Science.gov

Sample records for atr wg-mox fuel

  1. WG-MOX Fuel Zr-tube Neutron Spectrum Comparison in ATR and PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2005-02-01

    An experiment containing WG-MOX fuel has been designed and irradiated from 1998 to 2004 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Important neutronics parameters were computed using novel Monte Carlo methods. The purpose of this summary is to compare the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide fuel (WG-MOX) Zr-tube’s neutron spectrum in ATR and PWR. The results indicate that the Zrtube’s neutron spectrum in ATR are softer than in PWR.

  2. ATR WG-MOX Fuel Pellet Burnup Measurement by Monte Carlo - Mass Spectrometric Method

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Gray Sen I

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for calculating the burnup of nuclear reactor fuel, the MCWO-MS method, and describes its application to an experiment currently in progress to assess the suitability for use in light-water reactors of Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel that contains plutonium derived from excess nuclear weapons material. To demonstrate that the available experience base with Reactor-Grade Mixed uranium-plutonium OXide (RGMOX) can be applied to Weapons-Grade (WG)-MOX in light water reactors, and to support potential licensing of MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium for use in United States reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Fuel burnup is an important parameter needed for fuel performance evaluation. For the irradiated MOX fuel’s Post-Irradiation Examination, the 148Nd method is used to measure the burnup. The fission product 148Nd is an ideal burnup indicator, when appropriate correction factors are applied. In the ATR test environment, the spectrum-dependent and burnup-dependent correction factors (see Section 5 for detailed discussion) can be substantial in high fuel burnup. The validated Monte Carlo depletion tool (MCWO) used in this study can provide a burnup-dependent correction factor for the reactor parameters, such as capture-to-fission ratios, isotopic concentrations and compositions, fission power, and spectrum in a straightforward fashion. Furthermore, the correlation curve generated by MCWO can be coupled with the 239Pu/Pu ratio measured by a Mass Spectrometer (in the new MCWO-MS method) to obtain a best-estimate MOX fuel burnup. A Monte Carlo - MCWO method can eliminate the generation of few-group cross sections. The MCWO depletion tool can analyze the detailed spatial and spectral self-shielding effects in UO2, WG-MOX, and reactor-grade mixed oxide (RG-MOX) fuel pins. The MCWO-MS tool only

  3. Monte Carlo boundary source approach in MOX fuel test capsule design

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1999-09-01

    To demonstrate that the differences between weapons-grade (WG) mixed oxide (MOX) and reactor-grade MOX fuel are minimal, and therefore the commercial MOX experience base is applicable, an average power test (6 to 10 kW/ft) of WG MOX fuel was inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in January 1998. A high-power test (10 to 15 kW/ft) of WG MOX fuel in ATR is being fabricated as a follow-on to the average-power test. Two MOX capsules with 8.9 GWd/t burnup were removed from ATR on September 13, 1998, and replaced by two fresh WG MOX fuel capsules in regions with less thermal neutron flux (top-1 and bottom-1, which are away from the core center). To compensate for {sup 239}Pu depletion, which causes the linear heat generation rates (LHGRs) to decrease, the INCONEL shield was replaced by an aluminum shield in the phase-II irradiation. The authors describe and compare the results of the detailed MCNP ATR quarter core model (QCM) and isolated box model with boundary source (IBMBS). Physics analysis were performed with these two different models to provide the neutron/fission heat rate distribution data in the WG MOX fuel test assembly, with INCONEL and aluminum shrouds, located in the small I-24 hole of ATR.

  4. Neutron flux and spectrum variation in a MOX fuel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Rogers, J.W.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    In support of potential licensing of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium and depleted uranium for use in US reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel has been designed and is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A simple, uninstrumented, test assembly containing nine MOX fuel capsules with neutron monitor wires was inserted into the ATR. Important neutronics parameters were computed using novel Monte Carlo methods. The purpose is to show that neutron monitor measurements have validated the new methodology.

  5. Detailed axial power profiles in a MOX fuel experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen two options to dispose of surplus weapons-grade (WG) plutonium (WGPu). One option is to burn the WGPu in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors. An average power test (<10 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel was inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in February 1998. A high power test (<15 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel in ATR will follow the average-power test. The ability to accurately predict fuel power is essential in the high-power WG-MOX fuel capsule design for the test in ATR. Detailed fission power and temperature profiles may influence gallium migration in WG-MOX fuel pins. Most of the fission heat generated in the MOX fuel capsules will transfer radially to the water coolant. However, because of the short length (15.24 cm) of the MOX fuel pellet stacks, some of the fission heat will transfer through the end pellets axially. Compounded with peak fission power local-to-average ratios (LTAR) at the ends of MOX fuel stacks, the hot spot created may exceed the design limit. Therefore, the prediction of the axial fission power profiles over the MOX fuel stacks at the beginning of life (BOL) and end of life (EOL) are important for MOX fuel performance analysis and capsule design for testing in ATR. Continuous-energy MCNP linked with ORIGEN2 can generate the burnup-dependent cross sections and fission power distribution for fuel burnup analysis while accurately including the effects of self-shielding. This approach is very important for the prediction of plutonium content and LTAR in MOX fuel pellet stacks with HfO{sub 2} ends. MCWO can accurately determine fuel pin power distributions in the ATR experiment when the MOX fuel and HfO{sub 2} are depleted simultaneously. This is significant because the authors quickly provided the customer with the required detailed power distributions within the MOX pins using the new approach. The MOX fuel pin with HfO{sub 2} can flatten the axial power profiles from BOL to EOL and meet the MOX

  6. Depletion analysis of mixed-oxide fuel pins in light water reactors and the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    2000-03-01

    An experiment containing weapons-grade mixed-oxide (WG-MOX) fuel has been designed and is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The ability to accurately predict fuel pin performance is an essential requirement for the MOX fuel test assembly design. Detailed radial fission power and temperature profile effects and fission gas release in the fuel pin are a function of the fuel pin's temperature, fission power, and fission product ad actinide concentration profiles. In addition, the burnup-dependent profile analyses in irradiated fuel pins is important for fuel performance analysis to support the potential licensing of the MOX fuel made from WG-plutonium and depleted uranium for use in US reactors. The MCNP Coupling With ORIGEN2 burnup calculation code (MCWO) can analyze the detailed burnup profiles of WG-MOX and reactor-grade mixed-oxide (RG-MOX) fuel pins. The validated code MCWO can provide the best-estimate neutronic characteristics of fuel burnup performance analysis. Applying this capability with a new minicell method allows calculation of detailed nuclide concentration and power distributions within the MOX pins as a function of burnup. This methodology was applied to MOX fuel in a commercial pressurized water reactor and in an experiment currently being irradiated in the ATR. The prediction of nuclide concentration profiles and power distributions in irradiated MOX plus via this new methodology can provide insights into MOX fuel performance.

  7. Generation of Two-Group Cross Sections for WG-MOX Fuel Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Parish, Theodore A.; Charlton, William S.

    1997-11-20

    The results given here demonstrate that MCNP can be used to generate multigroup cross sections based on continuous-energy calculations. Although this method has high computational costs, improving this methodology and applying it to assembly-level calculations will provide valuable data for validating cross sections generated by deterministic codes.

  8. ATR PDQ and MCWO Fuel Burnup Analysis Codes Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Chang; P. A. Roth; M. A. Lillo

    2009-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being studied to determine the feasibility of converting it from the highly enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel that is currently uses to low enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. In order to achieve this goal, it would be best to qualify some different computational methods than those that have been used at ATR for the past 40 years. This paper discusses two methods of calculating the burnup of ATR fuel elements. The existing method, that uses the PDQ code, is compared to a modern method that uses A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) combined with the Origen2.2 code. This modern method, MCNP with ORIGEN2.2 (MCWO), is found to give excellent agreement with the existing method (PDQ). Both of MCWO and PDQ are also in a very good agreement to the 235U burnup data generated by an analytical method.

  9. Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Characteristics in Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2006-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energy’s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2(MCWO). MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements and the irradiated WG-MOX post irradiation examination (PIE) data.

  10. AFC-1 Fuel Rodlet Fission Power Deposition Validation in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo; D. J. Utterbeck

    2008-11-01

    One of the viable options of long-term geological disposal of the nuclear power reactors generated spent fuel is to extract plutonium, the minor actinides (MA) and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in an appropriate reactor for the reduction of the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. An important component of that technology will be a non-fertile / low-fertile actinide transmutation fuel form containing the plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes to be transmuted. Such advanced fuel forms, especially ones enriched in the long-life minor actinide (LLMA) elements (i.e., Np, Am, Cm), have minimal irradiation performance data available from which to establish a transmutation fuel form design. Recognizing these needs, an Advanced Fuel Cycle test series-1 (AFC-1) irradiation test on a variety of candidate fuel forms is now being conducted in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first advanced fuel experiment (AFC-1) has been finalized and the test assembly analyzed for insertion and irradiation in ATR. The ATR core consists of a serpentine and rotationally symmetric fuel assembly about the z-axis of the core center. The plan view of the ATR core configuration is shown in Fig. 5, in Ref. 1. A cadmium filter with a 0.178 cm (0.045") thickness and 121.5 cm (48") in length, is currently used in the actinide-fuel capsule design for the East Flux Trap (EFT) position in ATR, to depress the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) lower than the project’s 330 W/cm limit for the experimental fuel rodlets. The LHGR is proportional to the fission power deposited in the fuel rodlets from the neutron fissions. The fraction of the fission power generated from the neutron fission reactions deposited in the fuel rodlet is an important parameter for test assembly thermal analysis, which will be validated in this summary.

  11. Methodology for the Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Analysis in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2005-08-01

    A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2, and is therefore called the MCWO. MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO is capable of handling a large number of fuel burnup and material loading specifications, Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) lobe powers, and irradiation time intervals. MCWO processes user input that specifies the system geometry, initial material compositions, feed/removal specifications, and other code-specific parameters. Calculated results from MCNP, ORIGEN-2, and data process module calculations are output in succession as MCWO executes. The principal function of MCWO is to transfer one-group cross-section and flux values from MCNP to ORIGEN-2, and then transfer the resulting material compositions (after irradiation and/or decay) from ORIGEN-2 back to MCNP in a repeated, cyclic fashion. The basic requirements of MCWO are a working MCNP input file and some additional input parameters; all interaction with ORIGEN-2 as well as other calculations are performed by CMO. This paper presents the MCWO-calculated results for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiments RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 as well as the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) fuel testing in ATR. Calculations performed for the WG-MOX test irradiation, which is managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), supports the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The MCWO-calculated results are compared with measured data.

  12. Comparison of HEU and LEU Fuel Neutron Spectrum for ATR Fuel Element and ATR Flux-Trap Positions

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the high total core power and high neutron flux, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. An optimized low-enriched uranium (LEU) (U-10Mo) core conversion case, which can meet the project requirements, has been selected. However, LEU contains a significant quantity of high density U-238 (80.3 wt.%), which will harden the neutron spectrum in the core region. Based on the reference ATR HEU and the optimized LEU full core plate-by-plate (PBP) models, the present work investigates and compares the neutron spectra differences in the fuel element (FE), Northeast flux trap (NEFT), Southeast flux trap (SEFT), and East flux trap (EFT) positions. A detailed PBP MCNP ATR core model was developed and validated for fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. The current ATR core with HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0wt.% was used as the reference model. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, an optimized LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and the U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt.% was used to calculate the impact of the neutron spectrum in FE and FT positions. MCNP-calculated results show that the neutron spectrum in the LEU FE is slightly harder than in the HEU FE, as expected. However, when neutrons transport through water coolant and beryllium (Be), the neutrons are thermalized to an equilibrium neutron spectrum as a function of water volume fraction in the investigated FT positions. As a result, the neutron spectrum differences of the HEU and LEU in the NEFT, SEFT, and EFT are negligible. To demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the

  13. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  14. Natural convection heat transfer analysis of ATR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    Natural convection air cooling of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel assemblies is analyzed to determine the level of decay heat that can be removed without exceeding the melting temperature of the fuel. The study was conducted to assist in the level 2 PRA analysis of a hypothetical ATR water canal draining accident. The heat transfer process is characterized by a very low Rayleigh number (Ra {approx} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a high temperature ratio. Since neither data nor analytical models were available for Ra < 0.1, an analytical approach is presented based upon the integral boundary layer equations. All assumptions and simplifications are presented and assessed and two models are developed from similar foundations. In one model, the well-known Boussinesq approximations are employed, the results from which are used to assess the modeling philosophy through comparison to existing data and published analytical results. In the other model, the Boussinesq approximations are not used, thus making the model more general and applicable to the ATR analysis.

  15. MCWO - Linking MCNP And ORIGEN2 For Fuel Burnup Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S Chang

    2005-04-01

    The UNIX BASH (Bourne Again Shell) script MCWO has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environment Laboratory (INEEL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN2. MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. MCWO can handle a large number of fuel burnup and material loading specifications, Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) powers, and irradiation time intervals. The program processes input from the user that specifies the system geometry, initial material compositions, feed/removal specifications, and other code-specific parameters. Calculated results from MCNP, ORIGEN2, and data process module calculations are then output successively as the code runs. The principal function of MCWO is to transfer one-group cross-section and flux values from MCNP to ORIGEN2, and then transfer the resulting material compositions (after irradiation and/or decay) from ORIGEN2 back to MCNP in a repeated, cyclic fashion. The basic requirement of the code is that the user have a working MCNP input file and other input parameters; all interaction with ORIGEN2 and other calculations are performed by UNIX BASH script MCWO. This paper presents the MCWO-calculated results of the RERTR-1 and -2 , and the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxiide fuel (Wg-MOX) fuel experiments in ATR and compares the MCWO-calculated results with the measured data.

  16. A Feasibility and Optimization Study to Design a Nondestructive ATR Fuel Permanent Scanning System to Determine Fuel Burnup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J.; Ring, T. A.; Nigg, D. W.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop the best available non-destructive technique to determine burnup of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory, as well as to make a recommendation regarding the feasibility of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal. The study determined that useful spectra for validation and fuel burnup predictions can be obtained in-situ at the ATR canal using three different detectors. In addition, the study established that calibration curves can be created to predict ATR fuel burnup onsite. The study also established that in order to design a rugged system that can stand the daily operations at the ATR canal a LaBr3 scintillator can be used effectively if deconvolution process is applied to increase the spectra resolution.

  17. ATR LEU Fuel and Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Optimization by Fuel Meat Thickness Variation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff between the HEU core and the LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the U-235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized. The depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU cases with foil (U-10Mo) types demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar to the reference ATR HEU case. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm. In this work, the proposed LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm and the same U-235 enrichment (15.5 wt%) can be used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel plate thickness from 0.254 to 0.457 mm at the inner 4 fuel plates (1-4) and outer 4 fuel plates (16-19). In addition, a 0.7g of burnable absorber Boron-10 was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the inner/outer heat

  18. ATR LEU fuel and burnable absorber neutronics performance optimization by fuel meat thickness variation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.

    2008-07-15

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U-235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff between the HEU core th and the LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the U-235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized. The depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU cases with foil (U-10Mo) types demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar to the reference ATR HEU case. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm. In this work, the proposed LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.381 mm and the same U-235 enrichment (19.7 wt%) can be used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel meat thickness from 0.191 mm (7.5 mil) to 0.343 mm (13.5 mil) at the inner 4 fuel plates (1-4) and outer 4 fuel plates (16-19). In addition, 0.8g of a burnable absorber, Boron-10, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess

  19. Diesel fuel processor for PEM fuel cells: Two possible alternatives (ATR versus SR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, A.; Specchia, S.; Antonini, M.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    There are large efforts in exploring the on-board reforming technologies, which would avoid the actual lack of hydrogen infrastructure and related safety issues. From this view point, the present work deals with the comparison between two different 10 kW e fuel processors (FP) systems for the production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas starting from diesel oil, based respectively on autothermal (ATR) and steam-reforming (SR) process and related CO clean-up technologies; the obtained hydrogen rich gas is fed to the PEMFC stack of an auxiliary power unit (APU). Based on a series of simulations with Matlab/Simulink, the two systems were compared in terms of FP and APU efficiency, hydrogen concentration fed to the FC, water balance and process scheme complexity. Notwithstanding a slightly higher process scheme complexity and a slightly more difficult water recovery, the FP based on the SR scheme, as compared to the ATR one, shows higher efficiency and larger hydrogen concentration for the stream fed to the PEMFC anode, which represent key issues for auxiliary power generation based on FCs as compared, e.g. to alternators.

  20. Radial Power Profile of MOX and LEU Fuel Pellet Versus Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Gray S.; Pedersen, Robert C.

    2002-07-01

    One of challenge to burn the WG-Pu in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWR) is to demonstrate that the differences between WG-MOX, RG-MOX, and LWR LEU fuel are minimal, and therefore, the commercial MOX and LEU fuel experience base is applicable. The MCWO-calculated Radial Power Profile of LEU, Weapons Grade-MOX and Reactor Grade-MOX fuel pellets at various burnups are similar toward the end of life (50 GWd/t). Therefore, the LEU fuel performance evaluation code - FRAPCON-3 with modifications, such as, the detailed fission power profiles versus burnup, can be used in the MOX fuel pellet performance analysis. MCWO also calculated the {sup 240}Pu/Pu ratio in WG-MOX versus burnup, which reaches an average of 31.25% at discharged burnup of 50 GWd/t. It meets the spent fuel standard for WG-Pu disposition in LWR. (authors)

  1. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber – Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  2. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEU’s ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved

  3. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  4. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  5. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

  6. Gamma-Ray Simulated Spectrum Deconvolution of a LaBr₃ 1-in. x 1-in. Scintillator for Nondestructive ATR Fuel Burnup On-Site Predictions

    DOE PAGES

    Navarro, Jorge; Ring, Terry A.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    A deconvolution method for a LaBr₃ 1"x1" detector for nondestructive Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel burnup applications was developed. The method consisted of obtaining the detector response function, applying a deconvolution algorithm to 1”x1” LaBr₃ simulated, data along with evaluating the effects that deconvolution have on nondestructively determining ATR fuel burnup. The simulated response function of the detector was obtained using MCNPX as well with experimental data. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) deconvolution algorithm was selected to enhance one-isotope source-simulated and fuel- simulated spectra. The final evaluation of the study consisted of measuring the performance of the fuel burnup calibrationmore » curve for the convoluted and deconvoluted cases. The methodology was developed in order to help design a reliable, high resolution, rugged and robust detection system for the ATR fuel canal capable of collecting high performance data for model validation, along with a system that can calculate burnup and using experimental scintillator detector data.« less

  7. Gamma-Ray Simulated Spectrum Deconvolution of a LaBr₃ 1-in. x 1-in. Scintillator for Nondestructive ATR Fuel Burnup On-Site Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Jorge; Ring, Terry A.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    A deconvolution method for a LaBr₃ 1"x1" detector for nondestructive Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel burnup applications was developed. The method consisted of obtaining the detector response function, applying a deconvolution algorithm to 1”x1” LaBr₃ simulated, data along with evaluating the effects that deconvolution have on nondestructively determining ATR fuel burnup. The simulated response function of the detector was obtained using MCNPX as well with experimental data. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) deconvolution algorithm was selected to enhance one-isotope source-simulated and fuel- simulated spectra. The final evaluation of the study consisted of measuring the performance of the fuel burnup calibration curve for the convoluted and deconvoluted cases. The methodology was developed in order to help design a reliable, high resolution, rugged and robust detection system for the ATR fuel canal capable of collecting high performance data for model validation, along with a system that can calculate burnup and using experimental scintillator detector data.

  8. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ~47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  9. Safety Assurance for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the world’s premiere test reactor for performing high fluence, large volume, irradiation test programs. The ATR has many capabilities and a wide variety of tests are performed in this truly one of a kind reactor, including isotope production, simple self-contained static capsule experiments, instrumented/controlled experiments, and loop testing under pressurized water conditions. Along with the five pressurized water loops, ATR may also have gas (temperature controlled) lead experiments, fuel boosted fast flux experiments, and static sealed capsules all in the core at the same time. In addition, any or all of these tests may contain fuel or moderating materials that can affect reactivity levels in the ATR core. Therefore the safety analyses required to ensure safe operation of each experiment as well as the reactor itself are complex. Each test has to be evaluated against stringent reactor control safety criteria, as well as the effects it could have on adjacent tests and the reactor as well as the consequences of those effects. The safety analyses of each experiment are summarized in a document entitled the Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP). The ESAP references and employs the results of the reactor physics, thermal, hydraulic, stress, seismic, vibration, and all other analyses necessary to ensure the experiment can be irradiated safely in the ATR. The requirements for reactivity worth, chemistry compatibilities, pressure limitations, material issues, etc. are all specified in the Technical Safety Requirements and the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) for the ATR. This paper discusses the ESAP process, types of analyses, types of safety requirements and the approvals necessary to ensure an experiment can be safely irradiated in the ATR.

  10. A feasibility study to determine cooling time and burnup of ATR fuel using a nondestructive technique and three types of gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Nigg, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this work was to perform a feasibility study and establish measurement techniques to determine the burnup of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuels at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Three different detectors of high purity germanium (HPGe), lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}), and high pressure xenon (HPXe) in two detection system configurations of below and above the water pool were used in this study. The last two detectors were used for the first time in fuel burnup measurements. The results showed that a better quality spectra can be achieved with the above the water pool configuration. Both short and long cooling time fuels were investigated in order to determine which measurement technique, absolute or fission product ratio, is better suited in each scenario and also to establish what type of detector should be used in each case for the best burnup measurement. The burnup and cooling time calibrations were established using experimental absolute activities or isotopic ratios and ORIGEN burnup calculations. A method was developed to do burnup and cooling time calibrations using fission isotopes activities without the need to know the exact geometry. (authors)

  11. Irradiation Planning for Fully-Ceramic Micro-encsapsulated fuel in ATR at LWR-relevant conditions: year-end report on FY-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer

    2011-09-01

    This report presents the estimation of required ATR irradiation levels for the DB-FCM fuel design (fueled with Pu and MAs). The fuel and assembly designs are those considered in a companion report [R. S. Sen et al., FCR&D-2011- 00037 or INL/EXT-11-23269]. These results, pertaining to the DB-FCM fuel, are definitive in as much as the design of said fuel is definitive. In addition to the work performed, as required, for DB-FCM fuel, work has started in a preliminary fashion on single-cell UO2 and UN fuels. These latter activities go beyond the original charter of this project and although the corresponding work is incomplete, significant progress has been achieved. However, in this context, all that has been achieved is only preliminary because the corresponding fuel designs are neither finalized nor optimized. In particular, the UO2 case is unlikely to result in a viable fuel design if limited to enrichment at or under 20 weight % in U-235. The UN fuel allows reasonable length cycles and is likely to make an optimal design possible. Despite being limited to preliminary designs and offering only preliminary conclusions, the irradiation planning tasks for UO2 and UN fuels that are summarized in this report are useful to the overall goal of devising and deploying FCM-LWR fuel since the methods acquired and tested in this project and the overall procedure for planning will be available for planning tests for the finalized fuel design. Indeed, once the fuel design is finalized and the expected burnup level is determined, the methodology that has been assembled will allow the prompt finalization of the neutronic planning of the irradiation experiment and would provide guidance on the expected experimental performance of the fuel. Deviations from the expected behavior will then have to be analyzed and the outcome of the analysis may be corrections or modifications for the assessment models as well as, possibly, fuel design modifications, and perhaps even variation of

  12. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  13. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  14. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  15. PUREX new substation ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  16. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    SciTech Connect

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  17. HEATR project: ATR algorithm parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorf, Catherine E.

    1998-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) Embedded Application for Target Recognition (HEATR) is a project funded by the High Performance Computing Modernization Office through the Common HPC Software Support Initiative (CHSSI). The goal of CHSSI is to produce portable, parallel, multi-purpose, freely distributable, support software to exploit emerging parallel computing technologies and enable application of scalable HPC's for various critical DoD applications. Specifically, the CHSSI goal for HEATR is to provide portable, parallel versions of several existing ATR detection and classification algorithms to the ATR-user community to achieve near real-time capability. The HEATR project will create parallel versions of existing automatic target recognition (ATR) detection and classification algorithms and generate reusable code that will support porting and software development process for ATR HPC software. The HEATR Team has selected detection/classification algorithms from both the model- based and training-based (template-based) arena in order to consider the parallelization requirements for detection/classification algorithms across ATR technology. This would allow the Team to assess the impact that parallelization would have on detection/classification performance across ATR technology. A field demo is included in this project. Finally, any parallel tools produced to support the project will be refined and returned to the ATR user community along with the parallel ATR algorithms. This paper will review: (1) HPCMP structure as it relates to HEATR, (2) Overall structure of the HEATR project, (3) Preliminary results for the first algorithm Alpha Test, (4) CHSSI requirements for HEATR, and (5) Project management issues and lessons learned.

  18. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  19. Fabrication Report for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B Capsule Irradiations in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2007-10-01

    This document provides a general narrative description of the AFC-2A and 2B fuel fabrication processes for the AFC 2A and AFC 2B fuel irradiation experiments fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR).

  20. Safety significance of ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) passive safety response attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  2. Validation of HELIOS for ATR Core Follow Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, Samuel E.; Swain, Emily T.; Crawford, Douglas S.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the validation analyses for the HELIOS code to support core design and safety assurance calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Past and current core safety assurance is performed by the PDQ-7 diffusion code; a state of the art reactor physics simulation tool from the nuclear industry’s earlier days. Over the past twenty years, improvements in computational speed have enabled the use of modern neutron transport methodologies to replace the role of diffusion theory for simulation of complex systems, such as the ATR. More exact methodologies have enabled a paradigm-shift away from highly tuned codes that force compliance with a bounding safety envelope, and towards codes regularly validated against routine measurements. To validate HELIOS, the 16 ATR operational cycles from late-2009 to present were modeled. The computed power distribution was compared against data collected by the ATR’s on-line power surveillance system. It was found that the ATR’s lobe-powers could be determined with ±10% accuracy. Also, the ATR’s cold startup shim configuration for each of these 16 cycles was estimated and compared against the reported critical position from the reactor log-book. HELIOS successfully predicted criticality within the tolerance set by the ATR startup procedure for 13 out of the 16 cycles. This is compared to 12 times for PDQ (without empirical adjustment). These findings, as well as other insights discussed in this report, suggest that HELIOS is highly suited for replacing PDQ for core safety assurance of the ATR. Furthermore, a modern verification and validation framework has been established that allows reactor and fuel performance data to be computed with a known degree of accuracy and stated uncertainty.

