ATR and its down stream molecules affect Vγ2Vδ2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Herein, we show that ATM/ATR pathway is modulated in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Furthermore, downregulation of ATM pathway resulted downregulation of MICA, and reduced Vγ2Vδ2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Alternately, stimulating ATM pathway enhanced expression of MICA, and sensitized ovarian cancer cells for cytotoxic lysis by Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. We further show that combining currently approved chemotherapeutic drugs, which induced ATM signal transduction, along with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells enhanced cytotoxicity of resistant ovarian cancer cells. These findings indicate that ATM/ATR pathway plays an important role in tumor recognition, and drugs promoting ATM signaling pathway might be considered as a combination therapy together with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for effectively treating resistant ovarian cancer cells.

  8. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic characterization of coexisting carbonate surface complexes on hematite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, J.R.; Kubicki, J.D.; Reitmeyer, R.; Davis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The speciation of carbonate adsorbed to hematite in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions has been studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were measured over a range of pH conditions, at 0.1 M NaCl and at low ionic strength, and in H2O and D2O solutions to permit a multispecies analysis of the data. Second-derivative analyses and fits to the spectra indicate the presence of two major and two minor surface-bound carbonate species. The two major complexes coexist at near-neutral pH and low ionic strength. One of these two complexes is relatively sensitive to ionic strength, being displaced at 0.1 M NaCl, whereas the other is not. Comparison of experimental to DFT/MO-calculated frequencies suggest these two major species to be (a) a monodentate binuclear inner-sphere carbonate surface complex, and (b) a fully or partially solvated carbonate (CO32-) species that is symmetry broken and appears to reside in the structured vicinal water layers at the hematite-water interface, retained by hydrogen bonding and/or other forces. Minor carbonate complexes include diffuse layer CO32- and an unidentified inner-sphere species. Both of the dominant species observed here are likely to be significant controls of the surface charge and sorptive properties of Fe-oxides. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    PubMed Central

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-01-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment. PMID:27000994

  10. [Effects of Different Pretreatment Methods on the Phenylketonuria Screening Model by FTIR/ATR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-wei; Wei, Wei-wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Cheng, Ya-ting; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-05-01

    To establish a phenylketonuria screening model by FTIR/ATR spectroscopy, and to compare the effects of different pretreatment methods, such as baseline correction, smoothing, derivation, Fourier deconvolution, on the model quality. A consensus partial least squares regression method (cPLS) was used to build the quantitative model of phenylalanine in dried blood spots. The effects of different pretreatment methods on the model performance were investigated, using the correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), mean relative error (MRE) and predictive accuracy (Acc). The nine-point smoothing coupled with the first differential was found to perform the best. Compared with the model by the original spectra, its r, RMSEP, MRE and Acc were improved from 0. 822 7, 115. 8, 0. 395 and 94. 6 to 0. 889 9, 102. 2, 0. 286 and 100, respectively. With the advantages of fast speed, easy process, no reagents consumption and environmental protection, the present method is expected to become a simple and green technology for rapidly screening the neonatal phenylketonuria in a large population.

  11. A further insight into the adsorption mechanism of protein on hydroxyapatite by FTIR-ATR spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongyu; Hu, Ren; Zhou, Jianzhang; Ye, Yiwen; Xu, Zhaoxi; Lin, Changjian

    2017-02-01

    The adsorption mechanism of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) for different time intervals has been studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-attenuated total internal reflectance (ATR) spectrometry in this paper. The difference spectra obtained in HA and BSA frequency regions demonstrate that the binding of Pdbnd O, from the phosphate (PO43 -) of HA, to the hydrogen of methyl (- CH3), methene (- CH2) and amideII (- CNH) in the protein appears to be much faster and stronger than that of the Psbnd O group. In addition, Ca2 + must serve as a key role in the interaction of BSA with HA. The binding of Ca2 + to the oxygen of the peptide bond seems to induce a significant reconformation of polypeptide backbones from β-pleated sheet to α-helix and β-turn of helical circles. This alteration seems to have been accompanied by much hydrogen of polypeptides driven to bind PO43 - and OH- of the HA actively and much -C = O and Hsbnd Nsbnd groups of the peptide bond freed from inter-chain hydrogen bonding to react on Ca2 + and combine strongly with the HA surface. This might be well expected to promote the HA biomineralization.

  12. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms.

  13. Distinct β-sheet structure in protein aggregates determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shivu, Bhavana; Seshadri, Sangita; Li, Jie; Oberg, Keith A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Fink, Anthony L

    2013-08-06

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to study the conformation of aggregated proteins in vivo and in vitro. Several different protein aggregates, including amyloid fibrils from several peptides and polypeptides, inclusion bodies, folding aggregates, soluble oligomers, and protein extracts from stressed cells, were examined in this study. All protein aggregates demonstrate a characteristic new β structure with lower-frequency band positions. All protein aggregates acquire this new β band following the aggregation process involving intermolecular interactions. The β sheets in some proteins arise from regions of the polypeptide that are helical or non β in the native conformation. For a given protein, all types of the aggregates (e.g., inclusion bodies, folding aggregates, and thermal aggregates) showed similar spectra, indicating that they arose from a common partially folded species. All of the aggregates have some nativelike secondary structure and nonperiodic structure as well as the specific new β structure. The new β could be most likely attributed to stronger hydrogen bonds in the intermolecular β-sheet structure present in the protein aggregates.

  14. The Fanconi anemia protein FANCM is controlled by FANCD2 and the ATR/ATM pathways.

    PubMed

    Sobeck, Alexandra; Stone, Stacie; Landais, Igor; de Graaf, Bendert; Hoatlin, Maureen E

    2009-09-18

    Genomic stability requires a functional Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway composed of an upstream "core complex" (FA proteins A/B/C/E/F/G/L/M) that mediates monoubiquitination of the downstream targets FANCD2 and FANCI. Unique among FA core complex members, FANCM has processing activities toward replication-associated DNA structures, suggesting a vital role for FANCM during replication. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we analyzed the functions of FANCM in replication and the DNA damage response. xFANCM binds chromatin in a replication-dependent manner and is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage structures. Chromatin binding and DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of xFANCM are mediated in part by the downstream FA pathway protein FANCD2. Moreover, phosphorylation and chromatin recruitment of FANCM is regulated by two mayor players in the DNA damage response: the cell cycle checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM. Our results indicate that functions of FANCM are controlled by FA- and non-FA pathways in the DNA damage response.

  15. ATR-mediated phosphorylation of FANCI regulates dormant origin firing in response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Jones, Mathew J K; Yin, Yandong; Crist, Sarah B; Colnaghi, Luca; Sims, Robert J; Rothenberg, Eli; Jallepalli, Prasad V; Huang, Tony T

    2015-04-16

    Excess dormant origins bound by the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase complex play a critical role in preventing replication stress, chromosome instability, and tumorigenesis. In response to DNA damage, replicating cells must coordinate DNA repair and dormant origin firing to ensure complete and timely replication of the genome; how cells regulate this process remains elusive. Herein, we identify a member of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, FANCI, as a key effector of dormant origin firing in response to replication stress. Cells lacking FANCI have reduced number of origins, increased inter-origin distances, and slowed proliferation rates. Intriguingly, ATR-mediated FANCI phosphorylation inhibits dormant origin firing while promoting replication fork restart/DNA repair. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show that FANCI co-localizes with MCM-bound chromatin in response to replication stress. These data reveal a unique role for FANCI as a modulator of dormant origin firing and link timely genome replication to DNA repair.

  16. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  17. Adsorption of Enrofloxacin on montmorillonite: two-dimensional correlation ATR/FTIR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Jing, Chuanyong

    2013-01-15

    Adsorption of Enrofloxacin (ENR) on minerals dominates the fate and transport of ENR in the environment. In this study, the sorption process of ENR on montmorillonite and the impact of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on ENR-montmorillonite interactions were investigated using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-COS). Negative peaks were observed in the 3400-2900 cm(-1) region due to the loss of hydrated protons at montmorillonite surfaces. The primary characteristic peaks of adsorbed ENR molecules were resolved in the 1800-1100 cm(-1) range. The results of 2D-COS suggested the sorption process was initiated by the interaction of hydrated protons on montmorillonite surfaces with diverse moieties of ENR molecules depending on pH. The sorption mechanism of ENR was mainly cation exchange at acidic condition, charge neutralization at neutral condition, and proton transfer at alkaline condition. DOM could interact with piperazinyl amine groups of dissolved ENR, which changed the interaction sequence of ENR molecule with montmorillonite surfaces. Electrostatic interaction was the predominant driving force for the interaction between DOM and dissolved ENR. H-donor-acceptor interaction and π-π interaction may also be responsible to this interaction. Insights gained from this study improve our understandings on sorption mechanism of ENR and similar ionic organic pollutants in soil systems.

  18. ATR-SEIRAs characterization of surface redox processes in G. sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Busalmen, Juan Pablo; Esteve-Nuñez, Abraham; Berná, Antonio; Feliu, Juan Miguel

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the occurrence of at least two different redox pairs on the cell surface of the electrogenic bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens adsorbed on gold that are expressed in response to the polarization potential. As previously reported on graphite (Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (2008) 2445) a typical low potential redox pair is found centered at around -0.06 V when cells are polarized for a few hours at 0.2 V, while a new pair centered at around 0.38 V is expressed upon polarization at 0.6 V. Reversible changes in the IR band pattern of whole cells where obtained by Attenuated Total Reflection-Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS) upon potential cycling around both redox pairs. Changes clearly resemble the electrochemical turnover of oxidized/reduced states in c-type cytochromes, thus evidencing the nature of the involved molecules. The expression of external cytochromes in response to the potential of the electron acceptor suggests the existence of alternative pathways of electron transport with different energy yield, though it remains to be demonstrated.

  19. Dissolution of tablet-in-tablet formulations studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-03-12

    This work uses ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to study the dissolution of delayed release and pH resistant compressed coating pharmaceutical tablets. Tablets with an inner core and outer shell were constructed using a custom designed compaction cell. The core of the delayed release tablets consisted of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and caffeine. The shell consisted of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose. The core of the pH resistant formulations was an ibuprofen and PEG melt and the shell was constructed from HPMC and a basic buffer. UV/vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the lag-time of drug release and visible optical video imaging was used as a complementary imaging technique with a larger field of view. Two delayed release mechanisms were established. For tablets with soluble shell sections, lag-time was dependent upon rapid shell dissolution. For tablets with less soluble shells, the lag-time was controlled by the rate of dissolution medium ingress through the shell and the subsequent expansion of the wet HPMC core. The pH resistant formulations prevented crystallization of the ibuprofen in the core during dissolution despite an acidic dissolution medium. FTIR imaging produced important information about the physical and chemical processes occurring at the interface between tablet sections during dissolution.

