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Sample records for atr national scientific

  1. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  2. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Julie A.; Robertson, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    This is the 2013 Annual Report for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility. This report includes information on university-run research projects along with a description of the program and the capabilities offered researchers.

  3. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  5. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  6. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, “Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.”; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Catherine Thelen; Todd R. Allen

    2011-05-01

    This is the 2010 ATR National Scientific User Facility Annual Report. This report provides an overview of the program for 2010, along with individual project reports from each of the university principal investigators. The report also describes the capabilities offered to university researchers here at INL and at the ATR NSUF partner facilities.

  9. National Scientific User Facility Purpose and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K. E. Rosenberg; T. R. Allen; J. C. Haley; M. K. Meyer

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007. This designation allows the ATR to become a cornerstone of nuclear energy research and development (R&D) within the U.S. by making it easier for universities, the commercial power industry, other national laboratories, and international organizations to conduct nuclear energy R&D. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide nuclear energy researchers access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology within the U.S. In support of this mission, hot cell laboratories are being upgraded. These upgrades include a set of lead shielded cells that will house Irradiated Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) test rigs and construction of a shielded laboratory facility. A primary function of this shielded laboratory is to provide a state of the art type laboratory facility that is functional, efficient and flexible that is dedicated to the analysis and characterization of nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The facility shall be relatively easy to reconfigure to provide laboratory scale hot cave space for housing current and future nuclear material scientific research instruments.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; James I. Cole; Jeff B. Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the world’s premier test reactors for studying the effects of intense neutron radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR began operation in 1967, and has operated continuously since then, averaging approximately 250 operating days per year. The combination of high flux, large test volumes, and multiple experiment configuration options provide unique testing opportunities for nuclear fuels and material researchers. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected highly-enriched uranium fueled, reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The ATR peak thermal flux can reach 1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec, and the core configuration creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) that can be operated at different powers during the same operating cycle. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. The test positions range from 0.5” to 5.0” in diameter and are all 48” in length, the active length of the fuel. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. Goals of the ATR NSUF are to define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light water reactors, and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. The ATR NSUF has developed partnerships with other universities and national laboratories to enable ATR NSUF researchers to perform research at these other facilities, when the research objectives

  11. Operational Philosophy for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. Benson; J. Cole; J. Jackson; F. Marshall; D. Ogden; J. Rempe; M. C. Thelen

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). At its core, the ATR NSUF Program combines access to a portion of the available ATR radiation capability, the associated required examination and analysis facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and INL staff expertise with novel ideas provided by external contributors (universities, laboratories, and industry). These collaborations define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high-temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light-water reactors (LWRs), and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. To make possible the broadest access to key national capability, the ATR NSUF formed a partnership program that also makes available access to critical facilities outside of the INL. Finally, the ATR NSUF has established a sample library that allows access to pre-irradiated samples as needed by national research teams.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin

  13. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  14. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  15. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2015 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Robertson; James Lane; Doug Copsey

    2015-09-01

    This is the 2015 Annual Report for the Nuclear Science User Facility. This report includes information on university-run research projects along with a description of the program and the capabilities offered researchers.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor - A National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford J. Stanley

    2008-05-01

    The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The unique serpentine configuration of the fuel elements creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) and nine flux traps. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 additional irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. There are also 34 low-flux irradiation positions in the irradiation tanks outside the core reflector tank. The ATR is designed to provide a test environment for the evaluation of the effects of intense radiation (neutron and gamma). Due to the unique serpentine core design each of the five lobes can be operated at different powers and controlled independently. Options exist for the individual test trains and assemblies to be either cooled by the ATR coolant (i.e., exposed to ATR coolant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and neutron flux) or to be installed in their own independent test loops where such parameters as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux, and energy can be controlled per experimenter specifications. The full-power maximum thermal neutron flux is ~1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec with a maximum fast flux of ~5.0 x1014 n/cm2-sec. The Advanced Test Reactor, now a National Scientific User Facility, is a versatile tool in which a variety of nuclear reactor, nuclear physics, reactor fuel, and structural material irradiation experiments can be conducted. The cumulative effects of years of irradiation in a normal power reactor can be duplicated in a few weeks or months in the ATR due to its unique design, power density, and operating flexibility.

  17. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  18. New Sensors for In-Pile Temperature Detection at the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; K. G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. As a user facility, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation’s energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the strategy for determining what instrumentation is needed and the program for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available and under development for in-pile detection of temperature at various irradiation locations in the ATR.

  19. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  2. Scientific collaboration dynamics in a national scientific system.

    PubMed

    Ferligoj, Anuška; Kronegger, Luka; Mali, Franc; Snijders, Tom A B; Doreian, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the collaboration structures and dynamics of the co-authorship network of all Slovenian researchers. Its goal is to identify the key factors driving collaboration and the main differences in collaboration behavior across scientific fields and disciplines. Two approaches to modelling network dynamics are combined in this paper: the small-world model and the mechanism of preferential attachment, also known as the process of cumulative advantage. Stochastic-actor-based modelling of co-authorship network dynamics uses data for the complete longitudinal co-authorship networks for the entire Slovenian scientific community from 1996 to 2010. We confirmed the presence of clustering in all fields and disciplines. Preferential attachment is far more complex than a single global mechanism. There were two clear distinctions regarding collaboration within scientific fields and disciplines. One was that some fields had an internal national saturation inhibiting further collaboration. The second concerned the differential impact of collaboration with scientists from abroad on domestic collaboration. In the natural, technical, medical, and biotechnical sciences, this promotes collaboration within the Slovenian scientific community while in the social sciences and humanities this inhibits internal collaboration.

  3. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  4. The Scientific Impact of Developing Nations

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Brambila, Claudia N.; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco; Perez-Angón, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes science productivity for nine developing countries. Results show that these nations are reducing their science gap, with R&D investments and scientific impact growing at more than double the rate of the developed world. But this “catching up” hides a very uneven picture among these nations, especially on what they are able to generate in terms of impact and output relative to their levels of investment and available resources. Moreover, unlike what one might expect, it is clear that the size of the nations and the relative scale of their R&D investments are not the key drivers of efficiency. PMID:27023182

  5. The Scientific Impact of Developing Nations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Brambila, Claudia N; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco; Perez-Angón, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes science productivity for nine developing countries. Results show that these nations are reducing their science gap, with R&D investments and scientific impact growing at more than double the rate of the developed world. But this "catching up" hides a very uneven picture among these nations, especially on what they are able to generate in terms of impact and output relative to their levels of investment and available resources. Moreover, unlike what one might expect, it is clear that the size of the nations and the relative scale of their R&D investments are not the key drivers of efficiency.

  6. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  7. Overview of Scientific Freedom and National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving

    2000-04-01

    The subject of our scrutiny is very much in the news, punctuated with nouns and modifiers both inflammatory and mundane such as espionage, justice, scientific accountability and scientific freedom. And while our discussion will focus on these issues, I want to raise some of the pragmatic questions that bear on the foundation of our support for international science. Beneath questions of guilt and the loss of secrets in the Wen Ho Lee case lay the inherent tension between the tradition of open exchange in the scientific enterprise and the need to protect the nation's security. How this balance is to be achieved in a democratic society has bedeviled us ever since the Manhattan project heralded the emergence of science and technology as instruments of great national power. If we do not find this balance, we run the risk of damaging some of the most important intellectual treasures that the US has produced the Department of Energy's national laboratories and the entire system that we call the international scientific enterprise. For while the superheated charges of lax security and criminal negligence have led some to call for ``firewalls" to isolate and protect the secrets in our weapons labs, such measures may have severe consequences for weapons and non-weapons labs alike and their many associated universities. It's estimated that from 70% to as much as 80% in the expansion of our economy is technology-driven, derived from the most productive system of scientific innovation in the world. This is also true of our national security. Science is indispensable to the development and maintenance of the nation's arsenals. The Department of Energy's Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship Program is central to the safety and reliability of American nuclear weapons and to our hope for a worldwide ban on nuclear tests. But this program will fail without a continuing intense development effort based on cutting-edge science. And a great deal of the science needed is being pursued in

  8. Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-02

    98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress Summary The federal...6 Current Federal Policy on Scientific Publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8...OECD), 2002, p. 30. Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress Introduction Publication of scientific

  9. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report December 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Renae Soelberg

    2014-12-01

    • PNNL has completed sectioning of the U.C. Berkeley hydride fuel rodlet 1 (highest burn-up) and is currently polishing samples in preparation for optical metallography. • A disk was successfully sectioned from rodlet 1 at the location of the internal thermocouple tip as desired. The transition from annular pellet to solid pellet is verified by the eutectic-filled inner cavity located on the back face of this disk (top left) and the solid front face (bottom left). Preliminary low-resolution images indicate interesting sample characteristics in the eutectic surrounding the rodlet at the location of the outer thermocouple tip (right). This sample has been potted and is currently being polished for high-resolution optical microscopy and subsequent SEM analysis. (See images.)

  10. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational

  11. ATR theory issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    Issues in ATR Theory emerge by considering three levels of the ATR problem. The term "monolithic architecture (MA)-ATR" is used for problems of standard classification theory. The MA-ATR level has seen recent unification of theories that should be aggressively applied. Modern ATR systems include standard classification theoretic subsystems (e.g., feature extraction, matching, and discrimination); however they also add modeling within a search paradigm. These "aggregate architecture (AA)-ATRs" allow more direct inclusion of application-specific prior (non-sample) knowledge. Greater theoretical support is needed for analyzing AA-ATRs at the system level and integrating the strong MA-ATR theories. The third level of the ATR problem returns to the MA-ATR problem and below. The strongest elements of the MA-ATR theories deal with the stochastic aspects of the ATR problem. Structural aspects of ATRs are an important weak link in the MA-ATR theories. Function decomposition provides an "atom" towards a structural theory. Decomposition provides robustness by constructing the MA-ATR's structure from samples, but is intractable. Standard MA-ATR design is tractable, but is brittle because of an ad hoc structure selection. The key issue in either case is to make explicit use of non-sample (typically structural) knowledge in selecting or, better yet, constructing the MA-ATR's structure.

  12. A Complexity Approach to Evaluating National Scientific Systems through International Scientific Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnio, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to contribute to a fuller understanding of how international scientific collaboration has affected national scientific systems. It does this by developing three methodological approaches grounded in social complexity theory and applying them to the evaluation of national scientific systems. The first methodology identifies…

  13. Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-10

    2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress Summary The federal...6 Current Federal Policy on Scientific Publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

  14. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  15. Scientific Openness and National Security at the National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTague, John

    2000-04-01

    The possible loss to the People's Republic of China of important U.S. nuclear-weapons-related information has aroused concern about interactions of scientists employed by the national laboratories with foreign nationals. As a result, the National Academies assembled a committee to examine the roles of the national laboratories, the contribution of foreign interactions to the fulfillment of those roles, the risks and benefits of scientific openness in this context, and the merits and liabilities of the specific policies being implemented or proposed with respect to contacts with foreign nationals. The committee concluded that there are many aspects of the work at the laboratories that benefit from or even demand the opportunity for foreign interactions. The committee recommended five principles for guiding policy: (1) Maintain balance. Policy governing international dialogue by laboratory staff should seek to encourage international engagement in some areas, while tightly controlling it in others. (2) Educate staff. Security procedures should be clear, easy to follow, and serve an understandable purpose. (3) Streamline procedures. Good science is compatible with good security if there is intelligent line management both at the labs and in Washington, which applies effective tools for security in a sensible fashion. (4) Focus efforts. DOE should focus its efforts governing tightened security for information. The greatest attention should obviously be provided to the protection of classified information by appropriate physical and cybersecurity measures, and by personnel procedures and training. (5) Beware of prejudice against foreigners. Over the past half-century foreign-born individuals have contributed broadly and profoundly to national security through their work at the national laboratories.

  16. Are We a Nation of Scientific Illiterates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Verne

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the problem of scientific illiteracy among our youth when there is a need for scientific literacy so that we can compete successfully in the world market. Indicates that cooperation among academia, the private sector, government, and the military is one of the keys to success. (JOW)

  17. ATR2000 Mercury/MPI Real-Time ATR System User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Doerfler, D.W.

    2000-12-01

    The Air Force's Electronic Systems Center has funded Sandia National Laboratories to develop an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) System for the Air Force's Joint STARS platform using Mercury Computer systems hardware. This report provides general theory on the internal operations of the Real-Time ATR system and provides some basic techniques that can be used to reconfigure the system and monitor its runtime operation. In addition, general information on how to interface an image formation processor and a human machine interface to the ATR is provided. This report is not meant to be a tutorial on the ATR algorithms.

  18. IN-CORE FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois VIllard

    2014-12-01

    As part of an Idaho State University (ISU)–led Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) collaborative project that includes Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), flux detector evaluations were completed to compare their accuracy, response time, and longduration performance. Special fixturing, developed by INL, allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) core positions to perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector crosscalibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program included miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), and specially developed commercial SPNDs. Results from this program provide important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and yield new flux data required for benchmarking models in the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Modeling Update Project.

  19. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  20. Scientific Information Transfer and National Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adimorah, E. N. O.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the potential of scientific information transfer in selected English- and Arab-speaking countries of Africa, as it relates to national development through socio-economic planning, agriculture, medicine, and science and technology. (Author/CWM)

  1. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles discuss informational and educational programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Some of the areas discussed include scientific and technical information management, the new Space and Earth Science Information Systems, transfer of technology to other industries, intellectual property issues, and the…

  3. A perspective on ATR evaluation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz; Bazakos, Mike

    1990-09-01

    A historical perspective on the evolution of performance evaluation technology for automatic target recognition (ATR) systems is presented. It is shown that the ad hoc and artistic evaluation techniques of the past are now evolving into scientific approaches. The most perspective areas of this technology include: (1) first principle coupled, multi-sensor modeling of objects, environment, atmosphere, and vegetation; (2) integration of models with the task of ATR algorithm development; (3) integration of a new generation of parallel processor that can process every pixel of an image without the need for data reduction; (4) extending the instrumentation control of ATR to include sensor selection and sensor fusion; and (5) development of signal metrics for radar, acoustic and ladar, and linking these metrics to phenomenological sources.

  4. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Christina L.; Martelli, Daniella Reis B.; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L.; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Silva, Ana Cristina S. e; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality. PMID:24142308

  5. ATR Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Don

    1996-09-10

    The ATR (AGS to RHIC Transfer Line) is fed beam from two synchrotron rings. The first synchrotron ring is the Booster which receives protons from a 200MeV Linac and can achieve a proton energy of 1.5GeV. The Booster can also receive heavy ions from a 15.5MV Tandem Van de Graaff. The Booster is about 1/8 of a mile in circumference. The Booser then Feeds the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) wich can achieve a proton energy of 29.5 Gev. The AGS is about 1/2 of a mile in circumference. The AGS then kicks the beam out to the ATR line which will eventually feed RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) beam starting with the sextant test in December of 1996. The ATR line is about 1/2 mile long. The ATR line is made up of the upgraded U-line, new W, X and Y lines (see Figure 1). The test in November and December of 1995 transported beam from the AGS to the end of the W-line into a beam stop. During the normal operation of RHIC there will be a switching magnet at the end of the W-line which will bend beam into the X-Line and then into the Y-line so that the two beams in RHIC will be rotating in opposite directions.

  6. The objectives for deep scientific drilling in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The western area of the United Stated contains three young silicic calderas, all of which contain attractive targets for scientific drilling. Of the three, the Yellowstone caldera complex is the largest, has the most intense geothermal anomalies, and is the most seismically active. On the basis of scientific objectives alone. it is easily the first choice for investigating active hydrothermal processes. This report briefly reviews what is known about the geology of Yellowstone National Park and highlights unique information that could be acquired by research drilling only in Yellowstone. However, it is not the purpose of this report to recommend specific drill sites or to put forth a specific drilling proposal. 175 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods; Announcement of Meeting; Request for Comments SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

  8. 78 FR 48163 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section... Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of...

  9. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  10. PUREX new substation ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  11. Scientific Computing Strategic Plan for the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Eric Todd

    2015-09-01

    Scientific computing is a critical foundation of modern science. Without innovations in the field of computational science, the essential missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) would go unrealized. Taking a leadership role in such innovations is Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) challenge and charge, and is central to INL’s ongoing success. Computing is an essential part of INL’s future. DOE science and technology missions rely firmly on computing capabilities in various forms. Modeling and simulation, fueled by innovations in computational science and validated through experiment, are a critical foundation of science and engineering. Big data analytics from an increasing number of widely varied sources is opening new windows of insight and discovery. Computing is a critical tool in education, science, engineering, and experiments. Advanced computing capabilities in the form of people, tools, computers, and facilities, will position INL competitively to deliver results and solutions on important national science and engineering challenges. A computing strategy must include much more than simply computers. The foundational enabling component of computing at many DOE national laboratories is the combination of a showcase like data center facility coupled with a very capable supercomputer. In addition, network connectivity, disk storage systems, and visualization hardware are critical and generally tightly coupled to the computer system and co located in the same facility. The existence of these resources in a single data center facility opens the doors to many opportunities that would not otherwise be possible.

  12. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, J.E.; Lessard, V.C.; Spaeth, K.E.; Shaver, P.L.; Dayton, R.S.; Pyke, D.A.; Jolley, L.; Goebel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  13. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Lessard, Veronica C.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Shaver, Patrick L.; Dayton, Robert S.; Pyke, David A.; Jolley, Leonard; Goebel, J. Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers.

  14. Neutron spectrum studies in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.; Putnam, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been and currently is used to provide irradiation fields to study the effects of intense radiation on samples of reactor materials. These samples include fuel, cladding, control and structural materials. The ATR is also used to irradiate target materials for the production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications as well as for scientific research. Routine monitoring of the thermal'' and fast'' neutron levels have been conducted during every operational cycle since its startup in 1970. The routine neutron dosimetry has been primarily accomplished using the {sup 59}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 60}Co reaction for thermal'' neutrons and the {sup 58}Ni(n,p) {sup 58}Co reaction for fast'' neutrons as described in ASTM standard methods E261, E262, and E264. Neutron spectrum studies have now been conducted in the epithermal and fast neutron energy ranges for the various capsule irradiation test facilities and the routine neutron monitoring locations. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization at UNAM - Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Varela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) joined the family of Universities and Research Centers where advanced visualization and computing plays a key role to promote and advance missions in research, education, community outreach, as well as business-oriented consulting. This initiative provides access to a great variety of advanced hardware and software resources and offers a range of consulting services that spans a variety of areas related to scientific visualization, among which are: neuroanatomy, embryonic development, genome related studies, geosciences, geography, physics and mathematics related disciplines. The National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization delivers services through three main infrastructure environments: the 3D fully immersive display system Cave, the high resolution parallel visualization system Powerwall, the high resolution spherical displays Earth Simulator. The entire visualization infrastructure is interconnected to a high-performance-computing-cluster (HPCC) called ADA in honor to Ada Lovelace, considered to be the first computer programmer. The Cave is an extra large 3.6m wide room with projected images on the front, left and right, as well as floor walls. Specialized crystal eyes LCD-shutter glasses provide a strong stereo depth perception, and a variety of tracking devices allow software to track the position of a user's hand, head and wand. The Powerwall is designed to bring large amounts of complex data together through parallel computing for team interaction and collaboration. This system is composed by 24 (6x4) high-resolution ultra-thin (2 mm) bezel monitors connected to a high-performance GPU cluster. The Earth Simulator is a large (60") high-resolution spherical display used for global-scale data visualization like geophysical, meteorological, climate and ecology data. The HPCC-ADA, is a 1000+ computing core system, which offers parallel computing resources to applications that requires

  16. MELT WIRE SENSORS AVAILABLE TO DETERMINE PEAK TEMPERATURES IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. Knudson; J. Daw; J. Palmer; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. To meet the need for these locations, the INL has developed melt wire temperature sensors for use in ATR irradiation testing. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental testing of prototypical sensors was used to develop a library of 28 melt wire materials, capable of detecting peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 85 to 1500°C. This paper will discuss the development work and present test results.

  17. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  19. American Science Manpower 1968. A Report of the National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report, based on the questionnaire returns of 298,000 scientists in the 1968 National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel, presents data on the supply, utilization, and characteristics of the nation's scientific manpower resources. The report is organized in three parts: Part I presents some graphic highlights of the general…

  20. [Scientific controversy at the National Academy of Medicine: a view from history].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de-Romo, Ana Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    This essay deals with two scientific discussions that occurred at the National Academy of Medicine, one in the 19th century and the other, in the 20th century. Our goal was to emphasize that the National Academy of Medicine offers the space for scientific discussion related to medical problems.

  1. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

    2008-10-23

    This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

  2. Scientific technologies of national identity as colonial legacies: extracting the Spanish nation from equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Medina-Doménech, Rosa

    2009-02-01

    This paper examines how Spanish techno-scientific discourses and practices shaped metropolitan Spanish and colonial Guinean bodies and identities. It focuses on the range of technologies of biopower--from fingerprinting and blood testing to racial and geographic discourses--that constituted Guinean bodies in ambivalent ways during two periods: the first decades of the 20th century, and the post-Civil War period of the Francoist regime. In the first decades of the 20th century, blood tests were imposed on the local population as a legal requirement for obtaining identity cards in colonial Guinea; the identity cards offered them a severely restricted citizen status, especially if they were female. Indeed, the new blood testing technologies played a key role in efforts to control, reform and identify 'natives', less as subjects than as labouring bodies. During Franco's dictatorship, following the end of the Spanish Civil War (1939), the colonies became a space for the reconstruction of a unified Spanish national identity through two key strategies: 'detribalization' and 'hispanicization', which were carried out through a web of techno-scientific practices--in medicine and psychology as well as geography and anthropology--that included fingerprinting, blood testing, measurements of intelligence and racial discourses. Under the Franco regime, these practices not only justified violent, racist forms of exploitation, but were also used to stake a claim on Guinean colonial territories and bodies by emptying them of their existing identities and then reconstituting them under a single Spanish national identity.

  3. Scientific and Technical Information: Options for National Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Bruce G.; Joyce, Charles C.

    To provide interim guidance for the Office in matters of scientific and technical information (STI) prior to the report of the President's Committee on Science and Technology, MITRE conducted an analysis of Public Law 94-282 based upon common precepts of past reports and documents. The report recommends the creation of new organizational…

  4. Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-09

    scientific publications have been viewed as potentially aiding terrorist groups or countries. In October 2001, the full genome of Yersinia pestis, the...bacteria which causes bubonic and pneumonic plague, was published in the journal Nature.11 CRS-5 11 (...continued) Whitehead and B.G. Barrell, “ Genome ...al., “Complete Genome Sequence of the Q-fever Pathogen Coxiella burnetii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 100 (April 9, 2003) pp. 5455- 5460. 14

  5. 78 FR 29754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National..., investigations, experiments, demonstrations, and studies relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment,...

  6. 76 FR 67192 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National..., and scientists in the conduct of research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, and...

  7. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the extent and severity of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land use policy and management, yet currently available assessments are widely known to be inadequate. We describe results of the first statistically-based application of a new approach to national ass...

  8. A national study of scientific talent development in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Chwee Geok

    Three cohorts comprising a total of 155 gifted science students who had participated in a research mentorship program, the Science Research Program (SRP) in Singapore, were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. Adapting Gagne's (2003, 2004) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual framework, this study examined the intrapersonal and environmental catalysts that students perceived to have contributed to their talent development in the sciences. It also sought to evaluate the impact of the SRP on the students, and the extent to which it reinforced their passion for the sciences, and decision to pursue careers in science and/or research. Respondents attributed the biggest role to the 'self' in their talent development journey. They perceived that various intrapersonal qualities they had---sense of curiosity, passion for the subject as well as persistence---were most important in nurturing and sustaining their interest and engagement in science. The external catalysts of teachers and the school appeared to have played a bigger role than parents and the home in respondents' perceptions of the influences on their scientific talent development process. Qualitative descriptions of inspiring and memorable teachers were consistent with qualities of effective teachers in the literature. Findings also showed that students felt the SRP had been very effective in enhancing their scientific knowledge and skills, but that it was less impactful in shaping their future course and career decisions. Indeed, except for a handful who reported that the SRP actually helped them discover that science was not really their passion, the majority plan to pursue careers in science, both in research and in applied fields, aspirations they have had since childhood. There appeared to be little attrition of this group from the science pipeline although there are some indications that more might need to be done to attract more gifted females to the field and to help

  9. National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities. PMID:17991781

  10. Scientific freedom, national security, and the first amendment.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J R

    1983-08-12

    The Supreme Court may soon be asked to decide an important issue of First Amendment law arising from the government's efforts to restrict the dissemination of "militarily critical" technological knowledge. To resolve the issue, the Court will first determine whether technological knowledge qualifies for a full measure of protection under the free-speech clause of the First Amendment. The Court will then address the government's stated justification for restricting the contested information. This inquiry will evaluate both the gravity of the asserted danger to national security and the likelihood of its occurrence.

  11. 75 FR 16817 - 2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... announcing a public meeting entitled ``2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is the results from the National Antimicrobial Resistance...

  12. 76 FR 65729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...) Implementation of the National Academies Program Recommendations for Respiratory Diseases, Hearing Loss... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  13. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal..., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  14. 78 FR 48438 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health... or Virginia Cain, vcain@cdc.gov at least 10 days in advance for requirements). All visitors...

  15. 77 FR 2548 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health... advance for requirements). All visitors are required to present a valid form of picture...

  16. 76 FR 28438 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) The meeting announced below concerns RFA CE10-004, the National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (U01), secondary review. In...

  17. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  18. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  19. ATR PDQ and MCWO Fuel Burnup Analysis Codes Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Chang; P. A. Roth; M. A. Lillo

    2009-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being studied to determine the feasibility of converting it from the highly enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel that is currently uses to low enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. In order to achieve this goal, it would be best to qualify some different computational methods than those that have been used at ATR for the past 40 years. This paper discusses two methods of calculating the burnup of ATR fuel elements. The existing method, that uses the PDQ code, is compared to a modern method that uses A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) combined with the Origen2.2 code. This modern method, MCNP with ORIGEN2.2 (MCWO), is found to give excellent agreement with the existing method (PDQ). Both of MCWO and PDQ are also in a very good agreement to the 235U burnup data generated by an analytical method.

  20. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    a Readiness Assessment in November 2009. The HSIS is a key component of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and is available to a wide variety of university researchers for nuclear fuels and materials experiments as well as medical isotope research and production.

  1. ZERT Final Scientific Report Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2011-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) activities for the Center for Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) have fallen into three broad research areas: (1) How do you reduce uncertainty in assuring prior to operation that an engineered geologic site will meet a specific performance goal (e.g., <0.01% leak per year)? (2) What are key monitoring needs for verifying that an engineered geologic site is meeting a performance goal? (3) What are potential vulnerabilities for breeches in containment of CO{sub 2}, and how could they be mitigated either prior to operation or in the event that a threshold is exceeded? We have utilized LANL's multi-disciplinary expertise and an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments, field observations and numerical simulations to address various research issues related to above-mentioned areas. While there have been a number of major milestones achieved as described in past quarterly reports, two of the major accomplishments resulting from LANL's efforts include: (1) Development of the CO{sub 2}-PENS systems framework for long-term performance analysis of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. CO{sub 2}-PENS is first-ever systems analysis tool designed for assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. (2) One of the few field studies to-date focused on understanding impact of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow groundwater chemistry. Two major conclusions of the study are as follows: the impact of co-contaminants transported with deeper brine on shallow groundwater quality is likely to be much larger than that of the CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-induced geochemical reactions and in certain geochemical environment the reactivity of pure CO{sub 2} will not be sufficient to mobilize metals beyond background levels.

  2. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  3. ATR Performance Estimation Seed Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    for this collec ion of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data ...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collec ion of information. Send comments regarding this burden...to produce simulated MCM sonar data and demonstrate the impact of system, environmental, and target scattering effects on ATR detection

  4. National medical research ranking and scientific productivity: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Aminpour, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Continuous evaluation of research performance is an effective tool for financial and human resource allocation to promote knowledge production by academic institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific performance of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) from April 2010 to April 2011 in the national medical research ranking. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out through running advanced searches in the national, local and international information databases and other websites. Then the data were analyzed in order to demonstrate IUMS scientific production and research status at a national level. Results: From April 2010 to April 2011, about 9% of total Iranian medical articles, 6% of total Iranian ISI indexed articles in medical science and 12% of Iranian PubMed indexed articles affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Although Isfahan University of Medical Sciences stood at the third place in the annual national research ranking, but it was first in the scientific growth among Iranian medical universities. Conclusions: The study indicated that Isfahan University of Medical Sciences witnessed striking improvement in scientific productivity, research performance and national research grade during 2010-2011. PMID:23267404

  5. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years.

  6. 75 FR 1062 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 5 (Friday, January 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 1062-1063] [FR Doc No: 2010-22] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In...

  7. "Adventures in Science": Casting Scientifically Talented Youth as National Resources on American Radio, 1942-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1942 to 1958, a national weekly programme on CBS radio and presented by Science Service, Inc. devoted 37 of its broadcasts to profiling American high school students' achievements in science talent searches, clubs and fairs. These "Adventures in Science" radio programmes cast scientifically talented youth as potential contributors to national…

  8. 77 FR 31359 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics (BSC, NCHS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics (BSC, NCHS) Notice of Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal...

  9. 78 FR 35036 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in the...

  10. 78 FR 37542 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in the...

  11. 76 FR 9019 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics (BSC, NCHS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics (BSC, NCHS) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  12. 77 FR 47850 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Technologies, and Health Hazard Evaluations; Construction Safety and Health, Respiratory Disease Studies, and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  13. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are authorized under Sections 301 and 308 of the...

  14. Regional assessments of stream ecological condition: Scientific challenges associated with the USA's national Wadeable Stream Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this special issue of J-NABS, we have compiled a series of papers that describe some of the major scientific challenges that were encountered during the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) and some of the lessons learned subsequent to the assessment. Our goal in produc...

  15. Regional assessments of stream ecological condition: Scientific challenges associated with the USA's national Wadeable Stream Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this special issue of J-NABS, we have compiled a series of papers that describe some of the major scientific challenges that were encountered during the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) and some of the lessons learned subsequent to the assessment. Our goal in produc...

  16. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L.92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  17. 77 FR 37678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Notice of Charter... Substances and Disease Registry, Department of Health and Human Services, has been renewed for a 2-year... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease...

  18. "Adventures in Science": Casting Scientifically Talented Youth as National Resources on American Radio, 1942-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1942 to 1958, a national weekly programme on CBS radio and presented by Science Service, Inc. devoted 37 of its broadcasts to profiling American high school students' achievements in science talent searches, clubs and fairs. These "Adventures in Science" radio programmes cast scientifically talented youth as potential contributors to national…

  19. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee..., demonstrations, and studies relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and...

  20. 75 FR 17754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics, (BSC, NCHS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics, (BSC, NCHS) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for...

  1. 78 FR 6328 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972,...

  2. Characterization of the peer review network at the Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Boyack, Kevin W; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. This funding is largely effected through a competitive grants process. Each year the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) at NIH manages the evaluation, by peer review, of more than 55,000 grant applications. A relevant management question is how this scientific evaluation system, supported by finite resources, could be continuously evaluated and improved for maximal benefit to the scientific community and the taxpaying public. Towards this purpose, we have created the first system-level description of peer review at CSR by applying text analysis, bibliometric, and graph visualization techniques to administrative records. We identify otherwise latent relationships across scientific clusters, which in turn suggest opportunities for structural reorganization of the system based on expert evaluation. Such studies support the creation of monitoring tools and provide transparency and knowledge to stakeholders.

  3. Does the public communication of science influence scientific vocation? Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Stekolschik, Gabriel; Draghi, Cecilia; Adaszko, Dan; Gallardo, Susana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if public communication of science and technology (PCST) has any influence on people's decision to become dedicated to scientific research. For this reason, a national survey involving 852 researchers from all disciplines was conducted in Argentina. The results showed that the factors affecting scientific vocation are many, and that, regardless of differences in gender, age or discipline, the greatest influence on the decision to go into scientific research is exerted by teachers. The analysis also demonstrated that different manifestations of PCST (science books, press articles, audiovisual material, and activities such as visits to science museums) play a significant role in awakening the vocation for science. From these results it may be stated that PCST--in addition to its function of informing and forming citizens--exerts a significant influence in fostering scientific vocation.

  4. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  5. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  6. Do national drug control laws ensure the availability of opioids for medical and scientific purposes?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marty Skemp; Maurer, Martha A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether national drug control laws ensure that opioid drugs are available for medical and scientific purposes, as intended by the 1972 Protocol amendment to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Methods The authors examined whether the text of a convenience sample of drug laws from 15 countries: (i) acknowledged that opioid drugs are indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering; (ii) recognized that government was responsible for ensuring the adequate provision of such drugs for medical and scientific purposes; (iii) designated an administrative body for implementing international drug control conventions; and (iv) acknowledged a government’s intention to implement international conventions, including the Single Convention. Findings Most national laws were found not to contain measures that ensured adequate provision of opioid drugs for medical and scientific purposes. Moreover, the model legislation provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime did not establish an obligation on national governments to ensure the availability of these drugs for medical use. Conclusion To achieve consistency with the Single Convention, as well as with associated resolutions and recommendations of international bodies, national drug control laws and model policies should be updated to include measures that ensure drug availability to balance the restrictions imposed by the existing drug control measures needed to prevent the diversion and nonmedical use of such drugs. PMID:24623904

  7. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through Scientific Approach to Improve Student Learning Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.

  8. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of national society cardiovascular journals: the new ESC search engine.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Gonçalves, Lino; Pinto, Fausto; Timmis, Adam; Ector, Hugo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Panos, Vardas

    2013-10-01

    European Society of Cardiology (ESC) National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs) are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors' Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs.

  9. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of National Society Cardiovascular Journals: The new ESC search engine.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Gonçalves, Lino; Pinto, Fausto; Timmis, Adam; Ector, Hugo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Vardas, Panos

    2015-05-01

    European Society of Cardiology (ESC) National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs) are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors' Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs.

  10. New Sensors for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Heng Ban; Brandon Fox; Gordon Kohse

    2009-06-01

    A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the selection strategy of what instrumentation is needed, and the program generated for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF with data from irradiation tests using these sensors. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users advanced methods for detecting temperature, fuel thermal conductivity, and changes in sample geometry.

  11. Unimpeded Dissemination of Scientific Research Versus National Security Needs Discussed at Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    In the United States, the only mechanism for restricting publication of scientific research results because of national security concerns is classification by federal agencies according to deemed levels of sensitivity. In the wake of heightened fears following the events of 11 September, 2001, the U.S. government issued in March 2002 a new classification category, ``sensitive but unclassified,'' which many in the U.S. scientific community consider vague and ill-defined. Certain research in both the life and physical sciences is potentially subject to being classified in this manner. The issuance of this a new classification category has raised concerns in the scientific community of a potential for unnecessary restrictions on the dissemination of data and other material that emanates from government-sponsored research programs.

  12. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  13. Joining Forces Between National Scientific Community and National Agencies: The Spanish GEOSS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, J.; Díaz, P.; Pons, X.; Serral, I.; Belda, F.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, 86 countries are Group on Earth Observations (GEO) members. Mainly, GEO points are relevant national agencies that ensure the national participation in the GEOSS implementation efforts. AEMet (the Spanish Meteorological Office) is the direct responsible for GEOSS in Spain and they participate in GEO Committees and tasks. Also, the European Commission is actively funding European research projects to develop GEOSS using innovative conceptual frameworks and technologies. The success of GEO strongly depends on the contributions from science communities. Unfortunately, difficulties in the development and use of GEOSS resources have been identified in these communities including the earth observation one. Furthermore, up to now, these activities resemble a bottom-up approach, and depend on the initiative of national groups and individuals. There is a lack of a comprehensive outreach and engagement program, to which these activities could be linked, and there is a lack of top-down activities. The 7th framework program project "Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS" (EGIDA) will coordinate and cooperate with national agencies and existing research projects and will provide network methodologies. CREAF is EGIDA partner and will facilitate the implementation of the EGIDA methodology in Spain. Official Spanish representatives in GEOSS were contacted to explore the possibility of creating a permanent GEOSS-Spain network formed by both national administration bodies and relevant research initiatives. Also to assess the situation, CREAF prepared a questionnaire based on 5 simple questions that are conceived to start a dialog. 14 interviews were done so far by phone to public, private organizations and universities from 9 different European funded projects (EARLINETASOS, EuroSITES, ENVIROGRIDS, EuroGEOSS, ECOOP, GeoViQua, GFG2, HEREPLUS, and HERMIONE) and will be extended to other relevant communities in the near future

  14. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, J.