  3. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycle 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh Pham; Jeff Einerson

    2014-01-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-2 (AGR-2) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 154B as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This is the last cycle of AGR-2 irradiation, as the test train was pulled from the ATR core during the outage portion of ATR Cycle 155A. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) downstream flows from Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) detectors, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the six capsules in the AGR-2 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) comprised of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  4. 78 FR 65183 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... FR 42898). The NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The European... installing a fuel quantity indicator (FQI) equipped with a locking adaptor on the electrical connector. We...@atr.fr ; Internet http://www.aerochain.com . You may review this referenced service information at...

  5. 78 FR 42898 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... require installing a fuel quantity indicator (FQI) equipped with a locking adaptor on the electrical....airworthiness@atr.fr ; Internet http://www.aerochain.com . You may review copies of the referenced service... contains this proposed AD, the regulatory evaluation, any comments received, and other information....

  6. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  7. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  8. Overview of the ATR Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, B.

    1997-05-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer Line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac(protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which will eventually feed the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1996. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS's), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS's. The remaining 63 PS's were newly purchased. These PS's range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS's to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS's. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  9. Overview of the ATR power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac (protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which feeds the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1997. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X, and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two storage rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS`s), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS`s. The remaining 63 PS`s were newly purchased. These PS`s range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS`s to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS`s. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  10. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L  -  1, 0.48 mol L  -  1, 0.38 mol L  -  1, and 1.12 mol L  -  1, respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries.

  11. The distribution of atrazine (ATR) and ATR metabolites in the Wistar rat following gestational/lactational exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational/lactational exposure to ATR is reported to alter reproductive/developmental function, yet our understanding of the transfer of ATR and/or its metabolites from the dam to the fetus/offspring is limited. Previously we examined the lactational transfer of CI4-ATR, but sp...

  12. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  13. ATR LEU Monothlic and Dispersed with 10B Loading Minimization Design – Neutronics Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2001-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The present work investigates the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel with 10B loading minimization design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of these optimized fuel designs. The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was used to optimize the 235U and minimize the 10B loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profiles between the HEU and LEU cores were minimized. The fuel depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K eff versus effective full power days (EFPD) in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel cases demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPD plot is similar to the ATR reference HEU case study. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, the proposed LEU Monolithic (U-10Mo) core conversion case with nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and 235U enrichment of 19.7 wt% is used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel meat thickness. The proposed LEU fuel meat varies from 0.203 mm (8.0 mil) to 0.254 mm (10.0 mil) at the inner four fuel plates (1-4) and outer four fuel plates (16-19). In addition, an optimized LEU dispersed (U7Mo) case with all the fuel meat thickness of 0.635 mm (25 mil) was also proposed. Then, for both Monolithic and dispersed cases, a burnable absorber – 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the higher to average ratio of the inner

  14. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; S. T. Laflin

    1999-08-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple "low cost" shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Cost were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4-5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations.

  15. Confidence intervals for ATR performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes confidence interval (CI) estimators (CIEs) for the metrics used to assess sensor exploitation algorithm (or ATR) performance. For the discrete distributions, small sample sizes and extreme outcomes encountered within ATR testing, the commonly used CIEs have limited accuracy. This paper makes available CIEs that are accurate over all conditions of interest to the ATR community. The approach is to search for CIs using an integration of the Bayesian posterior (IBP) to measure alpha (chance of the CI not containing the true value). The CIEs provided include proportion estimates based on Binomial distributions and rate estimates based on Poisson distributions. One or two-sided CIs may be selected. For two-sided CIEs, either minimal length, balanced tail probabilities, or balanced width may be selected. The CIEs' accuracies are reported based on a Monte Carlo validated integration of the posterior probability distribution and compared to the Normal approximation and `exact' (Clopper- Pearson) methods. While the IBP methods are accurate throughout, the conventional methods may realize alphas with substantial error (up to 50%). This translates to 10 to 15% error in the CI widths or to requiring 10 to 15% more samples for a given confidence level.

  16. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David . E-mail: david.cortez@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-05-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress.

  17. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  18. Fuel processing device

    DOEpatents

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    2011-08-02

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  19. Targeting ATR in DNA damage response and cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Prevo, Remko; Hammond, Ester M; Brunner, Thomas B; McKenna, W Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J

    2014-02-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity during DNA replication through the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 and regulation of the DNA damage response. Preclinical studies have shown that disruption of ATR pathway can exacerbate the levels of replication stress in oncogene-driven murine tumors to promote cell killing. Additionally, inhibition of ATR can sensitise tumor cells to radiation or chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that targeting ATR can selectively sensitize cancer cells but not normal cells to DNA damage. Furthermore, in hypoxic conditions, ATR blockade results in overloading replication stress and DNA damage response causing cell death. Despite the attractiveness of ATR inhibition in the treatment of cancer, specific ATR inhibitors have remained elusive. In the last two years however, selective ATR inhibitors suitable for in vitro and - most recently - in vivo studies have been identified. In this article, we will review the literature on ATR function, its role in DDR and the potential of ATR inhibition to enhance the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy.

  20. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in ATR(ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  1. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  2. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and

  3. Detailed Fission Power 2D-Mapping of AFIP-2 Experiment in ATR CFT Position

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo

    2008-05-01

    The NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program assigned INL (Idaho National Laboratory) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in the research reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate irradiation tests are proposed for the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor). Labeled the AFIP (ATR Full-size-plates In center flux trap Position) experiments, these tests will be conducted in the ATR center flux trap. The AFIP-2 experiment will contain two full size fuel plates fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Y-12 (ORNL). The nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.6l-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) in each fuel plate. The test holder accommodates two independent test trains. Each test train is designed to hold 2 plates, for a total of 4 plates per test holder. AFIP-2 test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C; to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and width of 1.6-in (4.064 cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To assure the AFIP-2 experiment will comply with the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2 dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential in the AFIP-2 fuel test train design and the irradiated fuel

  4. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  5. Monte-Carlo Code (MCNP) Modeling of the Advanced Test Reactor Applicable to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Test Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. C. Pederson

    2005-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, and 40 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energy’s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO, a welldeveloped tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements.

  6. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  7. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  8. ATR FTIR Mapping of Leather Fiber Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, G.; Grünewald, T.; Petutschnigg, A.; Schnabel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Leather fiber panels are very promising materials for many applications, not only for the easy availability of the constituents but also for their outstanding fi re-retardant properties. These innovative composite panels can be an excellent material for building insulation, and in recent times, the interest of industries in this composite board has considerably arisen. For this reason the discrimination of the components in the leather fiber panels is becoming fundamental in order to ensure their homogeneous properties. A method to characterize the surface of these materials is then required. An ATR FTIR mapping system for the leather fiber panels has been performed with a Perkin-Elmer microscope coupled with a Frontier FTIR spectrometer. The system has successfully allowed transforming the optical image to a chemical one. This technique can be considered as a right tool for routine controls of the surface quality, especially when the leather shavings cannot be optically distinguished.

  9. THz ATR Spectroscopy for Inline Monitoring of Highly Absorbing Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Amin; Busch, Stefan F.; Plew, Patrick; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We present a THz attenuated total reflection (ATR) setup which allows for inline measurements of highly absorbing liquids. As a proof of principle, we investigate a mixture of water and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) from 5 to 40 wt%. Inline measurements prove that our THz ATR setup allows for the distinction of various concentrations. As an example, we show inline THz ATR measurements for 30 to 40 wt% for GCC watery solution, as this concentration range is of technical relevance. We obtain a sensitivity better than 2 wt%.

  10. ATR-mediated regulation of nuclear and cellular plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kidiyoor, Gururaj Rao; Kumar, Amit; Foiani, Marco

    2016-08-01

    ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related) is a member of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, amongst six other vertebrate proteins known so far. ATR is indispensable for cell survival and its essential role is in sensing DNA damage and initiating appropriate repair responses. In this review we highlight emerging and recent observations connecting ATR to alternative roles in controlling the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, centrosome and other organelles in response to both internal and external stress conditions. We propose that ATR functions control cell plasticity by sensing structural deformations of different cellular components, including DNA and initiating appropriate repair responses, most of which are yet to be understood completely. PMID:27283761

  11. Infrared ATR: a probe for cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Martin, Laura E.; Alam, M. Kathleen; Haaland, David M.; Garrison, Kristen; Lyons, C. Richard; Hjelle, Brian

    2002-02-01

    We employ infrared spectroscopy (IR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling technique to monitor live and dried RAW cells (a murine macrophage cell line) during activation with g-interferon and lipopolysaccharide. By comparing the spectra of activated cells at various time points to the spectra of healthy control cells, we identify spectral bands associated with nucleic acids that are markers for the cell activation process. These spectral changes are slight and can be complicated with the normal metabolic changes that occur within cells. We will discuss the use of data pretreatment strategies to accurately correct for the contribution of the buffer to the live cell spectra. We find the standard background correction method inadequate for concentrated solutions of cells. Data presented shows the severe effect incorrect background subtraction has on the cell spectra. We report a more accurate correction for phosphate buffer spectral contribution using an interactive subtraction of the buffer spectrum. We will show classification of dried control and activated macrophage cell spectra using partial-least squares analysis with multiplicative scatter correction.

  12. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  13. On the pathway of photoexcited electrons: probing photon-to-electron and photon-to-phonon conversions in silicon by ATR-IR.

    PubMed

    Karabudak, Engin; Yüce, Emre; Schlautmann, Stefan; Hansen, Ole; Mul, Guido; Gardeniers, Han J G E

    2012-08-21

    Photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization inside semiconductor photocatalysts are two important steps in solar fuel production. Here, photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization in a silicon wafer are for the first time probed by a novel, yet simple and user-friendly Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) system.

  14. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  15. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    To give a better understanding of autothermal reforming (ATR), a process which offers an advantageous alternative to steam reforming for H/sub 2/ production for fuel cells because of the wider range of fuels which can be converted, the conversion of individual fuel components was studied. Attempts have been made to characterize the chemical reactions of light and heavy paraffins and aromatics in ATR. Results of studies to determine the effects of operating parameters on the carbon-forming tendency of each hydrocarbon type are reported. The catalyst used for the ATR process was three-layers of supported nickel catalysts, Norton NC-100 spheres in the top zone, cylindrical G-56B tablets in the bottom one, and either ICI 46-I or ICI 46-4 Raschig rings in the middle zone. A summary of the experimental studies of the ATR of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene is presented. (BLM)

  16. 76 FR 47520 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... to be jammed. During the post-flight inspection, it was discovered that the LH elevator lower stop... continued.airworthiness@atr.fr ; Internet http://www.aerochain.com . You may review copies of the referenced... amend this proposed AD based on those comments. We will post all comments we receive, without change,...

  17. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational

  18. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  19. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  20. ATR spectra on boundary with mixture containing organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelokov, R. V.; Yatsishen, V. V.

    2005-02-01

    The problem of not destroying diagnostics and dosing of radiation at laser therapy is one of important in medicine. Therefore the purpose of our work is development of method ATR for diagnostics and researches in biomedicine. In this work as objects of consideration were: a mixture of nicotine with water, a mixture of an ascorbic acid with water and surface lesions of an eye cornea by a herpes virus. Results of our consideration are the ATR spectra defined at different concentration of organic substances and virions.

  1. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    a Readiness Assessment in November 2009. The HSIS is a key component of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and is available to a wide variety of university researchers for nuclear fuels and materials experiments as well as medical isotope research and production.

  2. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  3. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  4. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  5. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  6. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  7. Integrate knowledge acquisition with target recognition through closed-loop ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ssu-Hsin; McLaughlin, Pat; Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Hsiao, Kai-yuh; Boskovic, Jovan

    2015-05-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm performance is highly dependent on the sensing conditions under which the input data is collected. Open-loop fly-bys often produce poor results due to less than ideal measurement conditions. In addition, ATR algorithms must be extremely complicated to handle the diverse range of inputs with a resulting reduction in overall performance and increase in complexity. Our approach, closed-loop ATR (CL-ATR), focuses on improving the quality of information input to the ATR algorithms by optimizing motion, sensor settings and team (vehicle-vehicle-human) collaboration to dramatically improve classification accuracy. By managing the data collection guided by predicted ATR performance gain, we increase the information content of the data and thus dramatically improve ATR performance with existing ATR algorithms. CL-ATR has two major functions; first, an ATR utility function, which represents the performance sensitivity of ATR produced classification labels as a function of parameters that correlate to vehicle/sensor states. This utility function is developed off-line and is often available from the original ATR study as a confusion matrix, or it can be derived through simulation without direct access to the inner working of the ATR algorithm. The utility function is inserted into our CLATR framework to autonomously control the vehicle/sensor. Second, an on-board planner maps the utility function into vehicle position and sensor collection plans. Because we only require the utility function on-board, we can activate any ATR algorithm onto a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform no matter how complex. This pairing of ATR performance profiles with vehicle/sensor controls creates a unique and powerful active perception behavior.

  8. AGR-2 Final Data Qualification Report for U.S. Capsules - ATR Cycles 147A Through 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data in four U.S. capsules from all 15 Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, 149A, 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Thus, this report covers data qualification status for the entire AGR-2 irradiation and will replace four previously issued AGR-2 data qualification reports (e.g., INL/EXT-11-22798, INL/EXT-12-26184, INL/EXT-13-29701, and INL/EXT-13-30750). During AGR-2 irradiation, two cycles, 152A and 153A, occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power, so AGR-2 irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. Also, two cycles, 150A and 153B, are Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycles when the ATR power is higher than during normal cycles. During the first PALM cycle, 150A, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the ATR water canal and during the second PALM cycle, 153B, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the I-24 location to avoid being overheated. During the “Outage” cycle, 153A, seven flow meters were installed downstream from seven Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) monitors to measure flows from the monitors and these data are included in the NDMAS database.

  9. Fundamental SAR ATR performance predictions for design trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Larry L.; Brendel, Gary F.

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses work toward a fundamental, algorithm- independent view of the ATR performance that can be achieved using SAR data. Such ATR performance predictions are intended to enable evaluation of performance tradeoffs for SAR designs, including both parameter selections and added domains of SAR observation, such as 3D, full polarimetry, multiaspect and/or multifrequency. In the paper we evaluate the classification error for two tactical targets using a Monte Carlo technique. A number of approximations are made and are detailed in the paper. Data on target signatures come from pencil-beam laser data and target photographs, which determine shadowing of the ground clutter. A single aspect angle is used for each target in the initial results. A layer of radar netting is modeled on both targets. This information is used as 'ground truth', to compute the average power that would be seen in each pixel of a SAR image, for each target. SAR image trials are then generated using independent Rayleigh amplitude fades in each pixel. In an optimal Bayesian fashion, the smaller of the probabilities of target (T1) or T2 given the trial image data is the error probability for that trial. An average over the Monte Carlo image trials yields the overall classification error probability. Comments are given on reducing the number of required trials in such a Monte Carlo. THree results of the work are shown. First, a tradeoff is made of ATR performance versus SAR resolution. ATR improves as the resolution is made finer, and physical reasons for this are discussed. Second, the relative ATR utility is determined for those pixels where at least one target has scatterer as compared with those pixels where the targets differ only in the degree to which they shadow the ground clutter. Third, an early analytical result is given for interferometric SAR, showing the physical reason behind the potential of height-sensing SAR to improve ATR - the possibility of canceling the background

  10. The SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) Ligase PIAS3 Primes ATR for Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Zou, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the concerted action of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways. The PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) ligases has been implicated in DNA repair, but whether it plays a role in DNA damage signaling is still unclear. Here, we show that the PIAS3 SUMO ligase is important for activation of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)-regulated DNA damage signaling pathway. PIAS3 is the only member of the PIAS family that is indispensable for ATR activation. In response to different types of DNA damage and replication stress, PIAS3 plays multiple roles in ATR activation. In cells treated with camptothecin (CPT), PIAS3 contributes to formation of DNA double-stranded breaks. In UV (ultraviolet light)- or HU (hydroxyurea)-treated cells, PIAS3 is required for efficient ATR autophosphorylation, one of the earliest events during ATR activation. Although PIAS3 is dispensable for ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) SUMOylation and the ATR-ATRIP interaction, it is required for maintaining the basal kinase activity of ATR prior to DNA damage. In the absence of PIAS3, ATR fails to display normal kinase activity after DNA damage, which accompanies with reduced phosphorylation of ATR substrates. Together, these results suggest that PIAS3 primes ATR for checkpoint activation by sustaining its basal kinase activity, revealing a new function of the PIAS family in DNA damage signaling. PMID:26565033

  11. Analyzing the ATR-mediated checkpoint using Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lupardus, Patrick J.; Van, Christopher; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of cell cycle events such as DNA replication and mitosis has been advanced significantly through the use of Xenopus egg extracts as a model system. More recently, Xenopus extracts have been used to investigate the cellular mechanisms that ensure accurate and complete duplication of the genome, processes otherwise known as the DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Here we describe several Xenopus extract methods that have advanced the study of the ATR-mediated checkpoints. These include a protocol for the preparation of nucleoplasmic extract (NPE), which is a soluble extract system useful for studying nuclear events such as DNA replication and checkpoints. In addition, we describe several key assays for studying checkpoint activation as well as methods for using small DNA structures to activate ATR. PMID:17189864

  12. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  13. Recent ATR and fusion algorithm improvements for multiband sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    An improved automatic target recognition processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, normalization, detection, data regularization, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by the 3 distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new high-resolution three-frequency band sonar imagery. The ATR processing strings were individually tuned to the corresponding three-frequency band data, making use of the new processing improvement, data regularization; this improvement entails computing the input data mean, clipping the data to a multiple of its mean and scaling it, prior to feature extraction and resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two significant fusion algorithm improvements were made. First, a nonlinear exponential Box-Cox expansion (consisting of raising data to a to-be-determined power) feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Box-Cox feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block was utilized. It was shown that cascaded Box-Cox feature LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Box-Cox feature LLRT algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  14. Polynomial chaos theory for performance evaluation of ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Michael D.; Bateman, Alec J.

    2010-04-01

    The development of a more unified theory of automatic target recognition (ATR) has received considerable attention over the last several years from individual researchers, working groups, and workshops. One of the major benefits expected to accrue from such a theory is an ability to analytically derive performance metrics that accurately predict real-world behavior. Numerous sources of uncertainty affect the actual performance of an ATR system, so direct calculation has been limited in practice to a few special cases because of the practical difficulties of manipulating arbitrary probability distributions over high dimensional spaces. This paper introduces an alternative approach for evaluating ATR performance based on a generalization of NorbertWiener's polynomial chaos theory. Through this theory, random quantities are expressed not in terms of joint distribution functions but as convergent orthogonal series over a shared random basis. This form can be used to represent any finite-variance distribution and can greatly simplify the propagation of uncertainties through complex systems and algorithms. The paper presents an overview of the relevant theory and, as an example application, a discussion of how it can be applied to model the distribution of position errors from target tracking algorithms.

  15. Simulator of IRST system with ATR embedded functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, B.; Fossati, E.; Barani, G.; Santini, N.; Ondini, A.; Colombi, G.; Quaranta, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a soft-real time simulator for IRST (InfraRed Search and Track) systems with ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) embedded functions to test airborne applications performance. The IR camera model includes detector, optics, available Field-of-Regard, etc., and it is integrated with the motion platform local stabilization system to consider all factors impacting IR images. The atmosphere contributions are taken into account by means of a link to ModTran computer program. Sensor simulation allows derivation and assessment of IR Figures of Merit (NEI, NETD, SNR...). IR signatures of targets derive both from data collected in specific trial campaigns and from laboratory built models. The simulation of the scan procedure takes into account different policies (ground points paths or defined angular volume) and different platform motion strategies (continuous or step steering scan). The scan process includes Kalman technique to face unexpected variations of aircraft motion. Track and ATR processors are simulated and run consistently on the output of the sensor model. The simulator functions are developed in MatLab and SIMULINK and then exported in C code to be integrated in soft real-time environment. The use of this simulator supports the definition and design of the IRST systems especially for the evaluation of the most demanding operative requirements. An application of this simulator is for the NEURON UCAV (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) technological demonstrator, which accommodates on board both IRST and ATR tasks.

  16. Clamping the Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinase into action.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2007-05-15

    The yeast checkpoint protein kinase Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the essential upstream regulator of the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and to stalling of DNA replication forks. The activity of Mec1/ATR is not directly regulated by the DNA substrates that signal checkpoint activation. Rather the signal appears to be transduced to Mec1 by factors that interact with the signaling DNA substrates. One of these factors, the DNA damage checkpoint clamp Rad17-Mec3-Ddc1 (human 9-1-1) is loaded onto gapped DNA resulting from the partial repair of DNA damage, and the Ddc1 subunit of this complex activates Mec1. In vertebrate cells, the TopBP1 protein (Cut5 in S. pombe and Dpb11 in S. cervisiae) that is also required for establishment of the replication fork, functions during replication fork dysfunction to activate ATR. Both mechanisms of activation generally upregulate the kinase activity towards all downstream targets. PMID:17495536

  17. Analysis of a Partial MOX Core Design with Tritium Targets for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.

    1998-04-19

    This report constitutes tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the task To study the effects of using WG MOX fuel in tritium-producing LWR” of the subproject Water Reactor Options for Disposition of Plutonium. The principal investigators of this subproject are Naeem M. Abdurrahman of the University of Texas at Austin and Marvin L. Adams of Texas A&M University. This work was sponsored by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium.

  18. Problem set guidelines to facilitate ATR research, development, and performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerkamp, Lori A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Meredith, Donna; Morrison, S. A.; Mossing, John C.; Avent, Randy K.; Bergman, Annette; Bruckheim, Arthur; Castanon, David A.; Corbett, Francis J.; Hugo, Douglas; Hummel, Robert A.; Irvine, John M.; Merle, Bruce; Otto, Louis; Reynolds, Robert; Sadowski, Charles; Schachter, Bruce J.; Simonson, Katherine M.; Smit, Gene; Walters, Clarence P.

    2002-07-01

    In November of 2000, the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology Sensor Systems (DUSD (S&T/SS)) chartered the ATR Working Group (ATRWG) to develop guidelines for sanctioned Problem Sets. Such Problem Sets are intended for development and test of ATR algorithms and contain comprehensive documentation of the data in them. A problem set provides a consistent basis to examine ATR performance and growth. Problem Sets will, in general, serve multiple purposes. First, they will enable informed decisions by government agencies sponsoring ATR development and transition. Problem Sets standardize the testing and evaluation process, resulting in consistent assessment of ATR performance. Second, they will measure and guide ATR development progress within this standardized framework. Finally, they quantify the state of the art for the community. Problem Sets provide clearly defined operating condition coverage. This encourages ATR developers to consider these critical challenges and allows evaluators to assess over them. Thus the widely distributed development and self-test portions, along with a disciplined methodology documented within the Problem Set, permit ATR developers to address critical issues and describe their accomplishments, while the sequestered portion permits government assessment of state-of-the-art and of transition readiness. This paper discusses the elements of an ATR problem set as a package of data and information that presents a standardized ATR challenge relevant to one or more scenarios. The package includes training and test data containing targets and clutter, truth information, required experiments, and a standardized analytical methodology to assess performance.

  19. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  20. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  1. Method for fast start of a fuel processor

    DOEpatents

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    2008-01-29

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  2. Single-stranded DNA orchestrates an ATM-to-ATR switch at DNA breaks.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Bunsyo; Zou, Lee

    2009-03-13

    ATM and ATR are two master checkpoint kinases activated by double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). ATM is critical for the initial response and the subsequent ATR activation. Here we show that ATR activation is coupled with loss of ATM activation, an unexpected ATM-to-ATR switch during the biphasic DSB response. ATM is activated by DSBs with blunt ends or short single-stranded overhangs (SSOs). Surprisingly, the activation of ATM in the presence of SSOs, like that of ATR, relies on single- and double-stranded DNA junctions. In a length-dependent manner, SSOs attenuate ATM activation and potentiate ATR activation through a swap of DNA-damage sensors. Progressive resection of DSBs directly promotes the ATM-to-ATR switch in vitro. In cells, the ATM-to-ATR switch is driven by both ATM and the nucleases participating in DSB resection. Thus, single-stranded DNA orchestrates ATM and ATR to function in an orderly and reciprocal manner in two distinct phases of DSB response.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Ogden

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  4. Drosophila ATR in double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Jaklevic, Burnley; Su, Tin Tin; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The ability of a cell to sense and respond to DNA damage is essential for genome stability. An important aspect of the response is arrest of the cell cycle, presumably to allow time for repair. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATR are essential for such cell-cycle control, but some observations suggest that they also play a direct role in DNA repair. The Drosophila ortholog of ATR, MEI-41, mediates the DNA damage-dependent G2-M checkpoint. We examined the role of MEI-41 in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by P-element excision. We found that mei-41 mutants are defective in completing the later steps of homologous recombination repair, but have no defects in end-joining repair. We hypothesized that these repair defects are the result of loss of checkpoint control. To test this, we genetically reduced mitotic cyclin levels and also examined repair in grp (DmChk1) and lok (DmChk2) mutants. Our results suggest that a significant component of the repair defects is due to loss of MEI-41-dependent cell cycle regulation. However, this does not account for all of the defects we observed. We propose a novel role for MEI-41 in DSB repair, independent of the Chk1/Chk2-mediated checkpoint response.

  5. Open source tools for ATR development and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, James M.; Dilsavor, Ronald L.; Stubbles, James; Mossing, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Early in almost every engineering project, a decision must be made about tools; should I buy off-the-shelf tools or should I develop my own. Either choice can involve significant cost and risk. Off-the-shelf tools may be readily available, but they can be expensive to purchase and to maintain licenses, and may not be flexible enough to satisfy all project requirements. On the other hand, developing new tools permits great flexibility, but it can be time- (and budget-) consuming, and the end product still may not work as intended. Open source software has the advantages of both approaches without many of the pitfalls. This paper examines the concept of open source software, including its history, unique culture, and informal yet closely followed conventions. These characteristics influence the quality and quantity of software available, and ultimately its suitability for serious ATR development work. We give an example where Python, an open source scripting language, and OpenEV, a viewing and analysis tool for geospatial data, have been incorporated into ATR performance evaluation projects. While this case highlights the successful use of open source tools, we also offer important insight into risks associated with this approach.