  20. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  1. Rapid approach to analyze biochemical variation in rat organs by ATR FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-24

    ATR FTIR spectra were collected from rat tissue homogenates (myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney) to analyze their biochemical content. Based on the second derivative of an average spectral profile it was possible to assign bands e.g. to triglycerides and cholesterol esters, proteins, phosphate macromolecules (DNA, RNA, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins) and others (glycogen, lactate). Peaks in the region of 1600-1700 cm(-1) related to amide I mode revealed the secondary structure of proteins. The collected spectra do not characterize morphological structure of the investigated tissues but show their different composition. The comparison of spectral information gathered from FTIR spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from FTIR imaging of the tissue sections implicates that the presented here approach can be successfully employed in the investigations of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, it can be used in the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies to correlate the overall biochemical status of the tissue with the pathological changes it has undergone.

  2. FTIR-ATR analysis of brewed coffee: effect of roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald J; Benck, Robert; Dell, Stacy; Merle, Scott; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqueline

    2003-05-21

    FTIR-ATR was used to study the effect of roasting conditions on the flavor of brewed coffee using Guatemala Antigua coffee beans. The 1800-1680 cm(-1) carbonyl region for vinyl esters/lactones, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and acids was found to provide a flavor-print of the brewed coffee. A study of light, medium, and dark roasts indicated that when the rate of heating to the onset of the first and second cracks was kept constant, the types of carbonyl compounds formed were similar, varying only in their concentration. This difference in concentration is apparently due to the additional heating of the coffee bean beyond the second crack. When the heating rate to the onset of the first and second crack was varied, both the types and concentration of the carbonyl compounds formed during roasting were affected. Thus, heating rates of green coffee beans to the onset of the first and second cracks are important determinants of the basic taste and aroma of brewed coffee.

  3. Clutter performance and confuser rejection on infrared data using distortion-invariant filters for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Rohit; Casasent, David

    2008-04-01

    We consider automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared (IR) imagery using the minimum noise and correlation energy (MINACE) distortion-invariant filter (DIF). As in our prior work (SPIE 6566-03), we consider classification of true-class CAD targets and rejection of real clutter and unseen confuser CAD objects with range and full 360° aspect view variations. In this work, we address rejection of new UCIR bush clutter data. We also present performance scores for several different training and test cases with attention to filter capacity, i.e., the number of training images that can be included in one filter before performance on the test set deteriorates appreciably. We find that range rather than aspect view distortions seem to affect filter capacity more. Initial target contrast ratio tests are also presented. To more properly address clutter, in all tests we now form the magnitude of the output correlation plane before analysis. We also address when and why linear versus circular correlations are best. We also address DIF filter-synthesis and fast implementation for wide area "search" test regions. This introduces new issues concerning the region over which correlation plane energy is minimized in filter synthesis and the size of the FFT to use in tests. A key issue is that both training and tests should use the same procedures. This is vital for training and test metrics to be comparable. We distinguish between whether linear or circular correlation plane energy is minimized.

  4. Hierarchical searching in model-based LADAR ATR using statistical separability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

    2006-05-01

    In this work we investigate simultaneous object identification improvement and efficient library search for model-based object recognition applications. We develop an algorithm to provide efficient, prioritized, hierarchical searching of the object model database. A common approach to model-based object recognition chooses the object label corresponding to the best match score. However, due to corrupting effects the best match score does not always correspond to the correct object model. To address this problem, we propose a search strategy which exploits information contained in a number of representative elements of the library to drill down to a small class with high probability of containing the object. We first optimally partition the library into a hierarchic taxonomy of disjoint classes. A small number of representative elements are used to characterize each object model class. At each hierarchy level, the observed object is matched against the representative elements of each class to generate score sets. A hypothesis testing problem, using a distribution-free statistical test, is defined on the score sets and used to choose the appropriate class for a prioritized search. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of the computational cost savings, and provide a formula measuring the computational advantage of the proposed approach. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles used in 3-D LADAR ATR. We present numerical results showing effects on classification performance of significance level and representative element number in the score set hypothesis testing problem.

  5. Radiosensitization by the ATR Inhibitor AZD6738 through Generation of Acentric Micronuclei

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Magnus T.; Barker, Holly E.; Pedersen, Malin; Hafsi, Hind; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Newbold, Kate L.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    AZD6738 is an orally active ATR inhibitor (ATRi) currently in phase I clinical trials. We found in vitro growth inhibitory activity of this ATRi in a panel of human cancer cell lines. We demonstrated radiosensitization by AZD6738 to single radiation fractions in multiple cancer cell lines independent of both p53 and BRCA2 status by the clonogenic assay. Radiosensitization by AZD6738 to clinically relevant doses of fractionated radiation was demonstrated in vitro using a 3D tumor spheroid model and, in vivo, AZD6738 radiosensitized by abrogating the radiation-induced G2 cell-cycle checkpoint and inhibiting homologous recombination. Mitosis with damaged DNA resulted in mitotic catastrophe as measured by micronucleus formation by live-cell fluorescent-ubiquitination cell-cycle imaging of cell-cycle progression and nuclear morphology. Induction of micronuclei was significantly more prominent for AZD6738 compared with inhibition of the downstream kinase CHK1 alone at isoeffective doses. Micronuclei were characterized as acentric chromosomal fragments, which displayed characteristics of increased DNA damage and cell-cycle dyssynchrony when compared with the primary nucleus. PMID:28062704

  6. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a fucntion of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket champer pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  7. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a function of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket chamber pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  8. Investigating the Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil Paint using ATR-IR and AFM-IR.

    PubMed

    Morsch, Suzanne; van Driel, Birgit A; van den Berg, Klaas Jan; Dik, Joris

    2017-03-22

    As linseed oil has a longstanding and continuing history of use as a binder in artistic paints, developing an understanding of its degradation mechanism is critical to conservation efforts. At present, little can be done to detect the early stages of oil paint deterioration due to the complex chemical composition of degrading paints. In this work, we use advanced infrared analysis techniques to investigate the UV-induced deterioration of model linseed oil paints in detail. Subdiffraction limit infrared analysis (AFM-IR) is applied to identify and map accelerated degradation in the presence of two different grades of titanium white pigment particles (rutile or anatase TiO2). Differentiation between the degradation of these two formulations demonstrates the sensitivity of this approach. The identification of characteristic peaks and transient species residing at the paint surface allows infrared absorbance peaks related to degradation deeper in the film to be extricated from conventional ATR-FTIR spectra, potentially opening up a new approach to degradation monitoring.

  9. Rapid approach to analyze biochemical variation in rat organs by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewska, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    ATR FTIR spectra were collected from rat tissue homogenates (myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney) to analyze their biochemical content. Based on the second derivative of an average spectral profile it was possible to assign bands e.g. to triglycerides and cholesterol esters, proteins, phosphate macromolecules (DNA, RNA, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins) and others (glycogen, lactate). Peaks in the region of 1600-1700 cm-1 related to amide I mode revealed the secondary structure of proteins. The collected spectra do not characterize morphological structure of the investigated tissues but show their different composition. The comparison of spectral information gathered from FTIR spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from FTIR imaging of the tissue sections implicates that the presented here approach can be successfully employed in the investigations of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, it can be used in the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies to correlate the overall biochemical status of the tissue with the pathological changes it has undergone.

  10. Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR): A Quantitative Approach for Kidney Stone Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Haas, Jennifer A.; Schmidt, Katherine A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of kidney stone disease is significant worldwide, yet methods for quantifying stone components remain limited. A new approach requiring minimal sample preparation for the quantitative analysis of kidney stone components has been investigated utilizing attenuated total internal reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and hydroxylapatite (HAP), two of the most common constituents of urinary stones, were used for quantitative analysis. Calibration curves were constructed using integrated band intensities of four infrared absorptions versus concentration (weight %). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves range from 0.997 to 0.93. The limits of detection range from 0.07 ± 0.02% COM/HAP where COM is the analyte and HAP the matrix to 0.26 ± 0.07% HAP/COM where HAP is the analyte and COM the matrix. This study shows that linear calibration curves can be generated for the quantitative analysis of stone mixtures provided the system is well understood especially with respect to particle size. PMID:19589213

  11. Solid acid-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis monitored by in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zakzeski, Joseph; Grisel, Ruud J H; Smit, Arjan T; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2012-02-13

    The solid acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was studied under elevated temperatures and autogenous pressures using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy. Standards of cellulose and pure reaction products, which include glucose, fructose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA), formic acid, and other compounds, were measured in water under ambient and elevated temperatures. A combination of spectroscopic and HPLC analysis revealed that the cellulose hydrolysis proceeds first through the disruption of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose to form smaller cellulose molecules, which are readily observed by their distinctive C-O vibrational stretches. The continued disruption of the linkages in these oligomers eventually results in the formation and accumulation of monomeric glucose. The solid-acid catalyst accelerated the isomerization of glucose to fructose, which then rapidly reacted under hydrothermal conditions to form degradation products, which included HMF, LA, formic acid, and acetic acid. The formation of these species could be suppressed by decreasing the residence time of glucose in the reactor, reaction temperature, and contact with the metal reactor. The hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose proceeded faster and under milder conditions than microcrystalline cellulose, which resulted in increased glucose yield and selectivity.

  12. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    PubMed

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-03-22

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  13. In situ ATR-FTIR study of the early stages of fly ash geopolymer gel formation.

    PubMed

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-08-14

    The kinetics of geopolymer formation are monitored using a novel in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique. Reaction rates are determined from the intensity variation of the bands related to the geopolymer gel network and the unreacted fly ash particles. Comparison with deuterated geopolymer samples provides critical information regarding peak assignments. An initial induction (lag) period is observed to occur for hydroxide-activated geopolymers, followed by gel evolution according to an approximately linear reaction profile. The length of the lag period is reduced by increasing the concentration of NaOH. An increase in the rate of network formation also occurs with increasing NaOH concentration up to a maximum point, beyond which an increased NaOH concentration leads to a reduced rate of network formation. This trend is attributed to the competing effects of increased alkalinity and stronger ion pairing with an increase in NaOH concentration. In situ analysis also shows that the rate of fly ash dissolution is similar for all moderate- to high-alkali geopolymer slurries, which is attributed to the very highly water-deficient nature of these systems and is contrary to predictions from classical glass dissolution chemistry. This provides for the first time detailed kinetic information describing fly ash geopolymer formation kinetics.