    1996-11-01

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

  15. Uniprocessor Performance Analysis of a Representative Workload of Sandia National Laboratories' Scientific Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Laverty

    2005-10-01

    UNIPROCESSOR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE WORKLOAD OF SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES' SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS Master of Science in Electrical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico, 2005 Dr. Jeanine Cook, Chair Throughout the last decade computer performance analysis has become absolutely necessary to maximum performance of some workloads. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) located in Albuquerque, New Mexico is no different in that to achieve maximum performance of large scientific, parallel workloads performance analysis is needed at the uni-processor level. A representative workload has been chosen as the basis of a computer performance study to determine optimal processor characteristics in order to better specify the next generation of supercomputers. Cube3, a finite element test problem developed at SNL is a representative workload of their scientific workloads. This workload has been studied at the uni-processor level to understand characteristics in the microarchitecture that will lead to the overall performance improvement at the multi-processor level. The goal of studying vthis workload at the uni-processor level is to build a performance prediction model that will be integrated into a multi-processor performance model which is currently being developed at SNL. Through the use of performance counters on the Itanium 2 microarchitecture, performance statistics are studied to determine bottlenecks in the microarchitecture and/or changes in the application code that will maximize performance. From source code analysis a performance degrading loop kernel was identified and through the use of compiler optimizations a performance gain of around 20% was achieved.

  16. COSMO-SkyMed Open Call: An Opportunity for the International Scientific Community and National SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battagliere, Maria Libera; Dini, Luigi; Daraio, Maria Girolamo; Sacco, Patrizia; Virelli, Maria; Coletta, Alessandro; Piperno, Osvaldo

    2016-08-01

    COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation) is an Italian Earth Observation (EO) Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System conceived with the aim to establish a global service able to satisfy almost all user application requirements and most of potential market demand. Thanks to its features, since 2008, Italy plays a key role in the international EO context, being one of the most exploited Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission during awareness and disaster events.The Italian Space Agency (ASI) continues to stimulate also the scientific data exploitation of COSMO-SkyMed data, through the issue, in 2015, of an "Open Call for Science", addressed to the international EO scientific community, and an "Open Call for National Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)".This paper is focused on the status and results obtained after one year of activity by ASI through the mentioned calls, considering a quantitative analysis of the received proposals.

  17. [Scientific productivity standards and the National Automous University of Mexico School of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Federico; Palomares, Alejandra; Piña, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The scientific production at theNational Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM) School of Medicine was analyzed during the period from 1999 to 2002. We found the following: 1) 94.83% of total international scientific papers was recovered; 2) mean impact factor had a value of 2.5, ca. the value reported by CONACYT, México, for the period 1998-2002; 3) percentage of corresponding authors was 58.83%, 27.80% of papers were national collaborations, 9.83% were international collaborations, and 3.37% corresponded to personal publications; 4) by using corresponding author and collaborations, academic leaders were identified; 5) there are differences among academic departments, and 6) basic research from the UNAM School of Medicine contributes 14% of national research and teaches ca. 2,450 students per year. It is proposed that this type of analysis should be used to establish the politics of science.

  18. UCSB ATR-­NSUF Irradiation DMC Sample Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Tarik A.; Quintana, Matthew Estevan; Romero, Tobias J.

    2015-02-23

    A variety of tensile samples of Ferritic and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS or nanoferritic) steels were placed the ATR reactor over 2 Years achieving doses of roughly 4-6 dpa at temperatures of roughly 290°C. After irradiation, samples were shipped from the MFC hot cells at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to the Wing 9 hot cells in the CMR facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Samples were cleaned to removed alpha contamination from the MFC hot cells, and then, as needed removed from their irradiation containers, sorted and inspected. This report will summarize the inspection of the Disc Multipurpose Coupon (DMC) inspection from packet 7-1.

  19. Shadow-based SAR ATR performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacknell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to assess potential automatic target recognition (ATR) performance for a given SAR system, target set and clutter environment is a key requirement for system procurement and mission planning. A cost-effective solution is to develop a theoretical model which can provide ATR performance predictions given a parameterisation of the system, targets and environment. In this paper, a classification scheme based on shadow information is analysed. Consideration of the statistical accuracy of shadow-based features allows ATR performance to be predicted. Quantitative comparisons of predicted performance with results obtained via simulation as well as against real data from the MSTAR data set are presented. It is seen that a reasonable level of agreement is obtained which gives confidence in extending the theoretical concepts to more complex feature-based ATR schemes.

  20. 75 FR 25870 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National... Friday, May 28, 2010 from 8:45 a.m. until 9 a.m. Purpose: The Secretary, Department of Health and Human..., scientific institutions, and scientists in the conduct of research, investigations,...

  1. Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

  2. SAR ATR using genetics based machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, B.; Gandhe, Avinash; Smith, Robert; Mehra, Raman

    2005-05-01

    Addressing the challenge of robust ATR, this paper describes the development and demonstration of Machine Learning for Robust ATR. The primary innovation of this work is the development of an automated way of developing heuristic inference rules that can draw on multiple models and multiple feature types to make more robust ATR decisions. The key realization is that this meta learning problem is one of structural learning; that can be conducted independently of parameter learning associated with each model and feature based technique, and more effectively draw on the strengths of all such techniques, and even information from unforeseen techniques. This is accomplished by using robust, genetics-based machine learning for the ill conditioned combinatorial problem of structural rule learning, while using statistical and mathematical techniques for parameter learning. This paper describes a learning classifier system approach (with evolutionary computation for structural learning) for robust ATR and points to a promising solution to the structural learning problem, across multiple feature types (which we will refer to as the meta-learning problem), for ATR with EOCs. This system was tested on MSTAR Public Release SAR data using nominal and extended operation conditions. These results were also compared against two baseline classifiers, a PCA based distance classifier and a MSE classifier. The systems were evaluated for accuracy (via training set classification) and robustness (via testing set classification). In both cases, the LCS based robust ATR system performed very well with accuracy over 99% and robustness over 80%.

  3. Scientific Programs and Funding Opportunities at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) is to improve human health by promoting the development and translation of emerging technologies in biomedical imaging and bioengineering. To this end, NIBIB supports a coordinated agenda of research programs in advanced imaging technologies and engineering methods that enable fundamental biomedical discoveries across a broad spectrum of biological processes, disorders, and diseases and have significant potential for direct medical application. These research programs dramatically advance the Nation's healthcare by improving the detection, management and, ultimately, the prevention of disease. The research promoted and supported by NIBIB also is strongly synergistic with other NIH Institutes and Centers as well as across government agencies. This presentation will provide an overview of the scientific programs and funding opportunities supported by NIBIB, highlighting those that are of particular important to the field of medical physics.

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

  5. National Security Restraints of the Federal Government on Academic Freedom and Scientific Communication in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Jessica D.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the historic and continuing conflict between academic freedom and national security. Topics discussed include regulation and enforcement, restricted technologies, international committees, statutes, Executive Orders, and the Corson Report on scientific communication and national security. A list of recent events in which academic…

  6. Scaling Up Scientific Discovery in Sleep Medicine: The National Sleep Research Resource

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Dennis A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Mueller, Remo; Kim, Matthew; Rueschman, Michael; Mobley, Daniel; Sahoo, Satya S.; Jayapandian, Catherine P.; Cui, Licong; Morrical, Michael G.; Surovec, Susan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Redline, Susan

    2016-01-01

    . Scaling up scientific discovery in sleep medicine: the National Sleep Research Resource. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1151–1164. PMID:27070134

  7. AFC-1 Fuel Rodlet Fission Power Deposition Validation in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo; D. J. Utterbeck

    2008-11-01

    One of the viable options of long-term geological disposal of the nuclear power reactors generated spent fuel is to extract plutonium, the minor actinides (MA) and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in an appropriate reactor for the reduction of the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. An important component of that technology will be a non-fertile / low-fertile actinide transmutation fuel form containing the plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes to be transmuted. Such advanced fuel forms, especially ones enriched in the long-life minor actinide (LLMA) elements (i.e., Np, Am, Cm), have minimal irradiation performance data available from which to establish a transmutation fuel form design. Recognizing these needs, an Advanced Fuel Cycle test series-1 (AFC-1) irradiation test on a variety of candidate fuel forms is now being conducted in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first advanced fuel experiment (AFC-1) has been finalized and the test assembly analyzed for insertion and irradiation in ATR. The ATR core consists of a serpentine and rotationally symmetric fuel assembly about the z-axis of the core center. The plan view of the ATR core configuration is shown in Fig. 5, in Ref. 1. A cadmium filter with a 0.178 cm (0.045") thickness and 121.5 cm (48") in length, is currently used in the actinide-fuel capsule design for the East Flux Trap (EFT) position in ATR, to depress the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) lower than the project’s 330 W/cm limit for the experimental fuel rodlets. The LHGR is proportional to the fission power deposited in the fuel rodlets from the neutron fissions. The fraction of the fission power generated from the neutron fission reactions deposited in the fuel rodlet is an important parameter for test assembly thermal analysis, which will be validated in this summary.

  8. Public Private Partnerships, Corporate Welfare or Building the Nation's Scientific Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, C. V.

    1996-03-01

    A debate is taking place in the U.S. concerning the investment of scarce Federal funds in science and technology research. Clouding this discussion is the proliferation of extreme views illustrated in the title of this talk. The impacts of the end of the cold war, the globalization of the economy and the realities of the budget deficit create a situation that cries out for a new social contract between scientists and taxpayers. We need to examine the successes and failures of the last 50 years to form the basis for a set of principles to enable the creation of a new consensus to define the roles of industry, government, universities and national laboratories in the research enterprise. The scientific infrastructure, and by extension, the economic vitality of the U.S., are at risk.

  9. The science–policy interface: the role of scientific assessments—UK National Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Robert Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the science–policy interface, emphasizing the role of evidence and scientific assessments. It then presents the key findings from the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA), which provided much of the evidence for the Natural Environment White Paper for England as a case study. It also influenced the development of the biodiversity strategy for England. The NEA demonstrates the importance of a multi-disciplinary team of experts to prepare and peer review assessments and the importance of input from funding agencies and relevant stakeholder groups in co-designing and reviewing. Much of the text and all of the figures in the NEA section are taken from the Synthesis Report of the NEA, which I drafted as co-chair of the NEA.1 PMID:23197933

  10. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nabout, J C; Carneiro, F M; Borges, P P; Machado, K B; Huszar, V L M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI). The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  11. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  12. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  13. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  14. Overview of the ATR Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, B.

    1997-05-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer Line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac(protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which will eventually feed the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1996. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS's), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS's. The remaining 63 PS's were newly purchased. These PS's range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS's to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS's. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  15. Overview of the ATR power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac (protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which feeds the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1997. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X, and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two storage rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS`s), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS`s. The remaining 63 PS`s were newly purchased. These PS`s range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS`s to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS`s. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  16. Fabrication Report for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B Capsule Irradiations in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2007-10-01

    This document provides a general narrative description of the AFC-2A and 2B fuel fabrication processes for the AFC 2A and AFC 2B fuel irradiation experiments fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR).

  17. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, Terry Alan

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to "major modifications" and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  18. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-06-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  19. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  20. The responsibility of the scientific community in matters of national security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Louis

    1989-05-01

    Scientists must provide more and better leadership in the debate over how to avoid catastrophe, whether it be through war, or starvation, or plague, or environmental degradation. Scientists should be vigilant about challenging false perceptions and defending the truth. They should alert our citizenry to major dangers—such as those brought about by weapons of great destructive potential—whether they be nuclear, biological, chemical, or even psychological. The scientific community needs to provide accurate and understandable analyses of these issues. It is their duty to develop and disseminate factual information by engaging in research, teaching, public outreach, and even lobbying. The scientific community has an obligation to identify and challenge muddled thinking. It is absolutely essential that the quality of public debate be raised well above where it now resides, in this election year. Some years ago, the American Physical Society created a Panel on Public Affairs. It has sponsored in-depth studies on critical national concerns such as energy and the environment. In this connection, I quote from a letter to the membership from Sid Drell, when he was President of the American Physical Society: As a result of the great impact of technology on our conditions of life and especially the threat of nuclear holocaust, there has never been a greater need for scientists, and physicists in particular, to be involved with public policy. The Society can and should play a constructive and instructive role in informing its members and in supporting and presenting appropriate studies to members of government and to the public. The council and officers of the Society have an important trust in protecting a high standard for such studies. The APS directedenergy weapons study stands out as the most pressing item on the society's agenda this year. I hope that by this coming summer the council will be able to release a report which will contribute significantly to the national

  1. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L  -  1, 0.48 mol L  -  1, 0.38 mol L  -  1, and 1.12 mol L  -  1, respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries.

  2. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  3. The distribution of atrazine (ATR) and ATR metabolites in the Wistar rat following gestational/lactational exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational/lactational exposure to ATR is reported to alter reproductive/developmental function, yet our understanding of the transfer of ATR and/or its metabolites from the dam to the fetus/offspring is limited. Previously we examined the lactational transfer of CI4-ATR, but sp...

  4. The distribution of atrazine (ATR) and ATR metabolites in the Wistar rat following gestational/lactational exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational/lactational exposure to ATR is reported to alter reproductive/developmental function, yet our understanding of the transfer of ATR and/or its metabolites from the dam to the fetus/offspring is limited. Previously we examined the lactational transfer of CI4-ATR, but sp...

  5. Twitter expands the reach and engagement of a national scientific meeting: the Irish Society of Urology.

    PubMed

    Nason, G J; O'Kelly, F; Bouchier-Hayes, D; Quinlan, D M; Manecksha, R P

    2015-09-01

    Social media is the interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and web-based networks. This year, the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) expanded its involvement in social media with a preregistered Twitter hashtag (#ISU14) for the annual meeting. The aim of this study was to highlight the use of Twitter at an annual national meeting held in 2014. The Symplur healthcare analytics website was used to prospectively examine traffic related to the 2014 ISU Annual Meeting. This feature was used to generate statistics for the number of impressions, unique tweets (excluding retweets) and distinct contributors who used the indexing hashtag #ISU14. Individual tweets were assessed using the conference hashtag on the Twitter website. The total number of attendees at the conference was 119, and 99 individuals participated in Twitter using the conference hashtag (#ISU14). 31 % of attendees participated in tweeting at the conference. Over the course of the conference, a total of 798 unique tweets were generated, creating over 665,000 impressions in cyberspace. 590 (73.9 %) tweets were generated from attendees at the conference, while 26.1 % of tweets were from virtual followers. 702 (87.9 %) tweets were from urologists and 439 (55 %) tweets were of scientific nature. Tweet activity peaked during the guest lectures on both days. Twitter use at the ISU has been shown to facilitate interaction between delegates and allows users to follow as well as participate from afar.

  6. Scientific user facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: New research capabilities and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, James

    2011-10-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has transformed its research infrastructure, particularly in the areas of neutron scattering, nanoscale science and technology, and high-performance computing. New facilities, including the Spallation Neutron Source, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, and Leadership Computing Facility, have been constructed that provide world-leading capabilities in neutron science, condensed matter and materials physics, and computational physics. In addition, many existing physics-related facilities have been upgraded with new capabilities, including new instruments and a high- intensity cold neutron source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. These facilities are operated for the scientific community and are available to qualified users based on competitive peer-reviewed proposals. User facilities at ORNL currently welcome more than 2,500 researchers each year, mostly from universities. These facilities, many of which are unique in the world, will be reviewed including current and planned research capabilities, availability and operational performance, access procedures, and recent research results. Particular attention will be given to new neutron scattering capabilities, nanoscale science, and petascale simulation and modeling. In addition, user facilities provide a portal into ORNL that can enhance the development of research collaborations. The spectrum of partnership opportunities with ORNL will be described including collaborations, joint faculty, and graduate research and education.

  7. 77 FR 40365 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... on the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic..., NCEH/ ATSDR. The BSC, NCEH/ATSDR consists of 16 experts knowledgeable in the field of environmental... and disabilities caused by environmental conditions. Experts in the disciplines of toxicology...

  8. 76 FR 36923 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...: The NTP BSC meeting, scheduled for July 21, 2011, and announced in the Federal Register (76 FR 28785...

  9. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad.

    PubMed

    Azarpira, Negar; Amini, Mitra; Kojuri, Javad; Pasalar, Parvin; Soleimani, Masud; Hossein Khani, Saman; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Niknejhad, Hassan; Karimian, Zahra; Lotfi, Farhad; Shahabi, Shahram; Saadat, Iraj; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Adibi, Payman; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2012-01-23

    To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ≥ 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map.The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students

  10. 77 FR 58557 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... authorities, scientific institutions, and scientists in the conduct of research, investigations, experiments... mental diseases and other impairments; (2) assist states and their political subdivisions in the...

  11. 78 FR 32657 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... authorities, scientific institutions, and scientists in the conduct of research, investigations, experiments... mental diseases and other impairments; (2) assist states and their political subdivisions in the...

  12. Applicability of terrestrial LIDAR scanning for scientific studies in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, an experimental high flow release of water from Glen Canyon Dam into the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona was conducted. The goal of the experiment was to evaluate the use of high flow events as a management tool for the preservation and restoration of natural resources in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) located in Flagstaff, Arizona performed oversight of all aspects of scientific data collection including suspended sediment transport studies, biological population variations, effects on archaeological resources, and morphological studies of river sand bars. As part of the experimental high flow studies, the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) team was invited to participate to test the effectiveness of utilizing terrestrial LIDAR technology for gathering morphological data on sand bars, biological habitats, and archaeological sites. The CMG is equipped with a terrestrial LIDAR unit and has used the technique in a variety of terrains to gather high-resolution morphological data. A three-member team from CMG participated in the experiment, joining a GCMRC team on a river trip from November 18 to November 21, 2004. This report begins with a brief description of the LIDAR technique and then outlines the data collected, processing required, and results for three study areas located within the Grand Canyon. Specifically, studies were performed at the Mile 30 Sand Bar, at Vaseys Paradise (Mile 32), and at the Mile 66 Palisades Archaeological Site. Conclusions and recommendations for utilizing terrestrial LIDAR for future studies at each of these sites are also included.

  13. Data Management Challenges in a National Scientific Program of 55 Diverse Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.

    2016-12-01

    In 2007-2015, the Dutch funding agency NWO funded the National Ocean and Coastal Research Program (in Dutch: ZKO). This program focused on `the scientific analysis of five societal challenges related to a sustainable use of the sea and coastal zones'. These five challenges were safety, economic yield, nature, spatial planning & development and water quality. The ZKO program was `set up to strengthen the cohesion and collaboration within Dutch marine research'. From the start of the program, data management was addressed, to allow data to be shared amongst the, diverse, research projects. The ZKO program was divided in 4 different themes (or regions). The `Carrying Capacity' theme was subdivided into 3 `research lines': Carrying capacity (Wadden Sea) - Policy-relevant Research - Monitoring - Hypothesis-driven Research Oceans North Sea Transnational Wadden Sea Research 56 Projects were funded, ranging from studies on the governance of the Wadden Sea to expeditions studying trace elements in the Atlantic Ocean. One of the first projects to be funded was the data management project. Its objectives were to allow data exchange between projects, to archive all relevant data from all ZKO projects and to make the data and publications publicly available, following the ZKO Data Policy. This project was carried out by the NIOZ Data Management Group. It turned out that the research projects had hardly any interest in sharing data between projects and had good (?) arguments not to share data at all until the end of the projects. A data portal was built, to host and make available all ZKO data and publications. When it came to submitting the data to this portal, most projects obliged willingly, though found it occasionally difficult to find time to do so. However, some projects refused to submit data to an open data portal, despite the rules set up by the funding agency and agreed by all. The take-home message of this presentation is that data sharing is a cultural and

  14. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; S. T. Laflin

    1999-08-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple "low cost" shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Cost were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4-5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations.

  15. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David . E-mail: david.cortez@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-05-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress.

  16. Ciência & Saúde coletiva Journal at the national and international context of scientific communication.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gomes, Romeu

    2015-07-01

    The article discusses the role of the Ciência & Saúde Coletiva Journal in the dissemination of knowledge in Brazil and in the international scientific community, its new challenges and role in the consolidation of the national public health field. Its history is outlined, positioning it as a scientific journal and the themes approached in it are analyzed. Among the findings, it is emphasized that the journal features a structured space by the habitus of public health, and creates its own habitus that contributes to structure this field. In addition, the journal contributes to the development of critical mass in the area and is committed to the Brazilian Public Health System.

  17. Structural Issues in the Supply and Demand for Scientific Manpower: Implications for National Manpower Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathersby, George B.

    This paper argues that, in addition to responding to surface manifestations of imbalance in scientific manpower supply and demand, we should examine and understand far better than we now do the nature and extent of the structural forces operative on the supply and demand of scientific talent. The author reviewed the literature and the parameters…

  18. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  19. Profile and scientific output analysis of physical therapy researchers with research productivity fellowship from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.

    PubMed

    Sturmer, Giovani; Viero, Carolina C M; Silveira, Matheus N; Lukrafka, Janice L; Plentz, Rodrigo D M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the profile and the scientific output of physical therapists researchers holding a research productivity fellowship (PQ) from the Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq). This is a cross-sectional study, which has evaluated the Lattes Curriculum of all PQ physiotherapy researchers registered at CNPq holding a research productivity fellowship in the period of 2010. The variables analyzed were: gender, geographic and institutional distribution, duration since doctorate defense, research productivity fellowship level, scientific output until 2010 and the H index in Scopus(®) and ISI databases. A total of 55 PQ from the CNPq were identified in the area of knowledge of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, being 81.8% from the Southeast region of Brazil. They were predominantly female (61.8%), with research productivity fellowship level PQ2 (74.5%), and with average time since doctorate defense of 10.1 (±4.1) years. A total of 2.381 articles were published, with average of 42.5 (±18.9) articles/researcher. The average of articles published after doctorate defense was 39.40 (±18.9) articles/researchers with a mean output of 4.2 (±2.0) articles/year. We found 304 articles indexed in the Scopus(®) database with 2.463 citations, and 222 articles indexed in the Web of Science with 1.805 citations. The articles were published in 481 journals, being 244 (50.7%) of them listed on JCR-web. The researchers presented a median 5 of the H index in the Scopus(®) database, and a median 3 in ISI. The scientific output of the researchers with research productivity fellowship in the field of physical therapy stands out in their indicators, since the figures are very promising for a relatively young area and as it can be observed by the amount of published articles and citations obtained by the national and international research community.

  20. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  1. Targeting ATR in DNA damage response and cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Prevo, Remko; Hammond, Ester M; Brunner, Thomas B; McKenna, W Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J

    2014-02-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity during DNA replication through the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 and regulation of the DNA damage response. Preclinical studies have shown that disruption of ATR pathway can exacerbate the levels of replication stress in oncogene-driven murine tumors to promote cell killing. Additionally, inhibition of ATR can sensitise tumor cells to radiation or chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that targeting ATR can selectively sensitize cancer cells but not normal cells to DNA damage. Furthermore, in hypoxic conditions, ATR blockade results in overloading replication stress and DNA damage response causing cell death. Despite the attractiveness of ATR inhibition in the treatment of cancer, specific ATR inhibitors have remained elusive. In the last two years however, selective ATR inhibitors suitable for in vitro and - most recently - in vivo studies have been identified. In this article, we will review the literature on ATR function, its role in DDR and the potential of ATR inhibition to enhance the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the 50-year-old obsolescent marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety related emergency diesel generators, switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The second project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps (PCPs) and motors. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus [E-3] and switchgear and replacement of the existent emergency firewater injection system) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The proposed strategy for equipping the replacement PCPs with VFDs

  3. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  4. Priorities for a national program of continental drilling for scientific purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The two reports, Continental Drilling and Continental Scientific Drilling Program, form a basis for this report and provide comprehensive discussions of the subject of continental drilling for scientific purposes in a number of research areas. The purpose of this report is to present a specific recommendation of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee on where the first deep hole dedicated to scientific exploration of the continental crust in the United States should be located. The most accessible and feasible hypothesis to test is the one of thin-skinned tectonics; the southern Appalachians, where the thrusting of crystalline rocks of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces over early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks is postulated, represents the best location for this drilling project. This hypothesis is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the evolution of continents. 4 refs.

  5. 76 FR 68461 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... is a federally chartered, external advisory group composed of scientists from the public and private... comprised of scientists from the public and private sectors that provides primary scientific oversight to...

  6. Secrecy and National Commercial Information Policy and Secrecy: Its Role in National Scientific and Technical Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; Gould, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    The first of two articles is an overview of the contexts in which secrecy is applied to business information as a matter of public policy. The second covers restrictions on dissemination of scientific and technical information including statutory and administrative mechanisms for its control, and implications of the current system. (Author/EM)

  7. Secrecy and National Commercial Information Policy and Secrecy: Its Role in National Scientific and Technical Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; Gould, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    The first of two articles is an overview of the contexts in which secrecy is applied to business information as a matter of public policy. The second covers restrictions on dissemination of scientific and technical information including statutory and administrative mechanisms for its control, and implications of the current system. (Author/EM)

  8. 76 FR 28785 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative Transgenerational....nih.gov/news/video/live . Request for Comments Written comments submitted in response to this notice...

  9. Improved automatic target recognition (ATR) value through enhancements and accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Goodwon, Lloyd C.

    2006-05-01

    There is a strong and growing need for automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies. Those technologies have made great strides; however, there is a general sense that they are not having the full impact desired. This paper develops a value-based framework for considering how ATR technology can be made more relevant and then introduces and expands on two elements within that framework: 'enhancements' and 'accommodations'. Value is used here as the degree to which a technology's benefits exceed the technology's costs. Value may be improved by increasing benefits or decreasing costs; but it may be as important that the uncertainty about benefits and costs be reduced. Enhancements and accommodations are distinguished here from the 'core ATR'. While it is generally appreciated that improved core ATR performance could improve value, enhancements and accommodations might be overlooked by those focused on ATRs. Enhancements are ways of making the overall system, inclusive of a core ATR, more capable. Accommodations are ways of making the problem easier for the core ATR. An example enhancement is technology to fuse the output of the core ATR with other sources. An example accommodation is for the user to agree to limit the target set to large, and therefore more easily recognized, objects. This paper encourages the consideration of this framework and outlines a number of candidates for enhancements and accommodations for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ATR, including humans-in-the-loop, change detection, fusion, modeling confusers, group detection, adaptive algorithms, class make-up, and scene-based decisions.

  10. Adaptive configuration and control in an ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Barry A.; Au, Wing K.

    1995-06-01

    Today's ATR is constructed via inefficient and suboptimal system configuration and training. The process of configuring an ATR is currently very labor intensive, subjective, and inaccurate, as is the process of training an ATR for a particular mission. To cure this deficiency, what is desired is an automated method of configuration and training which is capable of searching the N-dimensional space of modules, algorithms, and parameter values to produce ATR algorithm suites which perform best in each trained scenario. Also, today's ATR is only capable of a limited amount of adaptation to sensed (or otherwise obtained) changes in the environment. To improve the adaptibility of ATR processing and thereby improve accuracy and robustness, what is desired is a high-level control structure which enables system adaptation via changes in parameter values and changes in algorithms (at the component and at the 'suite' level). The Honeywell effort is producing a system for Adaptive Configuration and Control (ACC) of an ATR system which addresses the above described problems. The software system is using the machine learning technique of Genetic Algorithms to autonomously and optimally perform configuration and training and it is using case-based reasoning to provide run-time configuration and control of the ATR system. This paper provides an overview of the ACC system, describes its operation, and describes the benefits it provides to ATR systems.

  11. ATR maintains select progenitors during nervous system development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsoo; Shull, Erin RP; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Katyal, Sachin; Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Zhao, Jingfeng; Russell, Helen R; Brown, Eric J; McKinnon, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The ATR (ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and rad3-related) checkpoint kinase is considered critical for signalling DNA replication stress and its dysfunction can lead to the neurodevelopmental disorder, ATR-Seckel syndrome. To understand how ATR functions during neurogenesis, we conditionally deleted Atr broadly throughout the murine nervous system, or in a restricted manner in the dorsal telencephalon. Unexpectedly, in both scenarios, Atr loss impacted neurogenesis relatively late during neural development involving only certain progenitor populations. Whereas the Atr-deficient embryonic cerebellar external germinal layer underwent p53- (and p16Ink4a/Arf)-independent proliferation arrest, other brain regions suffered apoptosis that was partially p53 dependent. In contrast to other organs, in the nervous system, p53 loss did not worsen the outcome of Atr inactivation. Coincident inactivation of Atm also did not affect the phenotype after Atr deletion, supporting non-overlapping physiological roles for these related DNA damage-response kinases in the brain. Rather than an essential general role in preventing replication stress, our data indicate that ATR functions to monitor genomic integrity in a selective spatiotemporal manner during neurogenesis. PMID:22266795

  12. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  13. Utilizing feedback in adaptive SAR ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Owen; Blacknell, David

    2009-05-01

    Existing SAR ATR systems are usually trained off-line with samples of target imagery or CAD models, prior to conducting a mission. If the training data is not representative of mission conditions, then poor performance may result. In addition, it is difficult to acquire suitable training data for the many target types of interest. The Adaptive SAR ATR Problem Set (AdaptSAPS) program provides a MATLAB framework and image database for developing systems that adapt to mission conditions, meaning less reliance on accurate training data. A key function of an adaptive system is the ability to utilise truth feedback to improve performance, and it is this feature which AdaptSAPS is intended to exploit. This paper presents a new method for SAR ATR that does not use training data, based on supervised learning. This is achieved by using feature-based classification, and several new shadow features have been developed for this purpose. These features allow discrimination of vehicles from clutter, and classification of vehicles into two classes: targets, comprising military combat types, and non-targets, comprising bulldozers and trucks. The performance of the system is assessed using three baseline missions provided with AdaptSAPS, as well as three additional missions. All performance metrics indicate a distinct learning trend over the course of a mission, with most third and fourth quartile performance levels exceeding 85% correct classification. It has been demonstrated that these performance levels can be maintained even when truth feedback rates are reduced by up to 55% over the course of a mission.

  14. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber – Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  15. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  16. 77 FR 37909 - Meeting: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting: Board of Scientific Counselors..., FOA CE12-004: Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) among Children in the United States (U01); CE12-005: Field Triage of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)...

  17. A National Approach to Scientific and Technical Information in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joseph

    Over the past 30 years, science has placed great stress on the importance of scientific and technical information (STI) to the individual scientist. The Baker, Crawford, Weinberg, SATCOM, Greenberger, and Conference Board reports extended this objective by emphasizing the need for new supporting methodology and by pointing up the critical…

  18. [An analysis of national projects of scientific research in Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion academia during recent 40 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Kushizaki, Masateru

    2013-02-01

    Adopting bibliometrics research methods to categorize and analyze the acupuncture scientific research findings which has been published by the KAKEN Database of Grants-In-Aid for Scientific Research, and moreover compared results from some of the winning national research projects published by the Internet-based Science Information System of China in 2011. Upon evaluation, it is found that the applied logic of Japanese acupuncture academia is clearer and the fixed position is more accurate. The achivments and academic thought of Japan acup-mox cirde will in some way inspire the acupuncture researchers in China regarding project selection and help them to avoid invalid or duplicate research. Furthermore, it is concluded that Chinese acupuncture academia is focusing on basic research and is showing the spirit for the scientific research as the cradle of acupuncture and moxibustion. In comparison, Japanese acupuncture academia is re nowned for their focus on the subtle interplay of basic and clinical research, as well as attention to detail, serves as a testament to their straightforward, absence of pretense as a country of practical scientific research.

  19. Improving the Scientific and Technological Literacy of America's Youth: The National Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Donald J.

    As a result of a report from the National Commission on Excellence in Education recognizing the crisis in science, math, and technology training, and the increasing need for skilled manpower critical to economic growth and national defense, the federal government has proposed several bills for educational advancement. The President has signed into…

  20. NATIONAL HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY BEGINS IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data and records management have changed greatly as a result of progress in computer technology, but many organizations, including the US EPA's National Records Management Program (NRMP) and the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), still struggle to escape th...

  1. 78 FR 51729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a) (2) of the... Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs... evaluate the degree to which the activities of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...

  2. NATIONAL HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY BEGINS IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data and records management have changed greatly as a result of progress in computer technology, but many organizations, including the US EPA's National Records Management Program (NRMP) and the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), still struggle to escape th...

  3. Improving the Scientific and Technological Literacy of America's Youth: The National Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Donald J.

    As a result of a report from the National Commission on Excellence in Education recognizing the crisis in science, math, and technology training, and the increasing need for skilled manpower critical to economic growth and national defense, the federal government has proposed several bills for educational advancement. The President has signed into…

  4. Towards universal enrichment nanocoating for IR-ATR waveguides.

    PubMed

    Giammarco, James; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Petit, Laeticia; Musgraves, J David; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel; Richardson, Kathleen; Luzinov, Igor

    2011-08-28

    Polymer multilayered nanocoating capable of concentrating various chemical substances at IR-ATR waveguide surfaces is described. The coating affinity to an analyte played a pivotal role in sensitivity enhancement of the IR-ATR measurements, since the unmodified waveguide did not show any analyte detection.

  5. [Scientific Research Policy for Health in Portugal: I - European and National Environment].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Cátia Sá; Hartz, Zulmira; Sambo, Luís; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault, Gilles; Russo, Giuliano; Viveiros, Miguel; Silveira, Henrique; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2017-02-27

    The global debate on scientific research policy for human health has been led by World Health Organisation with important contributions from other stakeholders such as Council on Health Research for Development, the World Bank and the Global Forum for Health Research. Recently it has been dominated by the thematic agendas of major global financiers. There is a growing interest worldwide in making better use of the evidence resulting from scientific research in health, in the decision-making process regarding health policies, which is fraught with difficulties, as it is the case in Europe. After more than 40 years of democracy and 30 years of European integration, Portugal has bridged the research gap it had previously. However, when compared to global and European research policies, Portugal still has a long way to go regarding investment in research and development.

  6. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lecona, Emilio; Murga, Matilde; Callen, Elsa; Azorin, Daniel; Alonso, Javier; Lopez, Andres J.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source of endogenous DNA damage in cancer, which is suppressed by ATR and CHK1 kinases. We here show that ES suffer from high endogenous levels of RS, rendering them particularly dependent on the ATR pathway. Accordingly, two independent ATR inhibitors show in vitro toxicity in ES cell lines as well as in vivo efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas. PMID:27577084

  7. 76 FR 28790 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... grants or contracts, research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide guidance on the Institute's research activities related to developing...

  8. ATR FTIR Mapping of Leather Fiber Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, G.; Grünewald, T.; Petutschnigg, A.; Schnabel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Leather fiber panels are very promising materials for many applications, not only for the easy availability of the constituents but also for their outstanding fi re-retardant properties. These innovative composite panels can be an excellent material for building insulation, and in recent times, the interest of industries in this composite board has considerably arisen. For this reason the discrimination of the components in the leather fiber panels is becoming fundamental in order to ensure their homogeneous properties. A method to characterize the surface of these materials is then required. An ATR FTIR mapping system for the leather fiber panels has been performed with a Perkin-Elmer microscope coupled with a Frontier FTIR spectrometer. The system has successfully allowed transforming the optical image to a chemical one. This technique can be considered as a right tool for routine controls of the surface quality, especially when the leather shavings cannot be optically distinguished.

  9. Influence of scientific worldviews on attitudes toward organ transplants: national survey data from the United States.

    PubMed

    Evans, M D R; Kelley, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Public acceptance of routine medical procedures is nearly universal, but controversy over dramatic or invasive procedures like transplants is common. To assess the distributions and organization of public opinion on organ transplant and to discover the magnitude of the direct and indirect impacts of religion, scientific knowledge, and acceptance of evolution on individuals' support for organ transplant. A representative sample (N=2069) of the US adult, English-speaking population in 2009. Participants were administered the International Social Science Survey/USA 2009. Organ transplants were warmly endorsed by most Americans in 2009, as earlier, but support is not universal. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that Americans' opinions on heart, kidney, and pancreas transplants all reflect the same underlying attitude toward major organ transplants. Structural equation modeling shows that scientific knowledge is the most important influence on these attitudes, with more knowledgeable persons being more supportive. Acceptance of the theory of evolution is the second most important factor, also associated with greater support for transplant. Growing up in a church-going family encourages people to support organ transplant, even after adjusting for other influences. Otherwise denomination and religious belief have only small indirect influences. Demographic differences are small. These results provide clues about future trends. A religious revival, were it to occur, would not be likely to alter support for transplants. If public knowledge of science continues to increase, or acceptance of the theory of evolution grows, support for transplant will most likely increase.