  6. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part I--Fundamentals and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. Several examples of the use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in different undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses are presented here. These…

  7. ATR CONTRIBUTES TO CELL CYCLE ARREST AND SURVIVAL AFTER CISPLATIN BUT NOT OXALIPLATIN1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kriste A.; Lilly, Kia K.; Reynolds, Evelyn A.; Sullivan, William P.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Cliby, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the treatment of human cancer. Lesions produced by these agents are widely known to activate the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. Less is known about the role of the intra-S phase checkpoint in the response to these agents. In the present study, two different cell lines expressing a dominant negative kinase-dead (kd) version of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related) kinase in an inducible fashion were examined for their responses to these two platinating agents and a variety of other DNA cross-linking drugs. Expression of the kdATR allele markedly sensitized the cells to cisplatin, but not oxaliplatin, as assessed by inhibition of colony formation, induction of apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis. Similar differences in survival were noted for melphalan (ATR-dependent) and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (ATR-independent). Further experiments demonstrated that ATR function is not necessary for removal of Pt-DNA adducts. The predominant difference between the responses to the two platinum drugs was presence of a drug-specific ATR-dependent S phase arrest after cisplatin but not oxaliplatin. These results indicate that involvement of ATR in the response to DNA cross-linking agents is lesion specific. This observation might need to be taken into account in the development and use of ATR or Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:19372558

  8. Partial duplications of the ATRX gene cause the ATR-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Bernard; de Ravel, Thomy; Van Esch, Hilde; Van Schoubroeck, Dominique; Moerman, Philippe; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy; Lacoste, Caroline; Badens, Catherine; Devriendt, Koen

    2007-10-01

    ATR-X syndrome is a rare syndromic X-linked mental retardation disorder. We report that some of the patients suspected of ATR-X carry large intragenic duplications in the ATRX gene, leading to an absence of ATRX mRNA and of the protein. These findings underscore the need for including quantitative analyses to mutation analysis of the ATRX gene.

  9. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.209 Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS)...

  10. 78 FR 58967 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... 21 62 21; fax +33 (0) 5 62 21 67 18; email continued.airworthiness@atr.fr ; Internet http://www... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will...)5 62 21 69 41; email: techdesk@atr.fr . ] (1) If the inspection was done on or after the...

  11. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  12. Deep convolutional neural networks for ATR from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Deep architectures for classification and representation learning have recently attracted significant attention within academia and industry, with many impressive results across a diverse collection of problem sets. In this work we consider the specific application of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the MSTAR public release data set. The classification performance achieved using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on this data set was found to be competitive with existing methods considered to be state-of-the-art. Unlike most existing algorithms, this approach can learn discriminative feature sets directly from training data instead of requiring pre-specification or pre-selection by a human designer. We show how this property can be exploited to efficiently adapt an existing classifier to recognise a previously unseen target and discuss potential practical applications.

  13. Modern approaches in deep learning for SAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmanski, Michael; Kreucher, Chris; Lauer, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recent breakthroughs in computational capabilities and optimization algorithms have enabled a new class of signal processing approaches based on deep neural networks (DNNs). These algorithms have been extremely successful in the classification of natural images, audio, and text data. In particular, a special type of DNNs, called convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have recently shown superior performance for object recognition in image processing applications. This paper discusses modern training approaches adopted from the image processing literature and shows how those approaches enable significantly improved performance for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR). In particular, we show how a set of novel enhancements to the learning algorithm, based on new stochastic gradient descent approaches, generate significant classification improvement over previously published results on a standard dataset called MSTAR.

  14. End-to end performance of the TESAR ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton S.

    2000-08-01

    The TESAR [Tactical Endurance Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)] system uses four algorithms in its three-stage algorithmic approach to the detection and identification of targets in continuous real-time, 1-ft-resolution, strip SAR image data. The first stage employs a multitarget detector with a built-in natural/cultural false-alarm mitigator. The second stage provides target hypotheses for the candidate targets and refines their angular pose. The third stage, consisting of two template-based algorithms, produces final target-identification decisions. This paper reviews the end- to-end ATR performance achieved by the TESAR system in preparation for a 1998 field demonstration at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD. The discussion includes an overview of the algorithm suite, the system's unique capabilities, and its overall performance against eight ground targets.

  15. Wurfelspiel-based training data methods for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-09-01

    A data object is constructed from a P by M Wurfelspiel matrix W by choosing an entry from each column to construct a sequence A0A1"AM-1. Each of the PM possibilities are designed to correspond to the same category according to some chosen measure. This matrix could encode many types of data. (1) Musical fragments, all of which evoke sadness; each column entry is a 4 beat sequence with a chosen A0A1A2 thus 16 beats long (W is P by 3). (2) Paintings, all of which evoke happiness; each column entry is a layer and a given A0A1A2 is a painting constructed using these layers (W is P by 3). (3) abstract feature vectors corresponding to action potentials evoked from a biological cell's exposure to a toxin. The action potential is divided into four relevant regions and each column entry represents the feature vector of a region. A given A0A1A2 is then an abstraction of the excitable cell's output (W is P by 4). (4) abstract feature vectors corresponding to an object such as a face or vehicle. The object is divided into four categories each assigned an abstract feature vector with the resulting concatenation an abstract representation of the object (W is P by 4). All of the examples above correspond to one particular measure (sad music, happy paintings, an introduced toxin, an object to recognize)and hence, when a Wurfelspiel matrix is constructed, relevant training information for recognition is encoded that can be used in many algorithms. The focus of this paper is on the application of these ideas to automatic target recognition (ATR). In addition, we discuss a larger biologically based model of temporal cortex polymodal sensor fusion which can use the feature vectors extracted from the ATR Wurfelspiel data.

  16. AGR-3/4 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham

    2014-02-01

    This data report provides the qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-3/4 (AGR-3/4) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Of these cycles, ATR Cycle 152A is a low power cycle that occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power. The irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculation, but the qualification status of these cycle data is still covered in this report. On the other hand, during ATR Cycles 153A (unplanned Outage cycle) and 153B (Power Axial Locator Mechanism [PALM] cycle), the AGR-3/4 was pulled out from the ATR core and stored in the canal to avoid being overheated. Therefore, qualification of the AGR-3/4 irradiation data from these 2 cycles was excluded in this report. By the end of ATR Cycle 154B, AGR-3/4 was irradiated for a total of 264.1 effective full power days. The AGR-3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR-3/4 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  17. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  18. Identification of ATR-Chk1 pathway inhibitors that selectively target p53-deficient cells without directly suppressing ATR catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, Masaoki; Bradner, James E.; Tolliday, Nicola; Thibodeau, Renee; Sloan, Heather; Brummond, Kay M.; Nghiem, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy is a barrier to effective treatment that appears to be augmented by p53 functional deficiency in many cancers. In p53-deficient cells where the G1/S checkpoint is compromised, cell viability after DNA damage relies upon intact intra-S and G2/M checkpoints mediated by the ATR and Chk1 kinases. Thus, a logical rationale to sensitize p53-deficient cancers to DNA-damaging chemotherapy is through the use of ATP-competitive inhibitors of ATR or Chk1. To discover small molecules that may act on uncharacterized components of the ATR pathway, we performed a phenotype-based screen of 9,195 compounds for their ability to inhibit hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of Ser345 on Chk1, known to be a critical ATR substrate. This effort led to the identification of four small-molecule compounds, three of which were derived from known bioactive library (anthothecol, dihydrocelastryl, and erysolin) and one of which was a novel synthetic compound termed MARPIN. These compounds all inhibited ATR-selective phosphorylation and sensitized p53-deficient cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents in vitro and in vivo. Notably, these compounds did not inhibit ATR catalytic activity in vitro, unlike typical ATP-competitive inhibitors, but acted in a mechanistically distinct manner to disable ATR-Chk1 function. Our results highlight a set of novel molecular probes to further elucidate druggable mechanisms to improve cancer therapeutic responses produced by DNA-damaging drugs. PMID:25336189

  19. Cancer-Specific Synthetic Lethality between ATR and CHK1 Kinase Activities.

    PubMed

    Sanjiv, Kumar; Hagenkort, Anna; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Koolmeister, Tobias; Reaper, Philip M; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Jacques, Sylvain A; Kuiper, Raoul V; Schultz, Niklas; Scobie, Martin; Charlton, Peter A; Pollard, John R; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Altun, Mikael; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-12

    ATR and CHK1 maintain cancer cell survival under replication stress and inhibitors of both kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. As ATR activity is increased after CHK1 inhibition, we hypothesized that this may indicate an increased reliance on ATR for survival. Indeed, we observe that replication stress induced by the CHK1 inhibitor AZD7762 results in replication catastrophe and apoptosis, when combined with the ATR inhibitor VE-821 specifically in cancer cells. Combined treatment with ATR and CHK1 inhibitors leads to replication fork arrest, ssDNA accumulation, replication collapse, and synergistic cell death in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CDK reversed replication stress and synthetic lethality, demonstrating that regulation of origin firing by ATR and CHK1 explains the synthetic lethality. In conclusion, this study exemplifies cancer-specific synthetic lethality between two proteins in the same pathway and raises the prospect of combining ATR and CHK1 inhibitors as promising cancer therapy. PMID:26748709

  20. Fabrication Control Plan for ORNL RH-LOCA ATF Test Specimens to be Irradiated in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin G. Field; Richard Howard; Michael Teague

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this fabrication plan is (1) to summarize the design of a set of rodlets that will be fabricated and then irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and (2) provide requirements for fabrication and acceptance criteria for inspections of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) – Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) rodlet components. The functional and operational (F&OR) requirements for the ATF program are identified in the ATF Test Plan. The scope of this document only covers fabrication and inspections of rodlet components detailed in drawings 604496 and 604497. It does not cover the assembly of these items to form a completed test irradiation assembly or the inspection of the final assembly, which will be included in a separate INL final test assembly specification/inspection document. The controls support the requirements that the test irradiations must be performed safely and that subsequent examinations must provide valid results.

  1. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  2. Differential roles of ATR and ATM in p53, Chk1, and histone H2AX phosphorylation in response to hyperoxia: ATR-dependent ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amit; Das, Kumuda C

    2008-05-01

    Elevated level of oxygen (hyperoxia) is widely used in critical care units and in respiratory insufficiencies. In addition, hyperoxia has been implicated in many diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although hyperoxia is known to cause DNA base modifications and strand breaks, the DNA damage response has not been adequately investigated. We have investigated the effect of hyperoxia on DNA damage signaling and show that hyperoxia is a unique stress that activates the ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM)- and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR)-dependent p53 phosphorylations (Ser6, -15, -37, and -392), phosphorylation of histone H2AX (Ser139), and phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). In addition, we show that phosphorylation of p53 (Ser6) and histone H2AX (Ser139) depend on both ATM and ATR. We demonstrate that ATR activation precedes ATM activation in hyperoxia. Finally, we show that ATR is required for ATM activation in hyperoxia. Taken together, we report that ATR is the major DNA damage signal transducer in hyperoxia that activates ATM.

  3. Correlations between physical properties, formulations, and ATR FTIR spectra of polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughran, Joel A.; Bhat, Sanmitra A.; de Haseth, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyurethane foams of varying surfactant, tin catalyst, and amine catalyst levels were prepared to find formulations that made `good' foams. A good foam is characterized by rise and density. Attenuated Total Reflectance spectra of the foams were collected after the foams were allowed to cure for 24 hours. Because the infrared spectrum shows morphology as well as structure, the ATR spectrum can be used to measure physical properties that are dependent on structure and morphology. The ATR FT-IR spectra were baseline corrected and then normalized by the area in the C-H stretch region to correct for differences in contact area with the ATR crystal. Samples were then taken from the cured foam parallel to the direction of rise to measure tensile strength and air permeability. Correlations were then made between the ATR spectra and the physical properties. Partial least squares (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) were used to do the correlations.

  4. Transfer of polarized 3He ions in the AtR beam transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    In addition to collisions of electrons with various unpolarized ion species as well as polarized protons, the proposed electron-hadron collider (eRHIC) will facilitate the collisions of electrons with polarized {sup 3}He ions. The AGS is the last acceleration stage, before injection into one of the RHIC's collider ring for final acceleration. The AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line will be utilized to transport the polarized {sup 3}He ions from AGS into one of the RHIC's collider rings. Some of the peculiarities of the AtR line's layout (simultaneous horizontal and vertical bends) may degrade the matching of the stable spin direction of the AtR line with that of RHIC's. In this paper we discuss possible simple modifications of the AtR line to accomplish a perfect matching of the stable spin direction of the injected {sup 3}He beam with the stable spin direction at the injection point of RHIC.

  5. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  6. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  7. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Michael A. Lehto; Noel R. Duckwitz

    2012-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors [HPRR]) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.

  8. Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange monitored by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poe, Brent; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the extent of isotopic exchange is a common means for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients in any type of medium (gas, liquid, amorphous solid, crystalline solid). For rapidly diffusing species such as hydrogen in condensed phases, real time methods involving vibrational spectroscopy can be used by taking advantage of the large relative mass difference between 1H and 2H, resulting in large differences in the band positions of their vibrational modes. We demonstrate rapid isotopic exchange between D2O liquid and H2O vapor using ATR (attenuated total reflectance) in a FTIR spectrometer. Over the course of a few minutes several spectra were acquired of a D2O droplet mounted on a diamond crystal. The progressive exchange reaction between the liquid phase and H2O from the atmosphere was monitored by measuring the decreasing absorbance of the D-O-D bending and O-D stretching bands and the increasing absorbance of the D-O-H and H-O-H bending and O-H stretching bands as functions of time. Our results offer some intriguing insights into the structural characteristics of water as inferred by this exchange process.

  9. Rapid discrimination of maggots utilising ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Claire L; Hands, James R; Fullwood, Leanne M; Smith, Judith A; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Entomological evidence is used in forensic investigations to indicate time since death. The species and age of maggots or flies that are present at the scene can be used when estimating how much time has passed since death. Current methods that are used to identify species and developmental stage of larvae and fly samples are highly subjective, costly and often time consuming processes and require the expertise of an entomologist or species identification via DNA analysis. The use of vibrational spectroscopy, as an alternative identification method, would allow for a quicker, cheaper and less subjective technique and would allow entomological evidence to be used more commonly in the forensic process. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as a rapid tool for differentiating between various species of larvae, such as those commonly found at crime scenes. The proposed regime would provide a rapid and valuable tool resulting in reduced time for both species identification and life cycle determination, particularly in forensic situations.

  10. Experimental active control of sound in the ATR 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paonessa, A.; Sollo, A.; Paxton, M.; Purver, M.; Ross, C. F.

    Passenger comfort is becoming day by day an important issue for the market of the regional turboprop aircraft and also for the future high speed propeller driven aircraft. In these aircraft the main contribution to the passenger annoyance is due to the propeller noise blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics. In the recent past a detailed theoretical and experimental work has been done by Alenia Aeronautica in order to reduce the noise level in the ATR aircraft passenger cabin by means of conventional passive treatments: synchrophasing of propellers, dynamic vibration absorbers, structural reinforcements, damping materials. The application of these treatments has been introduced on production aircraft with a remarkable improvement of noise comfort but with a significant weight increase. For these reasons, a major technology step is required for reaching passenger comfort comparable to that of jet aircraft with the minimum weight increase. The most suitable approach to this problem has been envisaged in the active noise control which consists in generating an anti-sound field in the passenger cabin to reduce the noise at propeller BPF and its harmonics. The attenuation is reached by means of a control system which acquires information about the cabin noise distribution and the propeller speed during flight and simultaneously generates the signals to drive the speakers.

  11. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  12. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Keith A. Daum

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  13. Cancer-Specific Synthetic Lethality between ATR and CHK1 Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sanjiv, Kumar; Hagenkort, Anna; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Koolmeister, Tobias; Reaper, Philip M.; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Jacques, Sylvain A.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Schultz, Niklas; Scobie, Martin; Charlton, Peter A.; Pollard, John R.; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Altun, Mikael; Helleday, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary ATR and CHK1 maintain cancer cell survival under replication stress and inhibitors of both kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. As ATR activity is increased after CHK1 inhibition, we hypothesized that this may indicate an increased reliance on ATR for survival. Indeed, we observe that replication stress induced by the CHK1 inhibitor AZD7762 results in replication catastrophe and apoptosis, when combined with the ATR inhibitor VE-821 specifically in cancer cells. Combined treatment with ATR and CHK1 inhibitors leads to replication fork arrest, ssDNA accumulation, replication collapse, and synergistic cell death in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CDK reversed replication stress and synthetic lethality, demonstrating that regulation of origin firing by ATR and CHK1 explains the synthetic lethality. In conclusion, this study exemplifies cancer-specific synthetic lethality between two proteins in the same pathway and raises the prospect of combining ATR and CHK1 inhibitors as promising cancer therapy. PMID:26748709

  14. Achilles Tendon Reflex (ATR) in response to short exposures of microgravity and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, M.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that latency and amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) are reduced after exposure to microgravity for 28 days. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure the latency of ATR during brief (20 sec) exposure to microgravity in KC-135 parabolic flights. Methods: The ATR was elicited in ten men during parabolic flight with the ankle held neutrally, planarflexed, and dorsiflexed. During flight, the ATR was elicited during the zero G and 1.8 G phases. Postflight testing was performed flying back to the airfield. Latencies to onset of the ATR were calculated and analyses of variance were performed to determine the effect of gravity and ankle position on latency. Result: The mean latencies for zero-G, 1.8-G and postflight with the ankle in the neutral position were 32.7 plus or minus 0.5 ms, and 33.1 plus or minus 0.7 ms respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a trend toward prolongation of latencies postflight. The mean latency for those who were motion sick was 32.1 plus or minus 0.1 ms compared to 34.0 plus or minus 0.3 ms for those who were not sick. Conclusions: These studies indicate that neither the level of gravity nor ankle position significantly affected the latency of the ATR.

  15. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  16. EVALUATION OF CORE PHYSICS ANALYSIS METHODS FOR CONVERSION OF THE INL ADVANCED TEST REACTOR TO LOW-ENRICHMENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mark DeHart; Gray S. Chang

    2012-04-01

    Computational neutronics studies to support the possible conversion of the ATR to LEU are underway. Simultaneously, INL is engaged in a physics methods upgrade project to put into place modern computational neutronics tools for future support of ATR fuel cycle and experiment analysis. A number of experimental measurements have been performed in the ATRC in support of the methods upgrade project, and are being used to validate the new core physics methods. The current computational neutronics work is focused on performance of scoping calculations for the ATR core loaded with a candidate LEU fuel design. This will serve as independent confirmation of analyses that have been performed previously, and will evaluate some of the new computational methods for analysis of a candidate LEU fuel for ATR.

  17. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  18. Drop-in capsule testing of plutonium-based fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Terry, W.K.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Palmer, A.J.; Roesener, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    The most attractive way to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is to use it as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PuO[sub 2]) mixed with urania (UO[sub 2]). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. The proposed weapons-grade MOX fuel is unusual, even relative to ongoing foreign experience with reactor-grade MOX power reactor fuel. Some demonstration of the in- reactor thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release behavior of the prototype fuel will most likely be required in a limited number of test reactor irradiations. The application to license operation with MOX fuel must be amply supported by experimental data. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is capable of playing a key role in the irradiation, development, and licensing of these new fuel types. The ATR is a 250- MW (thermal) LWR designed to study the effects of intense radiation on reactor fuels and materials. For 25 years, the primary role of the ATR has been to serve in experimental investigations for the development of advanced nuclear fuels. Both large- and small-volume test positions in the ATR could be used for MOX fuel irradiation. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. Furthermore, these data can be obtained more quickly by using ATR instead of testing in a commercial LWR. Our previous work in this area has demonstrated that it is technically feasible to perform MOX fuel testing in the ATR. This report documents our analyses of sealed drop-in capsules containing plutonium-based test specimens placed in various ATR positions.

  19. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  20. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  1. Development of an LS-DYNA Model of an ATR42-300 Aircraft for Crash Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an LS-DYNA simulation of a vertical drop test of an ATR42-300 twin-turboprop high-wing commuter-class airplane. A 30-ft/s drop test of this aircraft was performed onto a concrete impact surface at the FAA Technical Center on July 30, 2003. The purpose of the test was to evaluate the structural response of a commuter-class aircraft when subjected to a severe, but survivable, impact. The aircraft was configured with crew and passenger seats, anthropomorphic test dummies, forward and aft luggage, instrumentation, and onboard data acquisition systems. The wings were filled with approximately 8,700 lb. of water to represent the fuel and the aircraft weighed a total of 33,200 lb. The model, which consisted of 57,643 nodes and 62,979 elements, was developed from direct measurements of the airframe geometry, over a period of approximately 8 months. The seats, dummies, luggage, fuel, and other ballast were represented using concentrated masses. Comparisons were made of the structural deformation and failure behavior of the airframe, as well as selected acceleration time history responses.

  2. Drosophila ATM and ATR have distinct activities in the regulation of meiotic DNA damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Eric F.; Pedersen, Michael; Tiong, Stanley; White-Brown, Sanese K.; Paul, Anshu; Campbell, Shelagh D.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia–related (ATR) kinases are conserved regulators of cellular responses to double strand breaks (DSBs). During meiosis, however, the functions of these kinases in DSB repair and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage checkpoint are unclear. In this paper, we show that ATM and ATR have unique roles in the repair of meiotic DSBs in Drosophila melanogaster. ATR mutant analysis indicated that it is required for checkpoint activity, whereas ATM may not be. Both kinases phosphorylate H2AV (γ-H2AV), and, using this as a reporter for ATM/ATR activity, we found that the DSB repair response is surprisingly dynamic at the site of DNA damage. γ-H2AV is continuously exchanged, requiring new phosphorylation at the break site until repair is completed. However, most surprising is that the number of γ-H2AV foci is dramatically increased in the absence of ATM, but not ATR, suggesting that the number of DSBs is increased. Thus, we conclude that ATM is primarily required for the meiotic DSB repair response, which includes functions in DNA damage repair and negative feedback control over the level of programmed DSBs during meiosis. PMID:22024169

  3. HORMAD2 is essential for synapsis surveillance during meiotic prophase via the recruitment of ATR activity.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Inagaki, Hidehito; Ohye, Tamae; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Hiroki

    2012-11-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation requires homologous pairing, synapsis and crossover recombination during meiotic prophase. The checkpoint kinase ATR has been proposed to be involved in the quality surveillance of these processes, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In our present study, we generated mice lacking HORMAD2, a protein that localizes to unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes. We show that this Hormad2 deficiency hampers the proper recruitment of ATR activity to unsynapsed chromosomes. Male Hormad2-deficient mice are infertile due to spermatocyte loss as a result of characteristic impairment of sex body formation; an ATR- and γH2AX-enriched repressive chromatin domain is formed, but is partially dissociated from the elongated sex chromosome axes. In contrast to males, Hormad2-deficient females are fertile. However, our analysis of Hormad2/Spo11 double-mutant females shows that the oocyte number is negatively correlated with the frequency of pseudo-sex body formation in a Hormad2 gene dosage-dependent manner. This result suggests that the elimination of Spo11-deficient asynaptic oocytes is associated with the HORMAD2-dependent pseudo-sex body formation that is likely initiated by local concentration of ATR activity in the absence of double-strand breaks. Our results thus show a HORMAD2-dependent quality control mechanism that recognizes unsynapsis and recruits ATR activity during mammalian meiosis. PMID:23039116

  4. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  5. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-10-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  6. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  7. IN-CORE FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois VIllard

    2014-12-01

    As part of an Idaho State University (ISU)–led Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) collaborative project that includes Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), flux detector evaluations were completed to compare their accuracy, response time, and longduration performance. Special fixturing, developed by INL, allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) core positions to perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector crosscalibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program included miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), and specially developed commercial SPNDs. Results from this program provide important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and yield new flux data required for benchmarking models in the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Modeling Update Project.

  8. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the 50-year-old obsolescent marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety related emergency diesel generators, switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The second project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps (PCPs) and motors. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus [E-3] and switchgear and replacement of the existent emergency firewater injection system) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The proposed strategy for equipping the replacement PCPs with VFDs

  9. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  10. ATR and transmission analysis of pigments by means of far infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kendix, Elsebeth L; Prati, Silvia; Joseph, Edith; Sciutto, Giorgia; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    In the field of FTIR spectroscopy, the far infrared (FIR) spectral region has been so far less investigated than the mid-infrared (MIR), even though it presents great advantages in the characterization of those inorganic compounds, which are inactive in the MIR, such as some art pigments, corrosion products, etc. Furthermore, FIR spectroscopy is complementary to Raman spectroscopy if the fluorescence effects caused by the latter analytical technique are considered. In this paper, ATR in the FIR region is proposed as an alternative method to transmission for the analyses of pigments. This methodology was selected in order to reduce the sample amount needed for analysis, which is a must when examining cultural heritage materials. A selection of pigments have been analyzed in both ATR and transmission mode, and the resulting spectra were compared with each other. To better perform this comparison, an evaluation of the possible effect induced by the thermal treatment needed for the preparation of the polyethylene pellets on the transmission spectra of the samples has been carried out. Therefore, pigments have been analyzed in ATR mode before and after heating them at the same temperature employed for the polyethylene pellet preparation. The results showed that while the heating treatment causes only small changes in the intensity of some bands, the ATR spectra were characterized by differences in both intensity and band shifts towards lower frequencies if compared with those recorded in transmission mode. All pigments' transmission and ATR spectra are presented and discussed, and the ATR method was validated on a real case study.

  11. Increased Rrm2 gene dosage reduces fragile site breakage and prolongs survival of ATR mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Specks, Julia; Barlow, Jacqueline H.; Ambrogio, Chiara; Desler, Claus; Vikingsson, Svante; Rodrigo-Perez, Sara; Green, Henrik; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Murga, Matilde; Nussenzweig, André

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, absence of the checkpoint kinase Mec1 (ATR) is viable upon mutations that increase the activity of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex. Whether this pathway is conserved in mammals remains unknown. Here we show that cells from mice carrying extra alleles of the RNR regulatory subunit RRM2 (Rrm2TG) present supraphysiological RNR activity and reduced chromosomal breakage at fragile sites. Moreover, increased Rrm2 gene dosage significantly extends the life span of ATR mutant mice. Our study reveals the first genetic condition in mammals that reduces fragile site expression and alleviates the severity of a progeroid disease by increasing RNR activity. PMID:25838540

  12. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  13. Effects of atrazine (ATR), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a single dose of the herbicide ATR stimulated the HPA axis in the male rat while equimolar doses of its primary metabolite, DACT, had a minimal effect. In this study, we evaluated the effects of one or four daily doses of ATR, DACT, and an intermediat...

  14. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  15. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE (ATR), DEISOPROPYLATRAZINE (DIA), AND DIAMINOCHLOROTRIAZINE (DACT) ON THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that a single dose of ATR herbicide stimulated HPA axis activation in the male rat while its primary metabolite, DACT, did so to a lesser extent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ATR, DACT, and an intermediate metabolite, DIA, on adrenocorticotrop...