  14. Evaluation of Erosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, Jeffrey O.; Glazoff, Michael V.; Eiden, Thomas J.; Rezvoi, Aleksey V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, when the fuel elements were removed from the core and inspected, several thousand flow-assisted erosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observed on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are aluminum “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order to understand these erosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed scalloping

  15. Targeting the kinase activities of ATR and ATM exhibits therapeutic potential in a mouse model of MLL-rearranged AML

    PubMed Central

    Lafarga, Vanesa; Anton, Marta Elena; Tubbs, Anthony; Chen, Hua Tang; Ergan, Aysegul; Anderson, Rhonda; Bhandoola, Avinash; Pike, Kurt G.; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Wang, Xi; Pierce, Andrew J.; Hubbard, Chad; Armstrong, Scott A.; Nussenzweig, André; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Among the various subtypes of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), those with chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL oncogene (AML-MLL) have a poor prognosis. AML-MLL tumor cells are resistant to current genotoxic therapies due to an attenuated response by p53, which induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In addition to chemicals that damage DNA, efforts have focused on targeting DNA repair enzymes as a general chemotherapeutic approach to cancer treatment. Here, we found that inhibition of the kinase ATR, which is the primary sensor of DNA replication stress, induced chromosomal breakage and death of mouse AMLMLL cells (with an MLL-ENL fusion and a constitutively active N-RAS) independently of p53. Moreover, ATR inhibition as a single agent exhibited antitumoral activity, both reducing tumor burden after establishment and preventing tumors from growing, in an immunocompetent allograft mouse model of AMLMLL and in xenografts of a human AML-MLL cell line. We also found that inhibition of ATM, a kinase that senses DNA double-strand breaks, also promoted the survival of the AMLMLL mice. Collectively, these data indicated that ATR and ATM inhibition represent potential alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AML, especially MLL-driven leukemias. PMID:27625305

  16. Targeting the kinase activities of ATR and ATM exhibits antitumoral activity in mouse models of MLL-rearranged AML.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Day, Amanda; Murga, Matilde; Lafarga, Vanesa; Anton, Marta Elena; Tubbs, Anthony; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ergan, Aysegul; Anderson, Rhonda; Bhandoola, Avinash; Pike, Kurt G; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Wang, Xi; Pierce, Andrew J; Hubbard, Chad; Armstrong, Scott A; Nussenzweig, André; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-09-13

    Among the various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), those with chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL oncogene (AML-MLL) have a poor prognosis. AML-MLL tumor cells are resistant to current genotoxic therapies because of an attenuated response by p53, a protein that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In addition to chemicals that damage DNA, efforts have focused on targeting DNA repair enzymes as a general chemotherapeutic approach to cancer treatment. Here, we found that inhibition of the kinase ATR, which is the primary sensor of DNA replication stress, induced chromosomal breakage and death of mouse AML(MLL) cells (with an MLL-ENL fusion and a constitutively active N-RAS independently of p53. Moreover, ATR inhibition as a single agent exhibited antitumoral activity, both reducing tumor burden after establishment and preventing tumors from growing, in an immunocompetent allograft mouse model of AML(MLL) and in xenografts of a human AML-MLL cell line. We also found that inhibition of ATM, a kinase that senses DNA double-strand breaks, also promoted the survival of the AML(MLL) mice. Collectively, these data indicated that ATR or ATM inhibition represent potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AML, especially MLL-driven leukemias.

  17. Common cancer-associated imbalances in the DNA damage response confer sensitivity to single agent ATR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Fiona K.; Patterson, Miranda J.; Elstob, Claire J.; Fordham, Sarah; Herriott, Ashleigh; Wade, Mark A.; McCormick, Aiste; Edmondson, Richard; May, Felicity E.B.; Allan, James M.; Pollard, John R.; Curtin, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    ATRis an attractive target in cancer therapy because it signals replication stress and DNA lesions for repair and to S/G2 checkpoints. Cancer-specific defects in the DNA damage response (DDR) may render cancer cells vulnerable to ATR inhibition alone. We determined the cytotoxicity of the ATR inhibitor VE-821 in isogenically matched cells with DDR imbalance. Cell cycle arrest, DNA damage accumulation and repair were determined following VE-821 exposure. Defectsin homologous recombination repair (HRR: ATM, BRCA2 and XRCC3) and baseexcision repair (BER: XRCC1) conferred sensitivity to VE-821. Surprisingly, the loss of different components of the trimeric non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein DNA-PK had opposing effects. Loss of the DNA-binding component, Ku80, caused hypersensitivity to VE-821, but loss of its partner catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, did not. Unexpectedly, VE-821 was particularly cytotoxic to human and hamster cells expressing high levels of DNA-PKcs. High DNA-PKcs was associated with replicative stress and activation of the DDR. VE-821 suppressed HRR, determined by RAD51 focus formation, to a greater extent in cells with high DNA-PKcs. Defects in HRR and BER and high DNA-PKcs expression, that are common in cancer, confer sensitivity to ATR inhibitor monotherapy and may be developed as predictive biomarkers for personalised medicine. PMID:26486089

  18. Tel2 structure and function in the Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Hiroyuki; Xie, Yihu; de Lange, Titia; Pavletich, Nikola P.

    2010-09-20

    We reported previously that the stability of all mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) depends on their interaction with Tel2, the ortholog of yeast Tel2 and Caenorhabditis elegans Clk-2. Here we provide evidence that Tel2 acts with Hsp90 in the maturation of PIKK complexes. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the abundance of Tel2 is low compared with the PIKKs, and Tel2 preferentially bound newly synthesized ATM, ATR, mTOR, and DNA-PKcs. Tel2 complexes contained, in addition to Tti1-Tti2, the Hsp90 chaperone, and inhibition of Hsp90 interfered with the interaction of Tel2 with the PIKKs. Analysis of in vivo labeled nascent protein complexes showed that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble into two separate {alpha}-solenoids. Through mutagenesis, we identify a surface patch of conserved residues involved in binding to the Tti1-Tti2 complex in vitro. In vivo, mutation of this conserved patch affects cell growth, levels of PIKKs, and ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling, highlighting the importance of Tti1-Tti2 binding to the function of Tel2. Taken together, our data suggest that the Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 complex is a PIKK-specific cochaperone for Hsp90.

  19. Atrésie intestinale iléale: diagnostic anténatale et prise en charge

    PubMed Central

    Dhibou, Hanane; Bassir, Ahlam; Sami, Nadia; Boukhanni, Lahcen; Fakhir, Bouchra; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2016-01-01

    L’atrésie iléale est une malformation congénitale rare, elle constitue une faible part avec une incidence de 1 pour 5000 cas. Elle peut être suspectée et diagnostiqué échographiquement à la fin du deuxième et troisième trimestre. La concertation obstétrico-chirurgicale constitue ici la clé du succès. Eliminer une maladie générale à mauvais pronostic, lutter contre la prématurité et confier l’enfant immédiatement au chirurgien sont les objectifs principaux à réaliser. L'intervention chirurgicale va préciser le type de l'atrésie, son siège, son caractère unique ou multiple et sa longueur dont l’acte chirurgical dépend de l’étiologie. Il nous a paru intéressant de vous documenter un cas clinique d’atrésie iléale de diagnostic anténatal. PMID:27800095

  20. Structural transformation of synthetic hydroxyapatite under simulated in vivo conditions studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Borkowski, Leszek; Ginalska, Grazyna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2017-01-15

    Hydroxyapatite and carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite are widely used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Both apatite materials were embedded into recently developed ceramic/polymer composites, subjected to Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for 30days and characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to assess their behaviour and structures. The specific aim was to detect the transition phases between both types of hydroxyapatite during the test and to analyze the surface modification caused by SBF. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging was successfully applied to characterise changes in the hydroxyapatite lattice due to the elastic properties of the scaffolds. It was observed that SBF treatment caused a replacement of phosphates in the lattice of non-substituted hydroxyapatite by carbonate ions. A detailed study excluded the formation of pure A type carbonate apatite. In turn, CO3(2-) content in synthetic carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite decreased. The usefulness of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging studies in the evaluation of elastic and porous β-glucan hydroxyapatite composites has been demonstrated.

  1. Improving precursor adsorption characteristics in ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with a ZrO2 nanoparticle coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeseo; Mun, Jihun; Shin, Jae-Soo; Kim, Jongho; Park, Hee Jung; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles were applied to a crystal surface to increase its precursor adsorption efficiency in an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. Nanoparticles with varying dispersion stabilities were employed and the resulting precursor adsorption characteristics were assessed. The size of the nanoparticles was <100 nm (TEM). In order to vary the dispersion stability, ZrO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in aqueous solutions of different pH. The ZrO2 dispersion solutions were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while particle distribution measurements were analyzed using electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. ZrO2 nanoparticles dispersed in solutions of pH 3 and 11 exhibited the most stable zeta potentials (≥+30 or ≤-30 mV); these observations were confirmed by SEM analysis and particle distribution measurements. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as a precursor for ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Consequently, when ZrO2 nanoparticle solutions with the best dispersion stabilities (pH 3 and 11) were applied to the adsorption crystal surface, the measurement efficiency of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy improved by ˜200 and 300%, respectively.

  2. Structural transformation of synthetic hydroxyapatite under simulated in vivo conditions studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Borkowski, Leszek; Ginalska, Grazyna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite and carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite are widely used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Both apatite materials were embedded into recently developed ceramic/polymer composites, subjected to Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for 30 days and characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to assess their behaviour and structures. The specific aim was to detect the transition phases between both types of hydroxyapatite during the test and to analyze the surface modification caused by SBF. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging was successfully applied to characterise changes in the hydroxyapatite lattice due to the elastic properties of the scaffolds. It was observed that SBF treatment caused a replacement of phosphates in the lattice of non-substituted hydroxyapatite by carbonate ions. A detailed study excluded the formation of pure A type carbonate apatite. In turn, CO32- content in synthetic carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite decreased. The usefulness of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging studies in the evaluation of elastic and porous β-glucan hydroxyapatite composites has been demonstrated.

  3. AZD6738, a novel oral inhibitor of ATR, induces synthetic lethality with ATM-deficiency in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Ahrum; Im, Seock-Ah; Jang, Hyemin; Kim, Seongyeong; Lee, Miso; Kim, Debora Keunyoung; Yang, Yaewon; Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Tae-Yong; Oh, Do-Youn; Brown, Jeff; Lau, Alan; O Connor, Mark J; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-01-30

    Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) can be considered an attractive target for cancer treatment due to its deleterious effect on cancer cells harboring a homologous recombination defect (HRD). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of the ATR inhibitor, AZD6738, to treat gastric cancer. In SNU-601 cells with dysfunctional ATM, AZD6738 treatment led to an accumulation of DNA damage due to dysfunctional RAD51 foci formation, S phase arrest, and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, SNU-484 cells with functional ATM were not sensitive to AZD6738. Inhibition of ATM in SNU-484 cells enhanced AZD6738 sensitivity to a level comparable with that observed in SNU-601 cells, showing that activation of the ATM-Chk2 signaling pathway attenuates AZD6738 sensitivity. In addition, decreased HDAC1 expression was found to be associated with ATM inactivation in SNU-601 cells, demonstrating the interaction between HDAC1 and ATM can affect sensitivity to AZD6738. Furthermore, in an in vivo tumor xenograft mouse model, AZD6738 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis. These findings suggest synthetic lethality between ATR inhibition and ATM-deficiency in gastric cancer cells. Further clinical studies on the interaction between AZD 6738 and ATM-deficiency are warranted to develop novel treatment strategies for gastric cancer.