  10. The nations united in the scientific and political debate of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijnen, Bess

    Since 1959 (Cocconi and Morrison), the item of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has continuously been debated in scientific fora. Since the 1970's (Fasan, 1970; Reijnen 1976), political and legal experts have regularly written on the subject while, in 1977, the UNCOPUOS published a review on SETI (UN Doc. A/AC. 105/206, of 18.10.77) entitled: 'Messages to extraterrestrial Civilizations'. In the mid-1980 s, international agreements as well as legal principles relating to contact and communication with ETI were proposed (Acta Astronautica, 1990). Though there is, as yet, no confirmed evidence of an extra-terrestrial contact with Earth ever having been established, the search continues. The international political and legal framework as well as the contents of a potential terrestrial reply also remains an issue of continuous discussions (Acta Astronautica, 1990). The time seems ripe for a concerted effort by humankind to address the societal and, principally, political decisions to be taken in international governmental bodies equipped to deal with the multitude of scientific and political questions and implications to be solved. The political/legal questions will be investigated, the main remaining issues addressed, and suggestions presented for implementation of the issue in intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies. 'SETI essentially is a philosophical venture and, perhaps, the most important man has ever contemplated'. (Coffey, 1980).

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report: National Institute for Climatic Change Research Coastal Center

    SciTech Connect

    Tornqvist, Torbjorn; Chambers, Jeffrey

    2014-01-07

    It is widely recognized that coastal environments are under particular threat due to changes associated with climate change. Accelerated sea-level rise, in some regions augmented by land subsidence, plus the possibility of a changing storm climate, renders low-lying coastal landscapes and their ecosystems vulnerable to future change. This is a pressing problem, because these ecosystems commonly rank as some of the most valuable on the planet. The objective of the NICCR Coastal Center was to support basic research that aims at reducing uncertainty about ecosystem changes during the next century, carried out along the U.S. coastlines. The NICCR Coastal Center has funded 20 projects nationwide (carried out at 27 institutions) that addressed numerous aspects of the problems outlined above. The research has led to a variety of new insights, a significant number of which published in elite scientific journals. It is anticipated that the dissemination of this work in the scientific literature will continue for several more years, given that a number of projects have only recently reached their end date. In addition, NICCR funds have been used to support research at Tulane University. The lion’s share of these funds has been invested in the development of unique facilities for experimental research in coastal ecosystems. This aspect of the work could have a lasting impact in the future.

  12. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is animal and retail sampling methods for the National... NARMS can improve sampling using current resources. Other topics include: (1) How should NARMS define adequate sampling for resistance trends? (2) What are some additional sources for unbiased food animal...

  13. National Curriculum: Compulsory School Science--Is It Improving Scientific Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Beggs, Jim; Hickey, Ivor; O'Meara, Jim; Sweeney, John

    2001-01-01

    British students who had compulsory science in the National Curriculum from ages 11-16 (n=115) had significantly higher scores on a science test than those for whom secondary science had been optional (n=30). Almost all had very low scores on questions related to the circulatory system and sound and light, regardless of their science background.…

  14. Selected Results from the National Assessments of Science: Scientific Principles and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is an information-gathering project that surveys the educational attainments of 9-year-olds, 13-year-olds, 17-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) in various learning areas. All areas are assessed by a group of educators who design objectives for each area and create measurement tools…

  15. 78 FR 78966 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee: Times and Dates: 11:00 a.m... statistics; future program reviews; National Health Interview Survey 2017 redesign, long-term care report...

  16. National Reports in Literacy: Building a Scientific Base for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the National Early Literacy Panel (NELP; 2008) report from two complementary vantage points: (a) the historical tradition of research syntheses in reading research, beginning with Chall and extending through the NELP report, and (b) other recent attempts to examine or synthesize early reading development. While acknowledging…

  17. Purchase and Possession: A National Database for the Scientifically, Mathematically and Technologically Talented and Discussant Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robert N.

    This conference presentation discusses the place, framework, and importance of establishing a national database of academic talent in mathematics, science, and technology. A vision of such a database is presented, in which educators and researchers are urged to transform rationales for research from the reactive toward the active, to turn from a…

  18. National Curriculum: Compulsory School Science--Is It Improving Scientific Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Beggs, Jim; Hickey, Ivor; O'Meara, Jim; Sweeney, John

    2001-01-01

    British students who had compulsory science in the National Curriculum from ages 11-16 (n=115) had significantly higher scores on a science test than those for whom secondary science had been optional (n=30). Almost all had very low scores on questions related to the circulatory system and sound and light, regardless of their science background.…

  19. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database: a multi-taxa, continental-scale dataset for scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of August 2012, participants in the USA-NPN national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program Nature's Notebook had contributed over 1.3 million observation records (encompassing four and three years of observations for plants and for animals, respectively). Data are freely available www.usanpn.org/results/data, and include FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. Quality assurance and quality control, and metadata data associated with field observations (e.g., effort and method reporting, site and organism condition) are also documented. Data are also available for exploration, visualization and preliminary analysis at www.usanpn.org/results/visualizations. Participants in Nature's Notebook, who include both professional and volunteer scientists, follow vetted protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring rather than "event" monitoring: when sampling, observers indicate the status of each phenophase (e.g., "breaking leaf buds" or "active individuals"). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (including estimation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and phenophase duration) and is especially well-suited for integrated multi-taxa monitoring. Further, protocols and a user interface to facilitate the description of development or abundance data (e.g., tree canopy development, animal abundance) create a robust ecological dataset. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing

  20. Submission of FeCrAl Feedstock for Support of AFC ATR-2 Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Barrett, Kristine E.; Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-16

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is currently being used to test accident tolerant fuel (ATF) forms destined for commercial nuclear power plant deployment. One irradiation program using the ATR for ATF concepts, Accident Tolerant Fuel-2 (ATF-2), is a water loop irradiation test using miniaturized fuel pins as test articles. This complicated testing configuration requires a series of pre-test experiments and verification including a flowing loop autoclave test and a sensor qualification test (SQT) prior to full test train deployment within the ATR. In support of the ATF-2 irradiation program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supplied two different Generation II FeCrAl alloys in rod stock form to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These rods will be machined into dummy pins for deployment in the autoclave test and SQT. Post-test analysis of the dummy pins will provide initial insight into the performance of Generation II FeCrAl alloys in the ATF-2 irradiation experiment as well as within a commercial nuclear reactor.

  1. ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sebastian A; Oehler, Hannah; Voigt, Andrea; Dalic, Denis; Freiwald, Anja; Serve, Hubert; Beli, Petra

    2016-02-01

    The slowing down or stalling of replication forks is commonly known as replication stress and arises from multiple causes such as DNA lesions, nucleotide depletion, RNA-DNA hybrids, and oncogene activation. The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) plays an essential role in the cellular response to replication stress and inhibition of ATR has emerged as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers that exhibit high levels of replication stress. However, the cellular signaling induced by replication stress and the substrate spectrum of ATR has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we employed quantitative MS-based proteomics to define the cellular signaling after nucleotide depletion-induced replication stress and replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition. We demonstrate that replication stress results in increased phosphorylation of a subset of proteins, many of which are involved in RNA splicing and transcription and have previously not been associated with the cellular replication stress response. Furthermore, our data reveal the ATR-dependent phosphorylation following replication stress and discover novel putative ATR target sites on MCM6, TOPBP1, RAD51AP1, and PSMD4. We establish that ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress and leads to the activation of the ATM-driven double-strand break repair signaling.

  2. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) for Rapid Determination of Microbial Cell Lipid Content: Correlation with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.

  3. On the airworthiness approval of a SAR ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willersinn, Dieter; Jäger, Uwe; Schlatt, Herbert; Stahl, Christoph

    2009-05-01

    A manned platform is to be equipped with a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) based Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system for precision targeting. The platform's airworthiness has to be approved including the ATR system, i.e. the ATR system needs to be qualified appropriately. Part of the airworthiness approval is a hazard analysis. In general, this is carried out to make sure that the probability of a fatal error in one hour of flight is 10-9 or lower. To date, error probabilities of a SAR-based ATR system, i.e. error probabilities of detection and classification, must be assumed to lie above 10-9 per hour. This is one reason why existing rules of engagement demand "Man-in-the loop", i.e. to display the result of the ATR system to the pilot. Components to the ATR system are consequently a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) SAR image processing unit, and a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to the pilot. The aim of the work reported in this contribution was to identify those performance features of the thus defined ATR system that are relevant to airworthiness approval, and to define the procedures to determine the feature values. The paper contains the analysis of a reference case of an airworthiness-approved technical system with an error probability above 10-9 per hour and a result display to the pilot. In the light of the analysis results, it concludes with an outlook to the airworthiness approval of the ATR system.

  4. Scaling Up Scientific Discovery in Sleep Medicine: The National Sleep Research Resource.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Goldberger, Ary L; Mueller, Remo; Kim, Matthew; Rueschman, Michael; Mobley, Daniel; Sahoo, Satya S; Jayapandian, Catherine P; Cui, Licong; Morrical, Michael G; Surovec, Susan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Redline, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Professional sleep societies have identified a need for strategic research in multiple areas that may benefit from access to and aggregation of large, multidimensional datasets. Technological advances provide opportunities to extract and analyze physiological signals and other biomedical information from datasets of unprecedented size, heterogeneity, and complexity. The National Institutes of Health has implemented a Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative that aims to develop and disseminate state of the art big data access tools and analytical methods. The National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) is a new National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute resource designed to provide big data resources to the sleep research community. The NSRR is a web-based data portal that aggregates, harmonizes, and organizes sleep and clinical data from thousands of individuals studied as part of cohort studies or clinical trials and provides the user a suite of tools to facilitate data exploration and data visualization. Each deidentified study record minimally includes the summary results of an overnight sleep study; annotation files with scored events; the raw physiological signals from the sleep record; and available clinical and physiological data. NSRR is designed to be interoperable with other public data resources such as the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center Demographics (BioLINCC) data and analyzed with methods provided by the Research Resource for Complex Physiological Signals (PhysioNet). This article reviews the key objectives, challenges and operational solutions to addressing big data opportunities for sleep research in the context of the national sleep research agenda. It provides information to facilitate further interactions of the user community with NSRR, a community resource. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: advancing biomedicine through structured organization of scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel L; Lewis, Suzanna E; Mungall, Chris J; Misra, Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  6. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2014.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovich, L

    2015-12-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2014 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report.Epidemiological cohort studies found increased incidence (1990-2012 gg.) of thyroid cancer in victims of Chernobyl accident (liquidators - in 4.6 times, evacuated - in 4.0 times, residents of contaminated areas - in 1.3 times) and increased incidence of breast cancer in female workers of 1986-1987. (in the 1994-2012 biennium. SIR = 160,0%, 95% CI: 142,4-177,6). Retrospective studies of thyroid cancer ("case control") in cohorts and 152 thousand of liquidators were continued together with the US National Cancer Institute. Radiation risks of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia were found.Molecular effects of remote period after radiation exposure include changes in gene expression TERF1, TERF2, CCND1, telomere length, the protein expression of cyclin D1, histone gamma H2AX. An association of molecular changes with cognitive deficits were defined. Genetic polymorphisms of rs2981582 gene FGFR2, rs12443621 gene TNRC9, rs3817198 gene LSP1, rs3803662 gene TNRC9, rs889312 gene MAP3K1 and their association with breast can cer were studied; the expression by tumor cells of estrogen and progesterone receptor, antigens of c kit, cytoker atins 5/6, TP53 and ki67, amplification status of the gene Her2 / neu, mutation status of the genes BRCA1 (muta tions 185delAG and 5382insC) and BRCA2 (mutation 6174delT) were studied. The possibility of persistence of radi ation modified hidden chromosomal instability in consecutive generations of human somatic cells was proven.The status of reproductive function and peculiarities

  7. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and

  8. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities

    PubMed Central

    Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  9. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Letícia; Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  10. Scientific Integrity and Executive National Security Proclamations: A Conflict of the Modern Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R.; Banerdt, B.; Bell, J. L.; Byrnes, D. V.; Carlisle, G. L.; D'Addario, L. R.; Weissman, P. R.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Foster, S. D.; Golombek, M. P.; Gorjian, V.; Gorjian, Z.; Hale, A. S.; Kulleck, J. G.; Laubach, S. L.; McElrath, T. P.; Penanen, K. I.; Satter, C.; Walker, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, in response to the events of September, 11, 2001, President George W. Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive #12, an executive order requiring a uniform means of identification (i.e. identification badge) for all employees and contractors at federal facilities. To comply with this directive NASA ordered that its contract employees at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 'voluntarily' agree to an open ended, unrestricted, background investigation into the intimate details of their private lives. These employees do not have security clearances and do not work with classified material. Caltech, which employs the JPL personnel under a NASA management contract, informed the employees that if they did not ‘voluntarily’ consent to the background investigation, they would be assumed to have voluntarily resigned and therefore be denied access to JPL (i.e. they would be functionally terminated). In October 2007, twentyeight JPL employees filed suit in Federal District Court. After an initial dismissal by the lowest federal court, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued an injunction against Caltech and NASA, stopping the background investigations. The Appeals Court found that the investigations were not narrowly tailored to meet the specific needs of NASA and therefore violated the employee’s legitimate expectation of informational privacy. This injunction has been reviewed and upheld several times by various panels of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. In November 2009, the United States Department of Justice petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court requesting that it overturn this injunction. The Supreme Court accepted the case for oral arguments and scheduled them for October 5, 2010. A decision is imminent (if it has not been made already). The case has opened the following questions regarding all research workers under government contract: 1. What impact would such intrusive investigations have on open scientific inquiry and scientific integrity? 2

  11. National Conference on Diversity in the Scientific and Technological Workforce. Conference Proceedings (3rd, Washington, D.C., September 29-October 1, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The conference served as a platform for presenting and discussing the National Science Foundation (NSF) action plan to increase the participation of minorities in the scientific and technological workforce. A broad group of issues related to conference objectives was discussed in a national videoconference. More than 300 students from elementary…

  12. Physical protection cooperation between US Department of Energy national laboratories and Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise (Eleron) of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, E.T.; Davydov, Y.L.; Izmailov, A.

    1996-07-01

    US DOE national laboratories and Russian institutes are becoming increasingly cooperative in support of nonproliferation of nuclear materials. This paper describes completed projects, current work, and areas of possible future cooperation between US laboratories and a Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) entity, Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise (SNPO). The Kurchatov Institute, SNPO, and the US national laboratories jointly completed a physical protection system (PPS) for a facility housing two reactors at Kurchatov Institute within a very short time frame in 1994. Spin- off projects from this work resulted in a US-witnessed acceptance test of the new system adhering to a procedure adopted in Russia, and visits by DOE laboratories` personnel to SNPO`s sensor development and test facilities at Dubna and Penza. SNPO was one of the MINATOM sites at which Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a vulnerability assessment training course. Current cooperative projects include additional physical protection upgrades at Kurchatov where SNPO is involved as an installer and supplier of sensors, alarm display, video, and fiber optic equipment. Two additional contracts between SNL and SNPO result in information on Russian sensor performance and cost and an exchange of US and Russian sensors. Russian sensors will be tested in the United States,a nd US sensors will be tested in Russia. Pacific Northwest Laboratory administers a contract to document the process of certifying physical protection equipment for use at MINATOM facilities. Recent interest in transportation security has opened a new area of cooperation between the national laboratories and SNPO. Future projects are expected to include SNPO participation in physical protection upgrades at other locations in Russia, pedestrian and vehicle portal development, positive personnel identifier testing, and the exchange and testing of additional equipment.

  13. IR-ATR investigation of surface anisotropy in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Kriltz, Antje; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Several samples of flat soda-lime silicate glass were investigated by the Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy technique. The specular reflectance spectra together with the results of the performed dispersion analysis and the generated reflectance spectra, using Fresnel equations, suggest that the samples are isotropic. In contrast, spectra recorded by the ATR technique suggest an anisotropic structure on the surface of the specimen different from that in the bulk. This is established through differences in the s- and p-polarized IR-ATR spectra, which cannot be simply transformed into one another employing Fresnel formula for an isotropic case. It appears that this thin film having a structure different from the bulk is larger than the ATR effective penetration depth of the evanescent ray for each incidence angle above the critical one. The investigation suggests C2 symmetry of the SiO4 unit.

  14. Development of scale model imagery for ATR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Delp, Nathaniel T.; Lewis, Derek R.

    2006-05-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) methods hold promise for rapid extraction of critical information from imagery data to support military missions. Development of ATR tools generally requires large amounts of imagery data to develop and test algorithms. Deployment of operational ATR systems requires performance validation using operationally relevant imagery. For early algorithm development, however, restrictions on access to such data is a significant impediment, especially for the academic research community. To address this limitation, we have developed a set of grayscale imagery as a surrogate for panchromatic imagery that would be acquired from airborne sensors. This surrogate data set consists of imagery of ground order of battle (GOB) targets in an arid environment. The data set was developed by imaging scale models of these targets set in a scale model background. The imagery spans a range of operating conditions and provides a useful image set for initial explorations of new approaches for ATR development.

  15. Taking AIM: The management of scientific and technical information at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Masek, M.; DiStravolo, M.; Dominiak, R.

    1994-09-01

    Four years ago, Argonne National Laboratory tracked its publications the old-fashioned way -- typing information on index cards, making photocopies of the cards and sorting them according to title, author, report number and keywords. Now, the Argonne Information Management (AIM) system collects document clearance and publication information in an integrated electronic system that tracks the laboratory`s publications along with associated cost records, and offers a publicly available interface to the data so authors and divisions can create their own publications lists. This presentation will outline the steps taken to develop this system; the benefits to the overall publication review process; how the system meets the needs of a variety of customers, from Argonne authors to DOE and beyond, and the plans for future enhancements.

  16. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology(http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leadinginformaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIHRoadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allowscientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information andknowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1)to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology developmentby promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create,manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so thatscientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data,(3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation,integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated toolsand theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and(4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify,evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to thebiomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives byproviding tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data,and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologiesas well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotatedusing those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops inontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research inontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientificdiscovery. Through the research activities within the Center,collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedicalcommunity, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in thee-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution,data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing,and understand human disease.

  17. Citizen science or scientific citizenship? Disentangling the uses of public engagement rhetoric in national research initiatives.

    PubMed

    Woolley, J Patrick; McGowan, Michelle L; Teare, Harriet J A; Coathup, Victoria; Fishman, Jennifer R; Settersten, Richard A; Sterckx, Sigrid; Kaye, Jane; Juengst, Eric T

    2016-06-04

    The language of "participant-driven research," "crowdsourcing" and "citizen science" is increasingly being used to encourage the public to become involved in research ventures as both subjects and scientists. Originally, these labels were invoked by volunteer research efforts propelled by amateurs outside of traditional research institutions and aimed at appealing to those looking for more "democratic," "patient-centric," or "lay" alternatives to the professional science establishment. As mainstream translational biomedical research requires increasingly larger participant pools, however, corporate, academic and governmental research programs are embracing this populist rhetoric to encourage wider public participation. We examine the ethical and social implications of this recruitment strategy. We begin by surveying examples of "citizen science" outside of biomedicine, as paradigmatic of the aspirations this democratizing rhetoric was originally meant to embody. Next, we discuss the ways these aspirations become articulated in the biomedical context, with a view to drawing out the multiple and potentially conflicting meanings of "public engagement" when citizens are also the subjects of the science. We then illustrate two uses of public engagement rhetoric to gain public support for national biomedical research efforts: its post-hoc use in the "care.data" project of the National Health Service in England, and its proactive uses in the "Precision Medicine Initiative" of the United States White House. These examples will serve as the basis for a normative analysis, discussing the potential ethical and social ramifications of this rhetoric. We pay particular attention to the implications of government strategies that cultivate the idea that members of the public have a civic duty to participate in government-sponsored research initiatives. We argue that such initiatives should draw from policy frameworks that support normative analysis of the role of citizenry. And

  18. Attributed scattering centers for SAR ATR.

    PubMed

    Potter, L C; Moses, R L

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency radar measurements of man-made targets are dominated by returns from isolated scattering centers, such as corners and flat plates. Characterizing the features of these scattering centers provides a parsimonious, physically relevant signal representation for use in automatic target recognition (ATR). In this paper, we present a framework for feature extraction predicated on parametric models for the radar returns. The models are motivated by the scattering behaviour predicted by the geometrical theory of diffraction. For each scattering center, statistically robust estimation of model parameters provides high-resolution attributes including location, geometry, and polarization response. We present statistical analysis of the scattering model to describe feature uncertainty, and we provide a least-squares algorithm for feature estimation. We survey existing algorithms for simplified models, and derive bounds for the error incurred in adopting the simplified models. A model order selection algorithm is given, and an M-ary generalized likelihood ratio test is given for classifying polarimetric responses in spherically invariant random clutter.

  19. Adaptive SAR ATR in likelihood space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Rong; Chen, Ling; Man, Hong

    2005-05-01

    The Adaptive SAR ATR Problem Set (AdaptSAPS) poses a typical "learning with a critic" problem, in which the system-under-test (SUT) is initially trained to characterize a subset of target objects (e.g. T72) and a subset of non-target objects (e.g. clutter), and is to be updated on-line using the Target Truth information. This work proposes an SUT for adaptive SAR imagery exploitation. The system is founded on a novel feature vector generation scheme and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The proposed feature vector generation scheme partitions SAR image chips into subimage blocks. The distribution density of subimage blocks is fitted as a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Feature vector of each SAR image is composed of log-likelihoods of its subimage blocks on the pre-fitted GMM. Comparing to original SAR image chips, feature vectors generated from log-likelihoods display superior discriminative power. After feature generation, LDA is used to project feature vectors into a 1-dimensional subspace for classification. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on the AdaptSAPS.

  20. High-resolution SAR ATR performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joel; Burke, Monica; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2004-09-01

    High resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery (e.g., four inch or better resolution) contains features not seen in one foot or lower resolution imagery, due to the isolation of the scatterers into separate resolution cells. These features provide the potential for additional discrimination power for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the Real-Time MSTAR (RT-MSTAR) system as a function of image resolution. Performance is measured both in terms of the probability of correct identification on military targets, and also in terms of confuser rejection. The analysis demonstrates two factors that significantly enhance performance. First, use of the high resolution imagery results in much higher probability of correct identification, as demonstrated using Lynx SAR imagery at 4" and 12". Second, incorporating models of the confusers, when available, greatly reduces false alarms, even at higher resolutions. Several new areas of work emerge, including making use of higher-level feature information available in the imagery, and rapid creation of models for vehicles that pose particular confuser rejection challenges.

  1. Infrared ATR: a probe for cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Martin, Laura E.; Alam, M. Kathleen; Haaland, David M.; Garrison, Kristen; Lyons, C. Richard; Hjelle, Brian

    2002-02-01

    We employ infrared spectroscopy (IR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling technique to monitor live and dried RAW cells (a murine macrophage cell line) during activation with g-interferon and lipopolysaccharide. By comparing the spectra of activated cells at various time points to the spectra of healthy control cells, we identify spectral bands associated with nucleic acids that are markers for the cell activation process. These spectral changes are slight and can be complicated with the normal metabolic changes that occur within cells. We will discuss the use of data pretreatment strategies to accurately correct for the contribution of the buffer to the live cell spectra. We find the standard background correction method inadequate for concentrated solutions of cells. Data presented shows the severe effect incorrect background subtraction has on the cell spectra. We report a more accurate correction for phosphate buffer spectral contribution using an interactive subtraction of the buffer spectrum. We will show classification of dried control and activated macrophage cell spectra using partial-least squares analysis with multiplicative scatter correction.

  2. ATR-IR spectroscopy as applied to nucleic acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyugin, Andriy V.; Samijlenko, Svitlana P.; Martynenko, Olena I.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2005-07-01

    For the first time the ATR technique was applied to obtain IR absorption spectra of DNA and RNA dry films. There was worked out procedure of the nucleic acid removal from germanium plate, which obviously was a main obstacle to application of ATR-IR spectroscopy to nucleic acids. This technique of IR spectroscopy was applied to confirmation of RNA tropism of aurin tricarboxylic acid observed by molecular biological methods.

  3. Behavioral and social sciences at the National Institutes of Health: Methods, measures, and data infrastructures as a scientific priority.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its strategic plan for 2017-2021. This plan focuses on three equally important strategic priorities: 1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, 2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and 3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on scientific priority two and future directions in measurement science, technology, data infrastructure, behavioral ontologies, and big data methods and analytics that have the potential to transform the behavioral and social sciences into more cumulative, data rich sciences that more efficiently build on prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Medical exposure assessment: the global approach of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shannoun, F

    2015-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established in 1955 to systematically collect, evaluate, publish and share data on the global levels and effects of ionizing radiation from natural and artificial sources. Regular surveys have been conducted to determinate the frequencies of medical radiological procedure, the number of equipment and staffing and the level of global exposure using the health care level (HCL) extrapolation model. UNSCEAR surveys revealed a range of issues relating to participation, survey process, data quality and analysis. Thus, UNSCEAR developed an improvement strategy to address the existing deficiencies in data quality and collection. The major element of this strategy is the introduction of an on-line platform to facilitate the data collection and archiving process. It is anticipated that the number of countries participating in UNSCEAR's surveys will increase in the future, particularly from HCL II-IV countries.

  5. Performance model for joint tracking and ATR with HRR radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shan; Hong, Lang; Blasch, Erik

    2008-04-01

    Joint tracking and ATR with HRR radar is an important field of research in recent years. This paper addresses the issue of end-to-end performance modeling for HRR radar based joint tracking and ATR system under various operating conditions. To this end, an ATR system with peak location and amplitude as features is considered. A complete set of models are developed to capture the statistics in all stages of processing, including HRR signal, extracted features, Baysian classifier and tracker. In particular, we demonstrate that the effect of operating conditions on feature can be represented through a random variable with Log-normal distribution. Then, the result is extended to predicting the system performance under specified operating conditions. Although this paper is developed based on a type of ATR and tracking system, the result indicates the trend of the performance for general joint ATR and tracking system over operating conditions. It also provides guidance to how the empirical performance model of a general joint tracking and ATR system shall be constructed.

  6. Applications of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to biomedical samples.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, S G; Chan, K L A

    2006-07-01

    FTIR spectroscopic imaging in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode is a powerful tool for studying biomedical samples. This paper summarises recent advances in the applications of ATR-FTIR imaging to dissolution of pharmaceutical formulations and drug release. The use of two different ATR accessories to obtain chemical images of formulations in contact with water as a function of time is demonstrated. The innovative use of the diamond ATR accessory allowed in situ imaging of tablet compaction and dissolution. ATR-FTIR imaging was also applied to obtain images of the surface of skin and the spatial distribution of protein and lipid rich domains was obtained. Chemical images of cross-section of rabbit aorta were obtained using a diamond ATR accessory and the possibility of in situ imaging of arterial samples in contact with aqueous solution was demonstrated for the first time. This experiment opens an opportunity to image arterial samples in contact with solutions containing drug molecules. This approach may help in understanding the mechanisms of treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. Los Alamos neutron science center nuclear weapons stewardship and unique national scientific capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kurt F

    2010-12-15

    This presentation gives an overview of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its contributions to science and the nuclear weapons program. LANSCE is made of multiple experimental facilities (the Lujan Center, the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), the Ultra-Cold Neutron facility (UCN), the proton Radiography facility (pRad) and the Isotope Production Facility (IPF)) served by the its kilometer long linear accelerator. Several research areas are supported, including materials and bioscience, nuclear science, materials dynamics, irradiation response and medical isotope production. LANSCE is a national user facility that supports researchers worldwide. The LANSCE Risk Mitigation program is currently in progress to update critical accelerator equipment to help extend the lifetime of LANSCE as a key user facility. The Associate Directorate of Business Sciences (ADBS) plays an important role in the continued success of LANSCE. This includes key procurement support, human resource support, technical writing support, and training support. LANSCE is also the foundation of the future signature facility MARIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes).

  8. Scientific inquiry into rhinosinusitis: who is receiving funding from the National Institutes of Health?

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Setzen, Michael; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate National Institutes of Health (NIH) support for rhinosinusitis research and characterize the proportion of funding awarded to otolaryngologists. Analysis of the NIH RePORTER database. Specialty and terminal-degree of primary investigators (PIs) for 131 projects spanning 364 fiscal years (1989 to present) were determined. Awards for projects examining rhinosinusitis were organized by size, academic department, and PI scholarly impact (using h-indices). Analysis of geographic and temporal funding trends was performed and organized by PI specialty. A total of 62.6% of projects were awarded to physicians, one-third of whom were otolaryngologists. Allergists/immunologists had greater median awards than otolaryngologist PIs (P = .02), and pediatric-trained PIs had a greater h-index than otolaryngologist PIs (P = .04). Although year-to-year fluctuation was noted, otolaryngologists have received approximately a quarter of total rhinosinusitis funding since 2000. PIs practicing in the south-Atlantic, east-north-central, and west-north-central states had the greatest funding totals, whereas otolaryngologists had a greater proportion of regional funding in the Pacific and east-south-central states than other regions. Inquiry into the mechanisms underlying rhinosinusitis and optimal therapeutic strategies represents an interdisciplinary venture. PIs in medicine and pediatric departments had greater funding for rhinosinusitis projects than individuals in otolaryngology departments, partly because of greater utilization of PhD faculty. Otolaryngology departments may consider increased recruitment of basic scientists interested in rhinosinusitis as a means to facilitate increased scholarship in this area. Encouraging pursuit of funding opportunities is critical for otolaryngologists, as well-funded practitioners may have greater opportunities to shape advances and serve as an advocate for their approaches. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological

  9. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  10. Temperature monitoring options available at the Idaho national laboratory advanced test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daw, J. E.; Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Unruh, T. C.; Chase, B. M.; Davis, K. L.; Palmer, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Clearly, temperature sensor selection for irradiation tests will be determined based on the irradiation environment and budget. However, temperature sensors now offered by INL include a wide array of melt wires in small capsules, silicon carbide monitors, commercially available thermocouples, and specialized high temperature irradiation resistant thermocouples containing doped molybdenum and niobium alloy thermoelements. In addition, efforts have been initiated to develop and evaluate ultrasonic thermometers for irradiation testing. This array of temperature monitoring options now available to ATR and other Material and Test Reactor (MTR) users fulfills recent customer requests.

  11. Development of Marine Science and Technology in Africa. Working Group of Experts Sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Beginning in the late 1970's, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) increased their efforts to formulate and implement African development programs. Reported in this document is a meeting on marine resource technology which was jointly convened by…

  12. The Impact of a Science Qualification Emphasising Scientific Literacy on Post-compulsory Science Participation: An analysis using national data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim

    2015-06-01

    In 2006 in England an innovative suite of science qualifications for 14-16-year-olds called Twenty-First Century Science (21CS) was introduced. These qualifications have a strong focus on developing scientific literacy in all students whilst simultaneously providing preparation for the study of post-compulsory science for a smaller proportion of students. Claims have been made that such an innovative qualification would impact significantly on post-compulsory science participation-either positively or negatively. Using national data in England to track one cohort of students over 2007-2011, this study compares progression rates to post-compulsory science qualifications in England between 21CS qualifications and more traditional non-21CS qualifications. Methods employed include simple comparisons of proportions progressing from each qualification, and more complex multi-level modelling approaches that take account of both students clustered in schools, and potentially differing demographic and achievement profiles of students in the 2 groups of qualifications. A simple descriptive analysis shows that there is very little difference in overall progression rates between the 2 types of 14-16 science qualification. More fine-grained descriptive analyses show that there are some important differences, based in particular on the interaction between the amount of science studied at ages 14-16, and on the post-16 science qualification chosen (biology, chemistry or physics). Furthermore, sophisticated modelling analyses indicate a consistently negative small to moderate impact on progression from the 21CS qualification. Overall, our findings suggest that the emphasis on scientific literacy within the 21CS qualification suite has not had a major impact on the uptake of post-compulsory science qualifications.

  13. Profiling of UV-induced ATM/ATR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Matthew P.; Rush, John; MacNeill, Joan; Ren, Jian Min; Sprott, Kam; Nardone, Julie; Yang, Vicky; Beausoleil, Sean A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Livingstone, Mark; Zhang, Hui; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Comb, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    To ensure survival in the face of genomic insult, cells have evolved complex mechanisms to respond to DNA damage, termed the DNA damage checkpoint. The serine/threonine kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activate checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating substrate proteins at SQ/TQ motifs. Although some ATM/ATR substrates (Chk1, p53) have been identified, the lack of a more complete list of substrates limits current understanding of checkpoint pathways. Here, we use immunoaffinity phosphopeptide isolation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify 570 sites phosphorylated in UV-damaged cells, 498 of which are previously undescribed. Semiquantitative analysis yielded 24 known and 192 previously uncharacterized sites differentially phosphorylated upon UV damage, some of which were confirmed by SILAC, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting. ATR-specific phosphorylation was investigated by using a Seckel syndrome (ATR mutant) cell line. Together, these results provide a rich resource for further deciphering ATM/ATR signaling and the pathways mediating the DNA damage response. PMID:18077418

  14. ATR contributes to telomere maintenance in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Pennarun, Gaëlle; Hoffschir, Françoise; Revaud, Deborah; Granotier, Christine; Gauthier, Laurent R.; Mailliet, Patrick; Biard, Denis S.; Boussin, François D.

    2010-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is essential to preserve genomic stability and involves several telomere-specific proteins as well as DNA replication and repair proteins. The kinase ATR, which has a crucial function in maintaining genome integrity from yeast to human, has been shown to be involved in telomere maintenance in several eukaryotic organisms, including yeast, Arabidopsis and Drosophila. However, its role in telomere maintenance in mammals remains poorly explored. Here, we report by using telomere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Telo-FISH) on metaphase chromosomes that ATR deficiency causes telomere instability both in primary human fibroblasts from Seckel syndrome patients and in HeLa cells. The telomere aberrations resulting from ATR deficiency (i.e. sister telomere fusions and chromatid-type telomere aberrations) are mainly generated during and/or after telomere replication, and involve both leading and lagging strand telomeres as shown by chromosome orientation-FISH (CO-FISH). Moreover, we show that ATR deficiency strongly sensitizes cells to the G-quadruplex ligand 360A, enhancing sister telomere fusions and chromatid-type telomere aberrations involving specifically the lagging strand telomeres. Altogether, these data reveal that ATR plays a critical role in telomere maintenance during and/or after telomere replication in human cells. PMID:20147462

  15. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects

  16. Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Cristin E; Glantz, Stanton A; Schmidt, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which

  17. The 1986 and 1988 UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reports: Findings and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.; Sinclair, W.K.; Anspaugh, L.; Edington, C.; Harley, J.H.; Ricks, R.C.; Selby, P.B.; Webster, E.W.; Wyckoff, H.O. )

    1990-03-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has published a substantive series of reports concerning sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the highlights and conclusions from the most recent 1986 and 1988 reports. The present annual per person effective dose equivalent for the world's population is about 3 mSv. The majority of this (2.4 mSv) comes from natural background, and 0.4 to 1 mSv is from medical exposures. Other sources contribute less than 0.02 mSv annually. The worldwide collective effective dose equivalent annually is between 13 and 16 million person-Sv. The Committee assessed the collective effective dose equivalent to the population of the northern hemisphere from the reactor accident at Chernobyl and concluded that this is about 600,000 person-Sv. The Committee also reviewed risk estimates for radiation carcinogenesis which included the new Japanese dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These data indicate that risk coefficient estimates for high doses and high dose rate low-LET radiation in the Japanese population are approximately 3-10% Sv-1, depending on the projection model utilized. The Committee also indicated that, in calculation of such risks at low doses and low dose rates, a risk-reduction factor in the range of 2-10 may be considered.

  18. Workshop proceedings: Developing the scientific basis for long-term land management of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, T.D.; Reynolds, T.D.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1998-03-01

    Responses to a survey on the INEEL Comprehensive Facility and Land Use Plan (US DOE 1996a) indicated the need for additional discussion on environmental resources, disturbance, and land use issues on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result, in September 1997, a workshop evaluated the existing scientific basis and determined future data needs for long-term land management on the INEEL. This INEEL Long-Term Land Management Workshop examined existing data on biotic, abiotic, and heritage resources and how these resources have been impacted by disturbance activities of the INEEL. Information gained from this workshop will help guide land and facility use decisions, identify data gaps, and focus future research efforts. This report summarizes background information on the INEEL and its long-term land use planning efforts, presentations and discussions at the workshop, and the existing data available at the INEEL. In this document, recommendations for future INEEL land use planning, research efforts, and future workshops are presented. The authors emphasize these are not policy statements, but comments and suggestions made by scientists and others participating in the workshop. Several appendices covering land use disturbance, legal drivers, land use assumptions and workshop participant comments, workshop participants and contributors, and the workshop agenda are also included.