  16. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  17. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  18. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  19. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  20. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  1. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  2. U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Songlin; Sun, Changyue; Zou, Chongwei; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin

    2015-10-15

    An implantable U-shaped fiber ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface was presented for continuous glucose monitoring to overcome the drawbacks of traditional glucose sensing technique based on enzyme electrodes. A U-shaped structure was addressed to increase effective optical length at limited implantable space to enhance the sensitivity of fiber ATR sensor. A novel method to fabricate silver nanoparticles on cylindrical surface of U-shaped fiber ATR sensor based on chemical reduction of its silver halide material directly without any preliminary nanoparticles synthesis and following covalent bond or self-assembly was proposed. Five glucose absorption wavelengths in the mid-infrared band were employed for specific glucose monitoring. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the silver-nanoparticle-enhanced U-shaped fiber-optic ATR sensor are approximately three times those of a conventional one. The high sensitivity and low-noise performance makes it promising for in vivo glucose monitoring in the future clinical applications.

  3. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  4. Nanocrystalline diamond sensor targeted for selective CRP detection: an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Per Ola; Viberg, Pernilla; Forsberg, Pontus; Nikolajeff, Fredrik; Österlund, Lars; Karlsson, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    Protein immobilization on functionalized fluorine-terminated nanocrystalline (NCD) films was studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using an immobilization protocol developed to specifically bind C-reactive protein (CRP). Using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method employing a force-controlled anvil-type configuration, three critical steps of the ex situ CRP immobilization were analyzed. First, the NCD surface was passivated by deposition of a copolymer layer consisting of polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide. Second, a synthetic modified polypeptide binder with high affinity to CRP was covalently attached to the polymeric film. Third, CRP dissolved in aqueous buffer in concentrations of 10-20 μg/mL was added on the functionalized NCD surface. Both the amide I and II bands, due to the polypeptide binder and CRP, were clearly observed in ATR-FTIR spectra. CRP amide I bands were extracted from difference spectra and yielded bands that agreed well with the reported amide I band of free (non-bonded) CRP in solution. Thus, our results show that CRP retains its secondary structure when it is attached to the polypeptide binders. Compared to previous IR studies of CRP in solution, about 200 times lower concentration was applied in the present study. Graphical Abstract Direct non-destructive ATR-FTIR analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively bound to functionalized nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) sensor surface.

  5. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines and continuous-mining machines with integral roof bolters operated in a working section. The requirements of this paragraph shall be met according to the following schedule: (1) All new machines ordered after March...

  6. ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of PALB2 promotes RAD51 function.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, Johanna K; Larsen, Brian D; Achanta, Kavya; Sørensen, Claus S

    2016-05-01

    DNA damage activates the ATM and ATR kinases that coordinate checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. An essential step in homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA breaks is the formation of RAD51 nucleofilaments mediated by PALB2-BRCA2; however, roles of ATM and ATR in this critical step of HDR are poorly understood. Here, we show that PALB2 is markedly phosphorylated in response to genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea. This response is mediated by the ATM and ATR kinases through three N-terminal S/Q-sites in PALB2, the consensus target sites for ATM and ATR Importantly, a phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant is unable to support proper RAD51 foci formation, a key PALB2 regulated repair event, whereas a phospho-mimicking PALB2 version supports RAD51 foci formation. Moreover, phospho-deficient PALB2 is less potent in HDR than wild-type PALB2. Further, this mutation reveals a separation in PALB2 function, as the PALB2-dependent checkpoint response is normal in cells expressing the phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant. Collectively, our findings highlight a critical importance of PALB2 phosphorylation as a novel regulatory step in genome maintenance after genotoxic stress. PMID:27113759

  7. ATR-Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy for determination of trans fatty acids in ground cereal products without oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was investigated as a method for analysis of trans fatty acids (FA) in cereal products without oil extraction. Spectra were obtained with an ATR-FTIR spectrometer using ground samples pressed onto the diamond ATR surface and trans FA measured by a modification of AOAC Method 9...

  8. Acute Transfusion Reactions (ATRs) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU): A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Manvi; Gupta, Varun; Kaur, Amarjit; Gupta, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is a frequent and integral part of critical care. Although life saving, it can occasionally be unsafe and result in a spectrum of adverse events. Acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) are probably under diagnosed in critically ill patients due to confusion of the symptoms with the underlying disease. Aim: To analyze the incidence and spectrum of ATRs occuring in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review conducted from 1st April 2011 till 31st March 2013. The ATRs related to the administration of blood components in the patients admitted in various Intensive Care Units (ICUs) were recorded, analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Results: During the study period 98651 blood components were issued. Out of these 21971 were issued to various ICUs. A total of 225 transfusion reactions were reported from the various critical care departments during this period. The most frequent were Febrile Non Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions (FNHTR) 136 (60.4%), allergic reactions 70 (31.2%), hemolytic reactions 1(0.4%) and non specific reactions 18 (8%). The incidence of ATRs in our study was found to be 1.09% in adult ICUs and 0.36% in pediatric ICUs. Conclusions: Blood transfusion is a vital therapeutic procedure with a potential risk to already critical patients. So a strict vigilance has to be kept and each transfusion has to be monitored carefully with prompt recognition and treatment of ATRs. A rational use of these products considering their deleterious effects can decrease transfusion related morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patients. PMID:24701502

  9. ATR and MKP1 play distinct roles in response to UV-B stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    González Besteiro, Marina A; Ulm, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress activates MAP kinases (MAPKs) MPK3 and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. MAPK activity must be tightly controlled in order to ensure an appropriate cellular outcome. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) effectively control MAPKs by dephosphorylation of phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine in their activation loops. Arabidopsis MKP1 is an important regulator of MPK3 and MPK6, and mkp1 knockout mutants are hypersensitive to UV-B stress, which is associated with reduced inactivation of MPK3 and MPK6. Here, we demonstrate that MPK3 and MPK6 are hyperactivated in response to UV-B in plants that are deficient in photorepair, suggesting that UV-damaged DNA is a trigger of MAPK signaling. This is not due to a block in replication, as, in contrast to atr, the mkp1 mutant is not hypersensitive to the replication-inhibiting drug hydroxyurea, hydroxyurea does not activate MPK3 and MPK6, and atr is not impaired in MPK3 and MPK6 activation in response to UV-B. We further show that mkp1 leaves and roots are UV-B hypersensitive, whereas atr is mainly affected at the root level. Tolerance to UV-B stress has been previously associated with stem cell removal and CYCB1;1 accumulation. Although UV-B-induced stem cell death and CYCB1;1 expression are not altered in mkp1 roots, CYCB1;1 expression is reduced in mkp1 leaves. We conclude that the MKP1 and ATR pathways operate in parallel, with primary roles for ATR in roots and MKP1 in leaves.

  10. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  11. Cold start simulations of a gasoline based fuel processor for mobile fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, S.; Bohnet, M.; Docter, A.; Lamm, A.; Eigenberger, G.

    The cold start behaviour of the gas processing unit is one crucial issue for the use of gasoline based fuel reformers for mobile fuel cell systems. In this contribution different cold start strategies for a mobile fuel reformer based on gasoline are presented and discussed. The simulation studies are based on 1-d, dynamic multiphase models for both an autothermal gasoline reformer (ATR) and a thermally integrated reforming unit consisting of an ATR, a heat exchanger and a high-temperature-shift-reactor (HTS). Setup and geometric parameters for both models correspond to pilot stage systems considered by DaimlerChrysler. Results on the reactive heat-up of the ATR by partial and total oxidation of gasoline show the impact of the air/fuel-ratio and the thermal load on the cold start duration. The use of the reformat during the rapid start-up of the ATR is mainly limited by the availability of steam for autothermal operation. Due to the high thermal capacities of the system, the whole reforming unit requires much longer time for the cold start. Especially the slow convective heat-up of the HTS restricts the conversion of CO and the subsequent use of the reformat in the fuel cell. Several options for the acceleration of the cold start were investigated. Both a simple λ-control strategy and the reactive heat-up of the HTS by (partial) oxidation of the reformat with injected air reduce the cold start time significantly. With these measures a hydrogen-rich reformat with acceptable CO-concentration is available within two minutes. Moreover, the cold start time can be further reduced, if the HTS is heated up electrically to their ignition temperature at the beginning of the cold start. Thereby the CO-conversion in the HTS already starts in the first minute and, depending on the availability of steam for the feed stream, a cold start of the reforming unit below one minute seems to be possible.

  12. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

  13. The ABC transporter ATR1 is necessary for efflux of the toxin cercosporin in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Daub, Margaret E

    2009-02-01

    The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter gene and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4368bp with one intron. CnCFP encodes a MFS transporter with homology to Cercospora kikuchii CFP, previously implicated in cercosporin export, and has an ORF of 1975bp with three introns. Disruption of ATR1 indicated atr1-null mutants had dramatic reductions in cercosporin production (25% and 20% of WT levels) in solid and liquid cultures, respectively. The ATR1 disruptants also showed moderately higher sensitivity to cercosporin. Constitutive expression of ATR1 in the crg1 mutant restored cercosporin biosynthesis and moderately increased resistance. In contrast, CnCFP overexpression in the mutant did not restore toxin production, however, it moderately enhanced toxin resistance. The results together indicate ATR1 acts as a cercosporin efflux pump in this fungus and plays a partial role in resistance.

  14. Preliminary Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

    2005-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density, high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. The ATR has large irradiation test volumes located in high flux areas. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth with a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. As a result, the ATR is a representative candidate for assessing the necessary modifications and evaluating the subsequent operating effects associated with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed for the fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU 235U enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the LEU uranium density and 235U enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent Keff between the HEU core and a LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the 235U loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in Keff between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized for operation at 150 EFPD with a total core power of 115 MW. The Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN-2 (MCWO) method was used to calculate Keff versus EFPDs. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU case demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the LEU core conversion designer should be able to optimize the 235U content of each fuel plate, so that the Keff and relative radial fission heat flux profile are similar to the reference ATR HEU case. However, to demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) safety requirements, a further study will be required in order to investigate the detailed radial, axial, and azimuthal heat flux profile variations versus EFPDs.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  16. Anisotropy in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films as Observed Using Polarized FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J. D.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Crandall, R. S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Reedy, R.; Matson, R. J.

    1999-05-14

    We used polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements together with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-SiH{sub x}) films 0.5-1.0 microns in thickness. We deposited the films using hot-wire or plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods (HWCVD or PECVD, respectively) on crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride substrates. Our ATR technique gave a spectral range from 2100-400 cm{sup -1}, although the Si-H wagging mode absorption band at 640 cm{sup -1} was somewhat distorted in the a-SiHx/Si samples by impurity and lattice absorption in the silicon ATR substrates. We report the identification of a Si-O-C impurity band with maximum intensity at 1240-1230 cm{sup -1}. The assignment of this band to a Si-O-C vibration is supported by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Our polarized FTIR-ATR spectra of HWCVD and PECVD a-SiH{sub x} films on <111> Si ATR substrates show that the impurity dipoles ar e oriented strongly parallel to the film growth direction. The wagging mode absorbance band is more intense in the film plane. This trend is less pronounced for the Si-H stretching vibrations. These observations are consistent with some degree of anisotropy or medium-range order in the films. The anisotropy in the Si-H bands may be related to residual stress in the films. Our scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the samples offer additional evidence of bulk structural anisotropy in the a-SiH{sub x}/Si films. However, the Si-O-C impurity band was not observed in the polarized ATR-FTIR spectra of the a-SiH{sub x}/CdTe samples, thus indicating that the Si substrates influence formation of the impurity in the a-SiH{sub x}/Si films.

  17. Anisotropy in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films as observed using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.D.; Gedvilas, L.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Mahan, A.H.; Reedy, R.; Matson, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    The authors used polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements together with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-SiH{sub x}) films 0.5--1.0 microns in thickness. They deposited the films using hot-wire or plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods (HWCVD or PECVD, respectively) on crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride substrates. The ATR technique gave a spectral range from 2,100--400 cm{sup {minus}1}, although the Si-H wagging mode absorption band at 640 cm{sup {minus}1} was somewhat distorted in the a-SiH{sub x}/Si samples by impurity and lattice absorption in the silicon ATR substrates. They report the identification of a Si-O-C impurity band with maximum intensity at 1,240--1,230 cm{sup {minus}1}. The assignment of this band to a Si-O-C vibration is supported by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. The polarized FTIR-ATR spectra of HWCVD and PECVD a-SiH{sub x} films on <111> Si ATR substrates show that the impurity dipoles are oriented strongly parallel to the film growth direction. The wagging mode absorbance band is more intense in the film plane. This trend is less pronounced for the Si-H stretching vibrations. These observations are consistent with some degree of anisotropy or medium-range order in the films. The anisotropy in the Si-H bands may be related to residual stress in the films. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the samples offer additional evidence of bulk structural anisotropy in the a-SiH{sub x}/Si films. However, the Si-O-C impurity band was not observed in the polarized ATR-FTIR spectra of the a-SiH{sub x}/CdTe samples, thus indicating that the Si substrates influence formation of the impurity in the a-SiH{sub x}/Si films.

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. A feasibility and optimization study to determine cooling time and burnup of advanced test reactor fuels using a nondestructive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jorge

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available nondestructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burnup and cooling time of the fuel elements on-site at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal, the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements nondestructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed were used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results, it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however, in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator, a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method

  20. A feasibility and optimization study to determine cooling time and burnup of advanced test reactor fuels using a nondestructive technique

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available non-destructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burn-up and cooling time of the fuel elements onsite at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads3 to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements non-destructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed was used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method

  1. Modeling a 5 kWe planar solid oxide fuel cell based system operating on JP-8 fuel and a comparison with tubular cell based system for auxiliary and mobile power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanim, Tanvir; Bayless, David J.; Trembly, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    A steady state planar solid oxide fuel cell (P-SOFC) based system operating on desulfurized JP-8 fuel was modeled using Aspen Plus simulation software for auxiliary and mobile power applications. An onboard autothermal reformer (ATR) employed to reform the desulfurized JP-8 fuel was coupled with the P-SOFC stack to provide for H2 and CO as fuel, minimizing the cost and complexity associated with hydrogen storage. Characterization of the ATR reformer was conducted by varying the steam to carbon ratio (H2O/C) from 0.1 to 1.0 at different ATR operating temperatures (700-800 °C) while maintaining the P-SOFC stack temperature at 850 °C. A fraction of the anode recycle was used as the steam and heat source for autothermal reforming of the JP-8 fuel, intending to make the system lighter and compact for mobile applications. System modeling revealed a maximum net AC efficiency of 37.1% at 700 °C and 29.2% at 800 °C ATR operating temperatures, respectively. Parametric analyses with respect to fuel utilization factor (Uf) and current density (j) were conducted to determine optimum operating conditions. Finally, the P-SOFC based system was compared with a previously published [1] tubular solid oxide fuel cell based (T-SOFC) system to identify the relative advantages over one another.

  2. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to the quantification of sugar in honey.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Campos, Maria Graça; Ruiz, Pablo Contreras; Antunes, Paulo

    2015-02-15

    A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression model for the prediction of sugar content in honey samples was calculated. Standards of trehalose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, melezitose, turanose and maltose were used to identify and quantify the individual sugar components in 63 honey samples by HPAEC-IPAD. Fructose and glucose are the highest sugars in honey with an average value of 36% and 26%, respectively. The 1stDer spectra with MSC or SLS in the wave number range from 1500 to 750cm(-1) provide the best calibration model with a r(2) of 86.60 and 86.01 with RPD of 2.6 and 2.55, respectively for fructose and glucose. For turanose and melezitose good models were also found. The FTIR-ATR showed to be a good methodology to quantify the main sugar content in honey and easily adapted to routine analysis.

  3. A novel role of the checkpoint kinase ATR in leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Elke; Wennberg Huldt, Charlotte; Strömstedt, Maria; Brodin, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In a world with increasing incidences of obesity, it becomes critical to understand the detailed regulation of appetite. To identify novel regulators of the signaling mediated by one of the key hormones of energy homeostasis, leptin, we screened a set of compounds for their effect on the downstream Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Interestingly, cells exposed to inhibitors of the Ataxia Telangiectasia and RAD3-related protein ATR increased their leptin dependent STAT3 activity. This was due to failure of the cells to induce the negative feedback mediator Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), suggesting that ATR has a previously unknown role in the negative feedback regulation of leptin signaling. This is an important finding not only because it sheds light on additional genes involved in leptin signaling, but also because it brings forward a new potential therapeutic intervention point for increasing leptin signaling in obese individuals.

  4. Phylogeny of cultivated and wild wheat species using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Pinar; Onde, Sertac; Severcan, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, an increasing amount of genetic data has been used to clarify the problems inherent in wheat taxonomy. The techniques for obtaining and analyzing these data are not only cumbersome, but also expensive and technically demanding. In the present study, we introduce infrared spectroscopy as a method for a sensitive, rapid and low cost phylogenetic analysis tool for wheat seed samples. For this purpose, 12 Triticum and Aegilops species were studied by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis clearly revealed that the lignin band (1525-1505 cm-1) discriminated the species at the genus level. However, the species were clustered according to their genome commonalities when the whole spectra were used (4000-650 cm-1). The successful differentiation of Triticum and its closely related genus Aegilops clearly demonstrated the power of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy as a suitable tool for phylogenetic research.

  5. Orientation of molecular groups of fibers in nonoriented samples determined by polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belbachir, Karima; Lecomte, Sophie; Ta, Ha-Phuong; Petibois, Cyril; Desbat, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    A method based on polarized attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is proposed for determining the infrared dichroic absorption ratio of a single fiber from a sample deposited flat on a germanium crystal without the requirement of fiber orientation. The method shows its efficiency on cellulose fibers of paper and has been applied to protein fibers (type I collagen and β-amyloid) and polysaccharide fibers (cellulose and starch). The method gives access to the dichroic ratio of strong absorptions bands, which is not easily accessible with conventional absorption techniques. Then, the orientation of the molecular groups of organic fibers can be easily determined by polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. By extension, this method will be useful to determine the molecular orientation of fibers in structured complex samples, such as biological tissues and plants. Spatially resolved information on the organization of the fiber network will be easily extracted by utilizing a focal plane array detector for imaging measurements.

  6. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  7. Discrimination of single-porin Escherichia (E.) coli mutants by ATR and transmission mode FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Raúl G; Lopes, João Almeida; Machado, Jorge; Gameiro, Paula; Feio, Maria J

    2014-06-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has long been used in bacterial identification with different levels of taxonomic discrimination but its true potential for intra-species differentiation remains poorly explored. Herein, both transmission Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy are used to analyse E. coli strains that differ solely in their porin expression profile. In this previously unreported approach, the applicability of both FTIR-spectroscopy techniques is compared with the same collection of unique strains. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy proved to reliably distinguish between several E. coli porin mutants with an accuracy not replicated by FTIR in transmission mode (using previously optimized procedures). Further studies should allow the identification of the individual contribution of the single porin channel to the overall bacterial infrared spectrum and of molecular predictive patterns of porin alterations.

  8. Optimization of a Multi-Stage ATR System for Small Target Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Lu, Thomas; Braun, Henry; Edens, Western; Zhang, Yuhan; Chao, Tien- Hsin; Assad, Christopher; Huntsberger, Terrance

    2010-01-01

    An Automated Target Recognition system (ATR) was developed to locate and target small object in images and videos. The data is preprocessed and sent to a grayscale optical correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regionsof- interest (ROIs). Next, features are extracted from ROIs based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and sent to neural network (NN) to be classified. The features are analyzed by the NN classifier indicating if each ROI contains the desired target or not. The ATR system was found useful in identifying small boats in open sea. However, due to "noisy background," such as weather conditions, background buildings, or water wakes, some false targets are mis-classified. Feedforward backpropagation and Radial Basis neural networks are optimized for generalization of representative features to reduce false-alarm rate. The neural networks are compared for their performance in classification accuracy, classifying time, and training time.

  9. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  10. [Exploration of the broken parts of a brake hose by ATR-FTIR and SEM].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Feng; Wang, Lian-Ming; Li, Bing

    2011-04-01

    ATR-FTIR and SEM were respectively utilized to analyze the chemical components and to observe the micromorphology of a broken brake hose from a traffic case, which could be a supplementary for the traditional microscopic examination. The instrumental analysis results indicated that the rubber from the brake hose had already aged; the rubber from external side had experienced brittle fracture and there were original hollows in the rubber from internal side. The breaking of the brake hose resulted from all these reasons. The experimental results also demonstrated that the fact could be reflected efficiently, accurately and objectively by the application of ATR-FTIR and SEM to the physical evidence from a case. Therefore, it could be an effective complement for traditional traffic trace examination.

  11. The life and death of ATR/sensor fusion and the hope for resurrection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Steven K.; Sadowski, Charles; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Oxley, Mark E.; Kabrisky, Matthew; Rogers, Adam; Mott, Stephen D.

    2008-04-01

    For over half a century, scientists and engineers have worked diligently to advance computational intelligence. One application of interest is how computational intelligence can bring value to our war fighters. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and sensor fusion efforts have fallen far short of the desired capabilities. In this article we review the capabilities requested by war fighters. When compared to our current capabilities, it is easy to conclude current Combat Identification (CID) as a Family of Systems (FoS) does a lousy job. The war fighter needed capable, operationalized ATR and sensor fusion systems ten years ago but it did not happen. The article reviews the war fighter needs and the current state of the art. The article then concludes by looking forward to where we are headed to provide the capabilities required.

  12. ATR, BRCA1 and gammaH2AX localize to unsynapsed chromosomes at the pachytene stage in human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cruz, R; Roig, I; Robles, P; Scherthan, H; Garcia Caldés, M

    2009-01-01

    Asynapsis of homologous chromosomes at the pachytene stage has been associated with gametogenic failure and infertility, but the cellular mechanisms involved are currently unknown in human meiocytes. In mice, the protein encoded by the breast-cancer susceptibility gene Brca1 has been described to direct kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) to any unpaired DNA at the pachytene stage, where ATR triggers H2AX phosphorylation, resulting in the silencing of those chromosomes. In this study, the distribution of ATR, BRCA1 and the phosphorylated histone gammaH2AX is assessed by immunofluorescence in human oocytes and it is found that they localize at unpaired chromosomes at the pachytene stage. Evidence is shown to propose that BRCA1, ATR and gammaH2AX in the human may be part of a system such as the one previously described in mouse, which signals unsynapsed chromosomes at pachytene and may lead to their silencing. PMID:19146767

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  14. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics: An interesting tool to discriminate and characterize counterfeit medicines.

    PubMed

    Custers, D; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2015-08-10

    Counterfeit medicines pose a huge threat to public health worldwide. High amounts of counterfeit pharmaceuticals enter the European market and therefore detection of these products is essential. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) might be useful for the screening of counterfeit medicines since it is easy to use and little sample preparation is required. Furthermore, this approach might be helpful to customs to obtain a first evaluation of suspected samples. This study proposes a combination of ATR-FTIR and chemometrics to discriminate and classify counterfeit medicines. A sample set, containing 209 samples in total, was analyzed using ATR-FTIR and the obtained spectra were used as fingerprints in the chemometric data-analysis which included Principal Component Analysis (PCA), k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). First it was verified whether the mentioned techniques are capable to distinguish samples containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). PCA showed a clear tendency of discrimination based on the API present; k-NN, CART and SIMCA were capable to create suitable prediction models based on the presence of different APIs. However k-NN performs the least while SIMCA performs the best. Secondly, it was tested whether these three models could be expanded to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit samples as well. k-NN was not able to make the desired discrimination and therefore it was not useful. CART performed better but also this model was less suited. SIMCA, on the other hand, resulted in a model with a 100% correct discrimination between genuine and counterfeit drugs. This study shows that chemometric analysis of ATR-FTIR fingerprints is a valuable tool to discriminate genuine from counterfeit samples and to classify counterfeit medicines.

  15. Identification and evaluation of a potent novel ATR inhibitor, NU6027, in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Peasland, A; Wang, L-Z; Rowling, E; Kyle, S; Chen, T; Hopkins, A; Cliby, W A; Sarkaria, J; Beale, G; Edmondson, R J; Curtin, N J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) has a key role in the signalling of stalled replication forks and DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. It has long been recognised as an important target for cancer therapy but inhibitors have proved elusive. As NU6027, originally developed as a CDK2 inhibitor, potentiated cisplatin in a CDK2-independent manner we postulated that it may inhibit ATR. Methods: Cellular ATR kinase activity was determined by CHK1 phosphorylation in human fibroblasts with inducible dominant-negative ATR-kinase dead expression and human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Cell cycle effects and chemo- and radiopotentiation by NU6027 were determined in MCF7 cells and the role of mismatch repair and p53 was determined in isogenically matched ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Results: NU6027 is a potent inhibitor of cellular ATR activity (IC50=6.7 μ) and enhanced hydroxyurea and cisplatin cytotoxicity in an ATR-dependent manner. NU6027 attenuated G2/M arrest following DNA damage, inhibited RAD51 focus formation and increased the cytotoxicity of the major classes of DNA-damaging anticancer cytotoxic therapy but not the antimitotic, paclitaxel. In A2780 cells sensitisation to cisplatin was greatest in cells with functional p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) and sensitisation to temozolomide was greatest in p53 mutant cells with functional MMR. Importantly, NU6027 was synthetically lethal when DNA single-strand break repair is impaired either through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition or defects in XRCC1. Conclusion: NU6027 inhibits ATR, impairing G2/M arrest and homologous recombination thus increasing sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and PARP inhibitors. It provides proof of concept data for clinical development of ATR inhibitors. PMID:21730979

  16. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT.