  4. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  5. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  6. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Daniele G.; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M.; Henriques, João A. P.; Larsen, Annette K.; Escargueil, Alexandre E.

    2016-01-01

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors. PMID:27029031

  7. Discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) protein kinase as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Jean-Damien; Durrant, Steven J; Golec, Julian M C; Kay, David P; Knegtel, Ronald M A; MacCormick, Somhairle; Mortimore, Michael; O'Donnell, Michael E; Pinder, Joanne L; Reaper, Philip M; Rutherford, Alistair P; Wang, Paul S H; Young, Stephen C; Pollard, John R

    2011-04-14

    DNA-damaging agents are among the most frequently used anticancer drugs. However, they provide only modest benefit in most cancers. This may be attributed to a genome maintenance network, the DNA damage response (DDR), that recognizes and repairs damaged DNA. ATR is a major regulator of the DDR and an attractive anticancer target. Herein, we describe the discovery of a series of aminopyrazines with potent and selective ATR inhibition. Compound 45 inhibits ATR with a K(i) of 6 nM, shows >600-fold selectivity over related kinases ATM or DNA-PK, and blocks ATR signaling in cells with an IC(50) of 0.42 μM. Using this compound, we show that ATR inhibition markedly enhances death induced by DNA-damaging agents in certain cancers but not normal cells. This differential response between cancer and normal cells highlights the great potential for ATR inhibition as a novel mechanism to dramatically increase the efficacy of many established drugs and ionizing radiation.

  8. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Lima, Michelle; Bouzid, Hana; Soares, Daniele G; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Larsen, Annette K; Escargueil, Alexandre E

    2016-05-03

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors.

  9. S-phase-dependent p50/NF-кB1 phosphorylation in response to ATR and replication stress acts to maintain genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Clayton D; Kang, Shijun; Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Voce, David J; Cahill, Kirk E; Garofalo, Andrea; Raleigh, David R; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    The apical damage kinase, ATR, is activated by replication stress (RS) both in response to DNA damage and during normal S-phase. Loss of function studies indicates that ATR acts to stabilize replication forks, block cell cycle progression and promote replication restart. Although checkpoint failure and replication fork collapse can result in cell death, no direct cytotoxic pathway downstream of ATR has previously been described. Here, we show that ATR directly reduces survival by inducing phosphorylation of the p50 (NF-κB1, p105) subunit of NF-кB and moreover, that this response is necessary for genome maintenance independent of checkpoint activity. Cell free and in vivo studies demonstrate that RS induces phosphorylation of p50 in an ATR-dependent but DNA damage-independent manner that acts to modulate NF-кB activity without affecting p50/p65 nuclear translocation. This response, evident in human and murine cells, occurs not only in response to exogenous RS but also during the unperturbed S-phase. Functionally, the p50 response results in inhibition of anti-apoptotic gene expression that acts to sensitize cells to DNA strand breaks independent of damage repair. Ultimately, loss of this pathway causes genomic instability due to the accumulation of chromosomal breaks. Together, the data indicate that during S-phase ATR acts via p50 to ensure that cells with elevated levels of replication-associated DNA damage are eliminated.

  10. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  11. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

  12. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    PubMed

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  13. The structural evolution of magnesium acetate complex in aerosols by FTIR-ATR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shu-Feng; Wu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Qing-Nuan; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The structural evolution of magnesium acetate complex in aerosols with the relative humidity (RH) has been studied by ATR-FTIR technique. When the RH is higher than 66%, the ν4 band lies at 929 cm-1 meaning the free CH3COO- ions in Mg(CH3COO)2 droplets. At the 66% RH, ν4 band positioned at 939 cm-1, accompanying the ν8 band shift to 1554 cm-1, which indicats that the free CH3COO- ions are bounded to Mg2+ ions to form [Mg(H2O)5(CH3COO)]+ species. At the 57.7% RH, the ν8-COO band shifts to 1556 cm-1 accompanying the ν3 band at 1421 cm-1 and the appearance of shoulder at 1452 cm-1, which suggests the formation of chain-structure connected by the bridging bidentate of Mg2(CH3COO)4(H2O)2. In the region of 57.7-18.7% RH, the shoulder at 1452 cm-1 increases with the decrease in RH, showing the increase of Mg2(CH3COO)4(H2O)2. From the water-content, the water-transfer from and to the surface of the aerosols became limited, showing the aerosols enter the gel state. Below 18.7%RH, water-loss becomes rapid and the ν8 band performs blue-shift. At 3.8%RH, the ν8 band positioned at 1581 cm-1, showing the anhydrous Mg(CH3COO)2 solid, which can be reflected by the ν4 band at 947 cm-1. During the humidification process, the reverse structural evolution can be found.

  14. In situ ATR and DRIFTS studies of the nature of adsorbed CO₂ on tetraethylenepentamine films.

    PubMed

    Wilfong, Walter Christopher; Srikanth, Chakravartula S; Chuang, Steven S C

    2014-08-27

    CO2 adsorption/desorption onto/from tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) films of 4, 10, and 20 μm thicknesses were studied by in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) techniques under transient conditions. Molar absorption coefficients for adsorbed CO2 were used to determine the CO2 capture capacities and amine efficiencies (CO2/N) of the films in the DRIFTS system. Adsorption of CO2 onto surface and bulk NH2 groups of the 4 μm film produced weakly adsorbed CO2, which can be desorbed at 50 °C by reducing the CO2 partial pressure. These weakly adsorbed CO2 exhibit low ammonium ion intensities and could be in the form of ammonium-carbamate ion pairs and zwitterions. Increasing the film thickness enhanced the surface amine-amine interactions, resulting in strongly adsorbed ion pairs and zwitterions associated with NH and NH2 groups of neighboring amines. These adsorbed species may form an interconnected surface network, which slowed CO2 gas diffusion into and diminished access of the bulk amine groups (or amine efficiency) of the 20 μm film by a minimum of 65%. Desorption of strongly adsorbed CO2 comprising the surface network could occur via dissociation of NH3(+)/NH2(+)···NH2/NH ionic hydrogen bonds beginning from 60 to 80 °C, followed by decomposition of NHCOO(-)/NCOO(-) at 100 °C. These results suggest that faster CO2 diffusion and adsorption/desorption kinetics could be achieved by thinner layers of liquid or immobilized amines.

  15. Characterization of Torin2, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR, ATM and ATR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Xu, Chunxiao; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Xin; Hur, Wooyoung; Liu, Yan; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas P.; Wang, Jinhua; Westover, Kenneth D.; Gao, Peng; Ercan, Dalia; Niepel, Mario; Thoreen, Carson C.; Kang, Seong A.; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Wang, Yuchuan; Tupper, Tanya; Altabef, Abigail; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Held, Kathryn D.; Chou, Danny M.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Janne, Pasi A.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sabatini, David M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a central regulator of cell growth, survival and autophagy. Deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway occurs commonly in cancer and numerous inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding site of these kinases are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Here we report the characterization of Torin2, a second generation ATP-competitive inhibitor that is potent and selective for mTOR with a superior pharmacokinetic profile to previous inhibitors. Torin2 inhibited mTORC1-dependent T389 phosphorylation on S6K (RPS6KB1) with an EC50 of 250 pM with approximately 800-fold selectivity for cellular mTOR versus PI3K. Torin2 also exhibited potent biochemical and cellular activity against PIKK family kinases including ATM (EC50 28 nM), ATR (EC50 35 nM) and DNA-PK (EC50 118 nM) (PRKDC), the inhibition of which sensitized cells to Irradiation. Similar to the earlier generation compound Torin1 and in contrast to other reported mTOR inhibitors, Torin2 inhibited mTOR kinase and mTORC1 signaling activities in a sustained manner suggestive of a slow dissociation from the kinase. Cancer cell treatment with Torin2 for 24 hours resulted in a prolonged block in negative feedback and consequent T308 phosphorylation on Akt. These effects were associated with strong growth inhibition in vitro. Single agent treatment with Torin2 in vivo did not yield significant efficacy against KRAS-driven lung tumors, but the combination of Torin2 with MEK inhibitor AZD6244 yielded a significant growth inhibition. Taken together, our findings establish Torin2 as a strong candidate for clinical evaluation in a broad number of oncological settings where mTOR signaling has a pathogenic role. PMID:23436801

  16. Simultaneous inhibition of ATR and PARP sensitizes colon cancer cell lines to irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sanad, Atlal; Wang, Yunzhe; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Panasci, Justin; Noë, Alycia; Rosca, Lorena; Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced DNA damage repair is one mechanism involved in colon cancer drug resistance. Thus, targeting molecular components of repair pathways with specific small molecule inhibitors may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. ABT-888 and VE-821, inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) and the serine/threonine-kinase Ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), respectively, were used to treat colon cancer cell lines in combination with the topoisomerase-I inhibitor irinotecan (SN38). Our findings show that each of these DNA repair inhibitors utilized alone at nontoxic single agent concentrations resulted in sensitization to SN38 producing a 1.4–3 fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SN38 in three colon cancer cell lines. When combined together, nontoxic concentrations of ABT-888 and VE-821 produced a 4.5–27 fold reduction in the IC50 of SN38 with the HCT-116 colon cancer cells demonstrating the highest sensitization as compared to LoVo and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of all three agents was associated with maximal G2 −M arrest and enhanced DNA-damage (γH2AX) in all three colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism of this enhanced sensitization was associated with: (a) maximal suppression of SN38 induced PARP activity in the presence of both inhibitors and (b) ABT-888 producing partial abrogation of the VE-821 enhancement of SN38 induced DNA-PK phosphorylation, resulting in more unrepaired DNA damage; these alterations were only present in the HCT-116 cells which have reduced levels of ATM. This novel combination of DNA repair inhibitors may be useful to enhance the activity of DNA damaging chemotherapies such as irinotecan and help produce sensitization to this drug in colon cancer. PMID:26257651

  17. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  18. The complexity of DNA double strand break is a crucial factor for activating ATR signaling pathway for G2/M checkpoint regulation regardless of ATM function.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Miura, Masahiko; Cui, Xing; Liu, Cuihua; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yajima, Hirohiko; Yu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice following ionizing radiation (IR) is currently an appealing research topic, which is still largely unclear. Our recent paper indicated that the complexity of DSBs is a critical factor that enhances DNA end resection. It has been well accepted that the RPA-coated single strand DNA produced by resection is a signaling structure for ATR activation. Therefore, taking advantage of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to effectively produce complex DSBs, we investigated how the complexity of DSB influences the function of ATR pathway on the G2/M checkpoint regulation. Human skin fibroblast cells with or without ATM were irradiated with X rays or heavy ion particles, and dual-parameter flow cytometry was used to quantitatively assess the mitotic entry at early period post radiation by detecting the cells positive for phosphor histone H3. In ATM-deficient cells, ATR pathway played a pivotal role and functioned in a dose- and LET-dependent way to regulate the early G2/M arrest even as low as 0.2Gy for heavy ion radiation, which indicated that ATR pathway could be rapidly activated and functioned in an ATM-independent, but DSB complexity-dependent manner following exposure to IR. Furthermore, ATR pathway also functioned more efficiently in ATM-proficient cells to block G2 to M transition at early period of particle radiation exposure. Accordingly, in contrast to ATM inhibitor, ATR inhibitor had a more effective radiosensitizing effect on survival fraction following heavy ion beams as compared with X ray radiation. Taken together, our results reveal that the complexity of DSBs is a crucial factor for the activation of ATR pathway for G2/M checkpoint regulation, and ATM-dependent end resection is not essential for the activation.