  19. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  20. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tim J; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  1. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  2. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  3. Exploring Institutional Mechanisms for Scientific Input into the Management Cycle of the National Protected Area Network of Peru: Gaps and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, M D; Castro, H; Arenas, M; Requena-Mullor, J M; Cano, A; Valenzuela, E; Cabello, J

    2017-09-08

    Understanding how to improve decision makers' use of scientific information across their different scales of management is a core challenge for narrowing the gap between science and conservation practice. Here, we present a study conducted in collaboration with decision makers that aims to explore the functionality of the mechanisms for scientific input within the institutional setting of the National Protected Area Network of Peru. First, we analyzed institutional mechanisms to assess the scientific information recorded by decision makers. Second, we developed two workshops involving scientists, decision makers and social actors to identify barriers to evidence-based conservation practice. Third, we administered 482 questionnaires to stakeholders to explore social perceptions of the role of science and the willingness to collaborate in the governance of protected areas. The results revealed that (1) the institutional mechanisms did not effectively promote the compilation and application of scientific knowledge for conservation practice; (2) six important barriers hindered scientific input in management decisions; and (3) stakeholders showed positive perceptions about the involvement of scientists in protected areas and expressed their willingness to collaborate in conservation practice. This collaborative research helped to (1) identify gaps and opportunities that should be addressed for increasing the effectiveness of the institutional mechanisms and (2) support institutional changes integrating science-based strategies for strengthening scientific input in decision-making. These insights provide a useful contextual orientation for scholars and decision makers interested in conducting empirical research to connect scientific inputs with operational aspects of the management cycle in other institutional settings around the world.

  4. ATR spectra on boundary with mixture containing organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelokov, R. V.; Yatsishen, V. V.

    2005-02-01

    The problem of not destroying diagnostics and dosing of radiation at laser therapy is one of important in medicine. Therefore the purpose of our work is development of method ATR for diagnostics and researches in biomedicine. In this work as objects of consideration were: a mixture of nicotine with water, a mixture of an ascorbic acid with water and surface lesions of an eye cornea by a herpes virus. Results of our consideration are the ATR spectra defined at different concentration of organic substances and virions.

  5. ATR-FTIR investigations of plasticizer diffusion in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miser, C. S.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Pesce-Rodriguez, Rose A.; Fifer, Robert A.

    1992-03-01

    An attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) technique has been developed for measuring the diffusion coefficients of liquids in polymer films. Data is being obtained for diffusion of plasticizers in nitrocellulose (NC), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), and NC/CAB mixtures.

  6. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2016-01-26

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability.

  7. WWOX modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hereema, Nyla A.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2016-01-01

    For many decades genomic instability is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Role of the tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) in DNA damage response upon double strand breaks has been recently revealed. Here we demonstrate unforeseen functions for WWOX upon DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) checkpoint activation. We found that WWOX levels are induced following SSBs and accumulate in the nucleus. WWOX deficiency is associated with reduced activation of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) checkpoint proteins and increased chromosomal breaks. At the molecular level, we show that upon SSBs WWOX is modified at lysine 274 by ubiquitination mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH and interacts with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Interestingly, ATM inhibition was associated with reduced activation of ATR checkpoint proteins suggesting that WWOX manipulation of ATR checkpoint proteins is ATM-dependent. Taken together, the present findings indicate that WWOX plays a key role in ATR checkpoint activation, while its absence might facilitate genomic instability. PMID:26675548

  8. Mec1/ATR, the Program Manager of Nucleic Acids Inc.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are equipped with surveillance mechanisms called checkpoints to ensure proper execution of cell cycle events. Among these are the checkpoints that detect DNA damage or replication perturbations and coordinate cellular activities to maintain genome stability. At the forefront of damage sensing is an evolutionarily conserved molecule, known respectively in budding yeast and humans as Mec1 (Mitosis entry checkpoint 1) and ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein). Through phosphorylation, Mec1/ATR activates downstream components of a signaling cascade to maintain nucleotide pool balance, protect replication fork integrity, regulate activation of origins of replication, coordinate DNA repair, and implement cell cycle delay. This list of functions continues to expand as studies have revealed that Mec1/ATR modularly interacts with various protein molecules in response to different cellular cues. Among these newly assigned functions is the regulation of RNA metabolism during checkpoint activation and the coordination of replication–transcription conflicts. In this review, I will highlight some of these new functions of Mec1/ATR with a focus on the yeast model organism. PMID:28036033

  9. Government Information Quarterly. Volume 7, no. 2: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Programs. Special issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernon, Peter (Editor); Mcclure, Charles R. (Editor); Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    NASA scientific and technical information (STI) programs are discussed. Topics include management of information in a research and development agency, the new space and Earth science information systems at NASA's archive, scientific and technical information management, and technology transfer of NASA aerospace technology to other industries.

  10. 78 FR 65183 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... installing a fuel quantity indicator (FQI) equipped with a locking adaptor on the electrical connector. We... indicator, need to be taken. Although it is recognised that the fuel (indicating) system of the ATR 42/72... mitigated by making installation of an ATR 42 Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI) on an ATR 72...

  11. Score-based SAR ATR performance model with operating condition dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Vladimir I.; Ross, Timothy D.; Lavely, Eugene M.; Blasch, Erik P.

    2007-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) performance models are needed for online adaptation and for effective use (e.g., in fusion) of ATR products. We present empirical models focused on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ATR algorithms. These models are not ATR algorithms in themselves; rather they are models of ATRs developed with the intention of capturing the behavior, at least on a statistical basis, of a reference ATR algorithm. The model covariates (or inputs) might include the ATR operating conditions (sensor, target, and environment), ATR training parameters, etc. The model might produce performance metrics (Pid, Pd, Pfa, etc.) or individual ATR decisions. "Scores" are an intermediate product of many ATRs, which then go through a relatively simple decision rule. Our model has a parallel structure, first modeling the score production and then mapping scores to model outputs. From a regression perspective, it is impossible to predict individual ATR outcomes for all possible values of this covariate space since samples are only available for small subsets of the total space. Given this limitation, and absent a purely theoretical model meaningfully matched to the true complexity of this problem, our approach is to examine the empirical behavior of scores across various operating conditions, and identify trends and characteristics of the scores that are apparently predictable. Many of the scores available for training are in so-called standard operating conditions (SOC), and a far smaller number are in so-called extended operating conditions (EOCs). The influence of the EOCs on scores and ATR decisions are examined in detail.

  12. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  13. Validation of HELIOS for ATR Core Follow Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, Samuel E.; Swain, Emily T.; Crawford, Douglas S.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the validation analyses for the HELIOS code to support core design and safety assurance calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Past and current core safety assurance is performed by the PDQ-7 diffusion code; a state of the art reactor physics simulation tool from the nuclear industry’s earlier days. Over the past twenty years, improvements in computational speed have enabled the use of modern neutron transport methodologies to replace the role of diffusion theory for simulation of complex systems, such as the ATR. More exact methodologies have enabled a paradigm-shift away from highly tuned codes that force compliance with a bounding safety envelope, and towards codes regularly validated against routine measurements. To validate HELIOS, the 16 ATR operational cycles from late-2009 to present were modeled. The computed power distribution was compared against data collected by the ATR’s on-line power surveillance system. It was found that the ATR’s lobe-powers could be determined with ±10% accuracy. Also, the ATR’s cold startup shim configuration for each of these 16 cycles was estimated and compared against the reported critical position from the reactor log-book. HELIOS successfully predicted criticality within the tolerance set by the ATR startup procedure for 13 out of the 16 cycles. This is compared to 12 times for PDQ (without empirical adjustment). These findings, as well as other insights discussed in this report, suggest that HELIOS is highly suited for replacing PDQ for core safety assurance of the ATR. Furthermore, a modern verification and validation framework has been established that allows reactor and fuel performance data to be computed with a known degree of accuracy and stated uncertainty.

  14. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  15. Integrate knowledge acquisition with target recognition through closed-loop ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ssu-Hsin; McLaughlin, Pat; Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Hsiao, Kai-yuh; Boskovic, Jovan

    2015-05-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm performance is highly dependent on the sensing conditions under which the input data is collected. Open-loop fly-bys often produce poor results due to less than ideal measurement conditions. In addition, ATR algorithms must be extremely complicated to handle the diverse range of inputs with a resulting reduction in overall performance and increase in complexity. Our approach, closed-loop ATR (CL-ATR), focuses on improving the quality of information input to the ATR algorithms by optimizing motion, sensor settings and team (vehicle-vehicle-human) collaboration to dramatically improve classification accuracy. By managing the data collection guided by predicted ATR performance gain, we increase the information content of the data and thus dramatically improve ATR performance with existing ATR algorithms. CL-ATR has two major functions; first, an ATR utility function, which represents the performance sensitivity of ATR produced classification labels as a function of parameters that correlate to vehicle/sensor states. This utility function is developed off-line and is often available from the original ATR study as a confusion matrix, or it can be derived through simulation without direct access to the inner working of the ATR algorithm. The utility function is inserted into our CLATR framework to autonomously control the vehicle/sensor. Second, an on-board planner maps the utility function into vehicle position and sensor collection plans. Because we only require the utility function on-board, we can activate any ATR algorithm onto a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform no matter how complex. This pairing of ATR performance profiles with vehicle/sensor controls creates a unique and powerful active perception behavior.

  16. A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Information Related to the Biology and Management of Species of Special Concern at Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Jonathan B.; Erwin, R. Michael; French, John B.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Meyers, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) conducted a study for the National Park Service (NPS) Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA, and Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina to review, evaluate, and summarize the available scientific information for selected species of concern at CAHA (piping plovers, sea turtles, seabeach amaranth, American oystercatchers, and colonial waterbirds). This work consisted of reviewing the scientific literature and evaluating the results of studies that examined critical life history stages of each species, and focused on the scientific findings reported that are relevant to the management of these species and their habitats at CAHA. The chapters that follow provide the results of that review separately for each species and present scientifically based options for resource management at CAHA. Although no new original research or experimental work was conducted, this synthesis of the existing information was peer reviewed by over 15 experts with familiarity with these species. This report does not establish NPS management protocols but does highlight scientific information on the biology of these species to be considered by NPS managers who make resource management decisions at CAHA. To ensure that the best available information is considered when assessing each species of interest at CAHA, this review included published research as well as practical experience of scientists and wildlife managers who were consulted in 2005. PWRC scientists evaluated the literature, consulted wildlife managers, and produced an initial draft that was sent to experts for scientific review. Revisions based on those comments were incorporated into the document. The final draft of the document was reviewed by NPS personnel to ensure that the description of the recent status and management of these species at CAHA was accurately represented and that the report was consistent with our work agreement. The following

  17. The National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC): Results from Phase I and Scientific Opportunities in Phase II

    PubMed Central

    Kroner, Barbara L.; Tolunay, H. Eser; Basson, Craig T.; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Holmes, Kathryn; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; LeMaire, Scott A.; Hendershot, Tabitha; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Devereux, Richard B.; Dietz, Harry C.; Song, Howard; Ringer, Danny; Mitchell, Megan; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.; Ravekes, William; Menashe, Victor; Eagle, Kim A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetically triggered thoracic aortic conditions (GenTAC) represent an important problem for patients and their families. Accordingly, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) established the first phase of its national GenTAC Registry in 2006. Enrollment and Diagnoses Between 2007 and 2010, six enrolling centers established the GenTAC I Registry consisting of 2,046 patients [(Marfan syndrome 576 (28.2%); bicuspid aortic valve disease 504 (24.6%), aneurysm or dissection age <50 years 369 (18%), and others.] Biologic samples for DNA analyses (WBC’s or saliva) are available in 97% and stored plasma is available in 60% of enrollees. Results Initial scientific inquiry using the GenTAC Registry has included validation studies of genetic causes for aortic syndromes, potential usefulness of TGFB blood levels in Marfan subjects, and current surgical approaches to ascending aortic conditions. Future Opportunity GenTAC II will allow biannual follow-up of GenTAC I enrollees for up to nine years, enrollment of an additional 1,500 subjects, further integration of imaging findings with clinical and genetic data through utilization of an imaging core lab, important validation of phenotype-genotype correlations through a phenotyping core lab, and integration of a scientific advisory committee to help define the full range and depth of the Registry’s scientific capabilities. The registry resources are available to the external scientific community through an application process accessible at https://gentac.rti.org. PMID:21982653

  18. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  19. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  20. Integrating visual learning within a model-based ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark; Nebrich, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) systems, like human photo-interpreters, rely on a variety of visual information for detecting, classifying, and identifying manmade objects in aerial imagery. We describe the integration of a visual learning component into the Image Data Conditioner (IDC) for target/clutter and other visual classification tasks. The component is based on an implementation of a model of the visual cortex developed by Serre, Wolf, and Poggio. Visual learning in an ATR context requires the ability to recognize objects independent of location, scale, and rotation. Our method uses IDC to extract, rotate, and scale image chips at candidate target locations. A bootstrap learning method effectively extends the operation of the classifier beyond the training set and provides a measure of confidence. We show how the classifier can be used to learn other features that are difficult to compute from imagery such as target direction, and to assess the performance of the visual learning process itself.

  1. Comparison of HEU and LEU Fuel Neutron Spectrum for ATR Fuel Element and ATR Flux-Trap Positions

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the high total core power and high neutron flux, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. An optimized low-enriched uranium (LEU) (U-10Mo) core conversion case, which can meet the project requirements, has been selected. However, LEU contains a significant quantity of high density U-238 (80.3 wt.%), which will harden the neutron spectrum in the core region. Based on the reference ATR HEU and the optimized LEU full core plate-by-plate (PBP) models, the present work investigates and compares the neutron spectra differences in the fuel element (FE), Northeast flux trap (NEFT), Southeast flux trap (SEFT), and East flux trap (EFT) positions. A detailed PBP MCNP ATR core model was developed and validated for fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. The current ATR core with HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0wt.% was used as the reference model. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, an optimized LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and the U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt.% was used to calculate the impact of the neutron spectrum in FE and FT positions. MCNP-calculated results show that the neutron spectrum in the LEU FE is slightly harder than in the HEU FE, as expected. However, when neutrons transport through water coolant and beryllium (Be), the neutrons are thermalized to an equilibrium neutron spectrum as a function of water volume fraction in the investigated FT positions. As a result, the neutron spectrum differences of the HEU and LEU in the NEFT, SEFT, and EFT are negligible. To demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the

  2. A SAR ATR algorithm based on coherent change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, D.W.

    2000-12-01

    This report discusses an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery that is based on coherent change detection techniques. The algorithm relies on templates created from training data to identify targets. Objects are identified or rejected as targets by comparing their SAR signatures with templates using the same complex correlation scheme developed for coherent change detection. Preliminary results are presented in addition to future recommendations.

  3. Key features for ATA / ATR database design in missile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özertem, Kemal Arda

    2017-05-01

    Automatic target acquisition (ATA) and automatic target recognition (ATR) are two vital tasks for missile systems, and having a robust detection and recognition algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In order to have a robust target detection and recognition algorithm, an extensive image database is required. Automatic target recognition algorithms use the database of images in training and testing steps of algorithm. This directly affects the recognition performance, since the training accuracy is driven by the quality of the image database. In addition, the performance of an automatic target detection algorithm can be measured effectively by using an image database. There are two main ways for designing an ATA / ATR database. The first and easy way is by using a scene generator. A scene generator can model the objects by considering its material information, the atmospheric conditions, detector type and the territory. Designing image database by using a scene generator is inexpensive and it allows creating many different scenarios quickly and easily. However the major drawback of using a scene generator is its low fidelity, since the images are created virtually. The second and difficult way is designing it using real-world images. Designing image database with real-world images is a lot more costly and time consuming; however it offers high fidelity, which is critical for missile algorithms. In this paper, critical concepts in ATA / ATR database design with real-world images are discussed. Each concept is discussed in the perspective of ATA and ATR separately. For the implementation stage, some possible solutions and trade-offs for creating the database are proposed, and all proposed approaches are compared to each other with regards to their pros and cons.

  4. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  5. Surface analysis of powder binary mixtures with ATR FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Planinsek, Odon; Planinsek, Daniela; Zega, Anamarija; Breznik, Matej; Srcic, Stane

    2006-08-17

    Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (ATR FTIR) has been used for surface analysis of powder mixtures. The appearance of one component on the surface of the mixture in greater amounts than that expected from the mass or volume ratio was quantified. Coloured mixtures containing methyl orange were analysed. They contained proportions of components from 0% to 100% in steps of 10%. Mixtures of non-sieved powders of methyl orange and Povidone were dark red when containing only 20% of methyl orange, indicating that particles of methyl orange were present on the surface of the mixture in higher amounts than expected from the mass ratios. Mixtures of methyl orange and Mg stearate, on the other hand, were a light colour, showing the presence of more Mg stearate on the surface than expected. Visual observations correlated with semiquantitative surface concentration determination by ATR FTIR spectroscopy using specific peaks of each component. Quantitative determination of components on the surface of the mixture, using the Beer Lambert law, was possible when characteristic peaks for the first component did not overlap with those of the other component. A non-linear correlation between peak height and concentration of a component in a mixture was explained by distribution of the particle size of components. With a small component, the larger number of particles in the same volume allowed them to surround the larger particles of the second component. These conclusions were confirmed by preparing mixtures with non-coloured components (Povidone-Eudragit, NaCl-Povidone, NaCl-Eudragit. Results again correlated with the ATR FTIR spectroscopy measurements. It was additionally shown that a small proportion of finer particles can drastically influence the surface of powder mixtures, due to their large contribution to the specific surface area. ATR FTIR is thus demonstrated to be a useful method for studying surfaces of powder mixtures also in terms of

  6. The establishment of a standard and real patient kidney stone library utilizing Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with a diamond ATR accessory.

    PubMed

    Mulready, Keith J; McGoldrick, Des

    2012-10-01

    This investigation highlights the establishment of a real patient kidney stone library utilizing Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with a diamond attenuated total reflection accessory (FT-IR ATR) and the construction of a standard FT-IR ATR (sFTIRATR) library using OMNIC spectral math arithmetic operations for kidney stone analysis. This is necessary because reference spectra in commercial libraries provided with specialized software are usually complied using synthesized crystalline compounds which can exhibit changes in intensity, position and/or characteristic profile of reflectance bands when compared with authentic biological stone compositions. Currently, there is no published literature for the Republic of Ireland (RoI) on stone type and prevalence. The results obtained from the establishment of the real patient kidney stone library were a representative selection of kidney stones found in the population, and thereby provided an accurate picture of the present epidemiology of kidney stones in the RoI. The results of 188 patients were compared with those from our newly constructed sFTIRATR library and existing methods, namely wet chemical analysis, and FT-IR ATR utilizing an ATR algorithm and potassium bromide search libraries. We found that for the optimum quantitative analysis of kidney stone mixtures, FT-IR ATR spectroscopy utilizing a standard FT-IR ATR library, supported by a real patient kidney stone library, applying library searching accurately provides the molecular and crystalline species of stone constituents present in an unknown kidney stone sample, providing some predicative value in diagnosing medical conditions. Our data suggest that the epidemiology for nephrolithiasis in the RoI is similar to other Western nations.

  7. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycle 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh Pham; Jeff Einerson

    2014-01-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-2 (AGR-2) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 154B as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This is the last cycle of AGR-2 irradiation, as the test train was pulled from the ATR core during the outage portion of ATR Cycle 155A. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) downstream flows from Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) detectors, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the six capsules in the AGR-2 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) comprised of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  8. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3′ ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5′ end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5′ dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5′ end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair. PMID:28115467

  9. Natural convection heat transfer analysis of ATR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    Natural convection air cooling of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel assemblies is analyzed to determine the level of decay heat that can be removed without exceeding the melting temperature of the fuel. The study was conducted to assist in the level 2 PRA analysis of a hypothetical ATR water canal draining accident. The heat transfer process is characterized by a very low Rayleigh number (Ra {approx} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a high temperature ratio. Since neither data nor analytical models were available for Ra < 0.1, an analytical approach is presented based upon the integral boundary layer equations. All assumptions and simplifications are presented and assessed and two models are developed from similar foundations. In one model, the well-known Boussinesq approximations are employed, the results from which are used to assess the modeling philosophy through comparison to existing data and published analytical results. In the other model, the Boussinesq approximations are not used, thus making the model more general and applicable to the ATR analysis.

  10. Polynomial chaos theory for performance evaluation of ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Michael D.; Bateman, Alec J.

    2010-04-01

    The development of a more unified theory of automatic target recognition (ATR) has received considerable attention over the last several years from individual researchers, working groups, and workshops. One of the major benefits expected to accrue from such a theory is an ability to analytically derive performance metrics that accurately predict real-world behavior. Numerous sources of uncertainty affect the actual performance of an ATR system, so direct calculation has been limited in practice to a few special cases because of the practical difficulties of manipulating arbitrary probability distributions over high dimensional spaces. This paper introduces an alternative approach for evaluating ATR performance based on a generalization of NorbertWiener's polynomial chaos theory. Through this theory, random quantities are expressed not in terms of joint distribution functions but as convergent orthogonal series over a shared random basis. This form can be used to represent any finite-variance distribution and can greatly simplify the propagation of uncertainties through complex systems and algorithms. The paper presents an overview of the relevant theory and, as an example application, a discussion of how it can be applied to model the distribution of position errors from target tracking algorithms.

  11. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3' ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5' end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5' dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5' end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair.

  12. System issues of developing grayscale optical correlator for ATR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    We have been developing Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and exploring a variety of automatic target recognition (ATR) applications to take advantage of the inherent performance advantages of the GOC parallel processing, high-speed, vast parallelism and high-speed [1-4]. To date, we have built compact 512 x 512, 1000 fps GOC systems and tested/demonstrated for field ATR experiments. We have also worked with our industrial partners to develop a 1024 x 1024 Ferroelectric Spatial Light Modulator (FLCSLM) to meet the challenging applications demanding larger input scene Field-of-View (FOV) and higher resolution. In this paper, two major system issues that we have encountered during the development efforts for real-world applications will be discussed. These include: 1) SLM dynamic range limitations and 2) ATR performance for CAD/CAC, computer-aided detection & classification (CAD/CAC) applications. Our simulation study has shown that the current 8-bit dynamic range possessed by the FLCSLM is adequate for both the input image and the correlation filter encodings. We will also describe the addition of a neural network (NN) post-processor to greatly decrease the false positive detection rate while retaining the high positive detection rate obtained by the by the GOC. Experimental results demonstrating the high-performance of the fused GOC and NN processor will be provided.

  13. Simulator of IRST system with ATR embedded functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, B.; Fossati, E.; Barani, G.; Santini, N.; Ondini, A.; Colombi, G.; Quaranta, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a soft-real time simulator for IRST (InfraRed Search and Track) systems with ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) embedded functions to test airborne applications performance. The IR camera model includes detector, optics, available Field-of-Regard, etc., and it is integrated with the motion platform local stabilization system to consider all factors impacting IR images. The atmosphere contributions are taken into account by means of a link to ModTran computer program. Sensor simulation allows derivation and assessment of IR Figures of Merit (NEI, NETD, SNR...). IR signatures of targets derive both from data collected in specific trial campaigns and from laboratory built models. The simulation of the scan procedure takes into account different policies (ground points paths or defined angular volume) and different platform motion strategies (continuous or step steering scan). The scan process includes Kalman technique to face unexpected variations of aircraft motion. Track and ATR processors are simulated and run consistently on the output of the sensor model. The simulator functions are developed in MatLab and SIMULINK and then exported in C code to be integrated in soft real-time environment. The use of this simulator supports the definition and design of the IRST systems especially for the evaluation of the most demanding operative requirements. An application of this simulator is for the NEURON UCAV (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) technological demonstrator, which accommodates on board both IRST and ATR tasks.

  14. Clipping service: ATR-based SAR image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkey, David L.; Welby, Stephen P.; Hostetler, Larry D.

    1996-06-01

    Future wide area surveillance systems such as the Tier II+ and Tier III- unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be gathering cast amounts of high resolution SAR data for transmission to ground stations and subsequent analysis by image interpreters to provide critical and timely information to field commanders. This extremely high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this imagery to a ground station are both expensive and difficult to obtain. Second, the volume of data which is generated by the system will quickly saturate any human-based analysis system without some degree of computer assistance. The ARPA sponsored clipping service program seeks to apply automatic target recognition (ATR) technology to perform 'intelligent' data compression on this imagery in a way which will provide a product on the ground that preserves essential information for further processing either by the military analyst or by a ground-based ATR system. An ATR system on board the UAV would examine the imagery data stream in real time determining regions of interest. Imagery from those regions would be transmitted to the ground in a manner which preserved most or all of the information contained in the original image. The remainder of the imagery would be transmitted to the ground with lesser fidelity. This paper presents system analysis deriving the operational requirements for the clipping service system and examines candidate architectures.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of the daptomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus by an autoregulator, AtrA.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Luo, Shuai; Zhou, Ri-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yu, Pin; Sun, Ning; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Yi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-03-20

    Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. To reveal the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of daptomycin biosynthesis, we used the biotinylated dptE promoter (dptEp) as a probe to affinity isolate the dptEp-interactive protein AtrA, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, from the proteome of mycelia. AtrA bound directly to dptEp to positively regulate gene cluster expression and daptomycin production. Meanwhile, both ΔatrA and ΔadpA mutants showed bald phenotype and null production of daptomycin. AdpA positively regulated atrA expression by direct interaction with atrA promoter (atrAp), and removal of ArpA in S. roseosporus, a homolog of the A-factor receptor, resulted in accelerated morphological development and increased daptomycin production, suggesting that atrA was the target of AdpA to mediate the A-factor signaling pathway. Furthermore, AtrA was positively autoregulated by binding to its own promoter atrAp. Thus, for the first time at the transcriptional level, we have identified an autoregulator, AtrA, that directly mediates the A-factor signaling pathway to regulate the proper production of daptomycin.

  16. SUMOylation of ATRIP potentiates DNA damage signaling by boosting multiple protein interactions in the ATR pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Ouyang, Jian; Mori, Eiichiro; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Maréchal, Alexandre; Hallet, Alexander; Chen, David J; Zou, Lee

    2014-07-01

    The ATR (ATM [ataxia telangiectasia-mutated]- and Rad3-related) checkpoint is a crucial DNA damage signaling pathway. While the ATR pathway is known to transmit DNA damage signals through the ATR-Chk1 kinase cascade, whether post-translational modifications other than phosphorylation are important for this pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we show that protein SUMOylation plays a key role in the ATR pathway. ATRIP, the regulatory partner of ATR, is modified by SUMO2/3 at K234 and K289. An ATRIP mutant lacking the SUMOylation sites fails to localize to DNA damage and support ATR activation efficiently. Surprisingly, the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant is compromised in the interaction with a protein group, rather than a single protein, in the ATR pathway. Multiple ATRIP-interacting proteins, including ATR, RPA70, TopBP1, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex, exhibit reduced binding to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant in cells and display affinity for SUMO2 chains in vitro, suggesting that they bind not only ATRIP but also SUMO. Fusion of a SUMO2 chain to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant enhances its interaction with the protein group and partially suppresses its localization and functional defects, revealing that ATRIP SUMOylation promotes ATR activation by providing a unique type of protein glue that boosts multiple protein interactions along the ATR pathway. © 2014 Wu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. ATR Plays a Direct Antiapoptotic Role at Mitochondria, which Is Regulated by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Benjamin A; Li, Zhengke; Musich, Phillip R; Wang, Hui; Cartwright, Brian M; Serrano, Moises; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping; Zou, Yue

    2015-10-01

    ATR, a PI3K-like protein kinase, plays a key role in regulating DNA damage responses. Its nuclear checkpoint kinase function is well documented, but little is known about its function outside the nucleus. Here we report that ATR has an antiapoptotic activity at mitochondria in response to UV damage, and this activity is independent of its hallmark checkpoint/kinase activity and partner ATRIP. ATR contains a BH3-like domain that allows ATR-tBid interaction at mitochondria, suppressing cytochrome c release and apoptosis. This mitochondrial activity of ATR is downregulated by Pin1 that isomerizes ATR from cis-isomer to trans-isomer at the phosphorylated Ser428-Pro429 motif. However, UV inactivates Pin1 via DAPK1, stabilizing the pro-survival cis-isomeric ATR. In contrast, nuclear ATR remains in the trans-isoform disregarding UV. This cytoplasmic response of ATR may provide a mechanism for the observed antiapoptotic role of ATR in suppressing carcinogenesis and its inhibition in sensitizing anticancer agents for killing of cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerating Scientific Advancement for Pediatric Rare Lung Disease Research. Report from a National Institutes of Health-NHLBI Workshop, September 3 and 4, 2015.

    PubMed

    Young, Lisa R; Trapnell, Bruce C; Mandl, Kenneth D; Swarr, Daniel T; Wambach, Jennifer A; Blaisdell, Carol J

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015. The workshop brought together a group of scientific experts, intramural and extramural investigators, and advocacy groups with the following objectives: (1) to discuss the current state of PRLD research; (2) to identify scientific gaps and barriers to increasing research and improving outcomes for PRLDs; (3) to identify technologies, tools, and reagents that could be leveraged to accelerate advancement of research in this field; and (4) to develop priorities for research aimed at improving patient outcomes and quality of life. This report summarizes the workshop discussion and provides specific recommendations to guide future research in PRLD.

  19. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1.

  20. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1.

  1. 77 FR 61740 - Argonne National Laboratory; Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Argonne National Laboratory; Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free.... Applicant: Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439. Instrument: Klystron...

  2. National Society of Black Physicists XXV Annual Day of Scientific Lectures and 21st Annual Meeting - NSBP '98: The Next Generation/12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students - NCPBS '98: Physics/Life in Motion

    SciTech Connect

    MacKellar, Alan

    1999-02-28

    The 12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) March 4-8, 1998 in Lexington, Ky. The Proceedings consists of scientific talks and abstracts given by NSBP members and students attending the NCBPS meeting. One joint session of general scientific interest was held, with NCBPS students, NSBP members, and about 75 high school students from the state of Kentucky present. NCBPS session included ''How to get into Graduate School'', ''How to Survive in Graduate School'', and a Panel on ''Opportunities for Physics Graduates.'' The report by AIP: ''Survey of Participants of the 12th Annual NCBPS'' is included in the Proceedings.

  3. Linking scientific discovery and better health for the nation: the first three years of the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M; Berglund, Lars

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive system for translating basic biomedical research into useful and effectively implemented clinical diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic practices is essential to the nation's health. The state of clinical and translational research (CTR) in the United States, however, has been characterized as fragmented, slow, expensive, and poorly coordinated. As part of its Roadmap Initiative, the National Institutes of Health instituted the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), a sweeping and ambitious program designed to transform the conduct of biomedical research in the United States by speeding the translation of scientific discoveries into useful therapies and then developing methods to ensure that those therapies reach the patients who need them the most. The authors review the circumstances of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise that led to the creation of the CTSA and discuss the initial strategic plan of the CTSA, which was developed from the first three years of experience with the program and was designed to overcome organizational, methodological, and cultural barriers within and among research institutions. The authors also describe the challenges encountered during these efforts and discuss the promise of this vital national health care initiative, which is essential to creating a pipeline for the scientific workforce needed to conduct research that will, in turn, provide a rational evidence base for better health in the United States.

  4. The fate of research abstracts submitted to a national surgical conference: a cross-sectional study to assess scientific impact.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Vincent E; Knops, Simon P; van Dongen, Joris A; Eyck, Ben M; Vles, Wouter J

    2016-01-01

    Conference abstracts often lack rigorous peer review, but potentially influence clinical thinking and practice. To evaluate the quality of abstracts submitted to a large surgical conference, presentation and publication rates were investigated to assess scientific impact. A Cross-sectional study of abstracts submitted to Dutch Surgical Society meetings from 2007 to 2012 was conducted. Presentation rates, publication rates in MEDLINE-indexed journals using PubMed Central database, and actuarial times to subsequent publication were investigated. Of 2,174 submitted abstracts, 1,305 (60%) abstracts were accepted for presentation. Actuarial 1, 3, and 5-year publication rates were 22.4%, 62.2%, and 68.6% for presented abstracts, compared with 20.9%, 50.3%, and 57.7% for rejected abstracts, respectively (log-rank x(2) 23.728, df1, P < .001). Publications resulting from abstracts presented at the conference had a significantly higher mean (±standard error) impact factor (4.4 ± .2 vs 3.4 ± .1, P < .001), compared with publications from previously rejected abstracts. We advocate critical appraisal of the use of findings of scientific abstracts and conference presentations. The 5-year abstract-to-publication ratio is proposed as a novel quality indicator to allow objective comparison between scientific meetings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ATR signaling can drive cells into senescence in the absence of DNA breaks

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Luis I.; Murga, Matilde; Gutierrez-Martinez, Paula; Soria, Rebeca; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    The ATR kinase is a key transducer of “replicative stress,” the type of genomic damage that has been postulated to be induced by oncogenes. Here we describe a cellular system in which we can unleash ATR activity at will, in the absence of any actual damage or additional signaling pathways triggered by DNA breaks. We demonstrate that activating ATR is sufficient to promote cell cycle arrest and, if persistent, triggers p53-dependent but Ink4a/ARF-independent senescence. Moreover, we show that an ectopic activation of ATR leads to a G1/S arrest in ATM−/− cells, providing the first evidence of functional complementation of ATM deficiency by ATR. Our system provides a novel platform for the study of the specific functions of ATR signaling and adds evidence for the tumor-suppressive potential of the DNA damage response. PMID:18245444

  6. Approaches by the US National Institutes of Health to support rigorous scientific research on dietary supplements and natural products.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, A J; Hopp, D C; Williamson, J S; Betz, J M; Sorkin, B C

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic, clinical, and epidemiological research relevant to dietary supplements (DS) is supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The Office of Dietary Supplements and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health promote the development and appropriate use of rigorous and comprehensive DS analyses which are critical for research reproducibility, particularly when the investigational DS include chemically complex natural products with unclear mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Lavochkin and Kovtunenko scientific and production association: Intersection of destinies that gave a new impetus to the development of national unmanned astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevalev, I. L.

    2012-12-01

    The article describes the life and creative activity of V.M. Kovtunenko, an outstanding creator of national rocket and space technology. Many research projects were implemented under his leadership in the Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association, such as the unmanned spacecraft to Venus, Mars, and small bodies in the solar system (Phobos and Halley's comet), the first domestic extra-atmospheric astrophysical observatories Astron and Granat, interplanetary spacecraft of the new generation "Phobos", the first optoelectronic remote sensing system, the spacecraft Arkon-1, and a versatile booster unit Fregat.

  8. Selective killing of ATM- or p53-deficient cancer cells through inhibition of ATR.

    PubMed

    Reaper, Philip M; Griffiths, Matthew R; Long, Joanna M; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Maccormick, Somhairle; Charlton, Peter A; Golec, Julian M C; Pollard, John R

    2011-04-13

    Here we report a comprehensive biological characterization of a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of the DNA damage response (DDR) kinase ATR. We show a profound synthetic lethal interaction between ATR and the ATM-p53 tumor suppressor pathway in cells treated with DNA-damaging agents and establish ATR inhibition as a way to transform the outcome for patients with cancer treated with ionizing radiation or genotoxic drugs.

  9. Status report of the ATR SPING-3A and detailed calibration guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) onducted testing and an evaluation of the ATR SPING-3 after installation of the new ''A'' series software (firmware) and retrofit kit. The purpose of this report is to provide the ATR SPING-3A users with a document describing the present status of the unit, how the system was tested, a suggested calibration guideline, how the system should be operated for the ATR application, and why it should be used in this manner.

  10. ATR cooperates with CTC1 and STN1 to maintain telomeres and genome integrity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Kara A; Leehy, Katherine; Song, Xiangyu; Nelson, Andrew D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2012-04-01

    The CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex is an essential constituent of plant and vertebrate telomeres. Here we show that CST and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3-related) act synergistically to maintain telomere length and genome stability in Arabidopsis. Inactivation of ATR, but not ATM, temporarily rescued severe morphological phenotypes associated with ctc1 or stn1. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening accelerated in plants lacking CST and ATR. In first-generation (G1) ctc1 atr mutants, enhanced telomere attrition was modest, but in G2 ctc1 atr, telomeres shortened precipitously, and this loss coincided with a dramatic decrease in telomerase activity in G2 atr mutants. Zeocin treatment also triggered a reduction in telomerase activity, suggesting that the prolonged absence of ATR leads to a hitherto-unrecognized DNA damage response (DDR). Finally, our data indicate that ATR modulates DDR in CST mutants by limiting chromosome fusions and transcription of DNA repair genes and also by promoting programmed cell death in stem cells. We conclude that the absence of CST in Arabidopsis triggers a multifaceted ATR-dependent response to facilitate maintenance of critically shortened telomeres and eliminate cells with severe telomere dysfunction.