  17. Prediction of starch pasting properties in barley flour using ATR-MIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Roumeliotis, S; Eglinton, J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to predict starch pasting properties in barley flour samples. A total of 180 barley flour samples sourced from the University of Adelaide germplasm collection, harvested over three seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) were analysed using both ATR-MIR and the rapid visco analyser (RVA) techniques. Calibrations (n=100) were developed using partial least squares (PLS1) regression and full cross validation. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error in cross validation (SECV) were 0.74 (SECV=875 RVU) for peak viscosity (PV), 0.63 (SECV=561 RVU) for trough (THR), 0.80 (SECV=173 RVU) for breakdown (BRK), 0.74 (SECV=126 RVU) for setback (STB), 0.77 (SECV=679 RVU) for final viscosity (FV), and 0.73 (SECV=0.57 s) for time to peak (TTP). The RPD values (SD/SEP) from the validation indicated that only BRK can be accurately predicted (RPD=4). We have demonstrated that ATR-MIR spectroscopy has the potential to significantly reduce analytical time and cost during the analysis of barley flour for starch pasting properties. PMID:23618301

  18. A subset of ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation events requires the BRCA1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Foray, Nicolas; Marot, Didier; Gabriel, Anastasia; Randrianarison, Voahangy; Carr, Antony M.; Perricaudet, Michel; Ashworth, Alan; Jeggo, Penny

    2003-01-01

    BRCA1 is a central component of the DNA damage response mechanism and defects in BRCA1 confer sensitivity to a broad range of DNA damaging agents. BRCA1 is required for homologous recombination and DNA damage-induced S and G2/M phase arrest. We show here that BRCA1 is required for ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53, c-Jun, Nbs1 and Chk2 following exposure to ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, respectively, and is also required for ATM phosphorylation of CtIP. In contrast, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX is independent of BRCA1. We also show that the presence of BRCA1 is dispensable for DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Rad9, Hus1 and Rad17, and for the relocalization of Rad9 and Hus1. We propose that BRCA1 facilitates the ability of ATM and ATR to phosphorylate downstream substrates that directly influence cell cycle checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, but that BRCA1 is dispensable for the phosphorylation of DNA-associated ATM and ATR substrates. PMID:12773400

  19. Phenotypic analysis of separation-of-function alleles of MEI-41, Drosophila ATM/ATR.

    PubMed Central

    Laurençon, Anne; Purdy, Amanda; Sekelsky, Jeff; Hawley, R Scott; Su, Tin Tin

    2003-01-01

    ATM/ATR kinases act as signal transducers in eukaryotic DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Mutations in ATM/ATR homologs have pleiotropic effects that range from sterility to increased killing by genotoxins in humans, mice, and Drosophila. Here we report the generation of a null allele of mei-41, Drosophila ATM/ATR homolog, and the use of it to document a semidominant effect on a larval mitotic checkpoint and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) sensitivity. We also tested the role of mei-41 in a recently characterized checkpoint that delays metaphase/anaphase transition after DNA damage in cellular embryos. We then compare five existing mei-41 alleles to the null with respect to known phenotypes (female sterility, cell cycle checkpoints, and MMS resistance). We find that not all phenotypes are affected equally by each allele, i.e., the functions of MEI-41 in ensuring fertility, cell cycle regulation, and resistance to genotoxins are genetically separable. We propose that MEI-41 acts not in a single rigid signal transduction pathway, but in multiple molecular contexts to carry out its many functions. Sequence analysis identified mutations, which, for most alleles, fall in the poorly characterized region outside the kinase domain; this allowed us to tentatively identify additional functional domains of MEI-41 that could be subjected to future structure-function studies of this key molecule. PMID:12807779

  20. ATR-FTIR as a thickness measurement technique for hydrated polymer-on-polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sheryl R; Ashby, Paul D; Pruitt, Lisa A

    2009-11-01

    Hydrated polymer coatings on polymer substrates are common for many biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering constructs, contact lenses, and catheters. The thickness of the coatings can affect the mechanical behavior of the systems and the cellular response, but measuring the coating thickness can be quite challenging using conventional methods. We propose a new method, that is, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to determine the relative thickness, combined with atomic force microscopy to calibrate the ATR-FTIR measurements. This technique was successfully employed to determine the hydrated thickness of a series of crosslinked tetraglyme coatings on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene substrates intended to reduce wear of acetabular cups in total hip replacements. The hydrated coatings ranged from 30 to 200 nm thick and were accurately measured despite the relatively high root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the substrates, 20-35 nm (peak-to-peak roughness 55-100 nm). The calibrated ATR-FTIR technique is a promising new method for measuring the thickness of many other polymer-on-polymer and hydrated coatings.

  1. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  2. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  3. ATR-IR Investigation of Solvent Interactions with Surface-Bound Polymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solvent interactions with bulk and surface-bound polymer brushes are crucial for functionalities such as controlled friction and thermoresponsive adhesion. To study such interactions, the temperature-induced solvent-quality changes and the effect of surface tethering on the mechanical and tribological properties of poly(dodecyl methacrylate) (P12MA) brushes have been investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM). These results have been compared with temperature-dependent UV–visible spectrophotometry (UV–vis) data for the corresponding bulk polymer solutions. The ATR-IR results clearly show that increasing temperature enhances ethanol uptake in P12MA, which results in film swelling. This is accompanied by a marked increase in both adhesion and friction. We have also shown that a combination of solvents, such as toluene and ethanol, can lead to a temperature-dependent solvent partitioning within the polymer brush. To our knowledge this is the first time preferential solvent uptake in a grafted-from brush has been monitored via in situ ATR-IR. Moreover, we have observed remarkably different behavior for polymer chains in solution compared to the behavior of similar chains bound to a surface. The presented findings on the temperature-dependent solvent interactions of surface-grafted P12MA reveal previously unknown solvation phenomena and open up a range of possible applications in the area of stimuli-responsive materials. PMID:27397856

  4. ATR-16 due to a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta S; Zelaya, Gabriela; Feliu, Aurora S; Rossetti, Liliana; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bailey, Kristen A; Bacino, Carlos A; Barreiro, Cristina Z

    2005-01-01

    We describe a child with ATR-16 [alpha-thalassemia (thal)/mental retardation], who was referred for genetic evaluation because of minor anomalies and developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome 16 subtelomeric probes, showed that this patient had a deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 16 that contains the alpha-globin genes and a duplication of 16q. Analysis of the alpha-globin locus by Southern blot showed a half normal dose of the alpha-globin gene. Microsatellite marker studies revealed that the duplicated 16q region was maternal in origin. Hematological studies revealed anemia, hypochromia and occasional cells with Hb H inclusion bodies. A hematological screening for alpha-thal should be considered in patients with mild developmental delay and a suggestive phenotype of ATR-16 with microcytic hypochromic anemia and normal iron status. The stellate pattern of the iris, a new finding in our patient, may contribute to a better clinical delineation of both syndromes, ATR-16 and/or duplication of 16qter.

  5. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  6. A Genome-wide CRISPR Screen Identifies CDC25A as a Determinant of Sensitivity to ATR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Mayor-Ruiz, Cristina; Lafarga, Vanesa; Murga, Matilde; Vega-Sendino, Maria; Ortega, Sagrario; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-04-21

    One recurring theme in drug development is to exploit synthetic lethal properties as means to preferentially damage the DNA of cancer cells. We and others have previously developed inhibitors of the ATR kinase, shown to be particularly genotoxic for cells expressing certain oncogenes. In contrast, the mechanisms of resistance to ATR inhibitors remain unexplored. We report here on a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen that identified CDC25A as a major determinant of sensitivity to ATR inhibition. CDC25A-deficient cells resist high doses of ATR inhibitors, which we show is due to their failure to prematurely enter mitosis in response to the drugs. Forcing mitotic entry with WEE1 inhibitors restores the toxicity of ATR inhibitors in CDC25A-deficient cells. With ATR inhibitors now entering the clinic, our work provides a better understanding of the mechanisms by which these compounds kill cells and reveals genetic interactions that could be used for their rational use. PMID:27067599

  7. ATR-Chk1 signaling inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to enhance cisplatin chemosensitivity in urothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Chia; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Lu, Mei-Chin; Lee, Chia-Lin; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Hsu, Wei-Yu; Dai, Yun-Hao; Chang, Fang-Rong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-12

    DNA damage responses contribute to cisplatin resistance; however, therapeutic strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance have not yet been established. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of ATR-Chk1 pathway with the potent inhibitor WYC0209 sensitizes bladder cancer cells to cisplatin. In the clinical microarray profile, high ATR expression is associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients who receive chemotherapy. We show that pharmacological and genetic suppressing of ATR sensitized cells to cisplatin. Treatment with WYC0209 or siATR increased levels of cisplatin-DNA adducts, concomitant with decreased levels of p-glycoprotein expression. Additionally, Combinations of cisplatin and WYC0209 show synergistic activity against bladder cancer. Ultimately, WYC0209 enhanced the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin and suppressed p-glycoprotein expression in bladder cancer xenografts. These results indicate that inhibiting ATR-Chk1 activation with WYC0209 suppresses p-glycoprotein expression and increases cisplatin activity in bladder cancer. Our findings collectively suggest that ATR-Chk1 is a target for improving the efficacy of cisplatin in bladder cancer. PMID:26657501

  8. Fuel plate and fusion insulator irradiation test program

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.

    1980-11-01

    As the prices of fuel fabricating, shipping, and reprocessing continue to rise at rapid rates, research people look for alternate methods to keep their reactor fuel costs within limited funds. Extending fuel element lifetimes without jeopardizing reactor safety can reduce fuel costs by up to a factor of two. But to gain this factor, some fuel plate tests must be performed to the higher burnup to verify burnup fuel plate performance. In this proposed test, fuel plates will be constructed to a maximum fuel loading which can be produced on a commercial basis, contain a maximum boron content as used in ATR to reduce initial reactor reactivity, and will be loaded with UAl/sub 2/ to obtain higher uranium content and better operating performance over UAl/sub 3/.

  9. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Binh T. Pham

    2012-06-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B), as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 3,307,500 5-minute thermocouple and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. There are no AGR-2 data for cycle 150A because the experiment was removed from the reactor. Of these data, 82.2% were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. There were 450,557 Failed temperature records due to thermocouple failures, and 138,528 Failed gas flow records due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred in the capsules after cycle 150A. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for the first three reactor cycles (cycles 149B, 150B, and 151B). This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The qualification status of these FPMS data has been set to In Process until receipt of QA-approved data generator reports. All of the above data have been processed and tested using a SAS®-based enterprise application software system, stored in a secure Structured Query Language database, and made available on the NDMAS Web portal (http://ndmas.inl.gov) for both internal and external VHTR project participants.

  10. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  11. Molecular cloning of AtRS4, a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 μM) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ΔAtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ΔAtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress. PMID:26483807

  12. Molecular cloning of AtRS4, a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 μM) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ΔAtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ΔAtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress. PMID:26483807

  13. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  14. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  15. LIGHT WATER REACTOR ACCIDENT TOLERANT FUELS IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, William Jonathan; Barrett, Kristine Eloise; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) experiments is to test novel fuel and cladding concepts designed to replace the current zirconium alloy uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The objective of this Research and Development (R&D) is to develop novel ATF concepts that will be able to withstand loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, design basis, and beyond design basis events. It was necessary to design, analyze, and fabricate drop-in capsules to meet the requirements for testing under prototypic LWR temperatures in Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Three industry led teams and one DOE team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided fuel rodlet samples for their new concepts for ATR insertion in 2015. As-built projected temperature calculations were performed on the ATF capsules using the BISON fuel performance code. BISON is an application of INL’s Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), which is a massively parallel finite element based framework used to solve systems of fully coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Both 2D and 3D models were set up to examine cladding and fuel performance.

  16. Mixed oxide fuels testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    An intense worldwide effort is now under way to find means of reducing the stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium. One of the most attractive solutions would be to use WGPu as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PUO{sub 2}) mixed with urania (UO{sub 2}). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification, (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania, (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition, (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight, (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu, (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu, (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure, (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity, (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products, (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies, and (11) Fuel performance code validation. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified.

  17. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease.

  18. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy: a chemometric approach for studying the lipid organisation of the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Laugel, C; Yagoubi, N; Baillet, A

    2005-05-01

    The barrier function of skin resides in the lipid components of the stratum corneum, particularly their spatial organisation. FTIR spectroscopy has already been used as a relevant tool to study this lipid organisation: IR vibration band shifts have been attributed to the variations in lipid organisation induced by temperature. Our study included a stratum corneum model, composed of the three main lipids: palmitic acid as an example of fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramide III as an example of ceramide. Different films with various ratios of these lipids were studied. In our analytical strategy, the interest of using a chemometric analysis of global data obtained from ATR-FTIR spectra to highlight the main interactions involved in the molecular organisation of lipids has been demonstrated. Two kinds of interaction between the three main lipids have been shown: a non polar interaction between the long hydrocarbon chains and a polar interaction as the hydrogen bonding between polar functional groups. By varying the lipid ratio, we have shown first that the relative importance of each interaction was modified, second, that the induced modification of organisation can be detected by chemometric analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra. The role of each kind of lipid in the organisation has been discussed. In conclusion, associating the ATR-FTIR with chemometric treatment is a promising tool: firstly, to understand the consequence of lipid relative compositions on the structural organisation of the stratum corneum, secondly, to show the relationship between lipid organisation and percutaneous penetration data. Indeed, this methodology will be transposed to in vivo studies with IR measurements through a probe. PMID:15854625

  19. Modelling mercury accumulation in minerogenic peat combining FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Despite its potential, infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics has been seldom used to model peat properties with environmental value, such us the concentration of potentially toxic metals. In this research, we applied attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the ability of the technique to predict mercury concentrations in late-Pleistocene/Holocene peat from a minerogenic peatland from Minas Gerais (Brazil). Mercury concentrations were analysed using a Milestone DMA-80 analyzer and attenuated total reflectance FTIR-ATR was performed using a Gladi-ATR (Pike Technologies) in the mid IR spectrum (4000-400 cm- 1). Concentrations were modelled using principal components (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of the models varied between moderate and very good (R2 0.67-0.90), with low RMSD values (0.35-1.06). A PLS model based on three latent vectors (LV1 to LV3) provided the best (R2 0.90, RMSD 0.35) results. LV1 reflected total organic matter content versus mineral matter (mainly quartz from local fluxes), LV2 was related to dust deposition from regional sources, and LV3 reflected peat organic matter decomposition. Compared to a previous investigation based on geochemical data, the spectroscopy-based PLS model performed better, but it has to be complemented with additional data (as δ13 C ratios) to reliably reproduce the changes of the factors controlling mercury accumulation over time. This, time- and cost-effective, methodology may help to develop multi-core approaches to study the within and between mire (of a similar type and area) variability in mercury accumulation, and probably also other peat properties.

  20. Defining ATR solutions using affine transformations on a union of subspaces model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Charles F.; Risko, Kelly K. D.

    2012-05-01

    The ability to recognize a target in an image is an important problem for machine vision, surveillance systems, and military weapons. There are many "solutions" to an automatic target recognition (ATR) problem proposed by practitioners. Often the definition of the problem leads to multiple solutions due to the incompleteness of the definition. Solutions are also made approximate due to resource limitations. Issues concerning "best" solution and solution performance are very open issues, since problem definitions and solutions are ill-defined. Indeed from information based physical measurement theory such as found in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) the exact solution is intractable1. Generating some clarity in defining problems on restricted sets seems an appropriate approach for improving this vagueness in ATR definitions and solutions. Given that a one to one relationship between a physical system and the MDL exists, then this uniqueness allows that a solution can be defined by its description and a norm assigned to that description. Moreover, the solution can be characterized by a set of metrics that are based on the algorithmic information of the physical measurements. The MDL, however, is not a constructive theory, but solutions can be defined by concise problem descriptions. This limits the scope of the problem and we will take this approach here. The paper will start with a definition of an ATR problem followed by our proposal of a descriptive solution using a union of subspaces model of images as described below based on Lu and Do2. This solution uses the concept of informative representations3 implicitly which we review briefly. Then we will present some metrics to be used to characterize the solution(s) which we will demonstrate by a simple example. In the discussions following the example we will suggest how this fits in the context of present and future work.

  1. Polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the membrane-embedded domains of the particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Vinchurkar, Madhuri S; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Yu, Steve S-F; Kuo, Shan-Jen; Chiu, Hui-Chi; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-10-26

    The particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol. To gain some insight into the structure-reactivity pattern of this protein, we have applied attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the secondary structure of the pMMO. The results showed that ca. 60% of the amino acid residues were structured as alpha-helices. About 80% of the peptide residues were estimated to be protected from the amide (1)H/(2)H exchange during a 21 h exposure to (2)H(2)O. In addition, a significant portion of the protein was shown to be sequestered within the bilayer membrane, protected from trypsin proteolysis. The ATR-FTIR difference spectrum between the intact and the proteolyzed pMMO-enriched membranes revealed absorption peaks only in the spectral regions characteristic for unordered and beta-structures. These observations were corroborated by amino acid sequence analysis of the pMMO subunits using the program TransMembrane topology with a Hidden Markov Model: 15 putative transmembrane alpha-helices were predicted. Finally, an attempt was also made to model the three-dimensional folding of the protein subunits from the sequence using the Protein Fold Recognition Server based on the 3D Position Specific Scoring Matrix Method. The C-terminal solvent-exposed sequence (N255-M414) of the pMMO 45 kDa subunit was shown to match the beta-sheet structure of the multidomain cupredoxins. We conclude on the basis of this ATR-FTIR study that pMMO is an alpha-helical bundle with ca. 15 transmembrane alpha-helices embedded in the bilayer membrane, together with a water-exposed domain comprised mostly of beta-sheet structures similar to the cupredoxins.

  2. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  3. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  4. Characterisation Of Polysacharides And Lipids From Selected Green Algae Species By FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chromochloris zofingiensis (Dönz) Fucíková et L.A. Lewis (SAG 211-14, Gottingen, Germany), Acutodesmus obliguus (Turpin) Hegewald (SAG 276-1, Gottingen, Germany) and Chlorella sorokiniana (K. Brandt) Pröschold et Darienko (SAG 211-40c, Gottingen, Germany). Polysaccharides and lipids from these three algae species were determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal in spectral range from 400 - 4000 cm-1 and resolution 4.

  5. Structure-Activity Relations In Enzymes: An Application Of IR-ATR Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs P.; Ahlstrom, Peter; Vincenz, Claudius; Fringeli, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Relations between structure and specific activity in immobilized acetylcholinesterase (ACNE) have been studied by means of pH- and Ca++-modulation technique combined with attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy and enzyme activity measurement. Periodic modulation of pH and Ca++-concentration enabled a periodic on-off switching of about 40% of the total enzyme activity. It was found that about 0.5 to 1% of the amino acids were involved in this process. These 15 to 30 amino acids assumed antiparallel pleated sheet structure in the inhibited state and random and/or helical structure in the activated state.

  6. Near-surface dynamics of sheared polymer melts using ATR/FTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, G.M.; Denn, M.M.; Bell, A.T. |

    1998-03-01

    Using attenuated total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), the concentration of deuterated polybutadiene near the surface of a flat zinc selenide crystal was followed as it was replaced by ordinary polybutadiene by flow and diffusion. Experiments were performed in the melt, both below (M {approximately} 1,500) and above (M {approximately} 15,000) the entanglement threshold. The decay profiles agree well with a finite-element simulation of the system. In contrast to previous investigations of C{sub 16}`s, the decay profiles of both unentangled and entangled polybutadienes are consistent with a uniform diffusivity in the near-wall region.

  7. [Analysis of FT-IR-ATR spectra of serum proteins adsorbed on carbonaceous materials].

    PubMed

    Li, Bogang; Na, Juanjuan; Yin, Jie; Yin, Guangfu

    2006-10-01

    To clarify the reason causing difference of serum proteins adsorbability on different carbonaceous materials, FT-IR-ATR spectra of human serum albumin (HSA) and human serum fibrinogen(HFG) before and after adsorbing on diamond like carbon film (DLC),diamond film (DF) and graphite were analyzed. It has been shown that there are hydrogen bond because of -NH at the interfaces of HSA-DLC, HFG-DF and HFG-graphite. Based on the results, earlier research conclusion that the adsorbability of HSA on DLC higher than that on DF and graphite, but on DF and graphite the adsorption of HFG takes precedence can be explained rationally.

  8. Registration of heavy metal ions and pesticides with ATR planar waveguide enzyme sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, Alexei; Haron, Saharudin; Ray, Asim

    2004-11-01

    The proposed novel type of enzyme optical sensors is based on a combination of SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 planar waveguide ATR (attenuated total reflection) transducer, fabricated by standard silicon planar technology, with the composite polyelectrolyte self-assembled coating containing both organic chromophores and enzyme molecules. Such devices were deployed to monitor typical industrial and agricultural water pollutants, such as heavy metal ions and pesticides, acting as inhibitors of enzyme reactions. The sensitivity of registration of these pollutants in the range of 1 ppb was achieved. The use of different enzymes in the sensitive membrane provides a background for pattern recognition of the above pollutants.

  9. Identification of herbarium whole-leaf samples of Epilobium species by ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Strgulc Krajsek, Simona; Buh, Primoz; Zega, Anamarija; Kreft, Samo

    2008-02-01

    A simple, high-accuracy FT-IR method based on attenuated total reflection (ATR) was developed for the rapid determination of leaf samples of Epilobium species. The method is superior to other analytical techniques, since there is no need of laborious sample preparation such as grinding or extraction and solvent removal. A total of 70 herbarium specimens, belonging to all 13 Epilobium and to 2 Chamerion species growing in Slovenia, were analyzed. With the 100 most-informative wavenumbers in the range 700-1800 cm(-1), we obtained over 90% accuracy of species identification, with discriminant multivariate statistical analysis on the measurements made on whole dried leaves. PMID:18293444

  10. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  11. Molecular orientation of molybdate ions adsorbed on goethite nanoparticles revealed by polarized in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davantès, Athénaïs; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2016-11-01

    The speciation of species adsorbed on nanoparticles is a major concern for several fields, as environmental pollution and remediation, surface functionalization, or catalysis. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was amongst the rare methods able to give in situ information about the geometry of surface complexes on nanoparticles. A new possibility using this technique is illustrated here with the MoO42 -/goethite system. Using deuterated goethite to avoid spectral interferences, adsorption of molybdate ions on a spontaneous oriented film of nanoparticles has been followed using a polarized infrared beam. From the decomposition of spectra in the x, y and z directions, a monodentate surface complex on the {101} faces has been found as the most probable geometry. This result demonstrates that polarized ATR-IR allows to characterize in more details adsorption mode at the atomic scale, in comparison with usual ATR-IR spectroscopy.

  12. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of regenerated bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Carolina; Kazarain, Sergei G.; Alves, Marco A. V.; Blay, Alberto; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2014-03-01

    The cutting of bone is routinely required in medical procedures, especially in dental applications. In such cases, bone regeneration and new bone quality can determine the success of the treatment. This study investigated the main spectral differences of undamaged and healed bone using the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique. Three rabbits were submitted to a surgical procedure; a small piece of bone (3x3 mm2) was removed from both sides of their jaws using a high speed drill. After 15 days, the rabbits were euthanized and the jaws were removed. A bone slice was cut from each side of the jaw containing regions of undamaged and newly formed bone, resulting in six samples which were polished for spectroscopic comparison. The samples were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy using a diamond ATR accessory. Spectral characteristics were compared and particular attention was paid to the proportion of phosphate to amide I bands and the width of the phosphate band. The results show that the ratio of phosphate to amide I is smaller in new bone tissue than in the undamaged bone, indicating a higher organic content in the newly formed bone. The analysis of the width of the phosphate band suggests a crystallinity difference between both tissues, since the width was higher in the new bone than in the natural bone. These results suggest that the differences observed in bone aging processes by FTIR spectroscopic can be applied to the study of healing processes.

  13. Evaluation of a mutation screening strategy for sporadic cases of ATR-X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villard, L.; Bonino, M.; Abidi, F.; Ragusa, A.; Belougne, J.; Lossi, A.; Seaver, L.; Bonnefont, J.; Romano, C.; Fichera, M.; Lacombe, D.; Hanauer, A.; Philip, N.; Schwartz, C.; Fontes, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a strategy for screening for XNP/ATR-X mutations in males with mental retardation and associated dysmorphology. Because nearly half of the mutations in this gene reported to date fall into a short 300 bp region of the transcript, we decided to focus in this region and to extend the mutation analysis to cases with a negative family history. This study includes 21 mentally retarded male patients selected because they had severe mental retardation and a typical facial appearance. The presence of haemoglobin H or urogenital abnormalities was not considered critical for inclusion in this study. We have identified six mutations which represents a mutation detection rate of 28%. This figure is high enough for us to propose this strategy as a valid first level of screening in a selected subset of males with mental retardation. This approach is simple, does not require RNA preparation, does not involve time consuming mutation detection methods, and can thus be applied to a large number of patients at a low cost in any given laboratory.


Keywords: mental retardation; ATR-X; mutation; zinc finger PMID:10204841

  14. ATR-FTIR measurements of albumin and fibrinogen adsorption: Inert versus calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Boix, Marcel; Eslava, Salvador; Costa Machado, Gil; Gosselin, Emmanuel; Ni, Na; Saiz, Eduardo; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Arthritis, bone fracture, bone tumors and other musculoskeletal diseases affect millions of people across the world. Nowadays, inert and bioactive ceramics are used as bone substitutes or for bone regeneration. Their bioactivity is very much dictated by the way proteins adsorb on their surface. In this work, we compared the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on inert and calcium phosphates ceramics (CaPs) using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to follow in situ protein adsorption on these materials. To this effect, we developed a sol-gel technique to control the surface chemistry of an ATR-FTIR detector. Hydroxyapatite adsorbed more albumin and β-tricalcium phosphate adsorbed more fibrinogen. Biphasic calcium phosphate presented the lowest adsorption among CaP for both proteins, illustrating the effect of surface heterogeneities. Inert ceramics adsorbed a lower amount of both proteins compared with bioactive ceramics. A significant change was observed in the conformation of the adsorbed protein versus the surface chemistry. Hydroxyapatite produced a larger loss of α-helix structure on albumin and biphasic calcium phosphate reduced β-sheet percentage on fibrinogen. Inert ceramics produced large α-helix loss on albumin and presented weak interaction with fibrinogen. Zirconia did not adsorb albumin and titanium dioxide promoted huge denaturalization of fibrinogen.

  15. The nucleolus stress response is coupled to an ATR-Chk1-mediated G2 arrest.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hanhui; Pederson, Thoru

    2013-05-01

    We report experiments on the connection between nucleolar stress and cell cycle progression, using HeLa cells engineered with the fluorescent ubiquitinylation-based cell cycle indicator. Nucleolar stress elicited by brief exposure of cells to a low concentration of actinomycin D that selectively inhibits rRNA synthesis had no effect on traverse of G1 or S, but stalled cells in very late interphase. Additional experiments revealed that a switch occurs during a specific temporal window during nucleolar stress and that the subsequent cell cycle arrest is not triggered simply by the stress-induced decline in the synthesis of rRNA or by a ribosome starvation phenomenon. Further experiments revealed that this nucleolus stress-induced cell cycle arrest involves the action of a G2 checkpoint mediated by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) pathway. Based on analysis of the cell cycle stages at which this nucleolar stress effect is put into action, to become manifest later, our results demonstrate a feedforward mechanism that leads to G2 arrest and identify ATR and Chk1 as molecular agents of the requisite checkpoint.