  19. Post-irradiation Examination Plan for ORNL and University of California Santa Barbara Assessment of UCSB ATR-2 Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sokolov, M. A.

    2014-01-25

    New and existing databases will be combined to support development of physically based models of transition temperature shifts (TTS) for high fluence-low flux (φ < 10{sup 11}n/cm{sup 2}-s) conditions, beyond the existing surveillance database, to neutron fluences of at least 1×10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). All references to neutron flux and fluence in this report are for fast neutrons (>1 MeV). The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) task of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is working with various organizations to obtain archival surveillance materials from commercial nuclear power plants to allow for comparisons of the irradiation-induced microstructural features from reactor surveillance materials with those from similar materials irradiated under high flux conditions in test reactors

  20. A dynamic thermal ATR-FTIR/chemometric approach to the analysis of polymorphic interconversions. Cimetidine as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-04-01

    Crystal polymorphism of active ingredients is relevant to the pharmaceutical industry, since polymorphic changes taking place during manufacture or storage of pharmaceutical formulations can affect critical properties of the products. Cimetidine (CIM) has several relevant solid state forms, including four polymorphs (A, B, C and D), an amorphous form (AM) and a monohydrate (M1). Dehydration of M1 has been reported to yield mixtures of polymorphs A, B and C or just a single form. Standards of the solid forms of CIM were prepared and unequivocally characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, digital microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was coupled to variable temperature attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to dynamically characterize the behavior of form M1 of CIM over a temperature range from ambient to 160°C, without sample pretreatment. MCR-ALS analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra obtained from the tested solid under variable temperature conditions unveiled the pure spectra of the species involved in the polymorphic transitions. This allowed the simultaneous observation of thermochemical and thermophysical events associated to the changes involved in the solid forms, enabling their unequivocal identification and improving the understanding of their thermal behavior. It was demonstrated that under the experimental conditions, dehydration of M1 initially results in the formation of polymorph B; after melting and upon cooling, the latter yields an amorphous solid (AM). It was concluded that the ATR-FTIR/MCR association is a promising and useful technique for monitoring solid-state phase transformations.

  1. The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Goh, Choon Fu; Craig, Duncan Q M; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2017-02-01

    Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm(-1)) containing the carboxylate (COO(-)) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO(-) asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin.

  2. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis discriminates normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tissue: classifying subtypes of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-21

    Surgical management of ovarian tumours largely depends on their histo-pathological diagnosis. Currently, screening for ovarian malignancy with tumour markers in conjunction with radiological investigations has a low specificity for discriminating benign from malignant tumours. Also, pre-operative biopsy of ovarian masses increases the risk of intra-peritoneal dissemination of malignancy. Intra-operative frozen section, although sufficiently accurate in differentiating tumours according to their histological type, increases operation times. This results in increased surgery-related risks to the patient and additional burden to resource allocation. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis can be applied to discriminate between normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and classify ovarian carcinoma subtypes according to the unique spectral signatures of their molecular composition. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks were de-waxed, mounted on Low-E slides and desiccated before being analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis in the form of principal component analysis (PCA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm (GA), followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of the obtained spectra revealed clear segregation between benign versus borderline versus malignant tumours as well as segregation between different histological tumour subtypes, when these approaches are used in combination. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis has the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of ovarian tumours assisting surgical decision making to avoid under-treatment or over-treatment, with minimal impact to the patient.

  3. Investigation of switch from ATM to ATR signaling at the sites of DNA damage induced by low and high LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-12-01

    Upon induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-PKcs, and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) maintain genomic integrity by mounting DNA damage response (DDR). Recent reports suggest that activation of ATM and ATR are oppositely regulated by the length of single stranded overhangs generated during end processing by nucleases at the break sites. These stretches of single stranded overhangs hold the clue for the transition from ATM to ATR signaling at broken DNA ends. We investigated whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation augments the phenomenon of switching from ATM to ATR kinase and hence a concomitant NHEJ to HR transition at the sites of DNA damage. 82-6 human fibroblasts were irradiated with 1 or 2Gy of γ-rays and particle radiation of increasing LET in order to increase the complexity and variability of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) structures. The activation kinetics of ATM and ATR kinases along with their downstream substrates were determined utilizing Western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. Our data provide evidence of a potential switch from ATM to ATR kinase signaling in cells treated with γ-rays at approximately 2h post irradiation, with induction and completion of resection denoted by Rad51 foci resolution kinetics and observed with a significant decline of phosphorylated ATR kinase 8h after IR. On the other hand, irradiation with high LET 600MeV/u (56)Fe (180keV/μm) and 170MeV/u (28)Si (99keV/μm) particles show a similar Rad51 foci decay kinetics, however, exhibiting prolonged resection, evident by the persistent phosphorylated ATM and ATR kinase until 24h post irradiation. This residual effect, however, was significantly reduced for 250MeV/u (16)O particles of moderate LET (25keV/μm) and absent for γ-rays. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that the transition

  4. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  5. ATR-FT-IR spectral collection of conservation materials in the extended region of 4000-80 cm⁻¹.

    PubMed

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Peets, Pilleriin; Joosu, Lauri; Leito, Ivo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a spectral collection of over 150 ATR-FT-IR spectra of materials related to cultural heritage and conservation science has been presented that have been measured in the extended region of 4000-80 cm(-1) (mid-IR and far-IR region). The applicability of the spectra and, in particular, the extended spectral range, for investigation of art-related materials is demonstrated on a case study. This collection of ATRFT-IR reference spectra is freely available online (http://tera.chem.ut.ee/IR_spectra/) and is meant to be a useful tool for researchers in the field of conservation and materials science.

  6. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  7. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  8. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  9. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  10. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  11. Galiellalactone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the ATM/ATR pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Cantarero, Irene; Sterner, Olov; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-26

    Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal metabolite that presents antitumor activities on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. In this study we show that GL induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, caspase-dependent apoptosis and also affected the microtubule organization and migration ability in DU145 cells. GL did not induce double strand DNA break but activated the ATR and ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) inducing CHK1, H2AX phosphorylation (fH2AX) and CDC25C downregulation. Inhibition of the ATM/ATR activation with caffeine reverted GL-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage measured by fH2AX. In contrast, UCN-01, a CHK1 inhibitor, prevented GL-induced cell cycle arrest but enhanced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Furthermore, we found that GL did not increase the levels of intracellular ROS, but the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely prevented the effects of GL on fH2AX, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In contrast to NAC, other antioxidants such as ambroxol and EGCG did not interfere with the activity of GL on cell cycle. GL significantly suppressed DU145 xenograft growth in vivo and induced the expression of fH2AX in the tumors. These findings identify for the first time that GL activates DDR in prostate cancer.

  12. Utilizing FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for classification and relative spectral similarity evaluation of different Colletotrichum coccodes isolates.

    PubMed

    Salman, A; Pomerantz, A; Tsror, L; Lapidot, I; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

    2012-08-07

    Colletotrichum coccodes (C. coccodes) is a pathogenic fungus which causes anthracnose on tomatoes and black dot disease in potatoes. It is important to differentiate among these isolates and to detect the origin of newly discovered isolates, in order to treat the disease in its early stages. However, distinguishing between isolates using common biological methods is time-consuming, and not always available. We used Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR)-Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy and advanced mathematical and statistical methods to distinguish between different isolates of C. coccodes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used, combined with multivariate analysis, to classify such a large number of 15 isolates belonging to the same species. We obtained a success rate of approximately 90% which was achieved using the region 800-1775 cm(-1). In addition we succeeded in determining the relative spectral similarity between different fungal isolates by developing a new algorithm. This method could be an important potential diagnostic tool in agricultural research, since it may outline the extent of the biological similarity between fungal isolates. Based on the PCA calculations, we grouped the fifteen isolates included in this study into four different degrees of similarity.

  13. An overactivated ATR/CHK1 pathway is responsible for the prolonged G2 accumulation in irradiated AT cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiang; Khadpe, Jay; Hu, Baocheng; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2003-01-01

    Induction of checkpoint responses in G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a key role in initiating this response in all three phases of the cell cycle. However, cells lacking functional ATM exhibit a prolonged G2 arrest after IR, suggesting regulation by an ATM-independent checkpoint response. The mechanism for this ataxia telangiectasia (AT)-independent G2-checkpoint response remains unknown. We report here that the G2 checkpoint in irradiated human AT cells derives from an overactivation of the ATR/CHK1 pathway. Chk1 small interfering RNA abolishes the IR-induced prolonged G2 checkpoint and radiosensitizes AT cells to killing. These results link the activation of ATR/CHK1 with the prolonged G2 arrest in AT cells and show that activation of this G2 checkpoint contributes to the survival of AT cells.

  14. Cell cycle-dependent DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 involves ATM, ATR, CHK2, and BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Iha; Avraham, Hava Karsenty . E-mail: havraham@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2006-07-01

    Topoisomerase II is essential for cell proliferation and survival and has been a target of various anticancer drugs. ICRF-193 has long been used as a catalytic inhibitor to study the function of topoisomerase II. Here, we show that ICRF-193 treatment induces DNA damage signaling. Treatment with ICRF-193 induced G2 arrest and DNA damage signaling involving {gamma}-H2AX foci formation and CHK2 phosphorylation. DNA damage by ICRF-193 was further demonstrated by formation of the nuclear foci of 53BP1, NBS1, BRCA1, MDC1, and FANCD2 and increased comet tail moment. The DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 was mediated by ATM and ATR and was restricted to cells in specific cell cycle stages such as S, G2, and mitosis including late and early G1 phases. Downstream signaling of ATM and ATR involved the phosphorylation of CHK2 and BRCA1. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ICRF-193 induces DNA damage signaling in a cell cycle-dependent manner and suggest that topoisomerase II might be essential for the progression of the cell cycle at several stages including DNA decondensation.