  11. Requirement of ATR for maintenance of intestinal stem cells in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Park, Joung-Sun; Na, Hyun-Jin; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-05-01

    The stem cell genomic stability forms the basis for robust tissue homeostasis, particularly in high-turnover tissues. For the genomic stability, DNA damage response (DDR) is essential. This study was focused on the role of two major DDR-related factors, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR) kinases, in the maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adultDrosophila midgut. We explored the role of ATM and ATR, utilizing immunostaining with an anti-pS/TQ antibody as an indicator of ATM/ATR activation, γ-irradiation as a DNA damage inducer, and the UAS/GAL4 system for cell type-specific knockdown of ATM, ATR, or both during adulthood. The results showed that the pS/TQ signals got stronger with age and after oxidative stress. The pS/TQ signals were found to be more dependent on ATR rather than on ATM in ISCs/enteroblasts (EBs). Furthermore, an ISC/EB-specific knockdown of ATR, ATM, or both decreased the number of ISCs and oxidative stress-induced ISC proliferation. The phenotypic changes that were caused by the ATR knockdown were more pronounced than those caused by the ATM knockdown; however, our data indicate that ATR and ATM are both needed for ISC maintenance and proliferation; ATR seems to play a bigger role than does ATM.

  12. Electromagnetic model based SAR ATR through attributed scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Conghui; Wen, Gongjian; Gao, Feng; Huang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoliang

    2016-10-01

    Electromagnetic model (em-model) provides a concise and physically relevant description of target through representative scatterers. In a forward built em-model, detailed information about each scatterer's position, scattering amplitude along with its provenance can be predicted. This makes em-model a good candidate for use in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR). In this paper, we introduce scatterers' provenance as attributed information into target recognition, and an attributed em-model based target recognition method is proposed. Firstly, according to the purpose of ATR, each scatterer in em-model is endowed with an importance factor based on its provenance. Secondly, a detection is implemented to decide whether the em-model predicted scatterer has a corresponding scatterer in measured data. If the scatterer exist in measured target, evaluate how similar the scatterer pair resembled with each other. Next, similarities of all the scatterer pairs are synthesized as a whole match score between em-model and SAR data. In the synthesis, the importance factor servers as a weighting factor that scatterer with more attention will be more discriminative for recognition. In the end, target in measured SAR data is recognized as the model type or not based on the match score. The novelty of this method comes from taking into account of the provenance information of scatterers as attributed information and endowing the scatterers with different important factors according to their importance in recognition. This makes the attributed scatterer based recognition method pertinent to the purpose of ATR. Experiments on simulated Tank SAR data that produced by a high frequency electromagnetic simulation software verified the effectiveness of this method.

  13. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis: summary of the 2007 SLO/RSH Foundation scientific conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Merkens, Louise S; Wassif, Christopher; Healy, Kristy; Pappu, Anuradha S; DeBarber, Andrea E; Penfield, Jennifer A; Lindsay, Rebecca A; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Porter, Forbes D; Steiner, Robert D

    2009-05-01

    In June 2007, the Smith-Lemli-Opitz/RSH Foundation held a scientific conference hosted jointly by Dr. Robert Steiner from Oregon Health & Science University and Dr. Forbes D. Porter from The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. The main goal of this meeting was to promote interaction between scientists with expertise in cholesterol homeostasis, brain cholesterol metabolism, developmental biology, and oxysterol and neurosteroid biochemistry, clinicians researching and treating patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, the patient support organization and families. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the conference, represents the conference proceedings, and is intended to foster collaborative research and ultimately improve understanding and treatment of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and other inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis.

  14. The Scientific Foundation for Personal Genomics: Recommendations from a National Institutes of Health–Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multidisciplinary Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; McBride, Colleen M.; Schully, Sheri D.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Feero, W. Gregory; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Gwinn, Marta; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Cargill, Michele; Chanock, Stephen J.; Church, George M.; Coates, Ralph J.; Collins, Francis S.; Croyle, Robert T.; Davis, Barry R.; Downing, Gregory J.; DuRoss, Amy; Friedman, Susan; Gail, Mitchell H.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Green, Robert C.; Greene, Mark H.; Greenland, Philip; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Hsu, Andro; Hudson, Kathy L.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Lauer, Michael S.; Miller, Amy M.; Offit, Kenneth; Ransohoff, David F.; Roberts, J. Scott; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Stefansson, Kari; Terry, Sharon F.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Trepanier, Angela; Wanke, Kay L.; Witte, John S.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    The increasing availability of personal genomic tests has led to discussions about the validity and utility of such tests and the balance of benefits and harms. A multidisciplinary workshop was convened by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to review the scientific foundation for using personal genomics in risk assessment and disease prevention and to develop recommendations for targeted research. The clinical validity and utility of personal genomics is a moving target with rapidly developing discoveries but little translation research to close the gap between discoveries and health impact. Workshop participants made recommendations in five domains: (1) developing and applying scientific standards for assessing personal genomic tests; (2) developing and applying a multidisciplinary research agenda, including observational studies and clinical trials to fill knowledge gaps in clinical validity and utility; (3) enhancing credible knowledge synthesis and information dissemination to clinicians and consumers; (4) linking scientific findings to evidence-based recommendations for use of personal genomics; and (5) assessing how the concept of personal utility can affect health benefits, costs, and risks by developing appropriate metrics for evaluation. To fulfill the promise of personal genomics, a rigorous multidisciplinary research agenda is needed. PMID:19617843

  15. The Scientific Foundation for personal genomics: recommendations from a National Institutes of Health-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention multidisciplinary workshop.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; McBride, Colleen M; Schully, Sheri D; Ioannidis, John P A; Feero, W Gregory; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Gwinn, Marta; Simons-Morton, Denise G; Bernhardt, Jay M; Cargill, Michele; Chanock, Stephen J; Church, George M; Coates, Ralph J; Collins, Francis S; Croyle, Robert T; Davis, Barry R; Downing, Gregory J; Duross, Amy; Friedman, Susan; Gail, Mitchell H; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Green, Robert C; Greene, Mark H; Greenland, Philip; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Hsu, Andro; Hudson, Kathy L; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kimmel, Paul L; Lauer, Michael S; Miller, Amy M; Offit, Kenneth; Ransohoff, David F; Roberts, J Scott; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Stefansson, Kari; Terry, Sharon F; Teutsch, Steven M; Trepanier, Angela; Wanke, Kay L; Witte, John S; Xu, Jianfeng

    2009-08-01

    The increasing availability of personal genomic tests has led to discussions about the validity and utility of such tests and the balance of benefits and harms. A multidisciplinary workshop was convened by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to review the scientific foundation for using personal genomics in risk assessment and disease prevention and to develop recommendations for targeted research. The clinical validity and utility of personal genomics is a moving target with rapidly developing discoveries but little translation research to close the gap between discoveries and health impact. Workshop participants made recommendations in five domains: (1) developing and applying scientific standards for assessing personal genomic tests; (2) developing and applying a multidisciplinary research agenda, including observational studies and clinical trials to fill knowledge gaps in clinical validity and utility; (3) enhancing credible knowledge synthesis and information dissemination to clinicians and consumers; (4) linking scientific findings to evidence-based recommendations for use of personal genomics; and (5) assessing how the concept of personal utility can affect health benefits, costs, and risks by developing appropriate metrics for evaluation. To fulfill the promise of personal genomics, a rigorous multidisciplinary research agenda is needed.

  16. Evaluation of the use of scientific information in developing the 1997 Forest plan for the Tongass National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Fred H. Everest; Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Stewart D. Allen

    1997-01-01

    The Tongass National Forest is the largest remaining relatively unaltered coastal temperate rain forest in the world. The Forest consists of 16.9 million acres of land distributed across more that 22,000 islands and a narrow strip of mainland in southeast Alaska. The Forest contains abundant timber, wildlife, fisheries, mineral, and scenic resources. The authors...

  17. The Impact of the PARSEL Way to Teach Science in Germany on Interest, Scientific Literacy, and German National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeber, Wolfgang; Lindner, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how PARSEL modules help to realize the German standards in practice. After analyzing the disappointing results of the TIMSS- and PISA-studies, which caused a kind of "PISA-shock" in Germany, and looking at school systems of winning nations, several changes have been initiated in the German educational system. The most…

  18. Scientific background for soil monitoring on National Forests and Rangelands: workshop proceedings; April 29-30, 2008; Denver, CO

    Treesearch

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Daniel Neary; Carl Trettin

    2010-01-01

    This workshop was developed to determine the state-of-the-science for soil monitoring on National Forests and Rangelands. We asked international experts in the field of soil monitoring, soil monitoring indicators, and basic forest soil properties to describe the limits of our knowledge and the ongoing studies that are providing new information. This workshop and the...

  19. Linking Scientific Discovery and Better Health for the Nation: The First Three Years of the NIH’s Clinical and Translational Science Awards

    PubMed Central

    Califf, Robert M.; Berglund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive system for translating basic biomedical research into useful and effectively implemented clinical diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic practices is essential to the nation’s health. The state of clinical and translational research (CTR) in the United States, however, has been characterized as fragmented, slow, expensive, and poorly coordinated. As part of its Roadmap Initiative, the National Institutes of Health instituted the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), a sweeping and ambitious program designed to transform the conduct of biomedical research in the United States by speeding the translation of scientific discoveries into useful therapies and then developing methods to ensure that those therapies reach the patients who need them the most. The authors review the circumstances of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise that led to the creation of the CTSA and discuss the initial strategic plan of the CTSA, which was developed from the first 3 years of experience with the program and was designed to overcome organizational, methodological, and cultural barriers within and among research institutions. The authors also describe the challenges encountered during these efforts and discuss the promise of this vital national health care initiative, which is essential to creating a pipeline for the scientific workforce needed to conduct research that will in turn provide a rational evidence base for better health in the United States. PMID:20182118

  20. The Inadmissibility of ‘What We Eat In America’ (WWEIA) and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition & Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BM; e.g., interviews, surveys). The reliance on M-BM to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. M-BM data are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support, and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BM has wasted significant resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BM are fundamentally and fatally flawed due to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BM require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (i.e., not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (i.e., memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, nor falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and the continued funding of M-BM constitutes an unscientific and significant misuse of research resources. PMID:26071068

  1. The Inadmissibility of What We Eat in America and NHANES Dietary Data in Nutrition and Obesity Research and the Scientific Formulation of National Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Pavela, Gregory; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-07-01

    The Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was primarily informed by memory-based dietary assessment methods (M-BMs) (eg, interviews and surveys). The reliance on M-BMs to inform dietary policy continues despite decades of unequivocal evidence that M-BM data bear little relation to actual energy and nutrient consumption. Data from M-BMs are defended as valid and valuable despite no empirical support and no examination of the foundational assumptions regarding the validity of human memory and retrospective recall in dietary assessment. We assert that uncritical faith in the validity and value of M-BMs has wasted substantial resources and constitutes the greatest impediment to scientific progress in obesity and nutrition research. Herein, we present evidence that M-BMs are fundamentally and fatally flawed owing to well-established scientific facts and analytic truths. First, the assumption that human memory can provide accurate or precise reproductions of past ingestive behavior is indisputably false. Second, M-BMs require participants to submit to protocols that mimic procedures known to induce false recall. Third, the subjective (ie, not publicly accessible) mental phenomena (ie, memories) from which M-BM data are derived cannot be independently observed, quantified, or falsified; as such, these data are pseudoscientific and inadmissible in scientific research. Fourth, the failure to objectively measure physical activity in analyses renders inferences regarding diet-health relationships equivocal. Given the overwhelming evidence in support of our position, we conclude that M-BM data cannot be used to inform national dietary guidelines and that the continued funding of M-BMs constitutes an unscientific and major misuse of research resources. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of scientific, political, and allied opposition to SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) on national security. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    McKie, F.

    1987-03-23

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is an intensive research program aimed at determining whether there are cost-effective defensive technologies that could enhance deterrence, strengthen stability, and increase the security of the United States and its allies against ballistic missile nuclear attack. Since its inception in March 1983, opposition to the SDI program has been widely publicized by the media. The most prominent sources of such opposition have been members of the scientific, political, and Allied communities. The sources and rationale for this opposition, along with effects on calibre of support for SDI research efforts, congressional funding, and program changes in the SDI research schedule were examined. Information was gathered through a review of the literature.

  3. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - Site Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2008-12-03

    This report summarizes LLNL's progress for the period April through September of 2008 for the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) SciDAC. The TASCS project is organized into four major thrust areas: CCA Environment (72%), Component Technology Initiatives (16%), CCA Toolkit (8%), and User and Application Outreach & Support (4%). The percentage of LLNL's effort allocation is shown in parenthesis for each thrust area. Major thrust areas are further broken down into activity areas, LLNL's effort directed to each activity is shown in Figure 1. Enhancements, Core Tools, and Usability are all part of CCA Environment, and Software Quality is part of Component Technology Initiatives. The balance of this report will cover our accomplishments in each of these activity areas.

  4. National Resource for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC). Attached scientific processors for chemical computations: a report to the chemistry community

    SciTech Connect

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The demands of chemists for computational resources are well known and have been amply documented. The best and most cost-effective means of providing these resources is still open to discussion, however. This report surveys the field of attached scientific processors (array processors) and attempts to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. Array processors have the possibility of providing very cost-effective computation. This report attempts to provide information that will assist chemists who might be considering the use of an array processor for their computations. It describes the general ideas and concepts involved in using array processors, the commercial products that are available, and the experiences reported by those currently using them. In surveying the field of array processors, the author makes certain recommendations regarding their use in computational chemistry. 5 figures, 1 table (RWR)

  5. ATR1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a transmembrane protein required for aminotriazole resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, S; Driscoll, M; Struhl, K

    1988-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (aminotriazole) competitively inhibits the activity of imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase, the product of the HIS3 gene. Wild-type strains are able to grow in the presence of 10 mM aminotriazole because they induce the level of imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase. However, strains containing gcn4 mutations are unable to grow in medium containing aminotriazole because they lack the GCN4 transcriptional activator protein necessary for the coordinate induction of HIS3 and other amino acid biosynthetic genes. Here, we isolated a new gene, designated ATR1, which when present in multiple copies per cell allowed gcn4 mutant strains to grow in the presence of aminotriazole. In wild-type strains, multiple copies of ATR1 permitted growth at extremely high concentrations of aminotriazole (80 mM), whereas a chromosomal deletion of ATR1 caused growth inhibition at very low concentrations (5 mM). When radioactive aminotriazole was added exogenously, cells with multiple copies of ATR1 accumulated less aminotriazole than wild-type cells, whereas cells with the atr1 deletion mutation retained more aminotriazole. Unlike the mammalian mdr or yeast PDR genes that confer resistance to many drugs, ATR1 appears to confer resistance only to aminotriazole. Genetic analysis, mRNA mapping, and DNA sequencing revealed that (i) the primary translation product of ATR1 contains 547 amino acids, (ii) ATR1 transcription is induced by aminotriazole, and (iii) the ATR1 promoter region contains a binding site for the GCN4 activator protein. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that ATR1 protein is very hydrophobic with many membrane-spanning regions, has several potential glycosylation sites, and may contain an ATP-binding site. We suggest that ATR1 encodes a membrane-associated component of the machinery responsible for pumping aminotriazole (and possibly other toxic compounds) out of the cell. Images PMID:3280970

  6. Toward the Assessment of Scientific and Public Health Impacts of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Extramural Asthma Research Program Using Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Liebow, Edward; Phelps, Jerry; Van Houten, Bennett; Rose, Shyanika; Orians, Carlyn; Cohen, Jennifer; Monroe, Philip; Drew, Christina H.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the past 15 years, asthma prevalence has increased and is disproportionately distributed among children, minorities, and low-income persons. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research and Training developed a framework to measure the scientific and health impacts of its extramural asthma research to improve the scientific basis for reducing the health effects of asthma. Objectives Here we apply the framework to characterize the NIEHS asthma portfolio’s impact in terms of publications, clinical applications of findings, community interventions, and technology developments. Methods A logic model was tailored to inputs, outputs, and outcomes of the NIEHS asthma portfolio. Data from existing National Institutes of Health (NIH) databases are used, along with publicly available bibliometric data and structured elicitation of expert judgment. Results NIEHS is the third largest source of asthma-related research grant funding within the NIH between 1975 and 2005, after the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Much of NIEHS-funded asthma research focuses on basic research, but results are often published in journals focused on clinical investigation, increasing the likelihood that the work is moved into practice along the “bench to bedside” continuum. NIEHS support has led to key breakthroughs in scientific research concerning susceptibility to asthma, environmental conditions that heighten asthma symptoms, and cellular mechanisms that may be involved in treating asthma. Conclusions If gaps and limitations in publicly available data receive adequate attention, further linkages can be demonstrated between research activities and public health improvements. This logic model approach to research impact assessment demonstrates that it is possible to conceptualize program components, mine existing databases, and begin to show longer

  7. Open source tools for ATR development and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, James M.; Dilsavor, Ronald L.; Stubbles, James; Mossing, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Early in almost every engineering project, a decision must be made about tools; should I buy off-the-shelf tools or should I develop my own. Either choice can involve significant cost and risk. Off-the-shelf tools may be readily available, but they can be expensive to purchase and to maintain licenses, and may not be flexible enough to satisfy all project requirements. On the other hand, developing new tools permits great flexibility, but it can be time- (and budget-) consuming, and the end product still may not work as intended. Open source software has the advantages of both approaches without many of the pitfalls. This paper examines the concept of open source software, including its history, unique culture, and informal yet closely followed conventions. These characteristics influence the quality and quantity of software available, and ultimately its suitability for serious ATR development work. We give an example where Python, an open source scripting language, and OpenEV, a viewing and analysis tool for geospatial data, have been incorporated into ATR performance evaluation projects. While this case highlights the successful use of open source tools, we also offer important insight into risks associated with this approach.

  8. Security and Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalk, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Issues related to reports and proposed regulations seeking to limit openness in scientific work because of national security interests are discussed. Although administration officials argue that free flow of scientific information allows United States' adversaries to grow stronger at our expense, imposition of controls may undermine U.S. vitality…

  9. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  10. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part I--Fundamentals and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. Several examples of the use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in different undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses are presented here. These…

  11. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part I--Fundamentals and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. Several examples of the use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in different undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses are presented here. These…

  12. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified...

  13. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified...

  14. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  15. The Third French Alzheimer Plan: analysis of the influence of a national public health initiative on scientific research productivity and impact.

    PubMed

    Haeffner-Cavaillon, Nicole; Devos, Patrick; Ledoux, Sylvie; Ménard, Joël

    2015-09-26

    The Third National Alzheimer Plan (2008-2012) was a major public health initiative in France that included €200 million of funding for research in Alzheimer disease and related disorders (AD). The aim of this study was to document trends in French academic output in AD following the implementation of the plan. Academic output (i.e., number of original articles) and scientific impact (i.e., article citations) of French research in AD were obtained from the Web of Knowledge core collection database. Analyses compared the 5-year period immediately before (2004-2008) and after (2009-2013) initiation of the plan. Comparisons were made with stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, and diabetes in the 14 leading countries worldwide and regionally within France. Worldwide production of original scientific articles between the periods 2004-2008 and 2009-2013 increased by 39%, and that for AD increased by 46%. China showed the largest increase and Japan the smallest. The absolute increase in French output on AD (54.6%) was larger than that for stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, or diabetes. Globally, France had the third largest relative increase in output in AD (1.7-fold), behind only India (2.5-fold) and China (1.9-fold). There was a relative 2.3-fold increase in the proportion of French AD articles in the top 1% globally most cited, larger than that for French articles on stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, or diabetes. At the national level, university hospitals participated in nearly 50% of French AD publications. Analyses by geographical area demonstrated marked heterogeneity. We observed a strong correlation between level of funding and volume of output (R2 = 0.70), but not between funding and article impact (proportion of top 10% globally cited articles; correlation R2 = 0.03). Our study provides evidence of a specific positive impact of the funding provided by the Third National Alzheimer Plan in nearly doubling the global academic scientific output and increasing by 2

  16. [THE OPPORTUNITY TO TRANSFORM THE MODEL OF MENTAL HEALTH CARE OF ARGENTINA TO A MODEL BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE BASED ON THE NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH LAW].

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders significantly contribute to the burden of disease, reduce the quality or life, and pose vast economic and social costs. Furthermore, access to treatment and treatment quality is often poor, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Indeed, WHO urged countries to develop policies and comprehensive mental health strategies. In response, Argentina promulgated a National Mental Health Law (NMHL, No. 26.657) that was regulated through the Regulatory Decree No. 603/2013 and implemented through the National Mental Health Plan (NMHP). The NMHL defines the vision, values, and principles for improving the mental health system for the country via urging that mental health care be based on scientific evidence adjusted to ethical principles. This is not new in other areas of health; however, it implies a paradigm shift for the mental health system in Argentina. Inconsistencies between the conceptual framework that raises the NMHL and operational instruments issued by the National Mental Health and Addiction Department were observed. These inconsistencies reflect the resistance to change in paradigm.

  17. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  18. Cocaine profiling: Implementation of a predictive model by ATR-FTIR coupled with chemometrics in forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, Stefano; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Apriceno, Azzurra; Risoluti, Roberta

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a strategy based on Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transformed and Attenuated Total Reflectance associated with chemometrics (ATR-FTIR) is proposed to identify the chemical "fingerprint" of cocaine samples. To this end, standard mixtures of cocaine and cuttings at differents ratio were investigated in order to develop a multivariate classification model to simultaneously predict the composition of the samples and to obtain a profile of adulteration of cocaine seizures. In addition, the application of a Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) calibration approaches were found to be a useful tool to predict the content of cocaine, caffeine, procaine, lidocaine and phenacetin in drug seizures. The achieved results on real confiscated samples, in cooperation with the Italian Scientific Investigation Department (Carabinieri-RIS) of Rome, allow to consider ATR-FTIR followed to chemometrics as a promising forensic tool in such situations involving profile comparisons and supporting forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Now is the Time for a Postracial Medicine: Biomedical Research, the National Institutes of Health, and the Perpetuation of Scientific Racism.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Javier; de la Fuente, Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    The consideration of racial differences in the biology of disease and treatment options is a hallmark of modern medicine. However, this time-honored medical tradition has no scientific basis, and the premise itself, that is, the existence of biological differences between the commonly known races, is false inasmuch as races are only sociocultural constructions. It is time to rid medical research of the highly damaging exercise of searching for supposed racial differences in the biological manifestations of disease. The practice not only condoned but required by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of utilizing racial identification as a demographic characteristic with assumed biological implications is at best badly flawed, and at worst unintentionally contributes to perpetuating the fallacy of natural differences between persons of different skin color, which has been used in the past to advance the cause of racial discrimination.

  20. Review of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide assessment of scientific and technical information. OAQPS staff paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, D.J.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scientific and technical information that EPA staff believes is most relevant to the review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The assessment is intended to bridge the gap between the scientific review in the EPA criteria document for carbon monoxide and the judgements required of the Administrator in setting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The major recommendations of the staff paper include the following: (1) There continues to be a need to control ambient levels of carbon monoxide to protect public health; (2) Both 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times should be retained for primary carbon monoxide standards; (3) Exposure analysis results indicate relatively few individuals with angina pectoris would experience carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 2.1% or greater when exposed to carbon monoxide levels in ambient air only if current standards are attained; (4) Public health risk for COHb levels of 2.0% or lower appears to be small, if any; (5) Current 1-hour (35 ppm) and 8-hour (9 ppm) standards for carbon monoxide should be reaffirmed.

  1. A system to evaluate the scientific quality of biological and restoration objectives using National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plans as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that plans for restoration projects should contain specific, measurable, and science-based objectives to guide restoration efforts. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is in the process of developing Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCPs) for more than 500 units in the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). These plans contain objectives for biological and ecosystem restoration efforts on the refuges. Based on USFWS policy, a system was developed to evaluate the scientific quality of such objectives based on three critical factors: (1) Is the objective specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-fixed? (2) What is the extent of the rationale that explains the assumptions, logic, and reasoning for the objective? (3) How well was available science used in the development of the objective? The evaluation system scores each factor on a scale of 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent) according to detailed criteria. The biological and restoration objectives from CCPs published as of September 2004 (60 total) were evaluated. The overall average score for all biological and restoration objectives was 1.73. Average scores for each factor were: Factor 1-1.97; Factor 2-1.86; Factor 3-1.38. The overall scores increased from 1997 to 2004. Future restoration efforts may benefit by using this evaluation system during the process of plan development, to ensure that biological and restoration objectives are of the highest scientific quality possible prior to the implementation of restoration plans, and to allow for improved monitoring and adaptive management.

  2. Modern approaches in deep learning for SAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmanski, Michael; Kreucher, Chris; Lauer, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recent breakthroughs in computational capabilities and optimization algorithms have enabled a new class of signal processing approaches based on deep neural networks (DNNs). These algorithms have been extremely successful in the classification of natural images, audio, and text data. In particular, a special type of DNNs, called convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have recently shown superior performance for object recognition in image processing applications. This paper discusses modern training approaches adopted from the image processing literature and shows how those approaches enable significantly improved performance for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR). In particular, we show how a set of novel enhancements to the learning algorithm, based on new stochastic gradient descent approaches, generate significant classification improvement over previously published results on a standard dataset called MSTAR.

  3. Dedicated SAR simulation tools for ATR and scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Horst; Schulz, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    At Fraunhofer IOSB the SAR simulator suite CohRaSS (Coherent Raytracing SAR Simulator) dedicated to different, sometimes contradictory purposes is being developed. These include the simulation of very large scenes at high resolution for scene analysis purposes, the simulation of large quantities of training chips for classification and the very fast but less realistic simulation of scenes for use in the training of image analysts. These tasks have very different requirements for the simulation that cannot be met by one single program. Thus different, custom-tailored approaches for each of these tasks are being developed. This paper deals with the main aspects concerning the simulation of training chips for ATR and the simulation of large scenes at very high resolution. Special focus is set on the different approaches used for these tasks from a computational point of view. For both simulators, sample simulated images are shown.

  4. Deep convolutional neural networks for ATR from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Deep architectures for classification and representation learning have recently attracted significant attention within academia and industry, with many impressive results across a diverse collection of problem sets. In this work we consider the specific application of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the MSTAR public release data set. The classification performance achieved using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on this data set was found to be competitive with existing methods considered to be state-of-the-art. Unlike most existing algorithms, this approach can learn discriminative feature sets directly from training data instead of requiring pre-specification or pre-selection by a human designer. We show how this property can be exploited to efficiently adapt an existing classifier to recognise a previously unseen target and discuss potential practical applications.

  5. Modeling performance and image collection utility for multiple look ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Ettinger, Gil J.; Laprise, S.

    2004-09-01

    We present a performance model for estimating the likelihood function and posterior probability of classes in a multiple-look SAR ATR classifier. We extend performance estimation to performance prediction in order to assess the effects of additional looks at different targets in a scene. This likelihood improvement model depends on a variety of factors including the resulting look angle diversity and the resolution of the sensor. The performance model parameters are estimated from classification scores and multi-look performance with real data, but could also be developed from simulations in cases where no data exist. Finally, we propose a transformation from the predicted performance to a value for each look that is used to optimize asset tasking. The value transformation is based on the target importance and absolute posterior probability.

  6. Thermal Analysis of Irradiation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Murray

    2012-09-01

    Reactor material testing in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) involves modeling and simulation of each experiment to accurately determine the irradiation temperature. This paper describes thermal analysis of capsule experiments using gas gap temperature control and provides data on recent material tests that validate the modeling results. Static capsule experiments and lead-out capsule experiments are discussed. The source of temperature variation in capsule experiments and ways to mitigate these variations are also explained. Two examples of instrumented lead-out capsule experiments, TMIST-1 and UCSB-2, are presented. A comparison of measured and calculated temperatures is used to validate the thermal models and to ascertain the accuracy of the calculated temperature.

  7. Wurfelspiel-based training data methods for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-09-01

    A data object is constructed from a P by M Wurfelspiel matrix W by choosing an entry from each column to construct a sequence A0A1"AM-1. Each of the PM possibilities are designed to correspond to the same category according to some chosen measure. This matrix could encode many types of data. (1) Musical fragments, all of which evoke sadness; each column entry is a 4 beat sequence with a chosen A0A1A2 thus 16 beats long (W is P by 3). (2) Paintings, all of which evoke happiness; each column entry is a layer and a given A0A1A2 is a painting constructed using these layers (W is P by 3). (3) abstract feature vectors corresponding to action potentials evoked from a biological cell's exposure to a toxin. The action potential is divided into four relevant regions and each column entry represents the feature vector of a region. A given A0A1A2 is then an abstraction of the excitable cell's output (W is P by 4). (4) abstract feature vectors corresponding to an object such as a face or vehicle. The object is divided into four categories each assigned an abstract feature vector with the resulting concatenation an abstract representation of the object (W is P by 4). All of the examples above correspond to one particular measure (sad music, happy paintings, an introduced toxin, an object to recognize)and hence, when a Wurfelspiel matrix is constructed, relevant training information for recognition is encoded that can be used in many algorithms. The focus of this paper is on the application of these ideas to automatic target recognition (ATR). In addition, we discuss a larger biologically based model of temporal cortex polymodal sensor fusion which can use the feature vectors extracted from the ATR Wurfelspiel data.

  8. National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis: scientific opportunities in extracorporeal photopheresis.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Nora; Dunbar, Nancy M; Adamski, Jill; Couriel, Daniel; Edelson, Richard; Kitko, Carrie L; Levine, John E; Morgan, Shanna; Schneiderman, Jennifer; Sloan, Steve; Wu, Yanyun; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Cooling, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for accepted indications such as graft-versus-host disease, transplant rejection, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma continues to increase. Expanded applications for ECP, such as the treatment of select autoimmune diseases, are being explored. Extracorporeal photopheresis's capacity to both immunotolerize in the autoreactive setting, while immunizing against a lymphoma is unusual and suggestive of a unique mechanism. It is likely that ECP's induction of dendritic cells is key to its efficacy in both of these settings, but exactly how ECP impacts other immune components and their interactions is not fully understood. Further basic science research is necessary to elucidate how these dissimilar cellular activities are functionally integrated. On the clinical side, collaborative multicenter trials designed to recognize the principal variables controlling therapeutic responses and improve prognostic indicators may enable tailoring devices, treatment schedules, and doses to the needs of the individual patients or diseases. This review describes our current understanding of how ECP influences the immune system, reviews the existing clinical applications of ECP, and explores areas for future basic science and clinical research as presented at the National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis in November 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Publication rate of scientific papers presented at the XXVI Annual Convention of National Neonatology Forum (NEOCON 2006).

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Solanki, Priyanka; Mishra, Devendra

    2015-01-01

    To document the publication rate of papers presented at the Annual Convention of National Neonatology Forum of India (NNF), and study the factors associated with their subsequent publication. All papers presented at the NEOCON 2006, the XXVI annual convention of NNF at Varanasi, India, were searched for subsequent full publication, by an internet-based search using Pubmed, Google Scholar and Indmed. Publication of the presented paper was looked for in English language, peer-reviewed, indexed journals over the next five years (1st January 2007 to 31st December, 2011). The full published papers were compared with the abstract and differences noted. One hundred and two papers and posters were presented at the conference and 14 (13.7 %) of these were published in the next five years. None was published in any un-indexed journal. The highest percentage of paper publication was from the Award paper category (83.3 %) and least from Innovation category (none). The only factor significantly associated with subsequent publication was presentation as an Award paper (P < 0.001). On comparison of the presented abstracts and the published papers, there was a change in authors in 78.5 %, title in 42.8 %, and the data in 35.7 %. The subsequent publication of conference abstracts as a full-paper is sub-optimal in the field of neonatology. Further research is needed to identify the factors responsible for the poor subsequent publication, and efforts need to be made to address them both at the institutional and the researchers' level.

  10. AKAP12 mediates PKA-induced phosphorylation of ATR to enhance nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Stuart G.; Wolf Horrell, Erin M.; D'Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS protein-coupled receptor that regulates signal transduction through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in melanocytes, is a major inherited melanoma risk factor. Herein, we report a novel cAMP-mediated response for sensing and responding to UV-induced DNA damage regulated by A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). AKAP12 is identified as a necessary participant in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) at S435, a post-translational event required for cAMP-enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER). Moreover, UV exposure promotes ATR-directed phosphorylation of AKAP12 at S732, which promotes nuclear translocation of AKAP12–ATR-pS435. This complex subsequently recruits XPA to UV DNA damage and enhances 5′ strand incision. Preventing AKAP12's interaction with PKA or with ATR abrogates ATR-pS435 accumulation, delays recruitment of XPA to UV-damaged DNA, impairs NER and increases UV-induced mutagenesis. Our results define a critical role for AKAP12 as an UV-inducible scaffold for PKA-mediated ATR phosphorylation, and identify a repair complex consisting of AKAP12–ATR-pS435-XPA at photodamage, which is essential for cAMP-enhanced NER. PMID:27683220

  11. ATR suppresses telomere fragility and recombination but is dispensable for elongation of short telomeres by telomerase

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Carolyn J.; Tejera, Agueda M.; Martínez, Paula; Murga, Matilde; Mulero, Francisca; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Telomere shortening caused by incomplete DNA replication is balanced by telomerase-mediated telomere extension, with evidence indicating that the shortest telomeres are preferred substrates in primary cells. Critically short telomeres are detected by the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) system. In budding yeast, the important DDR kinase Tel1 (homologue of ATM [ataxia telangiectasia mutated]) is vital for telomerase recruitment to short telomeres, but mammalian ATM is dispensable for this function. We asked whether closely related ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) kinase, which is important for preventing replicative stress and chromosomal breakage at common fragile sites, might instead fulfill this role. The newly created ATR-deficient Seckel mouse strain was used to examine the function of ATR in telomerase recruitment and telomere function. Telomeres were recently found to resemble fragile sites, and we show in this study that ATR has an important role in the suppression of telomere fragility and recombination. We also find that wild-type ATR levels are important to protect short telomeres from chromosomal fusions but do not appear essential for telomerase recruitment to short telomeres in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts from the ATR-deficient Seckel mouse model. These results reveal a previously unnoticed role for mammalian ATR in telomere protection and stability. PMID:20212315

  12. ATR inhibition broadly sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy independent of BRCA status

    PubMed Central

    Huntoon, Catherine J.; Flatten, Karen S.; Wahner Hendrickson, Andrea E.; Huehls, Amelia M.; Sutor, Shari L.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Karnitz, Larry M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication stress and DNA damage activate the ATR-CHK1 checkpoint signaling pathway that licenses repair and cell survival processes. In this study, we examined the respective roles of the ATR and CHK1 kinases in ovarian cancer cells using genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of in combination with cisplatin, topotecan, gemcitabine and the poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888), four agents with clinical activity in ovarian cancer. RNAi-mediated depletion or inhibition of ATR sensitized ovarian cancer cells to all four agents. In contrast, while cisplatin, topotecan and gemcitabine each activated CHK1, RNAi-mediated depletion or inhibition of this kinase in cells sensitized them only to gemcitabine. Unexpectedly, we found that neither the ATR kinase inhibitor VE-821 or the CHK1 inhibitor MK-8776 blocked ATR-mediated CHK1 phosphorylation or autophosphorylation, two commonly used readouts for inhibition of the ATR-CHK1 pathway. Instead, their ability to sensitize cells correlated with enhanced CDC25A levels. Additionally, we also found that VE-821 could further sensitize BRCA1-depleted cells to cisplatin, topotecan and veliparib beyond the potent sensitization already caused by their deficiency in homologous recombination. Taken together, our results established that ATR and CHK1 inhibitors differentially sensitize ovarian cancer cells to commonly used chemotherapy agents, and that CHK1 phosphorylation status may not offer a reliable marker for inhibition of the ATR-CHK1 pathway. A key implication of our work is the clinical rationale it provides to evaluate ATR inhibitors in combination with PARP inhibitors in BRCA1/2-deficient cells. PMID:23548269

  13. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  14. Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Sampling in Infrared Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Materials Requires Reproducible Pressure Control.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenyu; Cassidy, Brianna M; DeJong, Stephanie A; Belliveau, Raymond G; Myrick, Michael L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, in which the sample is pressed against an internal reflection element, is a popular technique for rapid IR spectral collection. However, depending on the accessory design, the pressure applied to the sample is not always well controlled. While collecting data from fabrics with heterogeneous coatings, we have observed systematic pressure-dependent changes in spectra that can be eliminated by more reproducible pressure control. We also described a pressure sensor adapted to work with an ATR tower to enable more precise control of pressure during ATR sampling.