  16. New automated terrain and feature extraction approach for the Predator UAV TESAR ATR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes a technique recently developed for target detection and false alarm reduction for the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) tactical endurance synthetic aperture radar (TESAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) system. The approach does not attempt to label various objects in the SAR image (i.e., buildings, trees, roads); instead, it finds target-like characteristics in the image and compares their statistical/spatial relationship to larger structures in the scene. To do this, the approach merges the output of multiple CFAR (constant false alarm ratio) surfaces through a sequence of mathematical morphology tests. The output is further tested by a 'smart' clustering procedure, which performs an object- size test. With the use of these CFAR surfaces, a methodical sequence of morphological tests will find and retain large structures in the scene and eliminate cues that fall within these structures. The presence of supporting shadow downrange from the sensor is also used to eliminate objects with heights not typical to those of targets. Finally, a fast procedure performs a size test on elongated streaks. This procedure allows long objects to be smartly clustered as a single object while ensuring target proximity scenarios have no performance degradation. Application of this false alarm mitigator/detector to the Predator's SAR ATR algorithm suite produced a stunning reduction of one order of magnitude in the number of cues yielded by its baseline detector. This performance was consistent in scenes having natural and/or cultural clutter.

  17. In vivo interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrebova Eikje, Natalja

    2011-03-01

    Successful development of real-time non-invasive glucose monitoring would represent a major advancement not only in the treatment and management of patients with diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, but also for understanding in those biochemical, metabolic and (patho-)physiological processes of glucose at the molecular level in vivo. Here, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has been challenged not only for in vivo measurement of interstitial glucose levels, but also for their non-invasive molecular qualitative and quantitative comparative characterization in the skin tissue. The results, based on calculated mean values of determined 5 glucose-specific peaks in the glucose-related 1000-1160 cm-1 region, showed intra- and inter-subject differences in interstitial glucose activity levels with their changes at different times and doses of OGTT, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the introduction of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has opened up an access to the interstitial fluid space in the skin tissue for interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in vivo. Though interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring has different characteristics, it can be argued that accurate and precise measurements of interstitial glucose levels may be more important clinically.

  18. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  19. Universal method for protein immobilization on chemically functionalized germanium investigated by ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Jonas; Güldenhaupt, Jörn; Mei, Bastian; Rögner, Matthias; Muhler, Martin; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2013-03-13

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy allows a detailed analysis of surface attached molecules, including their secondary structure, orientation, and interaction with small molecules in the case of proteins. Here, we present a universal immobilization technique on germanium for all oligo-histidine-tagged proteins. For this purpose, new triethoxysilane derivates were developed: we synthesized a linker-silane with a succinimidyl ester as amine-reactive headgroup and a matrix-silane with an unreactive ethylene glycol group. A new methodology for the attachment of triethoxysilanes on germanium was established, and the surface was characterized by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the next step, the succinimidyl ester was reacted with aminonitrilotriacetic acid. Subsequently, Ni(2+) was coordinated to form Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid for His-tag binding. The capability of the functionalized surface was demonstrated by experiments using the small GTPase Ras and photosystem I (PS I). The native binding of the proteins was proven by difference spectroscopy, which probes protein function. The function of Ras as molecular switch was demonstrated by a beryllium trifluoride anion titration assay, which allows observation of the "on" and "off" switching of Ras at atomic resolution. Furthermore, the activity of immobilized PS I was proven by light-induced difference spectroscopy. Subsequent treatment with imidazole removes attached proteins, enabling repeated binding. This universal technique allows specific attachment of His-tagged proteins and a detailed study of their function at the atomic level using FTIR difference spectroscopy.

  20. Focusing, imaging, and ATR for the Gotcha 2008 wide angle SAR collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianelli, Christopher D.; Xu, Luzhou

    2013-05-01

    The following work discusses IAA's approach to tackling the wide angle, circular spotlight, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) problem from the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set, which is publicly released, with unlimited distribution. This data set comes with a MATLAB image formation routine and attendant graphical user inter- face (GUI). We begin by introducing a simple approach to focusing the collected phase history data that utilizes point targets (quadrahedral targets) present in the scene. Two SAR imaging algorithms are then presented, namely, the data-independent backprojection (BP) algorithm and the data-adaptive sparse learning via itera- tive minimization (SLIM) algorithm. These imaging approaches are compared using the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data to perform both a clutter discrimination experiment, as well as an automatic target recognition (ATR) experiment. The ATR system is composed of a target pose and target center estimation preprocessing system, and includes a novel target feature for the final classification stage. Empirical results obtained by applying the focusing approach and imaging algorithms to the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set are presented and described. The results presented highlight the benefit of applying the SLIM algorithm over its data-independent counterpart, as well as the utility of the novel target feature.

  1. Analytical characterization of polymers used in conservation and restoration by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chércoles Asensio, Ruth; San Andrés Moya, Margarita; de la Roja, José Manuel; Gómez, Marisa

    2009-12-01

    In the last few decades many new polymers have been synthesized that are now being used in cultural heritage conservation. The physical and chemical properties and the long-term behaviors of these new polymers are determined by the chemical composition of the starting materials used in their synthesis along with the nature of the substances added to facilitate their production. The practical applications of these polymers depend on their composition and form (foam, film, sheets, pressure-sensitive adhesives, heat-seal adhesives, etc.). Some materials are used in restoration works and others for the exhibition, storage and transport of works of art. In all cases, it is absolutely necessary to know their compositions. Furthermore, many different materials that are manufactured for other objectives are also used for conservation and restoration. The technical information about the materials provided by the manufacturer is usually incomplete, so it is necessary to analytically characterize such materials. FTIR spectrometry is widely used for polymer identification, and, more recently, ATR-FTIR has been shown to give excellent results. This paper reports the ATR-FTIR analysis of samples of polymeric materials used in the conservation of artworks. These samples were examined directly in the solid material without sample preparation.

  2. IKK and NF-kappaB-mediated regulation of Claspin impacts on ATR checkpoint function.

    PubMed

    Kenneth, Niall Steven; Mudie, Sharon; Rocha, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    In response to replication stress, Claspin mediates the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1 by ATR. Claspin is not only necessary for the propagation of the DNA-damage signal, but its destruction by the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway is required to allow the cell to continue the cell cycle allowing checkpoint recovery. Here, we demonstrate that both the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and their upstream kinase IKK can regulate Claspin levels by controlling its mRNA expression. Furthermore, we show that c-Rel directly controls Claspin gene transcription. Disruption of IKK and specific NF-kappaB members impairs ATR-mediated checkpoint function following DNA damage. Importantly, hyperactivation of IKK results in a failure to inactivate Chk1 and impairs the recovery from the DNA checkpoint. These results uncover a novel function for IKK and NF-kappaB modulating the DNA-damage checkpoint response, allowing the cell to integrate different signalling pathways with the DNA-damage response.

  3. ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode for the study of verdigris and its secondary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, S.; Bonacini, I.; Sciutto, G.; Genty-Vincent, A.; Cotte, M.; Eveno, M.; Menu, M.; Mazzeo, R.

    2016-01-01

    To study degradation processes occurring on painting materials, the use of high-resolution micro-analytical techniques is highly requested since it provides a detailed identification and localisation of both the original and deteriorated ingredients. Among the various pigments recently studied, the characterisation of verdigris has received a major interest. This pigment has not a unique chemical formula, but its composition depends on the recipe employed for its manufacturing. Moreover, verdigris paints are not stable and are subject to a colour change from blue-green to green, which occurs in the first few months after the application. In this paper, we focused our attention on the use of ATR-FTIR mapping as a useful method to identify verdigris secondary products and pathways. Several mock-ups and real samples have been analysed, and the correlation among the detected compounds and their spatial location, obtained by the application of ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode, allowed formulating some hypotheses on the degradation pattern of verdigris, which may feed the discussion on the transformation and stability of this pigment. From an analytical point of view, we showed how FTIR mapping approaches may be extremely useful both for the identification of compounds in complex matrix in which single spectra may limit the exhaustive characterisations due to bands overlapping and for the study of degradation pathways by taking into consideration the relative distribution of degradation products.

  4. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  5. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-07-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan.

  6. Testing of Gas Reactor Materials and Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has long been involved in testing gas reactor materials, and has developed facilities well suited for providing the right conditions and environment for gas reactor tests. This paper discusses the different types of irradiation hardware that have been utilized in past ATR irradiation tests of gas reactor materials. The new Gas Test Loop facility currently being developed for the ATR is discussed and the different approaches being considered in the design of the facility. The different options for an irradiation experiment such as active versus passive temperature control, neutron spectrum tailoring, and different types of lead experiment sweep gas monitors are also discussed. The paper is then concluded with examples of different past and present gas reactor material and fuel irradiations.

  7. TESTING OF GAS REACTOR MATERIALS AND FUEL IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.B.

    2004-10-06

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has long been involved in testing gas reactor materials, and has developed facilities well suited for providing the right conditions and environment for gas reactor tests. This paper discusses the different types of irradiation hardware that have been utilized in past ATR irradiation tests of gas reactor materials. The new Gas Test Loop facility currently being developed for the ATR is discussed and the different approaches being considered in the design of the facility. The different options for an irradiation experiment such as active versus passive temperature control, neutron spectrum tailoring, and different types of lead experiment sweep gas monitors are also discussed. The paper is then concluded with examples of different past and present gas reactor material and fuel irradiations.

  8. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  9. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to

  10. RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wachs

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report

  11. Assessment of XM-19 as a Substitute for AISI 348 in ATR Service

    SciTech Connect

    F. A. Garner; L. R. Greenwood; R. E. Mizia; C. R. Tyler

    2007-11-01

    It has been proposed that XM-19 alloy be considered as a possible replacement steel for AISI 348 in the construction of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) capsules. AISI 348 works well, but is currently very difficult to obtain commercially. The superior and desirable mechanical properties of XM-19 alloy have been proven in non-nuclear applications, but no data are available regarding its use in radiation environments. While most 300 series alloys will meet the conditions required in ATR , it cannot be confidently assumed that XM-19 can be substituted without prior qualification in a radiation test. Compared to AISI 348, XM-19 will have an enhanced tendency for phase instabilities due to its higher levels of Ni and, especially, Si. However, transmutation of important elemental components in the highly thermalized ATR spectrum may have a very pronounced effect on its performance during irradiation. Not only will strong transmutation of Mn to Fe reduce the ductility and strength advantages provided by the higher initial Mn content of XM-19, but the extensive loss of Mn will also release from solution much of the N upon which the higher strength of XM-19 depends. In addition, the combined influence of transmutation and Inverse Kirkendall processes may lead to gas-bubble-covered grain boundaries, producing a very fragile alloy after significant irradiation has accumulated. At present, there are no radiation data available to substantiate this possible scenario. An alternate proposal is therefore advanced. Since the response of AISI 348 and 347 to radiation are expected to be relatively indistinguishable, the AISI 347 might serve as an acceptable replacement. While AISI 348 is usually chosen for nuclear service in order to reduce the overall radioactivity arising from relatively small amounts of highly transmutable elements such as cobalt, these elements have very little effect on the radiation performance of the steel. In the proposed application, however, the activity

  12. Photoinduced Graft-Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on Polyethylene and Polypropylene Surfaces: Comparative Study Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, A. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Shkrabatovskaya, L. V.; Prikhodchenko, L. K.

    2014-11-01

    Photoinduced graft-polymerization of acrylic acid on the surface of polyethylene and polypropylene films containing a photoinitiator pre-adsorbed from a thin layer of non-de-aerated aqueous monomer solution was investigated. Data about the monomer conversion and grafting depth as functions of the UV irradiation time and polymer nature were obtained using IR-ATR spectroscopy.

  13. Stability of indomethacin with relevance to the release from amorphous solid dispersions studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-08-18

    This work presents the use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging to study the stability and dissolution behaviour of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). ASDs are employed to improve the bioavailability of drugs which are poorly soluble in aqueous solutions. Selecting the appropriate polymeric excipients for use in pharmaceutical tablets is crucial to control drug stability and subsequent release. In this study, indomethacin was used as a model poorly-aqueous soluble drug since the amorphous-form has improved dissolution properties over its crystalline forms. ASDs of indomethacin/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and indomethacin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in a 1:3 wt ratio were compared. Firstly, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed to monitor the stability of indomethacin in the ASDs over 96 h. While the indomethacin/HPMC ASD showed the ability to maintain the amorphous indomethacin form for longer periods of time, ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that indomethacin in the drug/PEG ASD crystallised to the stable γ-form, via the α-form. Secondly, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging was used to study the dissolution of ASD tablets in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.5). Crystallisation of amorphous indomethacin was characterised in the spectra collected during the dissolution of the indomethacin/PEG ASD which consequently hindered release into the surrounding solution. In contrast, release of amorphous indomethacin was more effective from HPMC.

  14. The ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint prevents rereplication in mammalian cells when licensing control is disrupted.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbo; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Chiba, Takuya; Olson, Erin; Sun, Peiqing; Wu, Xiaohua

    2007-11-19

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is tightly controlled by a licensing mechanism, ensuring that each origin fires once and only once per cell cycle. We demonstrate that the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR)-mediated S phase checkpoint acts as a surveillance mechanism to prevent rereplication. Thus, disruption of licensing control will not induce significant rereplication in mammalian cells when the ATR checkpoint is intact. We also demonstrate that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is the initial signal that activates the checkpoint when licensing control is compromised in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that uncontrolled DNA unwinding by minichromosome maintenance proteins upon Cdt1 overexpression is an important mechanism that leads to ssDNA accumulation and checkpoint activation. Furthermore, we show that replication protein A 2 and retinoblastoma protein are both downstream targets for ATR that are important for the inhibition of DNA rereplication. We reveal the molecular mechanisms by which the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint pathway prevents DNA rereplication and thus significantly improve our understanding of how rereplication is prevented in mammalian cells. PMID:18025301

  15. Interaction of two different types of membrane proteins with model membranes investigated by FTIR ATR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siam, M.; Reiter, G.; Schwarzott, M.; Baurecht, D.; Fringeli, U. P.

    1998-06-01

    Polarized FTIR ATR spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction of mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mi-CK) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) with model membrane assemblies. Mi-CK was immobilized by adsorption to the negatively charged cardiolipin (CL) leaflet of a supported CL/DPPA bilayer. H-D-exchange of the enzyme and the stability under flowthrough conditions of the protein/membrane assembly were examined. AP, however, was bound to a DPPA Langmuir-Blodgett layer (LBL), followed by the completion of a bilayer-like structure by adsorption of POPC molecules from a vesicular solution. It turned out that the POPC adsorbate exhibited decreased molecular order compared to the POPC molecules on a supported POPC/DPPA bilayer. Enzymatic activity of immobilized AP was determined with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) as substrate and remained unchanged for at least 2 days.

  16. Direct interaction between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines in hydrated membranes revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    By using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and curve fitting we have examined temperature dependence and composition dependence of the shape of the carbonyl band in phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol model membranes. Membranes were hydrated either in excess water or in excess deuterated water. The studied binary mixtures exhibit different lipid phases at appropriate temperature and amount of cholesterol, among them also the so-called liquid-ordered phase. The results confirm that cholesterol has a significant indirect influence on the carbonyl band through conformational and hydration effects. This influence was interpreted in view of the known temperature composition phase diagrams for inspected binary mixtures. In addition, direct interaction was observed, which could point to the presence of hydrogen bond between cholesterol and carbonyl group. This direct interaction, though weak, might play at least a partial role in the stabilization of cholesterol-rich lipid domains in model and biological membranes. PMID:17662974

  17. Mobility and surfactant migration in EA/MAA latex films; ATR FT-IR spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Thorstenson, T.A.; Tebelius, L.K.; Urban, M.W.

    1993-12-31

    Although numerous factors such as compatibility, mechanical deformation, and the nature of the substrate have been addressed with respect to surfactant migration and distribution within latex films, latex suspension stability and the effects of particle flocculation are also key issues. In this paper, surfactant behavior in an ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (EA/MAA/SDOSS) latex system is monitored as a function of stability of the liquid latex suspensions. Particle size data obtained using light scattering reveals an appreciable degree of flocculation over the period of study. It is found that flocculation is paralleled by a significantly increased degree of interfacial surfactant enrichment, a monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). It is concluded that the enhanced surfactant exudation observed for flocculated latexes is due to displacement of adsorbed surfactant during the course of flocculation.

  18. FTIR-ATR evaluation of topical skin protectants useful for sulfur mustard and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braue, Ernest H., Jr.; Litchfield, Marty R.; Bangledorf, Catherine R.; Rieder, Robert G.

    1992-03-01

    The US Army has a need to develop topical protectants that can decrease the effects of cutaneous exposure to chemical warfare (CW) agents. Such materials would enhance a soldier's ability to carry out the mission in a chemically hostile environment, would lessen the burden on medical personnel, and may allow the casualties to return to duty in a shorter period of time than might otherwise be possible. In a preliminary report (E. H. Braue, Jr. and M. G. Pannella, Applied Spectrosc., 44, 1061 (1990)), we described a unique analytical method using FT-IR spectroscopy and the horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory for evaluating the effectiveness of topical skin protectants (TSPs) against penetration by chemical agents. We now describe the application of this method to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD).

  19. ATR and a Chk1-Aurora B pathway coordinate postmitotic genome surveillance with cytokinetic abscission

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Douglas R.; Ullman, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B regulates cytokinesis timing and plays a central role in the abscission checkpoint. Cellular events monitored by this checkpoint are beginning to be elucidated, yet signaling pathways upstream of Aurora B in this context remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a new connection between postmitotic genome surveillance and cytokinetic abscission. Underreplicated DNA lesions are known to be transmitted through mitosis and protected in newly formed nuclei by recruitment of 53BP1 and other proteins until repair takes place. We find that this genome surveillance initiates before completion of cytokinesis. Elevating replication stress increases this postmitotic process and delays cytokinetic abscission by keeping the abscission checkpoint active. We further find that ATR activity in midbody-stage cells links postmitotic genome surveillance to abscission timing and that Chk1 integrates this and other signals upstream of Aurora B to regulate when the final step in the physical separation of daughter cells occurs. PMID:25904336

  20. On0Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman I. Hawari; Mohamed A. Bourham

    2010-04-22

    IVery High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (~ 1- mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4% – 10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  1. Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Pitcher, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a calibration for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR for analysis of H2O in hydrous glass. A Ge ATR accessory was used to measure evanescent wave absorption by H2O within hydrous rhyolite and other standards. Absorbance at 3450 cm−1 (representing total H2O or H2Ot) and 1630 cm−1 (molecular H2O or H2Om) showed high correlation with measured H2O in the glasses as determined by transmission FTIR spectroscopy and manometry. For rhyolite, wt%H2O=245(±9)×A3450-0.22(±0.03) and wt%H2Om=235(±11)×A1630-0.20(±0.03) where A3450 and A1630 represent the ATR absorption at the relevant infrared wavelengths. The calibration permits determination of volatiles in singly polished glass samples with spot size down to ~5 μm (for H2O-rich samples) and detection limits of ~0.1 wt% H2O. Basaltic, basaltic andesite and dacitic glasses of known H2O concentrations fall along a density-adjusted calibration, indicating that ATR is relatively insensitive to glass composition, at least for calc-alkaline glasses. The following equation allows quantification of H2O in silicate glasses that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite: wt%H2O=(ω×A3450/ρ)+b where ω = 550 ± 21, b = −0.19 ± 0.03, ρ = density, in g/cm3, and A3450 is the ATR absorbance at 3450 cm−1. The ATR micro-FTIR technique is less sensitive than transmission FTIR, but requires only a singly polished sample for quantitative results, thus minimizing time for sample preparation. Compared with specular reflectance, it is more sensitive and better suited for imaging of H2O variations in heterogeneous samples such as melt inclusions. One drawback is that the technique can damage fragile samples and we therefore recommend mounting of unknowns in epoxy prior to polishing. Our calibration should hold for any Ge ATR crystals with the same incident angle (31°). Use of a different crystal type or geometry would require measurement of several H2O-bearing standards to provide a crystal

  2. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples.

  3. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues.

  4. IR-ATR spectroscopic determination of the diffusion coefficients of carbohydrates in polymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, E.; Kellner, Robert A.

    1992-03-01

    During the past few years, the importance of membranes in chemical and biotechnological applications, such as separation processes and biosensor construction, has dramatically increased. As a consequence, membrane properties have to be characterized very thoroughly with special respect to diffusivity and selectivity. Whereas most techniques for the determination of diffusion coefficients require sophisticated and often indirect methods for the detection of the analyte diffusing through the membrane, which generally do not allow monitoring of the diffusion process continuously, we present in this work an experimentally simple and straightforward method employing FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The diffusion of glucose into a PVA membrane is chosen as a model example for the determination of carbohydrates in polymer matrices due to its special relevance in biosensor construction. The method is based on monitoring the time-dependent change in absorption due to the diffusion of the glucose into the polymer membrane. After reaching a steady-state, the normalized absorbance plot (A/A(infinity) ) versus time can be used for numerical evaluation. The diffusion coefficient is determined by comparing the experimental with simulated data using the membrane thickness (iota) and the diffusion coefficient D as simulation parameters. For this reason, the performance of a recursive and two non-recursive models for the description of the diffusion process is examined. Modifications in the second non-recursive algorithm finally resulted in very good agreement with the experimental data. This work marks the first application of IR-ATR spectroscopy for the determination of diffusion coefficients even as large as of the order of 10-6 cm2/sec.

  5. Cutaneous approach towards clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Sota, Takayuki; Aizawa, Katsuo

    2007-07-01

    Attempts were made to non-invasively detect glucose-specific spectral signals in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In vivo spectra were collected from the inner wrists of healthy, prediabetes and diabetes subjects in the 750-4000 cm -1 region, with a closer assessment of the glucose-related region between 1000 and 1180 cm -1. Spectra in vivo showed glucose-specific peaks at 1030, 1080, 1118 and 1151 cm -1, as a variety of glucose solutions are found in vitro. Based on the differences of intensities at 1030 and 1118 cm -1 two spectral patterns were seen: I 1118 > I 1030 for a diabetes and I 1030> I 1118 for non-diabetes subjects. The peak at 1030 cm -1 was used to assess glucose concentrations in the skin due to its good correlation with glucose concentrations in vitro. Calculated mean values of the peak at 1030 cm -1 showed evidence of correlation with blood glucose levels when grouped as <= 140, 140-200 and >= 200 mg/dL, though there was no constant correlation between them when compared before/after OGTT or at the fasting/postprandial states. Absorbances at 1030 cm -1 were not only increased in a dose-dependent manner in a diabetes patient, but were also generally higher than in non-diabetes subjects at 30 min OGTT assessment. Also we could monitor absorbances at 1030 cm -1 and determine their changes in the skin tissue at different times of OGTT. We assume that our approach to in vivo measurement and monitoring of glucose concentrations at 1030 cm -1 may be one of the indicators to assess glucose activity level and its changes in the skin tissue, and has further implications in the study of clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in diabetes and non-diabetes subjects by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

  6. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues. PMID:26717839

  7. Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion Feasibility Study (2006 Annual Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang; Richard G. Ambrosek; Misti A. Lillo

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth with a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of these operating parameters, and the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff between the HEU core and the LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the U-235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat profile between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized for operation at 125 EFPD with a total core power of 115 MW. The depletion methodology, Monte-Carlo coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO), was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU case demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar in shape to the reference ATR HEU case. The LEU core conversion feasibility study can also be used to optimize the U-235 content of each fuel plate, so that the relative radial fission heat flux profile is bounded by the reference ATR HEU case. The detailed radial, axial, and azimuthal heat flux profiles of the HEU and optimized LEU cases have been investigated. However, to demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can

  8. A testbed for architecture and fidelity trade studies in the Bayesian decision-level fusion of ATR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Kyle J.; Ross, Timothy D.

    2007-04-01

    Decision-level fusion is an appealing extension to automatic/assisted target recognition (ATR) as it is a low-bandwidth technique bolstered by a strong theoretical foundation that requires no modification of the source algorithms. Despite the relative simplicity of decision-level fusion, there are many options for fusion application and fusion algorithm specifications. This paper describes a tool that allows trade studies and optimizations across these many options, by feeding an actual fusion algorithm via models of the system environment. Models and fusion algorithms can be specified and then exercised many times, with accumulated results used to compute performance metrics such as probability of correct identification. Performance differences between the best of the contributing sources and the fused result constitute examples of "gain." The tool, constructed as part of the Fusion for Identifying Targets Experiment (FITE) within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Sensors Directorate ATR Thrust, finds its main use in examining the relationships among conditions affecting the target, prior information, fusion algorithm complexity, and fusion gain. ATR as an unsolved problem provides the main challenges to fusion in its high cost and relative scarcity of training data, its variability in application, the inability to produce truly random samples, and its sensitivity to context. This paper summarizes the mathematics underlying decision-level fusion in the ATR domain and describes a MATLAB-based architecture for exploring the trade space thus defined. Specific dimensions within this trade space are delineated, providing the raw material necessary to define experiments suitable for multi-look and multi-sensor ATR systems.