  15. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto lecithin studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tantipolphan, R; Rades, T; McQuillan, A J; Medlicott, N J

    2007-06-07

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to lecithin was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Lecithin films were prepared by casting aliquots of 3.2 microg lecithin in methanol onto ZnSe ATR prisms. Surface morphology and the thickness of the films were investigated by laser scanning confocal electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the thickness of the films used for adsorption studies was estimated to be 40 A. The dependency of the CO peak area on the lecithin mass in the calibration curve confirms that the thickness of the film is below the penetration depth of the infrared evanescent wave. Size exclusion HPLC and fluorescence spectroscopy show that BSA conformation in up to 1M NaCl and CaCl(2) solutions is similar to that in water with no aggregation or changes in protein conformation seen over 4h. The kinetics of BSA adsorption on the lecithin film from water, NaCl and CaCl(2) solutions demonstrates that ions promote the protein adsorption. BSA bound more in the presence of NaCl compared to CaCl(2) at equivalent concentrations. The adsorption appeared greatest at a 0.1M concentration for both NaCl and CaCl(2). The results are explained in terms of absorptive reactivity of BSA and lecithin surfaces upon salt addition.

  16. SAXS and ATR-FTIR studies on EBT-TSX mixtures in their sol-gel phases.

    PubMed

    Hirun, Namon; Rugmai, Supagorn; Sangfai, Tanatchaporn; Tantishaiyakul, Vimon

    2012-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that mixtures of tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) with appropriate concentrations of eriochrome black T (EBT) produced a gel that could be of benefit for medical use. Here, the sol-gel systems of various fresh and aged mixtures were further investigated using rheological measurements. The nanostructural changes of EBT-TSX sol-gel phases were analyzed using SAXS. The interactions between EBT and TSX in the sol and gel states were examined using ATR-FTIR. SAXS data analysis demonstrated that the mixture containing lower concentration of EBT formed rod-like structures and that with higher concentrations of EBT produced flat particles. The sizes of the TSX structures from the aged mixtures in the gel stage were larger than those from the same mixtures in the sol state. ATR-FTIR spectral changes revealed that the azo and sulfonic acid groups of EBT interacted with the TSX, and the characteristic spectrum of the sulfonic acid group of EBT could discriminate between the sol and gel state of the EBT-TSX systems. The interactions between EBT and TSX may cause conformational changes to TSX and facilitate the sol-gel transition or formation of a gel.

  17. Characterization of postmortem biochemical changes in rabbit plasma using ATR-FTIR combined with chemometrics: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Bing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Yinming; Lin, Hancheng; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2017-02-01

    Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the most challenging tasks in forensic medicine due to a lack of accurate and reliable methods. It is especially difficult for late PMI determination. Although many attempts with various types of body fluids based on chemical methods have been made to solve this problem, few investigations are focused on blood samples. In this study, we employed an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) to monitor biochemical changes in rabbit plasma with increasing PMI. Partial least square (PLS) model was used based on the spectral data for PMI prediction in an independent sample set. Our results revealed that postmortem chemical changes in compositions of the plasma were time-dependent, and various components including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributed to the discrimination of the samples at different time points. A satisfactory prediction within 48 h postmortem was performed by the combined PLS model with a good fitting between actual and predicted PMI of 0.984 and with an error of ± 1.92 h. In consideration of the simplicity and portability of ATR-FTIR, our preliminary study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for application of this technique in forensic practice.

  18. In situ ATR-IR spectroscopic and electron microscopic analyses of settlement secretions of Undaria pinnatifida kelp spores.

    PubMed

    Petrone, L; Easingwood, R; Barker, M F; McQuillan, A J

    2011-03-06

    Knowledge about the settlement of marine organisms on substrates is important for the development of environmentally benign new methods for control of marine biofouling. The adhesion to substrates by spores of Undaria pinnatifida, a kelp species that is invasive to several countries, was studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) as well as by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The IR spectra showed that adhesive secretion began approximately 15 min after initial settlement and that the adhesive bulk material contained protein and anionic polysaccharides. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the adhesive identified sulphur and phosphorus as well as calcium and magnesium ions, which facilitate the gelation of the anionic polysaccharides in the sea water. The adhesive may be secreted from Golgi bodies in the spore, which were imaged by TEM of spore thin sections. Additionally, an in situ settlement study on TiO(2) particle film by ATR-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of phosphorylated moieties directly binding the substrate. The presence of anionic groups dominating the adhesive suggests that inhibition of spore adhesion will be favoured by negatively charged surfaces.

  19. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription initiation by CX-5461 activates non-canonical ATM/ATR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Jaclyn; Chan, Keefe T.; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Cameron, Donald P.; Diesch, Jeannine; Cullinane, Carleen; Ahern, Jessica; Khot, Amit; Hein, Nadine; George, Amee J.; Hannan, Katherine M; Poortinga, Gretchen; Sheppard, Karen E.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Drygin, Denis; McArthur, Grant A.; Pearson, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is confined to the nucleolus and is a rate-limiting step for cell growth and proliferation. Inhibition of Pol I by CX-5461 can selectively induce p53-mediated apoptosis of tumour cells in vivo. Currently, CX-5461 is in clinical trial for patients with advanced haematological malignancies (Peter Mac, Melbourne). Here we demonstrate that CX-5461 also induces p53-independent cell cycle checkpoints mediated by ATM/ATR signaling in the absence of DNA damage. Further, our data demonstrate that the combination of drugs targeting ATM/ATR signaling and CX-5461 leads to enhanced therapeutic benefit in treating p53-null tumours in vivo, which are normally refractory to each drug alone. Mechanistically, we show that CX-5461 induces an unusual chromatin structure in which transcriptionally competent relaxed rDNA repeats are devoid of transcribing Pol I leading to activation of ATM signaling within the nucleoli. Thus, we propose that acute inhibition of Pol transcription initiation by CX-5461 induces a novel nucleolar stress response that can be targeted to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27391441

  20. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription initiation by CX-5461 activates non-canonical ATM/ATR signaling.

    PubMed

    Quin, Jaclyn; Chan, Keefe T; Devlin, Jennifer R; Cameron, Donald P; Diesch, Jeannine; Cullinane, Carleen; Ahern, Jessica; Khot, Amit; Hein, Nadine; George, Amee J; Hannan, Katherine M; Poortinga, Gretchen; Sheppard, Karen E; Khanna, Kum Kum; Johnstone, Ricky W; Drygin, Denis; McArthur, Grant A; Pearson, Richard B; Sanij, Elaine; Hannan, Ross D

    2016-08-02

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is confined to the nucleolus and is a rate-limiting step for cell growth and proliferation. Inhibition of Pol I by CX-5461 can selectively induce p53-mediated apoptosis of tumour cells in vivo. Currently, CX-5461 is in clinical trial for patients with advanced haematological malignancies (Peter Mac, Melbourne). Here we demonstrate that CX-5461 also induces p53-independent cell cycle checkpoints mediated by ATM/ATR signaling in the absence of DNA damage. Further, our data demonstrate that the combination of drugs targeting ATM/ATR signaling and CX-5461 leads to enhanced therapeutic benefit in treating p53-null tumours in vivo, which are normally refractory to each drug alone. Mechanistically, we show that CX-5461 induces an unusual chromatin structure in which transcriptionally competent relaxed rDNA repeats are devoid of transcribing Pol I leading to activation of ATM signaling within the nucleoli. Thus, we propose that acute inhibition of Pol transcription initiation by CX-5461 induces a novel nucleolar stress response that can be targeted to improve therapeutic efficacy.

  1. In situ ATR-IR spectroscopic and electron microscopic analyses of settlement secretions of Undaria pinnatifida kelp spores

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, L.; Easingwood, R.; Barker, M. F.; McQuillan, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the settlement of marine organisms on substrates is important for the development of environmentally benign new methods for control of marine biofouling. The adhesion to substrates by spores of Undaria pinnatifida, a kelp species that is invasive to several countries, was studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) as well as by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The IR spectra showed that adhesive secretion began approximately 15 min after initial settlement and that the adhesive bulk material contained protein and anionic polysaccharides. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the adhesive identified sulphur and phosphorus as well as calcium and magnesium ions, which facilitate the gelation of the anionic polysaccharides in the sea water. The adhesive may be secreted from Golgi bodies in the spore, which were imaged by TEM of spore thin sections. Additionally, an in situ settlement study on TiO2 particle film by ATR-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of phosphorylated moieties directly binding the substrate. The presence of anionic groups dominating the adhesive suggests that inhibition of spore adhesion will be favoured by negatively charged surfaces. PMID:20685693

  2. The establishment of a standard and real patient kidney stone library utilizing Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with a diamond ATR accessory.

    PubMed

    Mulready, Keith J; McGoldrick, Des

    2012-10-01

    This investigation highlights the establishment of a real patient kidney stone library utilizing Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with a diamond attenuated total reflection accessory (FT-IR ATR) and the construction of a standard FT-IR ATR (sFTIRATR) library using OMNIC spectral math arithmetic operations for kidney stone analysis. This is necessary because reference spectra in commercial libraries provided with specialized software are usually complied using synthesized crystalline compounds which can exhibit changes in intensity, position and/or characteristic profile of reflectance bands when compared with authentic biological stone compositions. Currently, there is no published literature for the Republic of Ireland (RoI) on stone type and prevalence. The results obtained from the establishment of the real patient kidney stone library were a representative selection of kidney stones found in the population, and thereby provided an accurate picture of the present epidemiology of kidney stones in the RoI. The results of 188 patients were compared with those from our newly constructed sFTIRATR library and existing methods, namely wet chemical analysis, and FT-IR ATR utilizing an ATR algorithm and potassium bromide search libraries. We found that for the optimum quantitative analysis of kidney stone mixtures, FT-IR ATR spectroscopy utilizing a standard FT-IR ATR library, supported by a real patient kidney stone library, applying library searching accurately provides the molecular and crystalline species of stone constituents present in an unknown kidney stone sample, providing some predicative value in diagnosing medical conditions. Our data suggest that the epidemiology for nephrolithiasis in the RoI is similar to other Western nations.