  15. Measuring Photochemical Kinetics in Submonolayer Films by Transient ATR Spectroscopy on a Multimode Planar Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Anne M.; Marucci, Nicole E.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the kinetics of reactions in molecular thin films can aid in the molecular engineering of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. Using two analytical methods, transient absorbance spectroscopy (TAS) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR), in a relatively simple arrangement when compared with previous TAS/ATR instruments to interrogate molecular structure and photochemistry at interfaces. The multimode planar waveguide geometry provides a significant path length enhancement relative to a conventional transmission geometry, making it feasible to perform measurements on low-surface-coverage films. This work demonstrates that TAS/ATR can be used to probe structure and photochemical kinetics in molecular films at extremely low surface coverages.

  16. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  17. Open scientific communication urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  18. Identification of a Novel System for Boron Transport: Atr1 Is a Main Boron Exporter in Yeast▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Boron is a micronutrient in plants and animals, but its specific roles in cellular processes are not known. To understand boron transport and functions, we screened a yeast genomic DNA library for genes that confer resistance to the element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thirty boron-resistant transformants were isolated, and they all contained the ATR1 (YML116w) gene. Atr1 is a multidrug resistance transport protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged Atr1 localized to the cell membrane and vacuole, and ATR1 gene expression was upregulated by boron and several stress conditions. We found that atr1Δ mutants were highly sensitive to boron treatment, whereas cells overexpressing ATR1 were boron resistant. In addition, atr1Δ cells accumulated boron, whereas ATR1-overexpressing cells had low intracellular levels of the element. Furthermore, atr1Δ cells showed stronger boron-dependent phenotypes than mutants deficient in genes previously reported to be implicated in boron metabolism. ATR1 is widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes. Our data suggest that Atr1 functions as a boron efflux pump and is required for boron tolerance. PMID:19414602

  19. Use of Video Podcasts to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists— Examples from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, D. A.; McMahon, G.; Capelli, K.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to resource managers and the general public. Two video podcasts have been produced to date (9-1-2010). The first film “Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems” is a 3-minute summary of results of the EUSE study. The film is accessible on the USGS Corecast website (http://www.usgs.gov/corecast/details.asp?ep=127) and is available in MPG, WMV, and QuickTime formats, as an audio-only podcast, with a complete transcript of the film; and as a YouTube video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYwZiiORYG8) with subtitles. The film has been viewed over 6200 times, with most downloads occurring in the first 3 weeks after the June release. Views of the film declined to approximately 60 a week for the following 9 weeks. Most of the requests for the film have originated from U.S. domain addresses with 13 percent originating from international addresses. The film was posted on YouTube in June and has received 262 views since that time. A 15-minute version of the film with more technical content is also available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). It has been downloaded over 660 times. The bulk of the requests occurred in the first 2 weeks after release, with most requests originating from U.S. addresses and 11 percent originating internationally. In the second film “Stormwater, Impervious Surface, and Stream Health” (not

  20. World Map of Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2017-06-26

    A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.

  1. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  2. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  3. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

  4. Who Is Scientifically Literate, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the National Academy of Sciences promulgated national standards for science education and defined scientific literacy. Literates should be able to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena; understand popular-press articles on science; and evaluate the quality of scientific information, based on source and method. A fictional…

  5. Who Is Scientifically Literate, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the National Academy of Sciences promulgated national standards for science education and defined scientific literacy. Literates should be able to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena; understand popular-press articles on science; and evaluate the quality of scientific information, based on source and method. A fictional…

  6. ATR inhibitors as a synthetic lethal therapy for tumours deficient in ARID1A

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Chris T.; Miller, Rowan; Pemberton, Helen N.; Jones, Samuel E.; Campbell, James; Konde, Asha; Badham, Nicholas; Rafiq, Rumana; Brough, Rachel; Gulati, Aditi; Ryan, Colm J.; Francis, Jeff; Vermulen, Peter B.; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Reaper, Philip M.; Pollard, John R.; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic biomarkers of synthetic lethal drug sensitivity effects provides one approach to the development of targeted cancer therapies. Mutations in ARID1A represent one of the most common molecular alterations in human cancer, but therapeutic approaches that target these defects are not yet clinically available. We demonstrate that defects in ARID1A sensitize tumour cells to clinical inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, ATR, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ARID1A deficiency results in topoisomerase 2A and cell cycle defects, which cause an increased reliance on ATR checkpoint activity. In ARID1A mutant tumour cells, inhibition of ATR triggers premature mitotic entry, genomic instability and apoptosis. The data presented here provide the pre-clinical and mechanistic rationale for assessing ARID1A defects as a biomarker of single-agent ATR inhibitor response and represents a novel synthetic lethal approach to targeting tumour cells. PMID:27958275

  7. Key mediators of somatic ATR signaling localize to unpaired chromosomes in spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fedoriw, Andrew M.; Menon, Debashish; Kim, Yuna; Mu, Weipeng; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic silencing of unpaired chromatin (MSUC) occurs during the first meiotic prophase, as chromosomes that fail to pair are sequestered into a transcriptionally repressive nuclear domain. This phenomenon is exemplified by the heterologous sex chromosomes of male mammals, where the ATR DNA damage response kinase is crucial for this silencing event. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of MSUC remain unknown. Here, we show that essential components of ATR signaling in murine somatic cells are spatially confined to unpaired chromosomes in spermatocytes, including the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex replication protein A (RPA) and the checkpoint kinase CHK1. These observations support a model in which ssDNA plays a central role in the recruitment of ATR during MSUC, and provide a link to meiotic progression through activation of CHK1. PMID:26209650

  8. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  9. Experimental active control of sound in the ATR 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paonessa, A.; Sollo, A.; Paxton, M.; Purver, M.; Ross, C. F.

    Passenger comfort is becoming day by day an important issue for the market of the regional turboprop aircraft and also for the future high speed propeller driven aircraft. In these aircraft the main contribution to the passenger annoyance is due to the propeller noise blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics. In the recent past a detailed theoretical and experimental work has been done by Alenia Aeronautica in order to reduce the noise level in the ATR aircraft passenger cabin by means of conventional passive treatments: synchrophasing of propellers, dynamic vibration absorbers, structural reinforcements, damping materials. The application of these treatments has been introduced on production aircraft with a remarkable improvement of noise comfort but with a significant weight increase. For these reasons, a major technology step is required for reaching passenger comfort comparable to that of jet aircraft with the minimum weight increase. The most suitable approach to this problem has been envisaged in the active noise control which consists in generating an anti-sound field in the passenger cabin to reduce the noise at propeller BPF and its harmonics. The attenuation is reached by means of a control system which acquires information about the cabin noise distribution and the propeller speed during flight and simultaneously generates the signals to drive the speakers.

  10. Adaptive SAR ATR problem set (AdaptSAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Angela R.; Fitzgerald, Donna; Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    A strong and growing interest in systems that adapt to changing circumstances was evident in panel discussions at the "Algorithms for SAR Imagery" Conference of the AeroSense Symposium in April 2003, with DARPA, Air Force, industry and academia participation. As a result, Conference Co-Chair Mr. Ed Zelnio suggested producing a dynamic model to create problem sets suitable for adaptive system research and development. Such a problem set provides a framework for the overall problem, including organization of operating conditions, performance measures and specific test cases. It is hoped that this AdaptSAPS framework will help provide the community with a more concrete base for discussing adaptation in SAR imagery exploitation. AdaptSAPS Version 1.0 was produced by the AFRL COMPASE and SDMS organizations and posted on 5 August 2003. AdaptSAPS consists of over a dozen MatLab programs that allow the user to create "missions" with SAR data of varying complexities and then present that test data one image at a time, first as unexploited imagery and then later with the exploitation results that an ATR could use for adaptation in an operational environment. AdaptSAPS keeps track of performance results and reports performance measures. This paper describes AdaptSAPS - its application process and possible improvements as a problem set.

  11. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  12. MINACE filter classification algorithms for ATR using MSTAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Rohit; Casasent, David

    2005-05-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) system based on the minimum noise and correlation energy (MINACE) distortion-invariant filter (DIF) is presented. A set of MINACE filters covering different aspect ranges is synthesized for each object using a training set of images of that object and a validation set of confuser and clutter images. No prior DIF work addressed confuser rejection. We also address use of fewer DIFs per object than prior work did. The selection of the MINACE filter parameter c for each filter is automated using training and validation sets. The system is evaluated using images from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public database. The classification scores (PC) and the number of false alarm scores for confusers and clutter (PFA and PCFA respectively) are presented for the benchmark three-class MSTAR database with object variants and two confusers. The pose of the input test image is not assumed to be known, thus the problem addressed is more realistic than in prior work, since pose estimation of SAR objects has a large margin of error. Results for both confuser and clutter rejection are presented.

  13. EO/IR ATR performance modeling to support fusion experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, Barton; Blasch, Erik; Pikas, David J.; Ross, Tim

    2007-04-01

    The identification of a target from an electro-optical or thermal imaging sensor requires accurate sensor registration, quality sensor data, and an exploitation algorithm. Combining the sensor data and exploitation, we are concerned with developing an electro-optical or infrared (EO/IR) performance model. To combat the registration issue, we need a detailed list of operating conditions (i.e. collection position) so that the sensor exploitation results can be evaluated with sensitivities to these operating conditions or collection parameters. The focus of this paper will build on the NVSED AQUIRE model2. We are also concerned with developing an EO/IR model that affords comparable operating condition parameters to a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) performance model. The choice of EO/IR modeling additions are focused on areas were Fusion Gain might be realized through an experiment tradeoff between multiple EO/IR looks for ATR exploitation fusion. The two additions to known EO/IR models discussed in the paper are (1) adjacency and (2) obscuration. The methods to account for these new operating conditions and the corresponding results on the modeled performance are presented in this paper.

  14. Confuser rejection performance of EMACH filters for MSTAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Nehemiah, Avinash

    2006-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the extended maximum average correlation height (EMACH) distortion invariant filter (DIF) is presented. Prior work on the EMACH filter addresses 3-class and 10 class classification with clutter rejection. However, the ability of the EMACH filter to reject confusers is not well known. This paper addresses this. We follow a benchmark procedure which involves classification of three object classes over 360° aspect angle differences and with depression angle and variant differences and rejection of two unseen confusers from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public database. We present a scheme to select which training set images to include while making the filters, since it is not necessary to use all training set images to make the filters. Results for classification with both confuser and clutter rejection are presented. We also compare our work with prior EMACH MSTAR work. We find EMACH filters to have poor confuser and clutter rejection. We also correct prior EMACH clutter rejection performance results.

  15. UAV based distributed ATR under realistic simulated environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Gong, Shanshan; Schmid, Natalia A.; Valenti, Matthew C.

    2007-04-01

    Over the past several years, the military has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor networks in the air. Such systems tend to be used primarily for the purpose of acquiring sensory data with the goal of automatic detection, identification, and tracking objects of interest. These trends have been paralleled by advances in both distributed detection, image/signal processing and data fusion techniques. Furthermore, swarmed UAV systems must operate under severe constraints on environmental conditions and sensor limitations. In this work, we investigate the effects of environmental conditions on target detection and recognition performance in a UAV network. We assume that each UAV is equipped with an optical camera, and use a realistic computer simulation to generate synthetic images. The detection algorithm relies on Haar-based features while the automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm relies on Bessel K features. The performance of both algorithms is evaluated using simulated images that closely mimic data acquired in a UAV network under realistic environmental conditions. We design several fusion techniques and analyze both the case of a single observation and the case of multiple observations of the same target.

  16. Methods to probe protein transitions with ATR infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rich, Peter R; Iwaki, Masayo

    2007-06-01

    We describe techniques that can be used in conjunction with modern attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared micro-prisms to allow proteins to be manipulated cyclically between different states whilst simultaneously monitoring both mid-IR and UV/visible/near IR changes. These methods provide increased flexibility of the types of changes that can be induced in proteins in comparison to transmission methods. Quantitative measurements can be made of vibrational changes associated with conversion between stable catalytic reaction intermediates, ligand binding and oxidation-reduction. Both hydrophobic and soluble proteins can be analysed and the ability to induce transitions repetitively allows IR difference spectra to be acquired at a signal/noise sufficient to resolve changes due to specific cofactors or amino acids. Such spectra can often be interpreted at the atomic level by standard IR methods of comparisons with model compounds, by isotope and mutation effects and, increasingly, by ab initio simulations. Combination of such analyses with atomic 3D structural models derived from X-ray and NMR studies can lead to a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of enzymatic reactions.

  17. ATR WG-MOX Fuel Pellet Burnup Measurement by Monte Carlo - Mass Spectrometric Method

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Gray Sen I

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for calculating the burnup of nuclear reactor fuel, the MCWO-MS method, and describes its application to an experiment currently in progress to assess the suitability for use in light-water reactors of Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel that contains plutonium derived from excess nuclear weapons material. To demonstrate that the available experience base with Reactor-Grade Mixed uranium-plutonium OXide (RGMOX) can be applied to Weapons-Grade (WG)-MOX in light water reactors, and to support potential licensing of MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium for use in United States reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Fuel burnup is an important parameter needed for fuel performance evaluation. For the irradiated MOX fuel’s Post-Irradiation Examination, the 148Nd method is used to measure the burnup. The fission product 148Nd is an ideal burnup indicator, when appropriate correction factors are applied. In the ATR test environment, the spectrum-dependent and burnup-dependent correction factors (see Section 5 for detailed discussion) can be substantial in high fuel burnup. The validated Monte Carlo depletion tool (MCWO) used in this study can provide a burnup-dependent correction factor for the reactor parameters, such as capture-to-fission ratios, isotopic concentrations and compositions, fission power, and spectrum in a straightforward fashion. Furthermore, the correlation curve generated by MCWO can be coupled with the 239Pu/Pu ratio measured by a Mass Spectrometer (in the new MCWO-MS method) to obtain a best-estimate MOX fuel burnup. A Monte Carlo - MCWO method can eliminate the generation of few-group cross sections. The MCWO depletion tool can analyze the detailed spatial and spectral self-shielding effects in UO2, WG-MOX, and reactor-grade mixed oxide (RG-MOX) fuel pins. The MCWO-MS tool only

  18. [Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) and the transfer of psychiatric-genetic scientific concepts from national socialist Germany to the U.S.A].

    PubMed

    Cottebrune, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The founding of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry and its Genealogic-Demographic Department (Genealogisch-Demographische Abteilung; GDA) in 1918 gave the world the first institutional platform for the field of psychiatric genetics. The years between the two World Wars saw the GDA grow in importance with much international respect. The close collaboration between the GDA's protagonist Ernst Rüdin and the National Socialist regime was certainly not an inhibiting factor for the worldwide recognition of the eugenic research conducted in Munich. Around the mid-1930s, the German psychiatrist émigré Franz Josef Kallmann brought the field of study which had been put into practice in Munich to the United States. He fought an uphill battle to be accepted by the North American scientific community, but finally he was able to establish himself as the main researcher in the field of psychiatric genetics. Interestingly enough, the fact that his kind of research had been heavily supported by the National Socialist regime was not a barrier to his acceptance. The fact that it took him a long time to establish the field of eugenics in the U.S.A. is better explained by the psychoanalytic research methods at the time, which gave hereditary transmission short shrift. At the New York State Psychiatric Institute he was able to continue his research, including the examination of race-hygienic motifs, where he designed a research program that was directly based on concepts and methods from Ernst Rüdin's team of researchers in Munich. The only deviation from the original research was in terms of the use of eugenic prophylaxis where he aligned his research in the context of North American democracy in the post-war era. However, the eugenic goal of elimination of certain categories of peoples remained unchanged.

  19. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T

    2017-02-22

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  20. Building Successful Partnerships Between Scientists and Educators to Bridge Scientific Research to Education and Outreach Audiences at a National Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Ammann, C.; Carlson, D.; Deluca, C.; Fried, A.; Killeen, T.; Laursen, K.; Lopez, R.; Lu, G.; Marsh, D.; Mearns, L.; Otto-Bleisner, B.; Richmond, A.; Richter, D.; Hughes, J.; Alexander, C.; Gombosi, T.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2003-12-01

    The scientific missions of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) community offer numerous opportunities to integrate content on atmospheric, climate, and related sciences into formal and informal public education and outreach programs. The UCAR Office of Education and Outreach currently coordinates a variety of partnerships with science PI's catalyzing activities that include work-study experiences for teachers and students in the laboratory; creation of EO resources for scientists to utilize when visiting K-12 classrooms; extension of exhibit content in K-12 teacher guides; topic-specific web site content for the public, K-12, and undergraduates; professional development for K-12 educators; and public broadcast quality documentation of emerging technology. This presentation will review how these partnerships are developed, what works best, and plans for the future drawing from examples of collaborations with scientists. The scientists represent the NSF-funded Analytical Photonics and Optoelectronics Laboratory (APOL), the Boston University Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, and the High Altitude Instrumented Platform for Environmental Research Program (HIAPER); the NASA-funded Earth System Modeling Framework; collaborations with the Windows to the Universe project sponsored by multiple agencies; the NCAR Climate Assessment Initiative; and several NASA-funded Sun-Earth Connection Research Programs.

  1. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  2. Achilles Tendon Reflex (ATR) in response to short exposures of microgravity and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, M.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that latency and amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) are reduced after exposure to microgravity for 28 days. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure the latency of ATR during brief (20 sec) exposure to microgravity in KC-135 parabolic flights. Methods: The ATR was elicited in ten men during parabolic flight with the ankle held neutrally, planarflexed, and dorsiflexed. During flight, the ATR was elicited during the zero G and 1.8 G phases. Postflight testing was performed flying back to the airfield. Latencies to onset of the ATR were calculated and analyses of variance were performed to determine the effect of gravity and ankle position on latency. Result: The mean latencies for zero-G, 1.8-G and postflight with the ankle in the neutral position were 32.7 plus or minus 0.5 ms, and 33.1 plus or minus 0.7 ms respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a trend toward prolongation of latencies postflight. The mean latency for those who were motion sick was 32.1 plus or minus 0.1 ms compared to 34.0 plus or minus 0.3 ms for those who were not sick. Conclusions: These studies indicate that neither the level of gravity nor ankle position significantly affected the latency of the ATR.

  3. Experimental feature-based SAR ATR performance evaluation under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Huimin; Qian, Tao; Chen, Genshe

    2008-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) system performance over various operating conditions is of great interest in military applications. The performance of ATR system depends on many factors, such as the characteristics of input data, feature extraction methods, and classification algorithms. Generally speaking, ATR performance evaluation can be performed either theoretically or empirically. The theoretical evaluation method requires reasonably accurate underlying models for characterizing target/clutter data, which in many cases is unavailable. The empirical (experimental) evaluation method, on the other hand, needs a fairly large data set in order to conduct meaningful experimental tests. In this paper, we present experimental performance evaluation of ATR algorithms using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) data set. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the ATR performance under different operating conditions. In the experimental tests, different feature extraction techniques, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and kernel PCA, are employed on target SAR imagery to reduce the feature dimension. A number of classification approaches, Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine are tested and compared for their classification accuracy under different conditions such as various feature dimensions, target classes, feature selection methods and input data quality. Our experimental results provide a guideline for selecting features and classifiers in ATR system using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery.

  4. A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique and Three Types of Gamma-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Navarro; Rahmat Aryaeinejad,; David W. Nigg

    2011-05-01

    A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique1 Rahmat Aryaeinejad, Jorge Navarro, and David W Nigg Idaho National Laboratory Abstract Effective and efficient Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel management require state of the art core modeling tools. These new tools will need isotopic and burnup validation data before they are put into production. To create isotopic, burn up validation libraries and to determine the setup for permanent fuel scanner system a feasibility study was perform. The study consisted in measuring short and long cooling time fuel elements at the ATR canal. Three gamma spectroscopy detectors (HPGe, LaBr3, and HPXe) and two system configurations (above and under water) were used in the feasibility study. The first stage of the study was to investigate which detector and system configuration would be better suited for different scenarios. The second stage of the feasibility study was to create burnup and cooling time calibrations using experimental isotopic data collected and ORIGEN 2.2 burnup data. The results of the study establish that a better spectra resolution is achieve with an above the water configuration and that three detectors can be used in the permanent fuel scanner system for different situations. In addition it was conclude that a number of isotopic ratios and absolute measurements could be used to predict ATR fuel burnup and cooling times. 1This work was supported by the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy (DOE) under Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  5. Scientific dishonesty and good scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Andersen, D; Axelsen, N H; Riis, P

    1993-04-01

    Scientific dishonesty has been the subject of much public interest in recent years. Although the problem has had a low profile in Denmark, there is no reason to believe that it is non-existent. Several preconditions known to be important prevail here as well as in other countries, such as pressure to publish and severe competition for research grants and senior academic positions. The Danish Medical Research Council (DMRC) decided to respond to this problem by preparing a report on scientific dishonesty with suggestions to the research institutions on rules for good scientific practice and procedures for investigation of suspected dishonesty. To this end, an investigatory system was suggested. The system should consist of two regional committees and one national committee. They should be headed by high court judges and experienced health sciences researchers as members. The committees will investigate cases reported to them and conclude on whether dishonesty has been established and on whether the scientific work should be retracted. Sanctions shall remain the task of the institutions. Preventive measures comprise open access to and a long storage period for scientific data.

  6. GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Greene, Tom; Willis, Kerry; Lewis, Edmund; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cheung, Alfred K; Coresh, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials.

  7. The representation of scientific research in the national curriculum and secondary school pupils’ perceptions of research, its function, usefulness and value to their lives

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Kay; Bowater, Laura; Nardi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Young people’s views on what research is, how it is conducted and whether it is important, influences the decisions they make about their further studies and career choices. In this paper we report the analysis of questionnaire data with a particular focus on pupil perceptions of research in the sciences and of the scientific method. The questionnaire was a 25-item Likert Scale (1-5) distributed to seven collaborating schools. We received 2634 returns from pupils across key stages 3, 4 and 5. We also asked teachers to complete the questionnaire in order to explore how they thought their pupils would respond. We received 54 teacher responses. Statistically significant differences in the responses were identified through a chi-square test on SPSS. As what is being taught influences secondary pupil views on research we also consider how the term ‘research’ appears in the national curriculum for England and Wales and the three main English exam boards. The main theoretical construct that informs our analysis of the questionnaire data and the national curriculum is Angela Brew’s 4-tier descriptor of perceptions of research (domino, trading, layer, journey). We use this framework in order to map what, when and how research is presented to school pupils in England and Wales. We also use this framework in order to highlight and discuss certain pupil views that emerged from the questionnaire data and which indicate areas where curriculum and pedagogy intervention may be necessary: pupils seem less confident in their understanding of research as involving the identification of a research question; and, they often see research as a means to confirm one’s own opinion. They do however understand research as involving the generation of new knowledge and the collection of new data, such as interviews and questionnaires as well as laboratory work, field trips and library searches and they appear relatively confident in their statements about their ability to do research

  8. Tim-Tipin dysfunction creates an indispensible reliance on the ATR-Chk1 pathway for continued DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin D; Fu, Michael A; Brown, Eric J

    2009-10-05

    The Tim (Timeless)-Tipin complex has been proposed to maintain genome stability by facilitating ATR-mediated Chk1 activation. However, as a replisome component, Tim-Tipin has also been suggested to couple DNA unwinding to synthesis, an activity expected to suppress single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulation and limit ATR-Chk1 pathway engagement. We now demonstrate that Tim-Tipin depletion is sufficient to increase ssDNA accumulation at replication forks and stimulate ATR activity during otherwise unperturbed DNA replication. Notably, suppression of the ATR-Chk1 pathway in Tim-Tipin-deficient cells completely abrogates nucleotide incorporation in S phase, indicating that the ATR-dependent response to Tim-Tipin depletion is indispensible for continued DNA synthesis. Replication failure in ATR/Tim-deficient cells is strongly associated with synergistic increases in H2AX phosphorylation and DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that ATR pathway activation preserves fork stability in instances of Tim-Tipin dysfunction. Together, these experiments indicate that the Tim-Tipin complex stabilizes replication forks both by preventing the accumulation of ssDNA upstream of ATR-Chk1 function and by facilitating phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATR.

  9. DNA structure-specific priming of ATR activation by DNA-PKcs

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Eychenié, Sophie; Décaillet, Chantal; Basbous, Jihane

    2013-01-01

    Three phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase–related protein kinases implement cellular responses to DNA damage. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated respond primarily to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ataxia-telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) signals the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA)–covered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is caused by replication obstacles. Stalled replication intermediates can further degenerate and yield replication-associated DSBs. In this paper, we show that the juxtaposition of a double-stranded DNA end and a short ssDNA gap triggered robust activation of endogenous ATR and Chk1 in human cell-free extracts. This DNA damage signal depended on DNA-PKcs and ATR, which congregated onto gapped linear duplex DNA. DNA-PKcs primed ATR/Chk1 activation through DNA structure-specific phosphorylation of RPA32 and TopBP1. The synergistic activation of DNA-PKcs and ATR suggests that the two kinases combine to mount a prompt and specific response to replication-born DSBs. PMID:23897887

  10. ATR suppresses endogenous DNA damage and allows completion of homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam D; Sager, Brian W; Gorthi, Aparna; Tonapi, Sonal S; Brown, Eric J; Bishop, Alexander J R

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication fork stalling or collapse that arises from endogenous damage poses a serious threat to genome stability, but cells invoke an intricate signaling cascade referred to as the DNA damage response (DDR) to prevent such damage. The gene product ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) responds primarily to replication stress by regulating cell cycle checkpoint control, yet it's role in DNA repair, particularly homologous recombination (HR), remains unclear. This is of particular interest since HR is one way in which replication restart can occur in the presence of a stalled or collapsed fork. Hypomorphic mutations in human ATR cause the rare autosomal-recessive disease Seckel syndrome, and complete loss of Atr in mice leads to embryonic lethality. We recently adapted the in vivo murine pink-eyed unstable (pun) assay for measuring HR frequency to be able to investigate the role of essential genes on HR using a conditional Cre/loxP system. Our system allows for the unique opportunity to test the effect of ATR loss on HR in somatic cells under physiological conditions. Using this system, we provide evidence that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells lacking ATR have decreased density with abnormal morphology, a decreased frequency of HR and an increased level of chromosomal damage.

  11. Portable scalable architecture for model-based FLIR ATR and SAR/FLIR fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Larisa; Childs, Martin B.; Pujara, Neeraj

    1999-08-01

    For an on-board automatic target recognition (ATR) system to be useful to the crew of a military platform, the ATR must reduce the mission risk or increase its lethality. This utility may be increased by shortening the operator's time to interrogate possible threat targets or by enabling weapon deployment at a greater range. Obstacles to deployment of ATRs have included an excess of false cues and difficulty in adapting developmental configurations to processing architectures that can operate in the required environmental conditions without serious performance degradation. We present a real-time FLIR ATR software architecture that is scaleable across multiple processors and readily portable to a number of hardware platforms. Fusion with cues from an on- or off-board synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a significant reduction in the amount of processing required to classify targets while simultaneously increasing the confidence in each target hypothesis. The FLIR ATR and fusion are implemented on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) processors that are available in ruggedized versions, and the software is constructed to allow portability to other processor families without major disturbance to those parts of the code that embody the algorithm content.

  12. ATR-ATRIP kinase complex triggers activation of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Shigechi, Tomoko; Tomida, Junya; Sato, Koichi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Eykelenboom, John K; Pessina, Fabio; Zhang, Yanbin; Uchida, Emi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Lowndes, Noel F; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Takata, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    ATR kinase activates the S-phase checkpoint when replication forks stall at sites of DNA damage. This event also causes phosphorylation of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCI, triggering its monoubiquitination of the key DNA repair factor FANCD2 by the FA core E3 ligase complex, thereby promoting this central pathway of DNA repair which permits replication to be restarted. However, the interplay between ATR and the FA pathway has been unclear. In this study, we present evidence that their action is directly linked, gaining insights into this relationship in a DT40 mutant cell line that is conditionally deficient in the critical ATR-binding partner protein ATRIP. Using this system, we showed that ATRIP was crucial for DNA damage-induced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and FANCI phosphorylation. ATR kinase phosphorylated recombinant FANCI protein in vitro, which was facilitated by the presence of FANCD2. Mechanistic investigations revealed that the RPA region but not the TopBP1 region of ATRIP was required for FANCD2 monoubiquitination, whereas Chk1 phosphorylation relied upon both domains. Together, our findings identify ATR as the kinase responsible for activating the FA pathway of DNA repair.

  13. Verification and Validation of Corrected Versions of RELAP5 for ATR Reactivity Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis

    2008-11-01

    Two versions of the RELAP5 computer code, RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3 Version 3.2.1.2, are used to support safety analyses of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Both versions of RELAP5 contain a point reactor kinetics model that has been used to simulate power excursion transients at the ATR. Errors in the RELAP5 point kinetics model were reported to the RELAP5 code developers in 2007. These errors had the potential to affect reactivity analyses that are part of the ATR’s safety basis. Consequently, corrected versions of RELAP5 were developed for analysis of the ATR. Four reactivity transients were simulated to verify and validate the corrected codes for use in safety evaluations of the ATR. The objectives of this paper are to describe the verification and validation of the point kinetics model for ATR applications and to inform code users of the effects of the errors on representative reactivity analyses.

  14. Cloud-based opportunities in scientific computing: insights from processing Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Direct Broadcast data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2013-12-01

    The cloud is proving to be a uniquely promising platform for scientific computing. Our experience with processing satellite data using Amazon Web Services highlights several opportunities for enhanced performance, flexibility, and cost effectiveness in the cloud relative to traditional computing -- for example: - Direct readout from a polar-orbiting satellite such as the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) requires bursts of processing a few times a day, separated by quiet periods when the satellite is out of receiving range. In the cloud, by starting and stopping virtual machines in minutes, we can marshal significant computing resources quickly when needed, but not pay for them when not needed. To take advantage of this capability, we are automating a data-driven approach to the management of cloud computing resources, in which new data availability triggers the creation of new virtual machines (of variable size and processing power) which last only until the processing workflow is complete. - 'Spot instances' are virtual machines that run as long as one's asking price is higher than the provider's variable spot price. Spot instances can greatly reduce the cost of computing -- for software systems that are engineered to withstand unpredictable interruptions in service (as occurs when a spot price exceeds the asking price). We are implementing an approach to workflow management that allows data processing workflows to resume with minimal delays after temporary spot price spikes. This will allow systems to take full advantage of variably-priced 'utility computing.' - Thanks to virtual machine images, we can easily launch multiple, identical machines differentiated only by 'user data' containing individualized instructions (e.g., to fetch particular datasets or to perform certain workflows or algorithms) This is particularly useful when (as is the case with S-NPP data) we need to launch many very similar machines to process an unpredictable number of

  15. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  16. An attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy study of gelatinization in barley.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Roumeliotis, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-08-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of attenuated total reflectance and mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy and to understand the gelatinization and retro-gradation of flour barley samples and the relationship with malting quality. Samples were sourced from two commercial barley varieties exhibiting high hot water extract (HWE) namely Navigator (n=8), and Admiral (n=8). Samples were analysed using the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and ATR-MIR analysis. These results showed that ATR-MIR spectroscopy is capable of characterising gel samples derived from barley flour samples having different malting characteristics. Infrared spectra can effectively represent a 'fingerprint' of the sample being analysed and can be used to simplify and reduce analytical times in the routine methods currently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measured Thermal and Fast Neutron Fluence Rates for ATF-1 Holders During ATR Cycle 157D

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Larry Don; Miller, David Torbet

    2016-03-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 157D which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains measurements of the fluence rates corresponding to the particular elevations relative to the 80-ft. core elevation. The data in this report consist of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution.

  18. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-10-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  19. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  20. Depletion of ATR selectively sensitizes ATM-deficient human mammary epithelial cells to ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuxia; Palii, Stela S; Innes, Cynthia L; Paules, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) to double strand breaks is coordinated by 3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members: the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase and the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ATM and ATR are central players in activating cell cycle checkpoints and function as an active barrier against genome instability and tumorigenesis in replicating cells. Loss of ATM function is frequently reported in various types of tumors, thus placing more reliance on ATR for checkpoint arrest and cell survival following DNA damage. To investigate the role of ATR in the G2/M checkpoint regulation in response to ionizing radiation (IR), particularly when ATM is deficient, cell lines deficient of ATM, ATR, or both were generated using a doxycycline-inducible lentiviral system. Our data suggests that while depletion of ATR or ATM alone in wild-type human mammary epithelial cell cultures (HME-CCs) has little effect on radiosensitivity or IR-induced G2/M checkpoint arrest, depletion of ATR in ATM-deficient cells causes synthetic lethality following IR, which correlates with severe G2/M checkpoint attenuation. ATR depletion also inhibits IR-induced autophagy, regardless of the ATM status, and enhances IR-induced apoptosis particularly when ATM is deficient. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that ATR function is required for the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint activation and subsequent survival of cells with ATM deficiency. The synthetic lethal interaction between ATM and ATR in response to IR supports ATR as a therapeutic target for improved anti-cancer regimens, especially in tumors with a dysfunctional ATM pathway.

  1. APE2 is required for ATR-Chk1 checkpoint activation in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Jeremy; Patel, Yogin; Lentz, Barry L.; Yan, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The base excision repair pathway is largely responsible for the repair of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. However, it remains unclear how the DNA damage checkpoint is activated by oxidative stress at the molecular level. Here, we provide evidence showing that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) triggers checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) phosphorylation in an ATR [ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related]-dependent but ATM-independent manner in Xenopus egg extracts. A base excision repair protein, Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 2 (APE2, APN2, or APEX2), is required for the generation of replication protein A (RPA)-bound single-stranded DNA, the recruitment of a checkpoint protein complex [ATR, ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and Rad9] to damage sites, and H2O2-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. A conserved proliferating cell nuclear antigen interaction protein box of APE2 is important for the recruitment of APE2 to H2O2-damaged chromatin. APE2 3′-phosphodiesterase and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity is essential for single-stranded DNA generation in the 3′–5′ direction from single-stranded breaks, referred to as single-stranded break end resection. In addition, APE2 associates with Chk1, and a serine residue (S86) in the Chk1-binding motif of APE2 is essential for Chk1 phosphorylation, indicating a Claspin-like but distinct role for APE2 in ATR-Chk1 signaling. Our data indicate that APE2 plays a vital and previously unexpected role in ATR-Chk1 checkpoint signaling in response to oxidative stress. Thus, our findings shed light on a distinct mechanism of how an ATR-Chk1–dependent DNA damage checkpoint is mediated by APE2 in the oxidative stress response. PMID:23754435

  2. Irradiaton of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Heather J. MacLean; Steven L. Hayes

    2007-09-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels.

  3. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  4. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  5. Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) was appointed in 2002 and carried out its work under the auspices of the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL). NELP's primary goal was to identify interventions, parenting activities, and instructional practices that promote the development of children's early literacy skills. The National Institute…

  6. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  7. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE (ATR), DEISOPROPYLATRAZINE (DIA), AND DIAMINOCHLOROTRIAZINE (DACT) ON THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that a single dose of ATR herbicide stimulated HPA axis activation in the male rat while its primary metabolite, DACT, did so to a lesser extent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ATR, DACT, and an intermediate metabolite, DIA, on adrenocorticotrop...

  8. A synthetic lethal screen identifies ATR-inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for POLD1-deficient cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hocke, Sandra; Guo, Yang; Job, Albert; Orth, Michael; Ziesch, Andreas; Lauber, Kirsten; De Toni, Enrico N; Gress, Thomas M.; Herbst, Andreas; Göke, Burkhard; Gallmeier, Eike

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase ATR represents a central checkpoint regulator and mediator of DNA-repair. Its inhibition selectively eliminates certain subsets of cancer cells in various tumor types, but the underlying genetic determinants remain enigmatic. Here, we applied a synthetic lethal screen directed against 288 DNA-repair genes using the well-defined ATR knock-in model of DLD1 colorectal cancer cells to identify potential DNA-repair defects mediating these effects. We identified a set of DNA-repair proteins, whose knockdown selectively killed ATR-deficient cancer cells. From this set, we further investigated the profound synthetic lethal interaction between ATR and POLD1. ATR-dependent POLD1 knockdown-induced cell killing was reproducible pharmacologically in POLD1-depleted DLD1 cells and a panel of other colorectal cancer cell lines by using chemical inhibitors of ATR or its major effector kinase CHK1. Mechanistically, POLD1 depletion in ATR-deficient cells caused caspase-dependent apoptosis without preceding cell cycle arrest and increased DNA-damage along with impaired DNA-repair. Our data could have clinical implications regarding tumor genotype-based cancer therapy, as inactivating POLD1 mutations have recently been identified in small subsets of colorectal and endometrial cancers. POLD1 deficiency might thus represent a predictive marker for treatment response towards ATR- or CHK1-inhibitors that are currently tested in clinical trials. PMID:26755646

  9. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  10. Effects of atrazine (ATR), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a single dose of the herbicide ATR stimulated the HPA axis in the male rat while equimolar doses of its primary metabolite, DACT, had a minimal effect. In this study, we evaluated the effects of one or four daily doses of ATR, DACT, and an intermediat...