  9. Defining the Contribution of MC1R Physiological Ligands to ATR Phosphorylation at Ser435, a Predictor of DNA Repair in Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Stuart G; Wolf Horrell, Erin M; Boulanger, Mary C; D'Orazio, John A

    2015-12-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS-coupled receptor that signals through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), regulates pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and melanoma resistance. MC1R-cAMP signaling promotes PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) at Ser435 (ATR-pS435), a modification that enhances nucleotide excision repair (NER) by facilitating recruitment of the XPA protein to sites of UV-induced DNA damage. High-throughput methods were developed to quantify ATR-pS435, measure XPA-photodamage interactions, and assess NER function. We report that melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) or ACTH induce ATR-pS435, enhance XPA's association with UV-damaged DNA and optimize melanocytic NER. In contrast, MC1R antagonists agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) interfere with ATR-pS435 generation, impair the XPA-DNA interaction, and reduce DNA repair. Although ASIP and HBD3 each blocked α-MSH-mediated induction of the signaling pathway, only ASIP depleted basal ATR-pS435. Our findings confirm that ASIP diminishes agonist-independent MC1R basal signaling whereas HBD3 is a neutral MC1R antagonist that blocks activation by melanocortins. Furthermore, our data suggest that ATR-pS435 may be a useful biomarker for the DNA repair-deficient MC1R phenotype. PMID:26168232

  10. Defining the contribution of MC1R physiological ligands to ATR phosphorylation at Ser435, a predictor of DNA repair in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Stuart G.; Wolf Horrell, Erin M.; Boulanger, Mary C.; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a GS-coupled receptor that signals through cAMP and PKA, regulates pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and melanoma resistance. MC1R-cAMP signaling promotes PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) at Ser435 (ATR-pS435), a modification that enhances nucleotide excision repair (NER) by facilitating recruitment of the XPA protein to sites of UV-induced DNA damage. High-throughput methods were developed to quantify ATR-pS435, measure XPA-photodamage interactions and assess NER function. We report that melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce ATR-pS435, enhance XPA’s association with UV-damaged DNA and optimize melanocytic NER. In contrast, MC1R antagonists agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) interfere with ATR-pS435 generation, impair the XPA-DNA interaction and reduce DNA repair. Although ASIP and HBD3 each blocked α-MSH-mediated induction of the signaling pathway, only ASIP depleted basal ATR-pS435. Our findings confirm that ASIP diminishes agonist-independent MC1R basal signaling whereas HBD3 is a neutral MC1R antagonist that blocks activation by melanocortins. Furthermore, our data suggest that ATR-pS435 may be a useful biomarker for the DNA repair-deficient MC1R phenotype. PMID:26168232

  11. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  12. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) are directly responsible for the maintenance of genomic integrity by mounting DDR through signaling and facilitating the recruitment of repair factors at the sites of DNA damage along with coordinating the deployment of cell cycle checkpoints to permit repair by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase Chk1, Chk2 and p53. High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of protons and high energy and charged (HZE) particles from SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk for astronauts on their space flight missions. The determination of these risks and the design of potential safeguards require sound knowledge of the biological consequences of lesion induction and the capability of the cells to counter them. We here strive to determine the coordination of ATM and ATR kinases at the break sites directly affecting checkpoint signaling and DNA repair and whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation leads to possible augmentation of swap of these damage sensors at the sites of DNA damage. Exposure of cells to IR triggers rapid autophosphorylation of serine-1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates monomer formation of ATM. ATM kinase activity depends on the disruption of the dimer, which allows access and phosphorylation of downstream ATM substrates like Chk2. Evidence suggests that ATM is activated by the alterations in higher-order chromatin structure although direct binding of ATM to DSB ends may be a crucial step in its activation. On the other hand, in case of ATR, RPA (replication protein A)-coated ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) generated as a result of stalled DNA replication or during processing of chromosomal lesions is crucial for the localization of ATR to sites of DNA damage in association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP). Although the

  13. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  14. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  15. Historical perspective and modern applications of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Blum, Marc-Michael; John, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has a long history as an important spectroscopic method in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis. Instrumentation for infrared (IR) spectroscopy was revolutionized by the introduction of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. In addition, easier sampling combined with better sample-to-sample reproducibility and user-to-user spectral variation became available with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) probes and their application for in situ IR spectroscopy. These innovations allow many new applications in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis, such as the use of IR spectroscopy in Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), the quantitation of drugs in complex matrix formulations, the analysis of protein binding and function and in combination with IR microscopy to the emergence of IR imaging technologies. The use of ATR-FTIR instruments in forensics and first response to 'white powder' incidents is also discussed. A short overview is given in this perspective article with the aim to renew and intensify interest in IR spectroscopy.

  16. ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy in the region of 500-230 cm -1 for identification of inorganic red pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahur, Signe; Knuutinen, Ulla; Leito, Ivo

    2009-08-01

    It is demonstrated that micro-ATR-FT-IR in the low wave number range (500-230 cm -1) can be well used for identification of pigments in paint samples thereby markedly extending the possibilities of pigment identification by ATR-IR spectroscopy into the realm of pigments having no absorptions in the mid-IR region. Reference spectra of pigments can be conveniently obtained by mixing them with linseed oil in approximately 1:1 mass ratio. Vermilion (or cinnabar), read lead, different red iron oxide pigments and cadmium red can be identified. In some cases the method can be used alone for pigment identification and in many cases it provides useful additional evidence for pigment identification using other instrumental techniques (electron microprobe analysis, XRF, optical microscopy).

  17. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  18. MODELING ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR FRESH FUEL SHIPPING CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Rick J. Migliore

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor Fresh Fuel Shipping Container (ATR FFSC) is currently licensed per 10 CFR 71 to transport a fresh fuel element for either the Advanced Test Reactor, the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II). During the licensing process, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) raised a number of issues relating to the criticality analysis, namely (1) lack of a tolerance study on the fuel and packaging, (2) moderation conditions during normal conditions of transport (NCT), (3) treatment of minor hydrogenous packaging materials, and (4) treatment of potential fuel damage under hypothetical accident conditions (HAC). These concerns were adequately addressed by modifying the criticality analysis. A tolerance study was added for both the packaging and fuel elements, full-moderation was included in the NCT models, minor hydrogenous packaging materials were included, and fuel element damage was considered for the MURR and MITR-II fuel types.

  19. Determination of drug content in semisolid formulations by non-invasive spectroscopic methods: FTIR - ATR, - PAS, - Raman and PDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotter, B.; Faubel, W.; Heißler, St.; Hein, J.; Neubert, R. H. H.

    2010-03-01

    This study elucidates the potential use of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), FTIR photoacoustic (FTIR-PAS), FT Raman, and FTIR-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy as analytical tools for investigating the drug content in semisolid formulations. Regarding the analytical parameters, this study demonstrates the photothermal beam deflection to be definitely comparable to well established spectroscopic methods for this purpose. The correlation coefficients range from 0.990 to 0.999. Likewise, repeatability and limit of detection are comparable.

  20. On-line reaction monitoring of lithiation of halogen substituted acetanilides via in situ calorimetry, ATR spectroscopy, and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Godany, Tamas A; Neuhold, Yorck-Michael; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Lithiation of N-(4-chlorophenyl)-pivalamide (NCP) and two additional substituted acetanilides: 4-fluoroacetanilide (4-F) and 4-chloroacetanilide (4-Cl) has been monitored by means of calorimetry, on-line ATR-IR and UV/vis spectroscopy and endoscopy. The combined on-line monitoring revealed the differences between the reaction paths of the chosen substrates. Thus the product structure and the reaction times for the individual reaction steps can be determined in situ.

  1. Azide functional monolayers grafted to a germanium surface: model substrates for ATR-IR studies of interfacial click reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Koberstein, Jeffrey T

    2012-01-10

    High-quality azide-functional substrates are prepared by a low temperature reaction of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane with UV-ozone-treated germanium ATR-IR plates followed by nucleophilic substitution of the terminal bromine by addition of sodium azide. The resulting monolayer films are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), and ellipsometry. XPS and ellipsometric thickness data correspond well to the results of molecular model calculations confirming the formation of a densely packed azide-functional monolayer. These azide-functional substrates enable interfacial "click" reactions with complementary alkyne-functional molecules to be studied in situ by ATR-IR. To illustrate their potential utility for kinetic studies we show that, in the presence of copper(I) catalyst, the azide-modified surfaces react rapidly and quantitatively with 5-chloro-pentyne to form triazoles via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Time-resolved ATR-IR measurements indicate that the interfacial click reaction is initially first order in azide concentration as expected from the reaction mechanism, with a rate constant of 0.034 min(-1), and then transitions to apparent second order dependence, with a rate constant of 0.017 min(-1)/(chains/nm(2)), when the surface azide and triazole concentrations become similar, as predicted by Oyama et al. The reaction achieves an ultimate conversion of 50% consistent with the limit expected due to steric hindrance of the 5-chloro-pentyne reactant at the surface. PMID:22081885

  2. Design and development of a diesel and JP-8 logistic fuel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir; Lyubovsky, Maxim; Walsh, D.; Chu, Deryn; Kallio, Erik

    The paper describes the design and performance of a breadboard prototype for a 5 kW fuel-processor for powering a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. The system was based on a small, modular catalytic Microlith auto-thermal (ATR) reactor with the versatility of operating on diesel, Jet-A or JP-8 fuels. The reforming reactor utilized Microlith substrates and catalyst technology (patented and trademarked). These reactors have demonstrated the capability of efficiently reforming liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels at exceptionally high power densities. The performance characteristics of the auto-thermal reactor (ATR) have been presented along with durability data. The fuel processor integrates fuel preparation, steam generation, sulfur removal, pumps, blowers and controls. The system design was developed via ASPEN ® Engineering Suite process simulation software and was analyzed with reference to system balance requirements. Since the fuel processor has not been integrated with a fuel cell, aspects of thermal integration with the stack have not been specifically addressed.

  3. Rapid approach to analyze biochemical variation in rat organs by ATR FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-24

    ATR FTIR spectra were collected from rat tissue homogenates (myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney) to analyze their biochemical content. Based on the second derivative of an average spectral profile it was possible to assign bands e.g. to triglycerides and cholesterol esters, proteins, phosphate macromolecules (DNA, RNA, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins) and others (glycogen, lactate). Peaks in the region of 1600-1700 cm(-1) related to amide I mode revealed the secondary structure of proteins. The collected spectra do not characterize morphological structure of the investigated tissues but show their different composition. The comparison of spectral information gathered from FTIR spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from FTIR imaging of the tissue sections implicates that the presented here approach can be successfully employed in the investigations of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, it can be used in the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies to correlate the overall biochemical status of the tissue with the pathological changes it has undergone.

  4. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a function of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket chamber pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  5. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a fucntion of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket champer pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  6. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    PubMed Central

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-01-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment. PMID:27000994

  7. Long-Range Lipid-Water Interaction as Observed by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the structure of water at a lipid-water interface is influenced mostly in the first hydration layer. However, recent results from different experimental methods show that perturbation extends through several hydration layers. Due to its low light penetration depth, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is specifically suited to study interlamellar water structure in multibilayers. Results obtained by this technique confirm the long-range water structure disturbance. Consequently, in confined membrane environments nearly all water molecules can be perturbed. It is important to note that the behavior of confined water molecules differs significantly in samples prepared in excess water and in partially hydrated samples. We show in what manner the interlamellar water perturbation is influenced by the hydration level and how it is sequentially modified with a step-by-step dehydration of samples either by water evaporation or by osmotic pressure. Our results also indicate that besides different levels of hydration the lipid-water interaction is modulated by different lipid headgroups and different lipid phases as well. Therefore, modification of interlamellar water properties may clarify the role of water-mediated effects in biological processes. PMID:26438264

  8. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    PubMed

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-01-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment. PMID:27000994

  9. Irradiation Test Plan for the ATR National Scientific User Facility - University of Wisconsin Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heather J. MacLean; Kumar Sridharan; Timothy A. Hyde

    2008-06-01

    The performance of advanced nuclear systems critically relies on the performance of the materials used for cladding, duct, and other structural components. In many proposed advanced systems, the reactor design pushes the temperature and the total radiation dose higher than typically seen in a light water reactor. Understanding the stability of these materials under radiation is critical. There are a large number of materials or material systems that have been developed for greater high temperature or high dose performance for which little or no information on radiation response exists. The goal of this experiment is to provide initial data on the radiation response of these materials. The objective of the UW experiment is to irradiate materials of interest for advanced reactor applications at a variety of temperatures (nominally 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 700°C) and total dose accumulations (nominally 3 dpa and 6 dpa). Insertion of this irradiation test is proposed for September 2008 (ATR Cycle 143A).

  10. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic studies of boric acid adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, Derek; Luther, George W.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2003-07-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants, but high B levels in soils are often responsible for toxicity effects in plants. It is therefore important to understand reactions that may affect B availability in soils. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate mechanisms of boric acid (B(OH) 3) and borate (B(OH) 4-) adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). On the HFO surface, boric acid adsorbs via both physical adsorption (outer-sphere) and ligand exchange (inner-sphere) reactions. Both trigonal (boric acid) and tetrahedral (borate) boron are complexed on the HFO surface, and a mechanism where trigonal boric acid in solution reacts to form either trigonal or tetrahedral surface complexes is proposed based upon the spectroscopic results. The presence of outer-sphere boric acid complexes can be explained based on the Lewis acidity of the B metal center, and this complex has important implications for boron transport and availability. Outer-sphere boric acid is more likely to leach downward in soils in response to water flow. Outer-sphere boron would also be expected to be more available for plant uptake than more strongly bound boron complexes, and may more readily return to the soil solution when solution concentrations decrease.

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  12. In situ ATR-FTIR study of the early stages of fly ash geopolymer gel formation.

    PubMed

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-08-14

    The kinetics of geopolymer formation are monitored using a novel in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique. Reaction rates are determined from the intensity variation of the bands related to the geopolymer gel network and the unreacted fly ash particles. Comparison with deuterated geopolymer samples provides critical information regarding peak assignments. An initial induction (lag) period is observed to occur for hydroxide-activated geopolymers, followed by gel evolution according to an approximately linear reaction profile. The length of the lag period is reduced by increasing the concentration of NaOH. An increase in the rate of network formation also occurs with increasing NaOH concentration up to a maximum point, beyond which an increased NaOH concentration leads to a reduced rate of network formation. This trend is attributed to the competing effects of increased alkalinity and stronger ion pairing with an increase in NaOH concentration. In situ analysis also shows that the rate of fly ash dissolution is similar for all moderate- to high-alkali geopolymer slurries, which is attributed to the very highly water-deficient nature of these systems and is contrary to predictions from classical glass dissolution chemistry. This provides for the first time detailed kinetic information describing fly ash geopolymer formation kinetics.

  13. Rapid approach to analyze biochemical variation in rat organs by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewska, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    ATR FTIR spectra were collected from rat tissue homogenates (myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney) to analyze their biochemical content. Based on the second derivative of an average spectral profile it was possible to assign bands e.g. to triglycerides and cholesterol esters, proteins, phosphate macromolecules (DNA, RNA, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins) and others (glycogen, lactate). Peaks in the region of 1600-1700 cm-1 related to amide I mode revealed the secondary structure of proteins. The collected spectra do not characterize morphological structure of the investigated tissues but show their different composition. The comparison of spectral information gathered from FTIR spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from FTIR imaging of the tissue sections implicates that the presented here approach can be successfully employed in the investigations of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, it can be used in the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies to correlate the overall biochemical status of the tissue with the pathological changes it has undergone.

  14. Dissolution of tablet-in-tablet formulations studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-03-12

    This work uses ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to study the dissolution of delayed release and pH resistant compressed coating pharmaceutical tablets. Tablets with an inner core and outer shell were constructed using a custom designed compaction cell. The core of the delayed release tablets consisted of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and caffeine. The shell consisted of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose. The core of the pH resistant formulations was an ibuprofen and PEG melt and the shell was constructed from HPMC and a basic buffer. UV/vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the lag-time of drug release and visible optical video imaging was used as a complementary imaging technique with a larger field of view. Two delayed release mechanisms were established. For tablets with soluble shell sections, lag-time was dependent upon rapid shell dissolution. For tablets with less soluble shells, the lag-time was controlled by the rate of dissolution medium ingress through the shell and the subsequent expansion of the wet HPMC core. The pH resistant formulations prevented crystallization of the ibuprofen in the core during dissolution despite an acidic dissolution medium. FTIR imaging produced important information about the physical and chemical processes occurring at the interface between tablet sections during dissolution. PMID:23291036

  15. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic characterization of coexisting carbonate surface complexes on hematite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, J.R.; Kubicki, J.D.; Reitmeyer, R.; Davis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The speciation of carbonate adsorbed to hematite in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions has been studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were measured over a range of pH conditions, at 0.1 M NaCl and at low ionic strength, and in H2O and D2O solutions to permit a multispecies analysis of the data. Second-derivative analyses and fits to the spectra indicate the presence of two major and two minor surface-bound carbonate species. The two major complexes coexist at near-neutral pH and low ionic strength. One of these two complexes is relatively sensitive to ionic strength, being displaced at 0.1 M NaCl, whereas the other is not. Comparison of experimental to DFT/MO-calculated frequencies suggest these two major species to be (a) a monodentate binuclear inner-sphere carbonate surface complex, and (b) a fully or partially solvated carbonate (CO32-) species that is symmetry broken and appears to reside in the structured vicinal water layers at the hematite-water interface, retained by hydrogen bonding and/or other forces. Minor carbonate complexes include diffuse layer CO32- and an unidentified inner-sphere species. Both of the dominant species observed here are likely to be significant controls of the surface charge and sorptive properties of Fe-oxides. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. ATR-mediated phosphorylation of FANCI regulates dormant origin firing in response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Jones, Mathew J. K.; Yin, Yandong; Crist, Sarah B.; Colnaghi, Luca; Sims, Robert J.; Rothenberg, Eli; Jallepalli, Prasad V.; Huang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Excess dormant origins bound by the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase complex play a critical role in preventing replication stress, chromosome instability and tumorigenesis. In response to DNA damage, replicating cells must coordinate DNA repair and dormant origin firing to ensure complete and timely replication of the genome; how cells regulate this process remains elusive. Herein, we identify a member of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, FANCI, as a key effector of dormant origin firing in response to replication stress. Cells lacking FANCI have reduced number of origins, increased inter-origin distances and slowed proliferation rates. Intriguingly, ATR-mediated FANCI phosphorylation inhibits dormant origin firing while promoting replication fork restart/DNA repair. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show that FANCI co-localizes with MCM-bound chromatin in response to replication stress. These data reveal a unique role for FANCI as a modulator of dormant origin firing and links timely genome replication to DNA repair. PMID:25843623

  17. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  18. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine-cholesterol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2001-10-01

    Mixtures of cholesterol with dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine or deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine were investigated by polarized and non polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. From polarized spectra the dichroic ratios of various vibrations as a function of cholesterol were calculated. Dichroic ratios of methylene vibration (CH(2)) 2934 cm(-1) of cholesterol decreases with increase of cholesterol concentration leveling off in the region where cholesterol phase separation takes place. The orientation of deuterated methylene (CD(2)) symmetric and asymmetric bands of the deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is influenced little by cholesterol. In the polar region of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine no effect of cholesterol on the dichroic ratios of carbonyl (C==O) and asymmetric phosphate (PO(2)(-)) vibrations were detected. For nonpolarized spectra the broad bands in the polar region of the phospholipid were deconvoluted. The carbonyl band (C==O) in pure dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is composed of five bands; in the presence of increasing concentrations of cholesterol conformational change of these vibrations takes place evolving into one predominant band. Similar conformational change takes place in the presence of 75 molecules water/molecule DMPS. For the asymmetric phosphate band very small shifts due to interaction with cholesterol were detected.

  19. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and quantitative multivariate analysis of paints and coating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Philippa Alice; Vahur, Signe; Leito, Ivo

    2014-12-01

    The applicability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) data analysis was evaluated for quantifying the components of mixtures of paint binding media and pigments, and alkyd resins. PLS methods were created using a number of standard mixtures. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation was carried out. Binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures of several common binding media and pigments were quantified, with standard measurement uncertainties in most cases below 3 g/100 g. Classes of components - aromatic anhydrides and alcohols - used in alkyd resin synthesis were also successfully quantified, with standard uncertainties in the range of 2-3 g/100 g. This is a more demanding application because in alkyd resins aromatic anhydrides and alcohols have reacted to form a polyester, and are not present in their original forms. Once a PLS method has been calibrated, analysis time and cost are significantly reduced from typical quantitative methods such as GC/MS. This is beneficial in the case of routine analysis where the components are known.

  20. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and quantitative multivariate analysis of paints and coating materials.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philippa Alice; Vahur, Signe; Leito, Ivo

    2014-12-10

    The applicability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) data analysis was evaluated for quantifying the components of mixtures of paint binding media and pigments, and alkyd resins. PLS methods were created using a number of standard mixtures. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation was carried out. Binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures of several common binding media and pigments were quantified, with standard measurement uncertainties in most cases below 3g/100g. Classes of components - aromatic anhydrides and alcohols - used in alkyd resin synthesis were also successfully quantified, with standard uncertainties in the range of 2-3g/100g. This is a more demanding application because in alkyd resins aromatic anhydrides and alcohols have reacted to form a polyester, and are not present in their original forms. Once a PLS method has been calibrated, analysis time and cost are significantly reduced from typical quantitative methods such as GC/MS. This is beneficial in the case of routine analysis where the components are known. PMID:24945861

  1. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    PubMed

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-03-22

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  2. ATR SEIR study of anions and water adsorbed on platinum electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futamata, Masayuki; Luo, Liqiang; Nishihara, Chizuko

    2005-10-01

    Adsorbed species on bare Pt, and UPD-Pb or UPD-Cu/Pt electrodes were characterized in HClO 4 or H 2SO 4 solutions at various potentials using attenuated total reflection (ATR)-surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. On the bare Pt electrode, ClO4- anions were observed at 1120-1095 cm -1 at +0.0 < E < +0.6 V, solvated by water molecules with OH stretching absorption at 3600 cm -1 and HOH bending mode at 1610-1620 cm -1. In addition to the S-OH totally symmetric mode at 950 cm -1, adsorbed sulfate species gave two bands at 1230-1100 cm -1 between 0.0 V < E < +0.8 V that are assigned to ν3 (symmetric stretch of S-O in SO 3) of HSO4- ions with different coordination based on the peak shift by isotope substitution. At more negative potential, solely water molecules adsorb on the bare Pt surfaces. In contrast, it was found that electrolyte anions such as bisulfate and ClO4- with hydrating water molecules adsorb onto the UPD-Pb/Pt and UPD-Cu/Pt electrodes even at much negative potentials, e.g. -0.2 V for UPD-Pb.

  3. ATR-SEIRAs characterization of surface redox processes in G. sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Busalmen, Juan Pablo; Esteve-Nuñez, Abraham; Berná, Antonio; Feliu, Juan Miguel

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the occurrence of at least two different redox pairs on the cell surface of the electrogenic bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens adsorbed on gold that are expressed in response to the polarization potential. As previously reported on graphite (Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (2008) 2445) a typical low potential redox pair is found centered at around -0.06 V when cells are polarized for a few hours at 0.2 V, while a new pair centered at around 0.38 V is expressed upon polarization at 0.6 V. Reversible changes in the IR band pattern of whole cells where obtained by Attenuated Total Reflection-Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS) upon potential cycling around both redox pairs. Changes clearly resemble the electrochemical turnover of oxidized/reduced states in c-type cytochromes, thus evidencing the nature of the involved molecules. The expression of external cytochromes in response to the potential of the electron acceptor suggests the existence of alternative pathways of electron transport with different energy yield, though it remains to be demonstrated. PMID:19482561

  4. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, “Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.”; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  5. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. PMID:27412186

  6. Confirmation of the assignment of vibrations of goethite: an ATR and IES study of goethite structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Chen, Tianhu; Qing, Chengsong; Xie, Qiaoqin; Frost, Ray L

    2013-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology of synthetic goethite. The behavior of the hydroxyl/water molecular units of goethite and its thermally treated products were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared emission spectroscopy (FT-IES) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that all the expected vibrational bands between 4000 and 650 cm(-1) including the resolved bands (3800-2200 cm(-1)) were confirmed. A band attributed to a new type of hydroxyl unit was found at 3708 cm(-1) and assigned to the FeO-H stretching vibration without hydrogen bonding. This hydroxyl unit was retained up to the thermal treatment temperature of 500 °C. On the whole, seven kinds of hydroxyl units, involving three surface hydroxyls, a bulk hydroxyl, a FeO-H without hydrogen bonding, a nonstoichiometric hydroxyl and a reversed hydroxyl were observed, and three kinds of adsorbed water were found in/on goethite.

  7. Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafarska, Małgorzata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Pilch, Mariusz; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2009-04-01

    A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

  8. FTIR-ATR analysis of brewed coffee: effect of roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald J; Benck, Robert; Dell, Stacy; Merle, Scott; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqueline

    2003-05-21

    FTIR-ATR was used to study the effect of roasting conditions on the flavor of brewed coffee using Guatemala Antigua coffee beans. The 1800-1680 cm(-1) carbonyl region for vinyl esters/lactones, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and acids was found to provide a flavor-print of the brewed coffee. A study of light, medium, and dark roasts indicated that when the rate of heating to the onset of the first and second cracks was kept constant, the types of carbonyl compounds formed were similar, varying only in their concentration. This difference in concentration is apparently due to the additional heating of the coffee bean beyond the second crack. When the heating rate to the onset of the first and second crack was varied, both the types and concentration of the carbonyl compounds formed during roasting were affected. Thus, heating rates of green coffee beans to the onset of the first and second cracks are important determinants of the basic taste and aroma of brewed coffee.

  9. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms. PMID:17292464

  10. Probing the Mec1ATR Checkpoint Activation Mechanism with Small Peptides.

    PubMed

    Wanrooij, Paulina H; Tannous, Elias; Kumar, Sandeep; Navadgi-Patil, Vasundhara M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Yeast Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the apical protein kinase that initiates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and replication stress. The basal activity of Mec1 kinase is activated by cell cycle phase-specific activators. Three distinct activators stimulate Mec1 kinase using an intrinsically disordered domain of the protein. These are the Ddc1 subunit of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp (ortholog of human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad9), the replication initiator Dpb11 (ortholog of human TopBP1 and S. pombe Cut5), and the multifunctional nuclease/helicase Dna2. Here, we use small peptides to determine the requirements for Mec1 activation. For Ddc1, we identify two essential aromatic amino acids in a hydrophobic environment that when fused together are proficient activators. Using this increased insight, we have been able to identify homologous motifs in S. pombe Rad9 that can activate Mec1. Furthermore, we show that a 9-amino acid Dna2-based peptide is sufficient for Mec1 activation. Studies with mutant activators suggest that binding of an activator to Mec1 is a two-step process, the first step involving the obligatory binding of essential aromatic amino acids to Mec1, followed by an enhancement in binding energy through interactions with neighboring sequences.

  11. Drying process of sodium alginate films studied by two-dimensional correlation ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Gu, Xiaohong; Tan, Suo

    2014-12-01

    Drying process of aqueous sodium alginate solutions at 50°C was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. Two-dimensional asynchronous spectrum at 1,800-1,350 cm(-1) wavenumber could be resolved into five separate bands, which were assigned to O-H bending vibrations in water (around 1,645 cm(-1)), antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of free and hydrogen-bonded COO(-) groups of alginate (around 1,595, 1,412, 1,572 and 1,390 cm(-1), respectively). As the drying process progressed, absorbance bands at around 1,127 and 1,035 cm(-1) significantly shifted to lower wavenumbers (1120 and 1027cm(-1), respectively). Suggesting that oxygen atoms at the 2th and 3th position in the pyranose ring might have hydrogen bonded with water or alginate chains. Further analysis using 2D asynchronous correlation spectroscopy between 1800-1500 and 1200-960 cm(-1) wavenumber regions revealed the sequence of spectral changes during the drying process.

  12. Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

    2008-02-28

    Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability.