  3. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  4. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  5. Phosphorylation of the BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) Repeat Inhibitor of hTERT (BRIT1) Protein Coordinates TopBP1 Protein Recruitment and Amplifies Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Edward; Dai, Hui; Shen, Jianfeng; Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Lu, Xiongbin; Peng, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase functions as a central node in the DNA damage response signaling network. The mechanisms by which ATR activity is amplified and/or maintained are not understood. Here we demonstrate that BRIT1/microcephalin (MCPH1), a human disease-related protein, is dispensable for the initiation but essential for the amplification of ATR signaling. BRIT1 interacts with and recruits topoisomerase-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), a key activator of ATR signaling, to the sites of DNA damage. Notably, replication stress-induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated or ATR-dependent BRIT1 phosphorylation at Ser-322 facilitates efficient TopBP1 recruitment. These results reveal a mechanism that ensures the continuation of ATR-initiated DNA damage signaling. Our study uncovers a previously unknown regulatory axis of ATR signaling in maintaining genomic integrity, which may provide mechanistic insights into the perturbation of ATR signaling in human diseases such as neurodevelopmental defects and cancer. PMID:25301947

  6. Reasoning about scene descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    DiManzo, M.; Adorni, G.; Giunchiglia, F.

    1986-07-01

    When a scene is described by means of natural language sentences, many details are usually omitted, because they are not in the focus of the conversation. Moreover, natural language is not the best tool to define precisely positions and spatial relationships. The process of interpreting ambiguous statements and inferring missing details involves many types of knowledge, from linguistics to physics. This paper is mainly concerned with the problem of modeling the process of understanding descriptions of static scenes. The specific topics covered by this work are the analysis of the meaning of spatial prepositions, the problem of the reference system and dimensionality, the activation of expectations about unmentioned objects, the role of default knowledge about object positions and its integration with contextual information sources, and the problem of space representation. The issue of understanding dynamic scenes descriptions is briefly approached in the last section.

  7. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Detect changes in lipid-related structure of brown- and yellow-seeded Brassica Carinata seed during rumen fermentation in relation to basic chemical profile using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-12-10

    In this experiment, brown- and yellow-seeded Brassica carinata were selected to use as a model to investigate whether there were any changes in lipid-related structure make-up (including CH3 and CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching bands ca. 3010-2765cm(-1), unsaturated lipid band ca. 3043-2987cm(-1) and carbonyl CO ester band ca. 1789-1701cm(-1)) of oilseed tissue during rumen in situ incubation using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT/IR). Correlations of lipid spectral characteristics with basic chemical profile and multivariate analyses for clarifying structural differences within lipid regions between two carinata seeds were also measured. The results showed that most spectral parameters in both carinata seeds were reduced as incubation time increased. However, the extent of changes in peak intensity of carbonyl CO ester group of brown-seeded carinata was not in fully accordance with that of yellow-seeded carinata. Additionally, these lipid structure features were highly correlated with the concentrations of OM (positively), CP (positively), NDF (negatively) and EE (positively) in carinata seeds after 0, 12, 24 and 48h of incubation. Based on the results from multivariate analyses, neither AHCA nor PCA could produce any distinctions in rumen residues between brown- and yellow-seeded carinata in spectra at lipid regions. It was concluded that besides for original feed samples, spectroscopic technique of ATR-FT/IR could also be used for rumen degradation residues in detecting changes in lipid-related molecular structure make-up. Further studies are needed to explore more details in lipid metabolism during ruminal fermentation with the combined consideration on both metabolic basis and molecular structural basis.

  9. PRP19 Transforms into a Sensor of RPA-ssDNA after DNA Damage and Drives ATR Activation via a Ubiquitin-Mediated Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Wu, Ching-Shyi; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Liu, Shizhou; Jiménez, Amanda E.; Jin, Jianping; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). While the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 binds RPA directly and localizes to DNA damage sites via RPA, promoting RPA ubiquitylation in a DNA damage-induced manner. PRP19 facilitates the accumulation of ATRIP, the regulatory partner of the ATR kinase, at DNA damage sites. Depletion of PRP19 compromised the phosphorylation of ATR substrates, the recovery of stalled replication forks, and the progression of replication forks on damaged DNA. Importantly, PRP19 mutants that cannot bind RPA or function as an E3 ligase failed to support the ATR response, revealing that PRP19 drives ATR activation by acting as an RPA-ssDNA-sensing ubiquitin ligase during the DDR. PMID:24332808

  10. X-linked [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: Localization to Xq12-q21. 31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.J.; Buckle, V.J.; Higgs, D.R.; Suthers, G.K. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with [alpha]-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, they have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH (hemoglobin H) inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DCS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the [alpha]-globin genes. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. On the pathway of photoexcited electrons: probing photon-to-electron and photon-to-phonon conversions in silicon by ATR-IR.

    PubMed

    Karabudak, Engin; Yüce, Emre; Schlautmann, Stefan; Hansen, Ole; Mul, Guido; Gardeniers, Han J G E

    2012-08-21

    Photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization inside semiconductor photocatalysts are two important steps in solar fuel production. Here, photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization in a silicon wafer are for the first time probed by a novel, yet simple and user-friendly Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) system.

  12. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  13. Development of Simple Algorithms in Direct, Non-destructive, and Rapid Determination of Cotton Fiber Maturity from FT-IR/ATR Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FT-IR/ATR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 re...

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  15. Formulation and drug-content assay of microencapsulated antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB using ATR-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwale, Rodney; Meadows, Fred; Mody, Vicky V.; Shah, Samit

    2013-09-01

    Antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB sequence: 5‧-GGA AAC ACA TCC TCC ATG-3‧, was microencapsulated in an albumin matrix by the method of spray dryingTM. Spectral analysis was performed on varying drug loading formulations of both drugs by mid-IR attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An out of plane O-H bending vibration at 948 cm-1, unique to both the native and microencapsulated drugs was identified. The calculated peak areas corresponded to the drug loadings in the microsphere formulations. A standard curve could then be used to determine the drug content of an unknown microsphere formulation. Accuracy and precision were determined to be comparable to other analytical techniques such as HPLC.

  16. Variable-angle ATR-FTIR studies of depth distribution of amidation in surface modified poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avadanei, Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Variable - angle ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was applied to the evaluation of the in-depth homogeneity of amidation within superficial layers of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces. Thin films of PET were subjected to aminolysis with triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine by wet chemistry and using air plasma as precursor, respectively, in order to create surface functionalities. By varying the incidence angle of the infrared radiation, chemical changes were investigated from layers of different thicknesses. The amide II band has been selected as a marker for monitoring the aminolysis products and for depth profiling. The choice of an exponential decay of the in-depth amide distribution was justified by the quite regular decreasing of the angular absorbance with depth of penetration of the evanescent wave.

  17. FT-IR/ATR univariate and multivariate calibration models for in situ monitoring of sugars in complex microalgal culture media.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jean-Michel; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Gagnon, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a quick and simple method for the in situ monitoring of sugars in biological cultures. A new technology based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR/ATR) spectroscopy in combination with an external light guiding fiber probe was tested, first to build predictive models from solutions of pure sugars, and secondly to use those models to monitor the sugars in the complex culture medium of mixotrophic microalgae. Quantification results from the univariate model were correlated with the total dissolved solids content (R(2)=0.74). A vector normalized multivariate model was used to proportionally quantify the different sugars present in the complex culture medium and showed a predictive accuracy of >90% for sugars representing >20% of the total. This method offers an alternative to conventional sugar monitoring assays and could be used at-line or on-line in commercial scale production systems.

  18. Functional interplay between ATM/ATR-mediated DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Melanie; Berman, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To maintain genome stability, cells have evolved various DNA repair pathways to deal with oxidative DNA damage. DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, including ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 checkpoints, are also activated in oxidative stress to coordinate DNA repair, cell cycle progression, transcription, apoptosis, and senescence. Several studies demonstrate that DDR pathways can regulate DNA repair pathways. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may modulate DDR pathway activation as well. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how various DNA repair and DDR pathways are activated in response to oxidative DNA damage primarily from studies in eukaryotes. In particular, we analyze the functional interplay between DNA repair and DDR pathways in oxidative stress. A better understanding of cellular response to oxidative stress may provide novel avenues of treating human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24947324

  19. Immobilization of proteins in their physiological active state at functionalized thiol monolayers on ATR-germanium crystals.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Jonas; Gavriljuk, Konstantin; Nabers, Andreas; Weide, Philipp; Muhler, Martin; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2014-11-24

    Protein immobilization on solid surfaces has become a powerful tool for the investigation of protein function. Physiologically relevant molecular reaction mechanisms and interactions of proteins can be revealed with excellent signal-to-noise ratio by vibrational spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on germanium crystals. Protein immobilization by thiol chemistry is well-established on gold surfaces, for example, for surface plasmon resonance. Here, we combine features of both approaches: a germanium surface functionalized with different thiols to allow specific immobilization of various histidine-tagged proteins with over 99% specific binding. In addition to FTIR, the surfaces were characterized by XPS and fluorescence microscopy. Secondary-structure analysis and stimulus-induced difference spectroscopy confirmed protein activity at the atomic level, for example, physiological cation channel formation of Channelrhodopsin 2.

  20. Direct determination of niflumic acid in a pharmaceutical gel by ATR/FTIR spectroscopy and PLS calibration.

    PubMed

    Boyer, C; Brégère, B; Crouchet, S; Gaudin, K; Dubost, J P

    2006-02-13

    A simple, rapid and convenient analytical method without sample handling procedure is proposed for the determination of niflumic acid in a pharmaceutical gel with attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR). A partial least square (PLS) calibration model for the prediction of niflumic acid contents was developed using 81 and 27 spectra of standard gels as training and validation sets, respectively. The used spectral range of niflumic acid for the establishment of this model was 2300-1100 cm(-1). All spectra were obtained in the transmittance mode, then normalized and first derivative transformed. The model yielded a regression coefficient R2 equal to 1 for the training set and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) equal to 0.2 for the validation set. The percentage recoveries of the method for the analysis of Niflugel ranged from 96.60 to 101.02%.

  1. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  2. Fabrication Control Plan for ORNL RH-LOCA ATF Test Specimens to be Irradiated in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard; Teague, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this fabrication plan is (1) to summarize the design of a set of rodlets that will be fabricated and then irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and (2) provide requirements for fabrication and acceptance criteria for inspections of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) – Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) rodlet components. The functional and operational (F&OR) requirements for the ATF program are identified in the ATF Test Plan. The scope of this document only covers fabrication and inspections of rodlet components detailed in drawings 604496 and 604497. It does not cover the assembly of these items to form a completed test irradiation assembly or the inspection of the final assembly, which will be included in a separate INL final test assembly specification/inspection document. The controls support the requirements that the test irradiations must be performed safely and that subsequent examinations must provide valid results.