  11. Effects of atrazine (ATR), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a single dose of the herbicide ATR stimulated the HPA axis in the male rat while equimolar doses of its primary metabolite, DACT, had a minimal effect. In this study, we evaluated the effects of one or four daily doses of ATR, DACT, and an intermediat...

  12. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE (ATR), DEISOPROPYLATRAZINE (DIA), AND DIAMINOCHLOROTRIAZINE (DACT) ON THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that a single dose of ATR herbicide stimulated HPA axis activation in the male rat while its primary metabolite, DACT, did so to a lesser extent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ATR, DACT, and an intermediate metabolite, DIA, on adrenocorticotrop...

  13. Scientific dishonesty: European reflections

    PubMed Central

    Riis, P

    2001-01-01

    Scientific dishonesty has attracted increased attention around the world during the past three to four decades. Europe became aware of the problem later than the USA, but has within the past 10 years created national control systems for all biomedical projects, not only those supported by public money. The prevalence of the problem can only be calculated indirectly by referring to population figures as denominators. Measured this way, figures from Denmark as a whole show: 1–2 cases referred/million inhabitants/year, 1 case treated/million inhabitants/year, 1 case of scientific dishonesty/million inhabitants/5 years. For Finland, 1–2 cases were referred/million inhabitants/1–2 years; for Norway, similar figures of 1/4 million inhabitants/year were calculated. Figures from the Danish national independent control body 1993–7 show the distribution of the types of cases that were charged, with numbers of confirmed cases in parentheses: fabrication, 2 (1); plagiarism, 3 (0); theft, 2 (0); ghost authorship, 2 (1); false methodological description, 3 (1); twisted statistics, 2 (0); suppression of existing data, 4 (0); unwarranted use of data, 4 (0); and authorship problems, 8 (1). This survey emphasises the need for national guidelines, an independent national control body, and initiatives for strong preventive actions. Key Words: scientific dishonesty • fraud • authorship PMID:11271787

  14. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    1919 paper (ref. 9), in which he suggested a Moon rocket. Rock- etry was on a par with extrasensory perception in those days. 38 SCIENTIFIC SA&TLLITES...this way, images of sky can be taken at different wavelengths. The perceptive reader will note that the two zodiacal-light ex- periments described

  15. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  16. Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (Micro ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging with Variable Angles of Incidence.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Tomasz P; Vichi, Alessandra; Baranska, Malgorzata; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The control of the angle of incidence in attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy allows for the probing of the sample at different depths of penetration of the evanescent wave. This approach has been recently coupled with macro-imaging capability using a diamond ATR accessory. In this paper, the design of optical apertures for the micro-germanium (Ge) ATR objective is presented for an FT-IR spectroscopic imaging microscope, allowing measurements with different angles of incidence. This approach provides the possibility of three-dimensional (3D) profiling in micro-ATR FT-IR imaging mode. The proof of principle results for measurements of polymer laminate samples at different angles of incidence confirm that controlling the depth of penetration is possible using a Ge ATR objective with added apertures.

  17. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  18. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  19. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  20. Potentiation of tumor responses to DNA damaging therapy by the selective ATR inhibitor VX-970

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Diane M.; Eustace, Brenda; Gu, Yong; Hare, Brian; Johnson, Mac A.; Milton, Sean; Murphy, Cheryl E.; Takemoto, Darin; Tolman, Crystal; Wood, Mark; Charlton, Peter; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Furey, Brinley; Golec, Julian; Reaper, Philip M.; Pollard, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based DNA-damaging chemotherapy is standard-of-care for most patients with lung cancer but outcomes remain poor. This has been attributed, in part, to the highly effective repair network known as the DNA-damage response (DDR). ATR kinase is a critical regulator of this pathway, and its inhibition has been shown to sensitize some cancer, but not normal, cells in vitro to DNA damaging agents. However, there are limited in vivo proof-of-concept data for ATR inhibition. To address this we profiled VX-970, the first clinical ATR inhibitor, in a series of in vitro and in vivo lung cancer models and compared it with an inhibitor of the downstream kinase Chk1. VX-970 markedly sensitized a large proportion of a lung cancer cell line and primary tumor panel in vitro to multiple DNA damaging drugs with clear differences to Chk1 inhibition observed. In vivo VX-970 blocked ATR activity in tumors and dramatically enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin across a panel of patient derived primary lung xenografts. The combination led to complete tumor growth inhibition in three cisplatin-insensitive models and durable tumor regression in a cisplatin-sensitive model. These data provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of VX-970 in lung cancer patients. PMID:25010037

  1. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  2. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, A L; Romalde, J L

    2017-02-02

    We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation.

  4. Potentiation of tumor responses to DNA damaging therapy by the selective ATR inhibitor VX-970.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amy B; Newsome, Dave; Wang, Yuxin; Boucher, Diane M; Eustace, Brenda; Gu, Yong; Hare, Brian; Johnson, Mac A; Milton, Sean; Murphy, Cheryl E; Takemoto, Darin; Tolman, Crystal; Wood, Mark; Charlton, Peter; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Furey, Brinley; Golec, Julian; Reaper, Philip M; Pollard, John R

    2014-07-30

    Platinum-based DNA-damaging chemotherapy is standard-of-care for most patients with lung cancer but outcomes remain poor. This has been attributed, in part, to the highly effective repair network known as the DNA-damage response (DDR). ATR kinase is a critical regulator of this pathway, and its inhibition has been shown to sensitize some cancer, but not normal, cells in vitro to DNA damaging agents. However, there are limited in vivo proof-of-concept data for ATR inhibition. To address this we profiled VX-970, the first clinical ATR inhibitor, in a series of in vitro and in vivo lung cancer models and compared it with an inhibitor of the downstream kinase Chk1. VX-970 markedly sensitized a large proportion of a lung cancer cell line and primary tumor panel in vitro to multiple DNA damaging drugs with clear differences to Chk1 inhibition observed. In vivo VX-970 blocked ATR activity in tumors and dramatically enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin across a panel of patient derived primary lung xenografts. The combination led to complete tumor growth inhibition in three cisplatin-insensitive models and durable tumor regression in a cisplatin-sensitive model. These data provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of VX-970 in lung cancer patients.

  5. Dynamic generation of artificial HRSAR imagery for ATR development and cockpit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Knappe, Peter; Hurst, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Following the tendency of increasingly using imaging sensors in military aircraft, future combat airplane pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. This document presents a system which is able to simulate high-resolution artificial SAR imagery and thereby facilitates automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development. The system provides a comprehensive interface that allows dynamically requesting imagery depending on the location and heading of a simulated carrier platform. Landscapes, structures and target signatures are generated based on digital terrain data and target models. An assessment of dissimilar database preparations for sensor simulation was done with respect to the different properties of SAR imaging compared to optical imaging. The document presents selected results for specific landscape elements. Post-processing algorithms for overcoming weaknesses of digital terrain databases and improving image realism are presented. Simulated sensor imagery is useful in a wide range of applications, two of which are training of ATR algorithms and sensor simulation in flight simulation environments. Using an existing ATR method as an example, the applicability and the influences of synthetic imagery on ATR training are shown and first approaches on how to validate the correctness of the imagery are explained. The integration of the system into a flight simulator in the context of interfacing and control topics serves as a concluding example.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation. PMID:28153896

  7. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond sensor targeted for selective CRP detection: an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Per Ola; Viberg, Pernilla; Forsberg, Pontus; Nikolajeff, Fredrik; Österlund, Lars; Karlsson, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    Protein immobilization on functionalized fluorine-terminated nanocrystalline (NCD) films was studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using an immobilization protocol developed to specifically bind C-reactive protein (CRP). Using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method employing a force-controlled anvil-type configuration, three critical steps of the ex situ CRP immobilization were analyzed. First, the NCD surface was passivated by deposition of a copolymer layer consisting of polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide. Second, a synthetic modified polypeptide binder with high affinity to CRP was covalently attached to the polymeric film. Third, CRP dissolved in aqueous buffer in concentrations of 10-20 μg/mL was added on the functionalized NCD surface. Both the amide I and II bands, due to the polypeptide binder and CRP, were clearly observed in ATR-FTIR spectra. CRP amide I bands were extracted from difference spectra and yielded bands that agreed well with the reported amide I band of free (non-bonded) CRP in solution. Thus, our results show that CRP retains its secondary structure when it is attached to the polypeptide binders. Compared to previous IR studies of CRP in solution, about 200 times lower concentration was applied in the present study. Graphical Abstract Direct non-destructive ATR-FTIR analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively bound to functionalized nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) sensor surface.

  9. U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Songlin; Sun, Changyue; Zou, Chongwei; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin

    2015-10-15

    An implantable U-shaped fiber ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface was presented for continuous glucose monitoring to overcome the drawbacks of traditional glucose sensing technique based on enzyme electrodes. A U-shaped structure was addressed to increase effective optical length at limited implantable space to enhance the sensitivity of fiber ATR sensor. A novel method to fabricate silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface of U-shaped fiber ATR sensor based on chemical reduction of its silver halide material directly without any preliminary nanoparticles synthesis and following covalent bond or self-assembly was proposed. Five glucose absorption wavelengths in the mid-infrared band were employed for specific glucose monitoring. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the silver-nanoparticle-enhanced U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor are approximately three times those of a conventional one. The high sensitivity and low-noise performance makes it promising for in vivo glucose monitoring in the future clinical applications.

  10. Structural investigations of oriented membrane assemblies by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs Peter; Goette, Jeannette; Reiter, Gerald; Siam, Monira; Baurecht, Dieter

    1998-06-01

    In situ attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy is presented as an adequate tool for studying molecular structure and function of biomembranes. In this article emphasis was directed to the production of suitable model bilayer membranes for optimum mimicking of natural biomembranes, and to special FTIR ATR techniques to achieve enhanced selectivity as well as time resolved information on complex membrane assemblies. In this context, the preparation of supported bilayers according to the LB/vesicle method is presented and the use of such model membranes to build more complex assemblies, e.g. with creatine kinase, a surface bound enzyme, and alkaline phosphatase, a membrane anchored enzyme. A comprehensive summary of equations used for quantitative ATR spectroscopy is given and applied to determine the surface concentration and orientation of membrane bound molecules. The use of supported bilayers for drug membrane interaction studies is demonstrated by the local anesthetic dibucaine. Besides of structural information's, such studies result also thermodynamic date, such as adsorption isotherm and partition coefficient. A special ATR set-up for more precise background compensation is presented enabling the conversion of a single beam spectrometer into a pseudo double beam spectrometer. This optical component may be placed in the sample compartment of the spectrometer, and is referred to as single-beam-sample-reference (SBSR) attachment. Finally, a short theoretical introduction into time resolved modulation spectroscopy is given. Temperature modulated excitation of reversible conformational changes in the polypeptide poly-L-lysine and the enzyme RNase are shown as examples.

  11. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  12. Scientific networking in disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Ray; Marks, Ann; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2013-03-01

    Scientific networking occurs at various levels. There are regional and worldwide professional organizations that link together national physical societies (IUPAP, EPS, AAPPS, FeLaSoFi), providing a platform to exchange ideas and advance common agendas. National and international agencies have special lines of funding for scientific collaboration between groups of various countries. Some of these lines are targeted at improving science education at all levels. There are then personal networks that link people with common interests or who know each other for any reason. The International Conferences on Women in Physics have provided a unique opportunity for female physicists from all over the world to start a network of interactions that can involve all sorts of collaborative efforts. In the three-session workshop organized at ICWIP11, we discussed these various issues that the worldwide scientific community faces. In this paper we summarize the main ideas that surged during the meeting and provide the list of recommendations that were to start and keep an active network of female physicists and to foster scientific collaboration regionally and internationally.

  13. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. Scientific/Techical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  15. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  16. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system.

  17. Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Executive Summary. A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Shanahan, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress reveals that 37 percent of U.S. fourth graders fail to achieve basic levels of reading achievement. In 1997, the U.S. Congress asked that a review of research be conducted to determine what could be done to improve reading and writing achievement. The resulting "Report of the National Reading…

  18. The ABC transporter ATR1 is necessary for efflux of the toxin cercosporin in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Daub, Margaret E

    2009-02-01

    The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter gene and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4368bp with one intron. CnCFP encodes a MFS transporter with homology to Cercospora kikuchii CFP, previously implicated in cercosporin export, and has an ORF of 1975bp with three introns. Disruption of ATR1 indicated atr1-null mutants had dramatic reductions in cercosporin production (25% and 20% of WT levels) in solid and liquid cultures, respectively. The ATR1 disruptants also showed moderately higher sensitivity to cercosporin. Constitutive expression of ATR1 in the crg1 mutant restored cercosporin biosynthesis and moderately increased resistance. In contrast, CnCFP overexpression in the mutant did not restore toxin production, however, it moderately enhanced toxin resistance. The results together indicate ATR1 acts as a cercosporin efflux pump in this fungus and plays a partial role in resistance.

  19. A Synthetic Lethal Screen Identifies DNA Repair Pathways that Sensitize Cancer Cells to Combined ATR Inhibition and Cisplatin Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Mohni, Kareem N.; Thompson, Petria S.; Luzwick, Jessica W.; Glick, Gloria G.; Pendleton, Christopher S.; Lehmann, Brian D.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.; Cortez, David

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response kinase ATR may be a useful cancer therapeutic target. ATR inhibition synergizes with loss of ERCC1, ATM, XRCC1 and DNA damaging chemotherapy agents. Clinical trials have begun using ATR inhibitors in combination with cisplatin. Here we report the first synthetic lethality screen with a combination treatment of an ATR inhibitor (ATRi) and cisplatin. Combination treatment with ATRi/cisplatin is synthetically lethal with loss of the TLS polymerase ζ and 53BP1. Other DNA repair pathways including homologous recombination and mismatch repair do not exhibit synthetic lethal interactions with ATRi/cisplatin, even though loss of some of these repair pathways sensitizes cells to cisplatin as a single-agent. We also report that ATRi strongly synergizes with PARP inhibition, even in homologous recombination-proficient backgrounds. Lastly, ATR inhibitors were able to resensitize cisplatin-resistant cell lines to cisplatin. These data provide a comprehensive analysis of DNA repair pathways that exhibit synthetic lethality with ATR inhibitors when combined with cisplatin chemotherapy, and will help guide patient selection strategies as ATR inhibitors progress into the cancer clinic. PMID:25965342

  20. Scientific Eschatology

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  1. Scientific dishonestry: European reflections.

    PubMed

    Riis, P

    2001-01-01

    Scientific dishonesty has attracted increased attention around the world during the past three to four decades. Europe became aware of the problem later than the USA, but has within the past 10 years created national control systems for all biomedical projects, not only those supported by public money. The prevalence of the problem can only be calculated indirectly by referring to population figures as denominators. Measured this way, figures from Denmark as a whole show: 1-2 cases referred/million inhabitants/year, 1 case treated/million inhabitants/year, 1 case of scientific dishonesty/million inhabitants/5 years. For Finland, 1-2 cases were referred/million inhabitants/1-2 years; for Norway, similar figures of 1/4 million inhabitants/year were calculated. Figures from the Danish national independent control body 1993-7 show the distribution of the types of cases that were charged, with numbers of confirmed cases in parentheses: fabrication, 2 (1); plagiarism, 3 (0); theft, 2 (0); ghost authorship, 2 (1); false methodological description, 3 (1); twisted statistics, 2 (0); suppression of existing data, 4 (0); unwarranted use of data, 4 (0); and authorship problems, 8 (1). This survey emphasises the need for national guidelines, an independent national control body, and initiatives for strong preventive actions.

  2. 50 CFR 300.113 - Scientific observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific observers. 300.113 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.113 Scientific observers. This section applies to national.... vessels fishing in the Convention Area must carry one or more scientific observers as required by CCAMLR...

  3. 50 CFR 300.113 - Scientific observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific observers. 300.113 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.113 Scientific observers. This section applies to national.... vessels fishing in the Convention Area must carry one or more scientific observers as required by CCAMLR...

  4. 50 CFR 35.11 - Scientific uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involved in scientific investigation must be willing to accept reasonable limitations on activities and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section 35.11... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific...

  5. 50 CFR 35.11 - Scientific uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involved in scientific investigation must be willing to accept reasonable limitations on activities and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section 35.11... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific...

  6. 50 CFR 35.11 - Scientific uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involved in scientific investigation must be willing to accept reasonable limitations on activities and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section 35.11... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific...

  7. 50 CFR 35.11 - Scientific uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involved in scientific investigation must be willing to accept reasonable limitations on activities and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section 35.11... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific...

  8. Scientific Activities of Nonprofit Institutions 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Ronald S., Jr.; And Others

    This report summarizes the results of the National Science Foundation's survey of scientific activities of independent nonprofit organizations in 1966. Information is included on expenditures for research, development, and scientific and technical information activities and on the employment of scientific personnel associated with these…

  9. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  10. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS).

    PubMed

    Shamoon, Harry; Center, David; Davis, Pamela; Tuchman, Mendel; Ginsberg, Henry; Califf, Robert; Stephens, David; Mellman, Thomas; Verbalis, Joseph; Nadler, Lee; Shekhar, Anantha; Ford, Daniel; Rizza, Robert; Shaker, Reza; Brady, Kathleen; Murphy, Barbara; Cronstein, Bruce; Hochman, Judith; Greenland, Philip; Orwoll, Eric; Sinoway, Lawrence; Greenberg, Harry; Jackson, Rebecca; Coller, Barry; Topol, Eric; Guay-Woodford, Lisa; Runge, Marschall; Clark, Robert; McClain, Don; Selker, Harry; Lowery, Curtis; Dubinett, Steven; Berglund, Lars; Cooper, Dan; Firestein, Gary; Johnston, S Clay; Solway, Julian; Heubi, James; Sokol, Ronald; Nelson, David; Tobacman, Larry; Rosenthal, Gary; Aaronson, Lauren; Barohn, Richard; Kern, Philip; Sullivan, John; Shanley, Thomas; Blazar, Bruce; Larson, Richard; FitzGerald, Garret; Reis, Steven; Pearson, Thomas; Buchanan, Thomas; McPherson, David; Brasier, Allan; Toto, Robert; Disis, Mary; Drezner, Marc; Bernard, Gordon; Clore, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Sherwin, Robert; Pulley, Jill

    2012-04-01

    The formation of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) brings new promise for moving basic science discoveries to clinical practice, ultimately improving the health of the nation. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites, now housed with NCATS, are organized and prepared to support in this endeavor. The CTSAs provide a foundation for capitalizing on such promise through provision of a disease-agnostic infrastructure devoted to clinical and translational (C&T) science, maintenance of training programs designed for C&T investigators of the future, by incentivizing institutional reorganization and by cultivating institutional support.

  11. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Gordon R.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) brings new promise for moving basic and discoveries to clinical practice, ultimately improving the health of the nation. The CTSA sites, now housed with NCATS, are organized and prepared to support in this endeavor. The CTSAs provide a foundation for capitalizing on such promise through provision of a disease-agnostic infrastructure devoted to C&T science, maintenance of training programs designed for C&T investigators of the future, by incentivizing institutional reorganization and by cultivating institutional support. PMID:22507116

  12. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) as an in situ technique for dissolution studies.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Abe; Bhawtankar, Vrushali M; Sowa, John R

    2010-11-02

    Dissolution studies are critical tests for measuring the performance of a drug product. We have developed a novel technique using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy to monitor dissolutions of pharmaceutical drug products. The accuracy of this technique is +/-3% relative to HPLC using salicylic acid calibrator tablets and acetaminophen OTC tablets. This novel approach also gives the research laboratory the capability of analyzing individual ingredients in multiple tablets; for example, individual components of salicylic acid and acetaminophen tablets are easily distinguished. In addition, the individual ingredients of a multi-component tablet containing acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen are readily distinguished. The ATR-IR system was found to have good sensitivity and can analyze samples as low as 0.03 mg/ml. With improved sensitivity, this is a promising method for monitoring dissolution of pharmaceutical tablets with an excellent in situ capability for distinguishing individual components. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of a Multi-Stage ATR System for Small Target Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Lu, Thomas; Braun, Henry; Edens, Western; Zhang, Yuhan; Chao, Tien- Hsin; Assad, Christopher; Huntsberger, Terrance

    2010-01-01

    An Automated Target Recognition system (ATR) was developed to locate and target small object in images and videos. The data is preprocessed and sent to a grayscale optical correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regionsof- interest (ROIs). Next, features are extracted from ROIs based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and sent to neural network (NN) to be classified. The features are analyzed by the NN classifier indicating if each ROI contains the desired target or not. The ATR system was found useful in identifying small boats in open sea. However, due to "noisy background," such as weather conditions, background buildings, or water wakes, some false targets are mis-classified. Feedforward backpropagation and Radial Basis neural networks are optimized for generalization of representative features to reduce false-alarm rate. The neural networks are compared for their performance in classification accuracy, classifying time, and training time.

  14. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  15. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables. (ACR)

  16. Employing polyethylene as contacting agent between ATR-crystals and solid samples with hard surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Using a single crystal of fresnoite (Ba 2TiSiO 8), we demonstrate that polyethylene (PE) can be used as a contacting agent to enable the recording of ATR-spectra of materials with hard surfaces. The performance of our method is compared with the standard according to literature where CS 2 is used as an immersion liquid. A Harrick Seagull cell, equipped with a ZnSe semi-sphere ATR-crystal has been used in measuring s- and p-polarized spectra at different incidence angles. The experimental results were compared with model calculations based on the dielectric function tensor of fresnoite. The comparison reveals advantages of our method compared to the use of CS 2 like: closer resemblance between experimental and modeled spectra, repeatability and persistent optical contact. Moreover, our technique is easier to use.

  17. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered. PMID:25589928

  18. Performance models for hypothesis-level fusion of multilook SAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2003-09-01

    We present the theoretical basis and a top level system design for estimating and predicting the uncertainty from single and multiple-look model-based automatic target recognition (ATR). Uncertainty estimation is used in decision making based on the probability of correct identification and the probability of a false alarm for a given ATR result. Uncertainty prediction provides a basis for asset management by establishing the value of additional looks at a target. A number of first principles theoretical models have been developed based on information theory and physics. These generally bound performance under idealized conditions. Our hypothesis test approach is designed to support operational uncertainty estimation and prediction based on statistics from parameterized models, simulations, and measurements. A significant challenge that we investigate is generating the probability density of the test statistic under the null hypothesis, which contains un-modeled types and natural clutter. Another challenge we address is establishing uncertainty under multiple look fusion.

  19. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  20. Phylogeny of cultivated and wild wheat species using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Pinar; Onde, Sertac; Severcan, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, an increasing amount of genetic data has been used to clarify the problems inherent in wheat taxonomy. The techniques for obtaining and analyzing these data are not only cumbersome, but also expensive and technically demanding. In the present study, we introduce infrared spectroscopy as a method for a sensitive, rapid and low cost phylogenetic analysis tool for wheat seed samples. For this purpose, 12 Triticum and Aegilops species were studied by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis clearly revealed that the lignin band (1525-1505 cm-1) discriminated the species at the genus level. However, the species were clustered according to their genome commonalities when the whole spectra were used (4000-650 cm-1). The successful differentiation of Triticum and its closely related genus Aegilops clearly demonstrated the power of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy as a suitable tool for phylogenetic research.

  1. Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.

    1989-08-01

    We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.

  2. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Paul A; Pan, Yue; Lu, Yipin; Jain, Rama; Cox, Matthew; Aversa, Robert J; Dillon, Michael P; Elling, Robert; Hu, Cheng; Jin, Xianming; Knapp, Mark; Lan, Jiong; Ramurthy, Savithri; Rudewicz, Patrick; Setti, Lina; Subramanian, Sharadha; Mathur, Michelle; Taricani, Lorena; Thomas, George; Xiao, Linda; Yue, Qin

    2015-01-08

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered.

  3. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered {open_quotes}necessary{close_quotes} for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost.

  4. Deletion of the Developmentally Essential Gene ATR in Adult Mice Leads to Age-Related Phenotypes and Stem Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Asare, Amma; Ong, Tony; Pontano, Laura; Cotsarelis, George; Zediak, Valerie P.; Velez, Marielena; Bhandoola, Avinash; Brown, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Developmental abnormalities, cancer and premature aging each have been linked to defects in the DNA damage response (DDR). Mutations in the ATR checkpoint regulator cause developmental defects in mice (pre-gastrulation lethality) and humans (Seckel syndrome). Herein we show that eliminating ATR in adult mice leads to defects in tissue homeostasis and the rapid appearance of age-related phenotypes, such as hair graying, alopecia, kyphosis, osteoporosis, thymic involution, fibrosis and other abnormalities. Histological and genetic analyses indicate that ATR deletion causes acute cellular loss in tissues where continuous cell proliferation is required for maintenance. Importantly, thymic involution and alopecia and hair graying in ATR knockout mice were associated with dramatic reductions in tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells and exhaustion of tissue renewal and homeostatic capacity. In aggregate, these studies suggest that reduced regenerative capacity in adults via deletion of a developmentally essential DDR gene is sufficient to cause characteristics of premature aging. PMID:18371340

  5. Robust Multi-Look HRR ATR Investigation through Decision-Level Fusion Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    algorithms through multilook assessments to assess relative fusion performance gains. Keywords: ATR, Information Fusion, HRR, eigen-value, SVD, Fusion...reason, many surveillance systems incorporate High Range Resolution (HRR) radar and synthetic aperture radar ( SAR ) modes to be able to capture moving...Stationary Automatic Target Recognition (MSTAR) data set [11] that provides SAR collections, and the ImageFusion.org site that contains electro

  6. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging of solvent and permeant diffusion across model membranes.

    PubMed

    McAuley, W J; Lad, M D; Mader, K T; Santos, P; Tetteh, J; Kazarian, S G; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2010-02-01

    The uptake and diffusion of solvents across polymer membranes is important in controlled drug delivery, effects on drug uptake into, for example, infusion bags and containers, as well as transport across protective clothing. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor the effects of different solvents on the diffusion of a model compound, 4-cyanophenol (CNP) across silicone membrane and on the equilibrium concentration of CNP obtained in the membrane following diffusion. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging of membrane diffusion was used to gain an understanding of when the boundary conditions applied to Fick's second law, used to model the diffusion of permeants across the silicone membrane do not hold. The imaging experiments indicated that when the solvent was not taken up appreciably into the membrane, the presence of discrete solvent pools between the ATR crystal and the silicone membrane can affect the diffusion profile of the permeant. This effect is more significant if the permeant has a high solubility in the solvent. In contrast, solvents that are taken up into the membrane to a greater extent, or those where the solubility of the permeant in the vehicle is relatively low, were found to show a good fit to the diffusion model. As such these systems allow the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic approach to give mechanistic insight into how the particular solvents enhance permeation. The solubility of CNP in the solvent and the uptake of the solvent into the membrane were found to be important influences on the equilibrium concentration of the permeant obtained in the membrane following diffusion. In general, solvents which were taken up to a significant extent into the membrane and which caused the membrane to swell increased the diffusion coefficient of the permeant in the membrane though other factors such as solvent viscosity may also be important.

  7. Applications of diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of ambers.

    PubMed

    Guiliano, Michel; Asia, Laurence; Onoratini, Gérard; Mille, Gilbert

    2007-08-01

    Diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid technique with virtually no sample preparation which requires small sample amounts and showed potential in the study of ambers. FTIR spectra of ambers present discriminating patterns and can be used to distinguish amber from immature resins as copal, to determine local or Baltic origin of archaeological ambers and to detect most of the falsifications encountered in the amber commercialisation.

  8. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics: An interesting tool to discriminate and characterize counterfeit medicines.

    PubMed

    Custers, D; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2015-08-10

    Counterfeit medicines pose a huge threat to public health worldwide. High amounts of counterfeit pharmaceuticals enter the European market and therefore detection of these products is essential. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) might be useful for the screening of counterfeit medicines since it is easy to use and little sample preparation is required. Furthermore, this approach might be helpful to customs to obtain a first evaluation of suspected samples. This study proposes a combination of ATR-FTIR and chemometrics to discriminate and classify counterfeit medicines. A sample set, containing 209 samples in total, was analyzed using ATR-FTIR and the obtained spectra were used as fingerprints in the chemometric data-analysis which included Principal Component Analysis (PCA), k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). First it was verified whether the mentioned techniques are capable to distinguish samples containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). PCA showed a clear tendency of discrimination based on the API present; k-NN, CART and SIMCA were capable to create suitable prediction models based on the presence of different APIs. However k-NN performs the least while SIMCA performs the best. Secondly, it was tested whether these three models could be expanded to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit samples as well. k-NN was not able to make the desired discrimination and therefore it was not useful. CART performed better but also this model was less suited. SIMCA, on the other hand, resulted in a model with a 100% correct discrimination between genuine and counterfeit drugs. This study shows that chemometric analysis of ATR-FTIR fingerprints is a valuable tool to discriminate genuine from counterfeit samples and to classify counterfeit medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  10. Hardening Neutron Spectrum for Advanced Actinides Transmutation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

    2004-05-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast rest reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas released modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neturon spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are peformed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neturon spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  11. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  12. Scientific Computing with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, D. M.

    Scripting languages have become a powerful tool for the construction of flexible scientific software because they provide scientists with an interpreted programming environment, can be easily interfaced with existing software written in C, C++, and Fortran, and can serve as a framework for modular software construction. In this paper, I describe the process of adding a scripting language to a scientific computing project by focusing on the use of Python with a large-scale molecular dynamics code developed for materials science research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although this application is not related to astronomical data analysis, the problems, solutions, and lessons learned may be of interest to researchers who are considering the use of scripting languages with their own projects.

  13. An Annotated List of Historically and Scientifically Important Works Published Before 1900 in the Library of The National Bureau of Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terner, Janet

    The purpose of this project was to specifically identify important works within the National Bureau of Standards library collection of approximately 125,000 items that are generally acknowledged to be pertinent to the development of modern science and technology. Presented is an annotated list including 197 items selected from the pre-1900…

  14. Shackling the shoulders of giants. A report on excerpts from the National Academies' Symposium on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain, Washington, DC, September 5-6, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gardenier, John S

    2003-07-01

    This paper informally summarizes a two-day symposium held at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., September 5-6, 2002. The issue was to what extent the progress of science and societal capacity for continued technological innovation are threatened by excessive protection of intellectual property. Excessive protection creates disadvantages not only for scientists and inventors but also for educators/students and for librarians/clientele. Speakers from a variety of disciplines and institutions agreed unanimously that scientific and technological progress is, indeed, under serious threat. Various opinions were expressed about the degree of threat, currently and prospectively, as well as what counter-measures are best suited to resist undue restrictions on creative uses of scientific and technical data and information. This summary is based entirely on the author's notes from the symposium, and the commentary offered is his alone. My apologies to the speakers if this paper does not accurately reflect the primary intent of their presentations. The "Suggested Readings" offered at the end are not specific to the speakers' statements but rather are offered as a general resource to aid further research. The definitive record of the symposium is planned to be available from the National Academies Press as a Proceedings publication in the summer of 2003.

  15. Identification and evaluation of a potent novel ATR inhibitor, NU6027, in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Peasland, A; Wang, L-Z; Rowling, E; Kyle, S; Chen, T; Hopkins, A; Cliby, W A; Sarkaria, J; Beale, G; Edmondson, R J; Curtin, N J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) has a key role in the signalling of stalled replication forks and DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. It has long been recognised as an important target for cancer therapy but inhibitors have proved elusive. As NU6027, originally developed as a CDK2 inhibitor, potentiated cisplatin in a CDK2-independent manner we postulated that it may inhibit ATR. Methods: Cellular ATR kinase activity was determined by CHK1 phosphorylation in human fibroblasts with inducible dominant-negative ATR-kinase dead expression and human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Cell cycle effects and chemo- and radiopotentiation by NU6027 were determined in MCF7 cells and the role of mismatch repair and p53 was determined in isogenically matched ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Results: NU6027 is a potent inhibitor of cellular ATR activity (IC50=6.7 μ) and enhanced hydroxyurea and cisplatin cytotoxicity in an ATR-dependent manner. NU6027 attenuated G2/M arrest following DNA damage, inhibited RAD51 focus formation and increased the cytotoxicity of the major classes of DNA-damaging anticancer cytotoxic therapy but not the antimitotic, paclitaxel. In A2780 cells sensitisation to cisplatin was greatest in cells with functional p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) and sensitisation to temozolomide was greatest in p53 mutant cells with functional MMR. Importantly, NU6027 was synthetically lethal when DNA single-strand break repair is impaired either through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition or defects in XRCC1. Conclusion: NU6027 inhibits ATR, impairing G2/M arrest and homologous recombination thus increasing sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and PARP inhibitors. It provides proof of concept data for clinical development of ATR inhibitors. PMID:21730979

  16. ATR-X syndrome in two siblings with a novel mutation (c.6718C>T mutation in exon 31)

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Seema; Ishrie, Mala; Saxena, Renu; Danda, Sumita; Linda, Rose; Viswabandya, Auro; Verma, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    ATR-X syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by mental retardation, alpha thalassaemia and distinct facial features which include microcephaly, frontal hair upsweep, epicanthic folds, small triangular nose, midface hypoplasia and carp-shaped mouth. Here we report two brothers with clinical features of ATR-X syndrome, in whom a novel missense (C>T) mutation was identified in exon 31 of the ATRX gene. PMID:22089611

  17. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Keith A. Daum

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  18. Resistance to PARP inhibitors by SLFN11 inactivation can be overcome by ATR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Junko; Feng, Ying; Yu, Guoying K.; Ru, Yuanbin; Tang, Sai-Wen; Shen, Yuqiao; Pommier, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPIs) kill cancer cells by trapping PARP1 and PARP2. Talazoparib, the most potent PARPI inhibitor (PARPI), exhibits remarkable selectivity among the NCI-60 cancer cell lines beyond BRCA inactivation. Our genomic analyses reveal high correlation between response to talazoparib and Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) expression. Causality was established in four isogenic SLFN11-positive and -negative cell lines and extended to olaparib. Response to the talazoparib-temozolomide combination was also driven by SLFN11 and validated in 36 small cell lung cancer cell lines, and in xenograft models. Resistance in SLFN11-deficient cells was caused neither by impaired drug penetration nor by activation of homologous recombination. Rather, SLFN11 induced irreversible and lethal replication inhibition, which was independent of ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The resistance to PARPIs by SLFN11 inactivation was overcome by ATR inhibition, mechanistically because SLFN11-deficient cells solely rely on ATR activation for their survival under PARPI treatment. Our study reveals that SLFN11 inactivation, which is common (~45%) in cancer cells, is a novel and dominant resistance determinant to PARPIs. PMID:27708213

  19. Resistance to PARP inhibitors by SLFN11 inactivation can be overcome by ATR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Murai, Junko; Feng, Ying; Yu, Guoying K; Ru, Yuanbin; Tang, Sai-Wen; Shen, Yuqiao; Pommier, Yves

    2016-11-22

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPIs) kill cancer cells by trapping PARP1 and PARP2. Talazoparib, the most potent PARPI inhibitor (PARPI), exhibits remarkable selectivity among the NCI-60 cancer cell lines beyond BRCA inactivation. Our genomic analyses reveal high correlation between response to talazoparib and Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) expression. Causality was established in four isogenic SLFN11-positive and -negative cell lines and extended to olaparib. Response to the talazoparib-temozolomide combination was also driven by SLFN11 and validated in 36 small cell lung cancer cell lines, and in xenograft models. Resistance in SLFN11-deficient cells was caused neither by impaired drug penetration nor by activation of homologous recombination. Rather, SLFN11 induced irreversible and lethal replication inhibition, which was independent of ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The resistance to PARPIs by SLFN11 inactivation was overcome by ATR inhibition, mechanistically because SLFN11-deficient cells solely rely on ATR activation for their survival under PARPI treatment. Our study reveals that SLFN11 inactivation, which is common (~45%) in cancer cells, is a novel and dominant resistance determinant to PARPIs.

  20. Assessing and calibrating the ATR-FTIR approach as a carbonate rock characterization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Delano G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; John, Cédric M.

    2017-01-01

    ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and economical tool for qualitative identification of carbonates, calcium sulphates, oxides and silicates, as well as quantitatively estimating the concentration of minerals. Over 200 powdered samples with known concentrations of two, three, four and five phase mixtures were made, then a suite of calibration curves were derived that can be used to quantify the minerals. The calibration curves in this study have an R2 that range from 0.93-0.99, a RMSE (root mean square error) of 1-5 wt.% and a maximum error of 3-10 wt.%. The calibration curves were used on 35 geological samples that have previously been studied using XRD (X-ray diffraction). The identification of the minerals using ATR-FTIR is comparable with XRD and the quantitative results have a RMSD (root mean square deviation) of 14% and 12% for calcite and dolomite respectively when compared to XRD results. ATR-FTIR is a rapid technique (identification and quantification takes < 5 min) that involves virtually no cost if the machine is available. It is a common tool in most analytical laboratories, but it also has the potential to be deployed on a rig for real-time data acquisition of the mineralogy of cores and rock chips at the surface as there is no need for special sample preparation, rapid data collection and easy analysis.

  1. Cyclohexene Photo-oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolved ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, Heinz; Mul, Guido; Wasylenko, Walter; Hamdy, M. Sameh; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-04

    Vanadia was incorporated in the 3-dimensional mesoporous material TUD-1 with a loading of 2percent w/w vanadia. The performance in the selective photo-oxidation of liquid cyclohexene was investigated using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Under continuous illumination at 458 nm a significant amount of product, i.e. cyclohexenone, was identified. This demonstrates for the first time that hydroxylated vanadia centers in mesoporous materials can be activated by visible light to induce oxidation reactions. Using the rapid scan method, a strong perturbation of the vanadyl environment could be observed in the selective oxidation process induced by a 458 nm laser pulse of 480 ms duration. This is proposed to be caused by interaction of the catalytic centre with a cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide intermediate. The restoration of the vanadyl environment could be kinetically correlated to the rate of formation of cyclohexenone, and is explained by molecular rearrangement and dissociation of the peroxide to ketone and water. The ketone diffuses away from the active center and ATR infrared probing zone, resulting in a decreasing ketone signal on the tens of seconds time scale after initiation of the photoreaction. This study demonstrates the high potential of time resolved ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for mechanistic studies of liquid phase reactions by monitoring not only intermediates and products, but by correlating the temporal behavior of these species to molecular changes of the vanadyl catalytic site.

  2. Measuring photochemical kinetics in submonolayer films by transient ATR spectroscopy on a multimode planar waveguide.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anne M; Marucci, Nicole E; Saavedra, S Scott

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the kinetics of reactions in molecular thin films can aid in the molecular engineering of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. We have coupled two analytical methods, transient absorbance spectroscopy (TAS) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR), in a relatively simple arrangement when compared with previous TAS/ATR instruments to interrogate molecular structure and photochemistry at interfaces. The multimode planar waveguide geometry provides a significant path length enhancement relative to a conventional transmission geometry, making it feasible to perform measurements on low-surface-coverage films. The performance of the instrument was assessed using a thin film composed of purple membrane (PM) fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin deposited onto PDAC, a positively charged polymer. The surface coverage of retinal chromophore in this film is ∼0.1 monolayer and its orientation distribution is anisotropic, with a mean tilt angle of 68° from surface normal. After photoinduced formation of the transient M state, the chromophore decays to the ground state in 4.4 ± 0.6 ms, equivalent to the decay of suspended PM fragments, which shows that deposition on PDAC does not alter M-state photokinetics. The surface coverage of the M state is calculated to be 2 pmol/cm(2), which is ∼1% of a close-packed monolayer. This work demonstrates that TAS/ATR can be used to probe structure and photochemical kinetics in molecular films at extremely low surface coverages.

  3. A theoretical framework for 3D LADAR ATR problem definition and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

    2005-05-01

    LADAR imagery provides the capability to represent high resolution detail of 3D surface geometry of complex targets. In previous work we exploited this capability for automatic target recognition (ATR) by developing matching algorithms for performing surface matching of 3D LADAR point clouds with highly-detailed target CAD models. A central challenge in evaluating ATR performance is characterizing the degree of problem difficulty. One of the most important factors is the inherent similarity of target signatures. We've developed a flexible approach to target taxonomy based on 3D shape which includes a classification framework for defining the target recognition problem and evaluating ATR algorithm performance. The target model taxonomy consists of a hierarchical, tree-structured target classification scheme in which different levels of the tree correspond to different degrees of target classification difficulty. Each node in the tree corresponds to a collection of target models forming a target category. Target categories near the tree root represent large and very general target classes, exhibiting large interclass distance. Targets in these categories are easily separated. Target categories near the tree bottom represent very specific target classes with small interclass distance. These targets are difficult to separate. In this paper we focus on creation of optimal categories. We develop approaches for optimal aggregation of target model types into categories which provide for improved classification performance. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles.

  4. Pressure-modulation dynamic attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcott, C.; Story, G. M.; Noda, I.; Bibby, A.; Manning, C. J.

    1998-06-01

    A single-reflectance attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) accessory with a diamond internal-reflection element was modified by the addition of a piezoelectric transducer. Initial dynamic pressure-modulation experiments have been performed in the sample compartment of a step-scanning FT-IR spectrometer. A sinusoidal pressure modulation applied to samples of isotactic polypropylene and linear low density polyethylene resulted in dynamic responses which appear to be similar to those observed in previous dynamic 2D IR experiments. Preliminary pressure-modulation dynamic ATR results are also reported for a styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer. The new method has the advantages that a much wider variety of sample types and geometries can be studied and less sample preparation is required. Dynamic 2D IR experiments carried out by ATR no longer require thin films of large area and sufficient strength to withstand the dynamic strain applied by a rheometer. The ability to obtain dynamic IR spectroscopic information from a wider variety of sample types and thicknesses would greatly expand the amount of useful information that could be extracted from normally complicated, highly overlapped IR spectra.

  5. Visible attenuated total reflection (ATR): a new technique for high-strength pigment analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Rich, Danny C

    2011-03-01

    A visible-attenuated total reflection (visible-ATR) device was designed to provide a method for directly determining the relative tint strength in high-strength inks. This device showed good reproducibility and the spectra could be correlated to known values of relative tint strength in viscous, highly pigmented inks well within the industry-acceptable error (±5% tint strength). The results of the visible-ATR measurements were compared to those from mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and the capabilities of those techniques for determining ink strength. Mid-IR analysis was able to directly quantify relative tint strengths, as well as correlating to known values, and to qualify ink products by spectral matching. NIR analysis was able to quantify the tint strength based on the vehicle concentrations in the NIR region. The visible region of the NIR spectrometer was not able to be used for quantification. The vis-ATR and mid-IR spectra showed changes over the time scale of minutes, indicating self-stratification of the pigment and varnish.

  6. [Spectral analysis of ball pen script by FTIR microscope with ATR objective].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao-Hong; Wu, Tian-Ming

    2007-11-01

    Inspection of ball pen script is very important in public security and justice field. It is difficult to get a good spectrum directly by infrared microscope reflectance mode because of low reflectivity of paper and dark gray in color. The best way to measure low reflectivity sample is by infrared microscope with ATR objective method. Measurement with the microscopic ATR method involves bringing the trace of ball pen ink into contact with the prism. By this method, some mixed spectra of ball pen ink and paper fiber were obtained from one of the actual sample. The spectrum of the paper was subtracted from those mixed spectra and a pure spectrum of the ball pen ink was obtained. In this spectrum, three strong peaks were found 1 581, 1 361 and 1 172 cm(-1) respectively, all from crystal violet, a typical triphenylmethane pigment. Another strong peak at 1 724 cm(-1) is contributed by carbonyl vibration from oil reagent alkyd. A 3D graph, showing the distribution of peak 1 581 cm(-1) in this area, was set up by using mapping software. In the 3D distribution graph, the figure of ball pen trace vividly appeared. This infrared microscope ATR method makes it available to nondestructively inspect original ball pen script.

  7. Stepwise Activation of the ATR Signaling Pathway upon Increasing Replication Stress Impacts Fragile Site Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Koundrioukoff, Stéphane; Carignon, Sandra; Técher, Hervé; Letessier, Anne; Brison, Olivier; Debatisse, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Breaks at common fragile sites (CFS) are a recognized source of genome instability in pre-neoplastic lesions, but how such checkpoint-proficient cells escape surveillance and continue cycling is unknown. Here we show, in lymphocytes and fibroblasts, that moderate replication stresses like those inducing breaks at CFSs trigger chromatin loading of sensors and mediators of the ATR pathway but fail to activate Chk1 or p53. Consistently, we found that cells depleted of ATR, but not of Chk1, accumulate single-stranded DNA upon Mre11-dependent resection of collapsed forks. Partial activation of the pathway under moderate stress thus takes steps against fork disassembly but tolerates S-phase progression and mitotic onset. We show that fork protection by ATR is crucial to CFS integrity, specifically in the cell type where a given site displays paucity in backup replication origins. Tolerance to mitotic entry with under-replicated CFSs therefore results in chromosome breaks, providing a pool of cells committed to further instability. PMID:23874235

  8. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of species' blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mistek, Ewelina; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-09-01

    Blood is one of the most common and informative forms of biological evidence found at a crime scene. A very crucial step in forensic investigations is identifying a blood stain's origin. The standard methods currently employed for analyzing blood are destructive to the sample and time-consuming. In this study, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used as a confirmatory, nondestructive, and rapid method for distinction between human and animal (nonhuman) blood. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built and demonstrated complete separation between human and animal donors, as well as distinction between three separate species: human, cat, and dog. Classification predictions of unknown blood donors were performed by the model, resulting in 100 % accuracy. This study demonstrates ATR FT-IR spectroscopy's great potential for blood stain analysis and species discrimination, both in the lab and at a crime scene since portable ATR FT-IR instrumentation is commercially available.

  10. ATR-IR Investigation of Solvent Interactions with Surface-Bound Polymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solvent interactions with bulk and surface-bound polymer brushes are crucial for functionalities such as controlled friction and thermoresponsive adhesion. To study such interactions, the temperature-induced solvent-quality changes and the effect of surface tethering on the mechanical and tribological properties of poly(dodecyl methacrylate) (P12MA) brushes have been investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM). These results have been compared with temperature-dependent UV–visible spectrophotometry (UV–vis) data for the corresponding bulk polymer solutions. The ATR-IR results clearly show that increasing temperature enhances ethanol uptake in P12MA, which results in film swelling. This is accompanied by a marked increase in both adhesion and friction. We have also shown that a combination of solvents, such as toluene and ethanol, can lead to a temperature-dependent solvent partitioning within the polymer brush. To our knowledge this is the first time preferential solvent uptake in a grafted-from brush has been monitored via in situ ATR-IR. Moreover, we have observed remarkably different behavior for polymer chains in solution compared to the behavior of similar chains bound to a surface. The presented findings on the temperature-dependent solvent interactions of surface-grafted P12MA reveal previously unknown solvation phenomena and open up a range of possible applications in the area of stimuli-responsive materials. PMID:27397856

  11. The MRE11 GAR motif regulates DNA double-strand break processing and ATR activation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenbao; Vogel, Gillian; Coulombe, Yan; Dubeau, Danielle; Spehalski, Elizabeth; Hébert, Josée; Ferguson, David O; Masson, Jean Yves; Richard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex is the primary sensor rapidly recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). MRE11 is known to be arginine methylated by PRMT1 within its glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif. In this study, we report a mouse knock-in allele of Mre11 that substitutes the arginines with lysines in the GAR motif and generates the MRE11RK protein devoid of methylated arginines. The Mre11RK/RK mice were hypersensitive to γ-irradiation (IR) and the cells from these mice displayed cell cycle checkpoint defects and chromosome instability. Moreover, the Mre11RK/RK MEFs exhibited ATR/CHK1 signaling defects and impairment in the recruitment of RPA and RAD51 to the damaged sites. The MRKRN complex formed and localized to the sites of DNA damage and normally activated the ATM pathway in response to IR. The MRKRN complex exhibited exonuclease and DNA-binding defects in vitro responsible for the impaired DNA end resection and ATR activation observed in vivo in response to IR. Our findings provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the MRE11 GAR motif in DSB repair, and demonstrate a mechanistic link between post-translational modifications at the MRE11 GAR motif and DSB processing, as well as the ATR/CHK1 checkpoint signaling. PMID:21826105

  12. Inherited germline ATRX mutation in two brothers with ATR-X syndrome and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianling; Quindipan, Catherine; Parham, David; Shen, Lishuang; Ruble, David; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T; Gai, Xiaowu; Saitta, Sulagna C; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Mascarenhas, Leo

    2017-05-01

    We report a family in which two brothers had an undiagnosed genetic disorder comprised of dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability (non-verbal), mild anemia, and cryptorchidism. Both developed osteosarcoma. Trio exome sequencing (using blood samples from the younger brother and both parents) was performed and a nonsense NM_000489.4:c.7156C>T (p.Arg2386*) mutation in the ATRX gene was identified in the proband (hemizygous) and in the mother's peripheral blood DNA (heterozygous). The mother is healthy, does not exhibit any clinical manifestations of ATR-X syndrome and there was no family history of cancer. The same hemizygous pathogenic variant was confirmed in the affected older brother's skin tissue by subsequent Sanger sequencing. Chromosomal microarray studies of both brothers' osteosarcomas revealed complex copy number alterations consistent with the clinical diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Recently, somatic mutations in the ATRX gene have been observed as recurrent alterations in both osteosarcoma and brain tumors. However, it is unclear if there is any association between osteosarcoma and germline ATRX mutations, specifically in patients with constitutional ATR-X syndrome. This is the first report of osteosarcoma diagnosed in two males with ATR-X syndrome, suggesting a potential increased risk for cancer in patients with this disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy applied to quality control of grape-derived spirits.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Santos, António J A; Estevinho, Letícia M; Caldeira, Ilda

    2016-08-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was used for predicting the alcoholic strength, the methanol, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols content of grape-derived spirits. FTIR-ATR spectrum in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm(-1)) was used for the quantitative estimation by applying partial least square (PLS) regression models and the results were correlated with those obtained from reference methods. In the developed method, a cross-validation with 50% of the samples was used for PLS analysis along with a validation test set with 50% of the remaining samples. Good correlation models with a great accuracy were obtained for methanol (r(2)=99.4; RPD=12.8), alcoholic strength (r(2)=97.2; RPD=6.0), acetaldehyde (r(2)=98.2; RPD=7.5) and fusel alcohols (r(2) from 97.4 to 94.1; RPD from 6.2 to 4.1). These results corroborate the hypothesis that FTIR-ATR is a useful technique for the quality control of grape-derived spirits, whose practical application may improve the efficiency and quickness of the current laboratory analysis.

  14. The ATM- and ATR-related SCD domain is over-represented in proteins involved in nervous system development

    PubMed Central

    Cara, Lukas; Baitemirova, Medina; Follis, Jack; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Ribes-Zamora, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ATM and ATR are cellular kinases with a well-characterized role in the DNA-damage response. Although the complete set of ATM/ATR targets is unknown, they often contain clusters of S/TQ motifs that constitute an SCD domain. In this study, we identified putative ATM/ATR targets that have a conserved SCD domain across vertebrates. Using this approach, we have identified novel putative ATM/ATR targets in pathways known to be under direct control of these kinases. Our analysis has also unveiled significant enrichment of SCD-containing proteins in cellular pathways, such as vesicle trafficking and actin cytoskeleton, where a regulating role for ATM/ATR is either unknown or poorly understood, hinting at a much broader and overarching role for these kinases in the cell. Of particular note is the overrepresentation of conserved SCD-containing proteins involved in pathways related to neural development. This finding suggests that ATM/ATR could be directly involved in controlling this process, which may be linked to the adverse neurological effects observed in patients with mutations in ATM. PMID:26743489

  15. RPA70 depletion induces hSSB1/2-INTS3 complex to initiate ATR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Ananya; Kaur, Manpreet; Ghosh, Tanushree; Khan, Md. Muntaz; Sharma, Aparna; Shekhar, Ritu; Varshney, Akhil; Saxena, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The primary eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), binds to single-stranded DNA at the sites of DNA damage and recruits the apical checkpoint kinase, ATR via its partner protein, ATRIP. It has been demonstrated that absence of RPA incapacitates the ATR-mediated checkpoint response. We report that in the absence of RPA, human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) and its partner protein INTS3 form sub-nuclear foci, associate with the ATR-ATRIP complex and recruit it to the sites of genomic stress. The ATRIP foci formed after RPA depletion are abrogated in the absence of INTS3, establishing that hSSB-INTS3 complex recruits the ATR-ATRIP checkpoint complex to the sites of genomic stress. Depletion of homologs hSSB1/2 and INTS3 in RPA-deficient cells attenuates Chk1 phosphorylation, indicating that the cells are debilitated in responding to stress. We have identified that TopBP1 and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex are essential for the alternate mode of ATR activation. In summation, we report that the single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, hSSB1/2-INTS3 can recruit the checkpoint complex to initiate ATR signaling. PMID:25916848

  16. Small Molecule Inhibition of p38 MAP Kinase Extends the Replicative Life Span of Human ATR-Seckel Syndrome Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia and rad3 (ATR)-related Seckel syndrome is associated with growth retardation and premature aging features. ATR-Seckel fibroblasts have a reduced replicative capacity in vitro and an aged morphology that is associated with activation of stress-associated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated HSP27. These phenotypes are prevented using p38 inhibitors, with replicative capacity restored to the normal range. However, this stressed phenotype is retained in telomerase-immortalized ATR-Seckel fibroblasts, indicating that it is independent of telomere erosion. As with normal fibroblasts, senescence in ATR-Seckel is bypassed by p53 abrogation. Young ATR-Seckel fibroblasts show elevated levels of p21WAF1, p16INK4A, phosphorylated actin-binding protein cofilin, and phosphorylated caveolin-1, with small molecule drug inhibition of p38 reducing p16INK4A and caveolin-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, ATR-Seckel fibroblasts undergo accelerated aging via stress-induced premature senescence and p38 activation that may underlie certain clinical features of Seckel syndrome, and our data suggest a novel target for pharmacological intervention in this human syndrome. PMID:23401567

  17. ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCA on serine 1449 after DNA damage is important for FA pathway function

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Natalie B.; Wilson, James B.; Bush, Thomas; Thomashevski, Andrei; Roberts, Kate J.; Jones, Nigel J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has shown several proteins defective in Fanconi anemia (FA) are phosphorylated in a functionally critical manner. FANCA is phosphorylated after DNA damage and localized to chromatin, but the site and significance of this phosphorylation are unknown. Mass spectrometry of FANCA revealed one phosphopeptide, phosphorylated on serine 1449. Serine 1449 phosphorylation was induced after DNA damage but not during S phase, in contrast to other posttranslational modifications of FA proteins. Furthermore, the S1449A mutant failed to completely correct a variety of FA-associated phenotypes. The DNA damage response is coordinated by phosphorylation events initiated by apical kinases ATM (ataxia telangectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related), and ATR is essential for proper FA pathway function. Serine 1449 is in a consensus ATM/ATR site, phosphorylation in vivo is dependent on ATR, and ATR phosphorylated FANCA on serine 1449 in vitro. Phosphorylation of FANCA on serine 1449 is a DNA damage–specific event that is downstream of ATR and is functionally important in the FA pathway. PMID:19109555

  18. The ATM- and ATR-related SCD domain is over-represented in proteins involved in nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Cara, Lukas; Baitemirova, Medina; Follis, Jack; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Ribes-Zamora, Albert

    2016-01-08

    ATM and ATR are cellular kinases with a well-characterized role in the DNA-damage response. Although the complete set of ATM/ATR targets is unknown, they often contain clusters of S/TQ motifs that constitute an SCD domain. In this study, we identified putative ATM/ATR targets that have a conserved SCD domain across vertebrates. Using this approach, we have identified novel putative ATM/ATR targets in pathways known to be under direct control of these kinases. Our analysis has also unveiled significant enrichment of SCD-containing proteins in cellular pathways, such as vesicle trafficking and actin cytoskeleton, where a regulating role for ATM/ATR is either unknown or poorly understood, hinting at a much broader and overarching role for these kinases in the cell. Of particular note is the overrepresentation of conserved SCD-containing proteins involved in pathways related to neural development. This finding suggests that ATM/ATR could be directly involved in controlling this process, which may be linked to the adverse neurological effects observed in patients with mutations in ATM.

  19. Mechanisms responsible for the synergistic antileukemic interactions between ATR inhibition and cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Li, Xinyu; Su, Yongwei; Zhao, Jianyun; Luedtke, Daniel A.; Epshteyn, Valeria; Edwards, Holly; Wang, Guan; Wang, Zhihong; Chu, Roland; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hai; Wang, Yue; Ge, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a challenging disease to treat, thus new treatment strategies are needed. In this study, we investigated the antileukemic effects of ATR inhibition alone or combined with cytarabine in AML cells. Treatment with the ATR-selective inhibitor AZ20 caused proliferation inhibition in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. It partially abolished the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and caused DNA replication stress and damage, accompanied by CDK1-independent apoptosis and downregulation of RRM1 and RRM2. AZ20 synergistically enhanced cytarabine-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, abolished cytarabine-induced S and G2/M cell cycle arrest, and cooperated with cytarabine in inducing DNA replication stress and damage in AML cell lines. These key findings were confirmed with another ATR-selective inhibitor AZD6738. Therefore, the cooperative induction of DNA replication stress and damage by ATR inhibition and cytarabine, and the ability of ATR inhibition to abrogate the G2 cell cycle checkpoint both contributed to the synergistic induction of apoptosis and proliferation inhibition in AML cell lines. Synergistic antileukemic interactions between AZ20 and cytarabine were confirmed in primary AML patient samples. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of action underlying the synergistic antileukemic activity of ATR inhibition in combination with cytarabine in AML. PMID:28176818

  20. A method for checking homogeneity of subsurface regions by variable angle ATR: Experiments on polymers vs. optical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfe, I.; Eichhorn, K.-J.; Hopfe, V.; Grählert, W.

    1998-06-01

    The subsurface structure of many technically applied materials is characterized by alterations of the composition (swelling or surface reactions on polymers, leaching of glasses etc.). Attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for analyzing such surface regions. Because of problems with optical contact the ATR method is difficult to handle in practice. Based on variable angle ATR-FTIR spectroscopy a straightforward method has been established which can detect compositional inhomogeneities in subsurface regions or across layers. The method works as follows: (i) making ATR measurements at two different angles of incidence without changing the sample, (ii) normalizing the ATR absorbance spectra by using an appropriate band of the substrate as an internal standard, (iii) calculating difference spectra of the normalized spectra. In the case of a homogeneous material the difference spectrum virtually vanishes whereas in the case of an inhomogeneous surface region the difference spectrum reflects the compositional gradient. The method has been tested at polyamide-12 foils: (a) chemically cleaned, (b) treated with initiator, and (c) treated with pluronic. The experimental findings have been supported by spectra modelling. Based on an optical multilayer model the ATR spectra of a homogeneous polymer and of the same material with a slightly altered surface layer have been calculated for different angles of incidence. By applying steps (ii) to (iii) the experimental results are confirmed.

  1. Small Molecules Targeting Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-Related (ATR) Kinase: An Emerging way to Enhance Existing Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrs, Martin; Korabecny, Jan; Nepovimova, Eugenie; Jun, Daniel; Hodny, Zdenek; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of current cancer research is to find a way to selectively affect the tumor cells, while leaving normal cells intact. Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR), a member of the phosphatidylinositol-3-related protein kinases (PIKK), represents a candidate target for achieving this goal. ATR kinase is one of the main kinases of the DNA damage response signaling pathway and responds to DNA damage caused by replication stress and various genotoxic agents (i.e. chemotherapy, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light). ATR activation triggers cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis, but also resistance of tumor cells to DNA damaging agents, through stress support under replication stress. Thus, the inhibition of ATR leads to increased effectiveness of cancer therapy and in addition enables highly selective targeting of cancer cells through synthetic lethal interactions. Despite this great potential, only a few potent and selective inhibitors of ATR kinase have been developed to date. However, those which have been developed provide great promise, and are under evaluation in many current preclinical and clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize the potential of ATR inhibitors and the medicinal chemistry efforts which resulted in their identification.

  2. Analysis of subsequent publication of scientific orally presented abstracts of the French National Congress of Radiology. Part II: Focus on the French abstracts.

    PubMed

    Dangouloff-Ros, V; Ronot, M; Lagadec, M; Vilgrain, V

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the publication rate of scientific abstracts that were presented orally at the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology by French radiologists, and to perform a French regional analysis. Orally presented abstracts were identified by examining online abstract books of the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology, and cross-checked by reviewing the paper version of abstracts for the same period. Only abstracts from French teams were selected. The administrative region of submission was noted for each abstract and for each region the total population, the number of active radiologists, the number of active members of the French Society of Radiology and the number of academic radiologists were noted. Imaging subspecialties were also noted. 625 abstracts were identified resulting in 268 publications (publication rate: 43%). The median number of presentations and publications per region was 18 (range: 1-255) and 7 (range: 0-101), respectively. The ratio per million inhabitants was 7.5 and 3 respectively. The median number of presentations and publications per 100 active radiologists (respectively members of the FSR) was 7 and 3 (respectively 10 and 4). The median number of presentations and publications per academic radiologist were 2.6, and 1.2, respectively. The regional variations for each indicator were high (40-180%). Three subspecialties had a publication rate of more than 50%: thoracic imaging (58%), abdominal imaging (52%), and genitourinary imaging (51%). The publication rate of orally presented French scientific abstracts was high, with important variations according to the regions of origin and imaging subspecialties. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 38111 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...). Contact Person: Jerry L. Taylor, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Richard Ingraham, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific...

  4. 77 FR 24967 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...). Contact Person: James J Li, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National...). Contact Person: Yuanna Cheng, MD, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review,...

  5. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEU’s ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved

  6. ATR LEU Fuel and Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Optimization by Fuel Meat Thickness Variation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff between the HEU core and the LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the U-235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized. The depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU cases with foil (U-10Mo) types demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar to the reference ATR HEU case. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm. In this work, the proposed LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm and the same U-235 enrichment (15.5 wt%) can be used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel plate thickness from 0.254 to 0.457 mm at the inner 4 fuel plates (1-4) and outer 4 fuel plates (16-19). In addition, a 0.7g of burnable absorber Boron-10 was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the inner/outer heat

  7. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  8. Cultural conditions required for the induction of an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in Sinorhizobium meliloti and the question as to whether or not the ATR helps rhizobia improve their symbiosis with alfalfa at low pH.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Walter O; Del Papa, María Florencia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lozano, Mauricio; de Los Angeles Giusti, María; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo A; Jofré, Edgardo; Boiardi, José Luis; Lagares, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in S. meliloti, as shown previously for Sinorhizobium medicae, when the bacteria are grown in batch cultures at the slightly acid pH of 6.1. In marked contrast, no increased tolerance to hydrogen ions is obtained if rhizobia are grown in a chemostat under continuous cultivation at the same pH. The adaptive ATR appears as a complex process triggered by an increased hydrogen-ion concentration, but operative only if other--as yet unknown--concomitant factors that depend on the culture conditions are present (although not provided under continuous cultivation). Although the stability of the ATR and its influence on acid tolerance has been characterized in rhizobia, no data have been available on the effect of the adapted state on symbiosis. Coinoculation experiments showed that acid-adapted indicator rhizobia (ATR+) were present in >90% of the nodules when nodulation was performed at pH 5.6, representing a >30% increase in occupancy compared with a control test. We show that the ATR represents a clear advantage in competing for nodulation at low pH. It is not yet clear whether such an effect results from an improved performance in the acid environment during preinfection, an enhanced ability to initiate infections, or both conditions. The practical use of ATR+ rhizobia will depend on validation experiments with soil microcosms and on field testing, as well as on the possibility of preserving the physiology of ATR+ bacteria in inoculant formulations.

  9. Scientific but people-oriented education and multi-cultural adaptations of international heliophysical year education resources: A perspective from a developing nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiyetole, Ayodele Adekunle

    2008-12-01

    The world is made up of people of varied cultures who speak different languages. In Africa and, to be more specific, in Nigeria, there is a wide diversity of languages and customs. Nigeria has about 250 ethnic social units, to the extent that just a few of the populace have an effective understanding of English, the nation’s official language. Hence, most communications are carried out in the local languages. To efficiently communicate the heliophysical and other scientific and technological phenomena to the general public, quite a lot would have to be done in the cultural and language context. There is a need to adequately involve social scientists in the education and public outreach programs relating to space science and technology. This paper looks at various ways in which languages and diversity in cultures could be harnessed more effectively to communicate science. The paper also discusses how the various International Heliophysical Year education resources could be adapted to a multi-cultural society, therefore, able to reach more people in the world.

  10. Analysis of subsequent publication of scientific orally presented abstracts of the French national congress of radiology. Part I: General characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dangouloff-Ros, V; Ronot, M; Lagadec, M; Vilgrain, V

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the publication rate of scientific abstracts orally presented at the annual meeting of the French Society of Radiology (FSR), and to identify factors associated with publication. Abstracts were selected from the books of abstracts of the 2008-2010 annual meetings of the FSR. For each abstract, country of origin, diagnostic/interventional radiology, imaging techniques (plain radiography, angiography, ultrasound [US], computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), human/experimental study, retrospective/prospective design, number of subjects, oncologic study or not were noted. Publications were searched in Medline-indexed journals and factors associated analyzed by multivariate analysis. Seven hundred and forty-four abstracts lead to 298 publications (publication rate 40%). Most abstracts reported retrospective studies (61%), in humans (94%), diagnostic imaging (85%), from European authors (90%), and oncology (27%). Median number of subject was 39 (19-87). Main imaging techniques were MRI, CT, US (46%, 29%, 21%). Publications were mostly in English (89%), in radiological journals (72%), with a mean 3.5±3.7 impact factor. Publication was associated with a prospective design (OR=1.80), a submission from Europe (OR=1.71), angiography (OR=2.44), and oncology (OR=1.81). The annual meeting of the FSR is in French, but the rate of publication of presented abstracts is high, mostly in English in reputable journals. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. National science policy and scientific manpower: Funding effects on job mobility of scientists and engineers in the United States, 1958--1972

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Science policy in the United States between 1958 and 1972 was intended to influence the research and development (R D) labor force indirectly, through government funding. An event history analysis of professional R D jobs in five scientific disciplines shows that, while federal funding influences the job mobility of scientists and engineers, other social and economic factors are also significant in explaining mobility patterns. Federal funding significantly decreases the rates of job mobility in all disciplines during the period, stabilizing the employment structure. Indicators of reward-resource arguments-salary, age, and education-significantly affect job mobility. Consistent with human capital and job matching arguments, salary and age significantly reduce mobility. Education is significant only in life science, physical science, and engineering, where higher education leads to increased mobility. Indicators of limited opportunity arguments-socioeconomic background, sex, and ethnicity-show mixed empirical results. Labour markets also significantly affect mobility. In engineering and physical science, a neo-institutional model, which accounts for the degree of government oversight, fits the data best. Social science and life science are best fit by performance sectors, which highlight the importance of universities as employers for these disciplines. Mathematical science is best fit by a model of industrial sectors, consistent with differential expansion of the economy that disproportionately affected this discipline. Federal funding has acted to institutionalize R D in the economy and stabilize employment; it has not insulated workers from general socioeconomic factors such as human capital, discrimination and labour markets.

  12. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  13. Single-particle investigation of summertime and wintertime Antarctic sea spray aerosols using low-Z particle EPMA, Raman microspectrometry, and ATR-FTIR imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Hyo-Jin; Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Cho, Hye-Rin; Hwang, Hee Jin; Do Hur, Soon; Gim, Yeontae; Ro, Chul-Un

    2016-11-01

    Two aerosol samples collected at King Sejong Korean scientific research station, Antarctica, on 9 December 2011 in the austral summer (sample S1) and 23 July 2012 in the austral winter (sample S2), when the oceanic chlorophyll a levels on the collection days of the samples were quite different, by ˜ 19 times (2.46 vs. 0.13 µg L-1, respectively), were investigated on a single-particle basis using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), called low-Z particle EPMA, Raman microspectrometry (RMS), and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) imaging techniques to obtain their characteristics based on the elemental chemical compositions, molecular species, and mixing state. X-ray analysis showed that the supermicron summertime and wintertime Antarctic aerosol samples have different elemental chemical compositions, even though all the individual particles analyzed were sea spray aerosols (SSAs); i.e., the contents of C, O, Ca, S, and Si were more elevated, whereas Cl was more depleted, for sample S1 than for sample S2. Based on qualitative analysis of the chemical species present in individual SSAs by the combined application of RMS and ATR-FTIR imaging, different organic species were observed in samples S1 and S2; i.e., Mg hydrate salts of alanine were predominant in samples S1 and S2, whereas Mg salts of fatty acids internally mixed with Mg hydrate salts of alanine were significant in sample S2. Although CaSO4 was observed significantly in both samples S1 and S2, other inorganic species, such as Na2SO4, NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2, SiO2, and CH3SO3Mg, were observed more significantly in sample S1, suggesting that those compounds may be related to the higher phytoplankton activity in summer.

  14. Introduction of Biosimilar Therapeutics Into Nephrology Practice in the United States: Report of a Scientific Workshop Sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Wish, Jay B; Charytan, Chaim; Chertow, Glenn M; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kliger, Alan S; Rubin, Robert J; Yee, Jerry; Fishbane, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Biosimilars are biologic medicines highly similar to the reference product with no meaningful clinical differences in terms of safety, purity, and potency. All biologic medicines are produced by living cells, resulting in an inherent heterogeneity in their higher order structures and post-translational modifications. In 2010, the US Congress enacted legislation to streamline the approval process for biosimilars of products losing patent protection, with the goal of decreasing costs and improving patient access to therapeutically important but expensive biologic agents. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first biosimilar agent through this pathway. Approval of additional biosimilar agents in the United States, including those used by nephrologists, is anticipated. Given the relative lack of knowledge regarding biosimilars and their approval process and a lack of trust by the nephrology community regarding their safety and efficacy, the National Kidney Foundation conducted a symposium, Introduction of Biosimilar Therapeutics Into Nephrology Practice in the U.S., September 17 to 18, 2015. Issues related to manufacturing, the regulatory approval process, interchangeability, substitution/switching, nomenclature, and clinician and patient awareness and acceptance were examined. This report summarizes the main discussions at the symposium, highlights several controversies, and makes recommendations related to public policy, professional and patient education, and research needs. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries. PMID:27219466

  16. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries.

  17. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  18. Mutation in the 5' alternatively spliced region of the XNP/ATR-X gene causes Chudley-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Fatima E; Cardoso, Carlos; Lossi, Anne-Marie; Lowry, Robert Brian; Depetris, Danielle; Mattéi, Marie-Geneviève; Lubs, Herbert A; Stevenson, Roger E; Fontes, Michel; Chudley, Albert E; Schwartz, Charles E

    2005-02-01

    The Chudley-Lowry syndrome (ChLS, MIM 309490) is an X-linked recessive condition characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, mild obesity, hypogonadism, and distinctive facial features characterized by depressed nasal bridge, anteverted nares, inverted-V-shaped upper lip, and macrostomia. The original Chudley-Lowry family consists of three affected males in two generations. Linkage analysis had localized the gene to a large interval, Xp21-Xq26 and an obligate carrier was demonstrated to have highly skewed X inactivation. The combination of the clinical phenotype, consistent with that of the patients with ATR-X syndrome, the skewed X-inactivation pattern in a carrier female, as well as the mapping interval including band Xq13.3, prompted us to consider the XNP/ATR-X gene being involved in this syndrome. Using RT-PCR analysis, we screened the entire XNP/ATR-X gene and found a mutation in exon 2 (c.109C > T) giving rise to a stop codon at position 37 (p.R37X). Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses using a specific monoclonal antibody directed against XNP/ATR-X showed the protein to be present in lymphoblastoid cells from one affected male, despite the premature stop codon. To explain these discordant results, we further analyzed the 5' region of the XNP/ATR-X gene and found three alternative transcripts, which differ in the presence or absence of exon 2, and the length of exon 1. Our data suggest that ChLS is allelic to the ATR-X syndrome with its less severe phenotype being due to the presence of some XNP/ATR-X protein.

  19. Molecular cloning of AtRS4, a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 μM) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ΔAtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ΔAtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress. PMID:26483807

  20. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico’s National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico’s 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country’s main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences—one of SNI’s first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research—was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI’s own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a