  3. Rapid evaluation and quantitative analysis of thyme, origano and chamomile essential oils by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Krüger, Hans

    2003-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from various chemotypes of thyme, origano and chamomile species were studied by ATR/FT-IR as well as NIR spectroscopy. Application of multivariate statistics (PCA, PLS) in conjunction with analytical reference data leads to very good IR and NIR calibration results. For the main essential oil components (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, α-bisabolol and β-farnesene) standard errors are in the range of the applied GC reference method. In most cases the multiple coefficients of determination ( R2) are >0.97. Using the IR fingerprint region (900-1400 cm -1) a qualitative discrimination of the individual chemotypes is possible already by visual judgement without to apply any chemometric algorithms.The described rapid and non-destructive methods can be applied in industry to control very easily purifying, blending and redistillation processes of the mentioned essential oils.

  4. Cellulose acetate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolyte: ATR-FTIR and ionic conductivity behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Razalli, Siti Masyitah; Sheikh Mohd Saaid, Siti Irma Yuana; Marwan Ali, Ab Malik; Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on cellulose acetate (CA) doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt are prepared by solution cast technique. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the polymer salt complexes are recorded in the frequency range between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. The shifting of carbonyl band (C=O) at 1737 cm-1 to a lower wavenumber confirms the occurrence of complexation between the polymer and the salt. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis discovered that the film with 25 wt.% of salt shows the highest ionic conductivity at room temperature. The change in real dielectric permittivity (ɛr) as a function of frequency at different salt concentrations which exhibits a dispersive behavior at low frequencies and decays at higher frequencies, shows the electrode polarization and space charge effect. The real modulus formalism (Mr) analysis shows that the polymer electrolytes in this work are ionic conductors.

  5. The Genre of Technical Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes recent research into systems of lexical and grammatical cohesion in technical description. Discusses various methods by which technical writers "re-enter" the topic of description back into the text in successive sentences. (HTH)

  6. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation. The cytotoxic activity, cell survival rate, DNA damage repair ability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate of the treated cells were analyzed with MTT assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. The transcription and translation levels of the ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs genes were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results indicated that the radiosensitivity and DNA repair ability of A549 cells were reduced, and the percentages of apoptotic cells and those arrested at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle were significantly increased, following ionizing radiation with inhibitor-pretreatment. The expression levels of ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs and phosphorylated histone H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were all upregulated at the transcriptional or translational level in A549 cells treated with carbon ion irradiation, compared with the control and X-rays-treated cells. In addition, the treatment with 5-50 µM NU7026 or CGK733 did not produce any obvious cytotoxicity in MRC-5 cells, and the effect of the DNA-PKcs-inhibitor on enhancing the radiosensitivity of A549 cells was stronger than that observed for the ATM and ATR-inhibitor. These findings demonstrated a minor role for ATM and ATR in radiation-induced cell death, since the upregulation of

  7. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  8. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  9. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals involvement of lipids and proteins of intact pea pollen grains to heat stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lahlali, Rachid; Jiang, Yunfei; Kumar, Saroj; Karunakaran, Chithra; Liu, Xia; Borondics, Ferenc; Hallin, Emil; Bueckert, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    With climate change, pea will be more frequently subjected to heat stress in semi-arid regions like Saskatchewan during flowering. The pollen germination percentage of two pea cultivars was reduced by heat stress (36°C) with an important decrease in cultivar 'CDC Golden' compared to 'CDC Sage.' Lipids, protein and other pollen coat compositions of whole intact pollen grains of both pea cultivars were investigated using mid infrared (mid-IR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Curve fitting of ATR absorbance spectra in the protein region enabled estimation and comparison of different protein secondary structures between the two cultivars. CDC Sage had relatively greater amounts of α-helical structures (48.6-43.6%; band at 1654 cm(-1)) and smaller amounts of β-sheets (41.3-46%) than CDC Golden. The CDC Golden had higher amounts of β-sheets (46.3-51.7%) compared to α-helical structures (35.3-36.2%). Further, heat stress resulted in prominent changes in the symmetrical and asymmetrical CH2 bands from lipid acyl chain, ester carbonyl band, and carbohydrate region. The intensity of asymmetric and symmetric CH2 vibration of heat stressed CDC Golden was reduced considerably in comparison to the control and the decrease was higher compared to CDC Sage. In addition, CDC Golden showed an increase in intensity at the oxidative band of 3015 cm(-1). These results reveal that the whole pollen grains of both pea cultivars responded differently to heat stress. The tolerance of CDC Sage to heat stress (expressed as pollen germination percentage) may be due to its protein richness with α-helical structures which would protect against the destructive effects of dehydration due to heat stress. The low pollen germination percentage of CDC Golden after heat stress may be also due to its sensitivity to lipid changes due to heat stress.

  10. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

  11. ATR-FT/IR study on the interactions between gliadins and dextrin and their effects on protein secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Secundo, Francesco; Guerrieri, Nicoletta

    2005-03-09

    The effects of heat treatment and dextrin addition on the secondary structure of gliadins were investigated by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT/IR). Gliadins and gliadin/dextrin mixtures (before and after thermal treatment) were prepared as a dried protein film on the ATR-FT/IR zinc selenide cell plate and equilibrated at a water activity (a(w)) of 0.06. The results show that gliadins undergo conformational changes upon thermal treatment both in the absence and in the presence of dextrin. In particular, in the thermally treated gliadins, the decrease of the band at around 1651 cm(-)(1) and the increase of the bands at around 1628 and 1690 cm(-)(1) suggest a loss of alpha-helix structure and a higher content of protein aggregates. The same trend was observed in the presence of dextrin. Concerning the interactions between gliadins and dextrin, gliadin/dextrin mixtures show variations in the amide I region compared to native gliadins (e.g., an increase of the band at 1645 cm(-)(1) and the absence of the band at around 1668 cm(-)(1)) that might be due to hydrogen bond formation between gliadins and dextrin. It was also found that the spectrum of gliadin/dextrin mixtures was less affected by the hydration state than that of native gliadins, as observed from the differential spectra obtained by subtraction of the spectrum obtained at a(w) = 0.06 (driest condition tested) from the spectrum of the sample equilibrated at a(w) = 0.84. This could be due to the fact that C=O and N-H groups of gliadins are engaged to form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of dextrin, and so they are not perturbed by the presence of water molecules. Finally, water activity effects on the secondary structure of gliadins are also discussed.

  12. In situ ATR FTIR studies of SO4 adsorption on goethite in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Beattie, D A; Chapelet, J K; Gräfe, M; Skinner, W M; Smith, E

    2008-12-15

    Despite the existence of many single ion sorption studies on iron and aluminum oxides, fewer studies have been reported that describe cosorption reactions. In this work, we present an in situ ATR FTIR study of synergistic adsorption of sulfate (SO4) and copper (Cu) on goethite, which is representative of the minerals and ions present in mine wastes, acid sulfate soils, and other industrial and agricultural settings. Sulfate adsorption was studied as a function of varying pH, and as a function of increasing concentration in the absence and presence of Cu. The presence of Cu ions in solution had a complex effect on the ability of SO4 ions to be retained on the goethite surface with increasing pH, with complete desorption occurring near pH 7 and 9 in the absence and presence of Cu, respectively. In addition, Cu ions altered the balance of inner vs outer sphere adsorbed SO4. The solid phase partitioning of SO4 at pH 3 and pH 5 was elevated by the presence of Cu; in both cases Cu increased the affinity of SO4 for the goethite surface. Complementary ex situ sorption edge studies of Cu on goethite in the absence and presence of SO4 revealed that the Cu adsorption edge shifted to lower pH (6.3 --> 5.6) in the presence of SO4, consistent with a decrease of the electrostatic repulsion between the goethite surface and adsorbing Cu. Based on the ATR FTIR and bulk sorption data we surmise that the cosorption products of SO4 and Cu at the goethite-water interface were not in the nature of ternary complexes under the conditions studied here. This information is critical for the evaluation of the onset of surface precipitates of copper-hydroxy sulfates as a function of pH and solution concentration.

  13. Classification of agents using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (CTA) with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Trevisan, Júlio; Pang, Weiyi; Riding, Matthew J; Strong, Rebecca J; Llabjani, Valon; Pant, Kamala; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Martin, Francis L

    2015-09-01

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (pH 6.7) has a reported sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 83%, and an overall concordance of 85% with in vivo rodent bioassay data. To date, the SHE assay is the only in vitro assay that exhibits multistage carcinogenicity. The assay uses morphological transformation, the first stage towards neoplasm, as an endpoint to predict the carcinogenic potential of a test agent. However, scoring of morphologically transformed SHE cells is subjective. We treated SHE cells grown on low-E reflective slides with 2,6-diaminotoluene, N-nitroso-N-ethylnitroguanidine, N-nitroso-N-methylurea, N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, EDTA, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO; vehicle control), methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[e]pyrene, mitomycin C, ethyl methanesulfonate, ampicillin or five different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Macroscopically visible SHE colonies were located on the slides and interrogated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy acquiring five spectra per colony. The acquired IR data were analysed using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) followed by principal component analysis (PCA)-LDA cluster vectors to extract major and minor discriminating wavenumbers for each treatment class. Each test agent vs. DMSO and treatment-induced transformed cells vs. corresponding non-transformed were classified by a unique combination of major and minor discriminating wavenumbers. Alterations associated with Amide I, Amide II, lipids and nucleic acids appear to be important in segregation of classes. Our findings suggest that a biophysical approach of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could facilitate a more objective interrogation of SHE cells towards scoring for transformation and ultimately employing the assay for risk assessment of test agents.

  14. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  15. Formal description of aggregates of a generalised model of interaction processes in computer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ratsin, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    The realisation using PL/1 of a formal description of a set of interaction process functions in computer networks using the language of discrete parallel processes is described. The formal description is intended for conducting computer modelling experiments. 4 references.

  16. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Frank P; Lau, Alan; Schamus, Sandra; Conrads, Thomas P; O'Connor, Mark J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2015-12-29

    ATR and ATM are DNA damage signaling kinases that phosphorylate several thousand substrates. ATR kinase activity is increased at damaged replication forks and resected DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM kinase activity is increased at DSBs. ATM has been widely studied since ataxia telangiectasia individuals who express no ATM protein are the most radiosensitive patients identified. Since ATM is not an essential protein, it is widely believed that ATM kinase inhibitors will be well-tolerated in the clinic. ATR has been widely studied, but advances have been complicated by the finding that ATR is an essential protein and it is widely believed that ATR kinase inhibitors will be toxic in the clinic. We describe AZD6738, an orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor. AZD6738 induces cell death and senescence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. AZD6738 potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and gemcitabine in NSCLC cell lines with intact ATM kinase signaling, and potently synergizes with cisplatin in ATM-deficient NSCLC cells. In contrast to expectations, daily administration of AZD6738 and ATR kinase inhibition for 14 consecutive days is tolerated in mice and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in xenograft models. Remarkably, the combination of cisplatin and AZD6738 resolves ATM-deficient lung cancer xenografts.

  17. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  18. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  19. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.