  13. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  14. Targeting the kinase activities of ATR and ATM exhibits antitumoral activity in mouse models of MLL-rearranged AML.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Day, Amanda; Murga, Matilde; Lafarga, Vanesa; Anton, Marta Elena; Tubbs, Anthony; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ergan, Aysegul; Anderson, Rhonda; Bhandoola, Avinash; Pike, Kurt G; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Wang, Xi; Pierce, Andrew J; Hubbard, Chad; Armstrong, Scott A; Nussenzweig, André; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Among the various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), those with chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL oncogene (AML-MLL) have a poor prognosis. AML-MLL tumor cells are resistant to current genotoxic therapies because of an attenuated response by p53, a protein that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In addition to chemicals that damage DNA, efforts have focused on targeting DNA repair enzymes as a general chemotherapeutic approach to cancer treatment. Here, we found that inhibition of the kinase ATR, which is the primary sensor of DNA replication stress, induced chromosomal breakage and death of mouse AML(MLL) cells (with an MLL-ENL fusion and a constitutively active N-RAS independently of p53. Moreover, ATR inhibition as a single agent exhibited antitumoral activity, both reducing tumor burden after establishment and preventing tumors from growing, in an immunocompetent allograft mouse model of AML(MLL) and in xenografts of a human AML-MLL cell line. We also found that inhibition of ATM, a kinase that senses DNA double-strand breaks, also promoted the survival of the AML(MLL) mice. Collectively, these data indicated that ATR or ATM inhibition represent potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AML, especially MLL-driven leukemias. PMID:27625305

  15. Common cancer-associated imbalances in the DNA damage response confer sensitivity to single agent ATR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Fiona K.; Patterson, Miranda J.; Elstob, Claire J.; Fordham, Sarah; Herriott, Ashleigh; Wade, Mark A.; McCormick, Aiste; Edmondson, Richard; May, Felicity E.B.; Allan, James M.; Pollard, John R.; Curtin, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    ATRis an attractive target in cancer therapy because it signals replication stress and DNA lesions for repair and to S/G2 checkpoints. Cancer-specific defects in the DNA damage response (DDR) may render cancer cells vulnerable to ATR inhibition alone. We determined the cytotoxicity of the ATR inhibitor VE-821 in isogenically matched cells with DDR imbalance. Cell cycle arrest, DNA damage accumulation and repair were determined following VE-821 exposure. Defectsin homologous recombination repair (HRR: ATM, BRCA2 and XRCC3) and baseexcision repair (BER: XRCC1) conferred sensitivity to VE-821. Surprisingly, the loss of different components of the trimeric non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein DNA-PK had opposing effects. Loss of the DNA-binding component, Ku80, caused hypersensitivity to VE-821, but loss of its partner catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, did not. Unexpectedly, VE-821 was particularly cytotoxic to human and hamster cells expressing high levels of DNA-PKcs. High DNA-PKcs was associated with replicative stress and activation of the DDR. VE-821 suppressed HRR, determined by RAD51 focus formation, to a greater extent in cells with high DNA-PKcs. Defects in HRR and BER and high DNA-PKcs expression, that are common in cancer, confer sensitivity to ATR inhibitor monotherapy and may be developed as predictive biomarkers for personalised medicine. PMID:26486089

  16. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Highlights the Problem of Distinguishing Between Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis Using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Çağrı; Gök, Yaşar; Bayğu, Yasemin; Gümral, Ramazan; Özhak-Baysan, Betil; Döğen, Aylin; Öğünç, Dilara; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared two chemical-based methods, namely, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to understand the misidentification of Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis. The study utilized 44 E. dermatitidis and 26 E. phaeomuriformis strains, which were partially treated with strong acids and bases for further evaluation. MALDI-TOF MS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data of the two Exophiala species were compared. Data groupings were observed for the chromic acid- and nitric acid-treated species when the black yeast sources were categorized as creosoted-oak sleepers, concrete sleepers, or dishwasher isolates. The MALDI-TOF MS data for the metalloenzyme-containing regions were consistent with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data. These results indicated that environmental isolates might contain metals not found in human isolates and might interfere with chemical-based identification methods. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS reference libraries should be created for clinical strains and should exclude petroleum-associated environmental isolates. PMID:26373644

  17. Atrésie intestinale iléale: diagnostic anténatale et prise en charge

    PubMed Central

    Dhibou, Hanane; Bassir, Ahlam; Sami, Nadia; Boukhanni, Lahcen; Fakhir, Bouchra; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2016-01-01

    L’atrésie iléale est une malformation congénitale rare, elle constitue une faible part avec une incidence de 1 pour 5000 cas. Elle peut être suspectée et diagnostiqué échographiquement à la fin du deuxième et troisième trimestre. La concertation obstétrico-chirurgicale constitue ici la clé du succès. Eliminer une maladie générale à mauvais pronostic, lutter contre la prématurité et confier l’enfant immédiatement au chirurgien sont les objectifs principaux à réaliser. L'intervention chirurgicale va préciser le type de l'atrésie, son siège, son caractère unique ou multiple et sa longueur dont l’acte chirurgical dépend de l’étiologie. Il nous a paru intéressant de vous documenter un cas clinique d’atrésie iléale de diagnostic anténatal. PMID:27800095

  18. Experimental ATR device for real-time FTIR imaging of living cells using brilliant synchrotron radiation sources.

    PubMed

    Mariangela, Cestelli-Guidi; Seydou, Yao; Diego, Sali; Sabine, Castano; Augusto, Marcelli; Petibois, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we present the design of an original Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-based device designed for an IR microscope coupled to a FPA detector and optimized for in-vivo cell imaging. The optical element has been designed to perform real time experiments of cell biochemical processes. The device includes a manually removable Ge-crystal that guarantees an ease manipulation during the cell culture and a large flat surface to support the cell growth and the required change of the culture wells. This layout will allow performing sequential ATR IR imaging with the crystal immersed in the culture wells, minimizing contributions due to water vapors in the optical system. Using existing brilliant synchrotron radiation sources this ATR device may collect images at the surface of the Ge crystal at a sub-cellular spatial resolution with a penetration depth of the evanescent wave inside the sample of ~500 nm within few seconds. A brief summary of the cellular components that should be detected with such optical device is also presented.

  19. Tel2 structure and function in the Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Hiroyuki; Xie, Yihu; de Lange, Titia; Pavletich, Nikola P.

    2010-09-20

    We reported previously that the stability of all mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) depends on their interaction with Tel2, the ortholog of yeast Tel2 and Caenorhabditis elegans Clk-2. Here we provide evidence that Tel2 acts with Hsp90 in the maturation of PIKK complexes. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the abundance of Tel2 is low compared with the PIKKs, and Tel2 preferentially bound newly synthesized ATM, ATR, mTOR, and DNA-PKcs. Tel2 complexes contained, in addition to Tti1-Tti2, the Hsp90 chaperone, and inhibition of Hsp90 interfered with the interaction of Tel2 with the PIKKs. Analysis of in vivo labeled nascent protein complexes showed that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble into two separate {alpha}-solenoids. Through mutagenesis, we identify a surface patch of conserved residues involved in binding to the Tti1-Tti2 complex in vitro. In vivo, mutation of this conserved patch affects cell growth, levels of PIKKs, and ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling, highlighting the importance of Tti1-Tti2 binding to the function of Tel2. Taken together, our data suggest that the Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 complex is a PIKK-specific cochaperone for Hsp90.

  20. Differential roles for Chk1 and FANCD2 in ATR-mediated signalling for psoralen photoactivation-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Hovest, Miriam G; Krieg, Thomas; Herrmann, Gernot

    2011-11-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress-inducible, naturally irreversible cell cycle arrest, which is likely linked with ageing. Premature ageing of the skin is a prominent side effect of psoralen photoactivation, which is used for the treatment of various skin disorders. Previously, we have shown that DNA interstrand crosslink formation by photoactivated psoralens induces a senescent phenotype in primary fibroblasts that is mediated by Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) initiates cell cycle checkpoints, and FANCD2 is known to be involved in DNA damage-induced S-phase arrest and crosslink repair. In this study, we examined a role for Chk1 and FANCD2 as downstream effectors of ATR in senescence signalling. We demonstrate that Chk1 and FANCD2 are long-lastingly activated after psoralen photoactivation. Separate and combined reduction in Chk1 and FANCD2 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) preceding irradiation partly prevented the initiation of the senescence-like phenotype, whereas siRNA (Chk1 and FANCD2) transfection of senesced fibroblasts released cells from growth arrest. We observed that Chk1 and FANCD2 signal equally and additively for senescence induction, while Chk1 is predominantly responsible for maintaining persistent cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, Chk1 and FANCD2 function downstream of ATR in a non-redundant manner for the establishment and maintenance of psoralen photoactivation-induced senescence.

  1. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  2. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Daniele G.; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M.; Henriques, João A. P.; Larsen, Annette K.; Escargueil, Alexandre E.

    2016-01-01

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors. PMID:27029031

  3. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  4. Image-based ATR utilizing adaptive clutter filter detection, LLRT classification, and Volterra fusion with application to side-looking sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    An improved automatic target recognition (ATR) processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, detection, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by three distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. These three ATR processing strings were individually developed and tuned by researchers from different companies. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with an extensive side-looking sonar dataset. In this paper we describe a new processing improvement: six additional classification features are extracted, using primarily target shadow information and a feature extraction window whose length is now made variable as a function of range. This new ATR processing improvement resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two advanced fusion algorithms are subsequently applied: First, a nonlinear Volterra expansion (2nd order) feature-LLRT fusion algorithm is employed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Volterra feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block is utilized. It is shown that cascaded Volterra feature- LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Volterra feature-LLRT fusion algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  5. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  6. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  7. Optimized data analysis algorithm for on-site chemical identification using a hand-held attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ron, Izhar; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kendler, Shai

    2013-12-01

    On-site identification of organic compounds in the presence of interfering materials using a field-portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer is presented. Identification is based on an algorithm that compares the analyte's infrared absorption spectrum with the reference spectra. The comparison is performed at several predetermined frequencies, and a similarity value (distance) between the measured and the reference spectra is calculated either at each frequency individually, or, alternatively, the average distance for all frequencies is calculated. The examined frequencies are selected to give the best contrast between the target materials of interest. In this study, the algorithm was optimized to identify three common chemical warfare agents (CWAs): O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (VX), sarin (GB), and sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) (HD), in the presence of field-related interfering materials (fuels, water, and dust). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed in order to determine the probabilities for detection (PD) and for false alerts (PF). Challenging the algorithm with a set of data that contains mixtures of CWAs and interfering materials resulted in PD of 90% and PF of 0%, 0%, and 1% for VX, GB, and HD, respectively, using the average distance approach, which was found to be much more effective than analyzing each frequency individually. This finding was validated for all possible combinations of 2-7 peaks per material. It is suggested that this algorithm provides a reliable mean for the identification of a predetermined set of target analytes and interfering materials.

  8. Optimized data analysis algorithm for on-site chemical identification using a hand-held attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ron, Izhar; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kendler, Shai

    2013-12-01

    On-site identification of organic compounds in the presence of interfering materials using a field-portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer is presented. Identification is based on an algorithm that compares the analyte's infrared absorption spectrum with the reference spectra. The comparison is performed at several predetermined frequencies, and a similarity value (distance) between the measured and the reference spectra is calculated either at each frequency individually, or, alternatively, the average distance for all frequencies is calculated. The examined frequencies are selected to give the best contrast between the target materials of interest. In this study, the algorithm was optimized to identify three common chemical warfare agents (CWAs): O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (VX), sarin (GB), and sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) (HD), in the presence of field-related interfering materials (fuels, water, and dust). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed in order to determine the probabilities for detection (PD) and for false alerts (PF). Challenging the algorithm with a set of data that contains mixtures of CWAs and interfering materials resulted in PD of 90% and PF of 0%, 0%, and 1% for VX, GB, and HD, respectively, using the average distance approach, which was found to be much more effective than analyzing each frequency individually. This finding was validated for all possible combinations of 2-7 peaks per material. It is suggested that this algorithm provides a reliable mean for the identification of a predetermined set of target analytes and interfering materials. PMID:24359653

  9. Simultaneous inhibition of ATR and PARP sensitizes colon cancer cell lines to irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sanad, Atlal; Wang, Yunzhe; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Panasci, Justin; Noë, Alycia; Rosca, Lorena; Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced DNA damage repair is one mechanism involved in colon cancer drug resistance. Thus, targeting molecular components of repair pathways with specific small molecule inhibitors may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. ABT-888 and VE-821, inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) and the serine/threonine-kinase Ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), respectively, were used to treat colon cancer cell lines in combination with the topoisomerase-I inhibitor irinotecan (SN38). Our findings show that each of these DNA repair inhibitors utilized alone at nontoxic single agent concentrations resulted in sensitization to SN38 producing a 1.4–3 fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SN38 in three colon cancer cell lines. When combined together, nontoxic concentrations of ABT-888 and VE-821 produced a 4.5–27 fold reduction in the IC50 of SN38 with the HCT-116 colon cancer cells demonstrating the highest sensitization as compared to LoVo and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of all three agents was associated with maximal G2 −M arrest and enhanced DNA-damage (γH2AX) in all three colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism of this enhanced sensitization was associated with: (a) maximal suppression of SN38 induced PARP activity in the presence of both inhibitors and (b) ABT-888 producing partial abrogation of the VE-821 enhancement of SN38 induced DNA-PK phosphorylation, resulting in more unrepaired DNA damage; these alterations were only present in the HCT-116 cells which have reduced levels of ATM. This novel combination of DNA repair inhibitors may be useful to enhance the activity of DNA damaging chemotherapies such as irinotecan and help produce sensitization to this drug in colon cancer. PMID:26257651

  10. [Research on Rapid Discrimination of Edible Oil by ATR Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Hu, Ai-qin; Li, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Zhong; Li, Xiu-qin; Guo Zhen; Zhu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-07-01

    A rapid discrimination method of edible oils, KL-BP model, was proposed by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The model extracts the characteristic of classification from source data by KL and reduces data dimension at the same time. Then the neural network model is constructed by the new data which as the input of the model. 84 edible oil samples which include sesame oil, corn oil, canola oil, blend oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, olive oil, soybean oil and tea seed oil, were collected and their infrared spectra determined using an ATR FT-IR spectrometer. In order to compare the method performance, principal component analysis (PCA) direct-classification model, KL direct-classification model, PLS-DA model, PCA-BP model and KL-BP model are constructed in this paper. The results show that the recognition rates of PCA, PCA-BP, KL, PLS-DA and KL-BP are 59.1%, 68.2%, 77.3%, 77.3% and 90.9% for discriminating the 9 kinds of edible oils, respectively. KL extracts the eigenvector which make the distance between different class and distance of every class ratio is the largest. So the method can get much more classify information than PCA. BP neural network can effectively enhance the classification ability and accuracy. Taking full of the advantages of KL in extracting more category information in dimension reducing and the features of BP neural network in self-learning, adaptive, nonlinear, the KL-BP method has the best classification ability and recognition accuracy and great importance for rapidly recognizing edible oil in practice.

  11. ATR FT-IR H 2O spectra of acidic aqueous solutions. Insights about proton hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiechowski, Maciej; Stangret, Janusz

    2008-04-01

    Proton hydration in aqueous solutions has been recently characterised in our laboratory by means of vibrational spectra of HDO isotopically diluted in H 2O [M. Śmiechowski, J. Stangret, J. Chem. Phys. 125 (2006) 204508]. Here, we attempt to study quantitatively H 2O spectra of acidic aqueous solutions. In principle, H 2O spectra provide more information about the structural state of water molecules, resulting from oscillator couplings in the system, but they are much more difficult in interpretation, when compared with HDO spectra. The spectra of aqueous solutions of monoprotic acids (HCl, HClO 4, HPF 6) have been measured by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectral data have been analysed in a way that led to removal of the contribution of bulk water, in order to separate the spectra of solute-affected water only. The analysis has been focused on the infinite dilution limit behaviour of the spectrum. Changes induced in the affected spectra by temperature have been studied for HPF 6 solutions at 25-45 °C. The stretching vibration fundamental has been found to be primarily affected by counter-anion. Proton-affected H 2O spectrum shows the presence of very wide absorption bands in the range, where bulk water shows negligible own absorption, rather than "absorption continua". They could be adequately resolved into analytical components. These bands have been unaffected by temperature and loosely correlated with the stretching fundamental, as indicated by 2D IR correlation spectra. All spectral effects of the studied acids on H 2O in solution have been quantitatively evidenced and discussed. They seem to be in accordance with the main conclusions about proton hydration derived from recent studies of HDO spectra mentioned above.

  12. The structural evolution of magnesium acetate complex in aerosols by FTIR-ATR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shu-Feng; Wu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Qing-Nuan; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The structural evolution of magnesium acetate complex in aerosols with the relative humidity (RH) has been studied by ATR-FTIR technique. When the RH is higher than 66%, the ν4 band lies at 929 cm-1 meaning the free CH3COO- ions in Mg(CH3COO)2 droplets. At the 66% RH, ν4 band positioned at 939 cm-1, accompanying the ν8 band shift to 1554 cm-1, which indicats that the free CH3COO- ions are bounded to Mg2+ ions to form [Mg(H2O)5(CH3COO)]+ species. At the 57.7% RH, the ν8-COO band shifts to 1556 cm-1 accompanying the ν3 band at 1421 cm-1 and the appearance of shoulder at 1452 cm-1, which suggests the formation of chain-structure connected by the bridging bidentate of Mg2(CH3COO)4(H2O)2. In the region of 57.7-18.7% RH, the shoulder at 1452 cm-1 increases with the decrease in RH, showing the increase of Mg2(CH3COO)4(H2O)2. From the water-content, the water-transfer from and to the surface of the aerosols became limited, showing the aerosols enter the gel state. Below 18.7%RH, water-loss becomes rapid and the ν8 band performs blue-shift. At 3.8%RH, the ν8 band positioned at 1581 cm-1, showing the anhydrous Mg(CH3COO)2 solid, which can be reflected by the ν4 band at 947 cm-1. During the humidification process, the reverse structural evolution can be found.

  13. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    PubMed

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  14. Surface interactions of aromatic organoarsenical compounds with hematite nanoparticles using ATR-FTIR: kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Arts, Derek; Abdus Sabur, Md; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2013-03-14

    Aromatic organoarsenicals p-arsanilic acid (pAsA) and roxarsone (ROX) are used as feed additives in developing countries that allow the use of arsenic-containing compounds in their poultry industry. These compounds are introduced to the environment through the application of contaminated poultry litter. Little is known about the surface chemistry of these organoarsenicals on the molecular level with reactive components in soils. We report herein the first in situ and surface-sensitive rapid kinetic studies on the adsorption and desorption of pAsA to/from hematite nanoparticles at pH 7 using ATR-FTIR. Values for the apparent initial rates of adsorption and desorption were extracted from experimental data as a function of spectral components. Hydrogen phosphate was used as a desorbing agent due to its ubiquitous presence in litter, and its adsorption kinetics was investigated on surfaces with and without surface arsenic. Initial first-order pseudo-adsorption rate constant for pAsA was lower by a factor of 1.6 than that of iAs(V), suggesting an average behavior for the formation of quantitatively more weakly bonded monodentate or hydrogen-bonded complexes for the former relative to strongly bonded bidentate surface complexes for the latter under our experimental conditions. Initial first-order pseudo-adsorption rate constants for hydrogen phosphate decrease in this order: fresh hematite > pAsA/hematite ≈ phenylarsonic acid (PhAs)/hematite > iAs/hematite by factors 1.5 and 3 relative to fresh films, respectively. Initial desorption kinetics of aromatic organoarsenicals due to flowing hydrogen phosphate proceed with a nonunity overall order, suggesting a complex mechanism, which is consistent with the existence of more than one type of surface complexes. The impact of our studies on the environmental fate and transport of aromatic organoarsenicals in geochemical environments and their overall surface chemistry with iron (oxyhyr)oxides is discussed.

  15. Validation of the Physics Analysis used to Characterize the AGR-1 TRISO Fuel Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Chang, Gray S.

    2015-05-01

    The results of a detailed physics depletion calculation used to characterize the AGR-1 TRISO-coated particle fuel test irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory are compared to measured data for the purpose of validation. The particle fuel was irradiated for 13 ATR power cycles over three calendar years. The physics analysis predicts compact burnups ranging from 11.30-19.56% FIMA and cumulative neutron fast fluence from 2.21?4.39E+25 n/m2 under simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor conditions in the ATR. The physics depletion calculation can provide a full characterization of all 72 irradiated TRISO-coated particle compacts during and post-irradiation, so validation of this physics calculation was a top priority. The validation of the physics analysis was done through comparisons with available measured experimental data which included: 1) high-resolution gamma scans for compact activity and burnup, 2) mass spectrometry for compact burnup, 3) flux wires for cumulative fast fluence, and 4) mass spectrometry for individual actinide and fission product concentrations. The measured data are generally in very good agreement with the calculated results, and therefore provide an adequate validation of the physics analysis and the results used to characterize the irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel.

  16. Analysis and optimization of solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using a generic zero-dimensional fuel cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göll, S.; Samsun, R. C.; Peters, R.

    Fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units can help to reduce fuel consumption and emissions in transportation. For this application, the combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with upstream fuel processing by autothermal reforming (ATR) is seen as a highly favorable configuration. Notwithstanding the necessity to improve each single component, an optimized architecture of the fuel cell system as a whole must be achieved. To enable model-based analyses, a system-level approach is proposed in which the fuel cell system is modeled as a multi-stage thermo-chemical process using the "flowsheeting" environment PRO/II™. Therein, the SOFC stack and the ATR are characterized entirely by corresponding thermodynamic processes together with global performance parameters. The developed model is then used to achieve an optimal system layout by comparing different system architectures. A system with anode and cathode off-gas recycling was identified to have the highest electric system efficiency. Taking this system as a basis, the potential for further performance enhancement was evaluated by varying four parameters characterizing different system components. Using methods from the design and analysis of experiments, the effects of these parameters and of their interactions were quantified, leading to an overall optimized system with encouraging performance data.

  17. Development and design of experiments optimization of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell auxiliary power unit with onboard fuel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstedt, Jörg; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen; Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan

    In this work, the concept development, system layout, component simulation and the overall DOE system optimization of a HT-PEM fuel cell APU with a net electric power output of 4.5 kW and an onboard methane fuel processor are presented. A highly integrated system layout has been developed that enables fast startup within 7.5 min, a closed system water balance and high fuel processor efficiencies of up to 85% due to the recuperation of the anode offgas burner heat. The integration of the system battery into the load management enhances the transient electric performance and the maximum electric power output of the APU system. Simulation models of the carbon monoxide influence on HT-PEM cell voltage, the concentration and temperature profiles within the autothermal reformer (ATR) and the CO conversion rates within the watergas shift stages (WGSs) have been developed. They enable the optimization of the CO concentration in the anode gas of the fuel cell in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies and an optimized dimensioning of the ATR and WGS reactors. Furthermore a DOE optimization of the global system parameters cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, air/fuel ratio and steam/carbon ratio of the fuel processing system has been performed in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies for all system operating points under given boundary conditions.

  18. TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED U3SI2/AL DISPERSION FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B. Miller; D. Keiser; A. Robinson; P. Medvedev; D. Wachs

    2010-10-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U3Si2/Al has been recognized as a reasonably good performance fuel for nuclear research and test reactors except that it requires the use of high enrichment uranium. An irradiated U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel (~75% enrichment) from the high flux side of a RERTR-8 (U0R040) plate was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel plate was irradiated in the advanced test reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately ~110 degrees C and 5.4 x 10-21 f/cm3. The characterization was performed using a 200KV TEM with a LaB6 filament. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of this silicide fuel are discussed.

  19. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans Jr, James O; McMurray, Jake W; Jolly, Brian C; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Trammell, Michael P; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  20. Checkpoint Kinase ATR Promotes Nucleotide Excision Repair of UV-induced DNA Damage via Physical Interaction with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A*

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Steven M.; Li, Zhengke; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Brosey, Chris; Serrano, Moises A.; Chazin, Walter J.; Musich, Phillip R.; Zou, Yue

    2009-01-01

    In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells activate a series of DNA damage-dependent pathways that serve to arrest cell cycle progression and remove DNA damage. Coordination of cell cycle arrest and damage repair is critical for maintenance of genomic stability. However, this process is still poorly understood. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the ATR-dependent cell cycle checkpoint are the major pathways responsible for repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Here we show that ATR physically interacts with the NER factor Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). Using a mass spectrometry-based protein footprinting method, we found that ATR interacts with a helix-turn-helix motif in the minimal DNA-binding domain of XPA where an ATR phosphorylation site (serine 196) is located. XPA-deficient cells complemented with XPA containing a point mutation of S196A displayed a reduced repair efficiency of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers as compared with cells complemented with wild-type XPA, although no effect was observed for repair of (6-4) photoproducts. This suggests that the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of XPA may promote NER repair of persistent DNA damage. In addition, a K188A point mutation of XPA that disrupts the ATR-XPA interaction inhibits the nuclear import of XPA after UV irradiation and, thus, significantly reduced DNA repair efficiency. By contrast, the S196A mutation has no effect on XPA nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that the ATR-XPA interaction mediated by the helix-turn-helix motif of XPA plays an important role in DNA-damage responses to promote cell survival and genomic stability after UV irradiation. PMID:19586908

  1. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  2. A quantitative study for determination of sugar concentration using attenuated total reflectance terahertz (ATR-THz) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhandy, Diding; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Ogawa, Yuichi; Kondo, Naoshi; Ishihara, Takeshi; Takemoto, Yuichiro

    2011-06-01

    The objective of our research was to use ATR-THz spectroscopy together with chemometric for quantitative study in food analysis. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are main component of sugar both in fresh and processed fruits. The use of spectroscopic-based method for sugar determination is well reported especially using visible, near infrared (NIR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. However, the use of terahertz spectroscopy for sugar determination in fruits has not yet been reported. In this work, a quantitative study for sugars determination using attenuated total reflectance terahertz (ATR-THz) spectroscopy was conducted. Each samples of glucose, fructose and sucrose solution with different concentrations were prepared respectively and their absorbance spectra between wavenumber 20 and 450 cm-1 (between 0.6 THz and 13.5 THz) were acquired using a terahertz-based Fourier Transform spectrometer (FARIS-1S, JASCO Co., Japan). This spectrometer was equipped with a high pressure of mercury lamp as light source and a pyroelectric sensor made from deuterated L-alanine triglycine sulfate (DLTGS) as detector. Each spectrum was acquired using 16 cm-1 of resolution and 200 scans for averaging. The spectra of water and sugar solutions were compared and discussed. The results showed that increasing sugar concentration caused decreasing absorbance. The correlation between sugar concentration and its spectra was investigated using multivariate analysis. Calibration models for glucose, fructose and sucrose determination were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration model was evaluated using some parameters such as coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of calibration (SEC), standard error of prediction (SEP), bias between actual and predicted sugar concentration value and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) parameter. The cross validation method was used to validate each calibration model. It is showed that the use of ATR

  3. Engagement of the ATR-Dependent DNA Damage Response at the Human Papillomavirus 18 Replication Centers during the Initial Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Reinson, Tormi; Toots, Mart; Kadaja, Meelis; Pipitch, Regina; Allik, Mihkel; Ustav, Ene

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome replicates effectively in U2OS cells after transfection using electroporation. The transient extrachromosomal replication, stable maintenance, and late amplification of the viral genome could be studied for high- and low-risk mucosal and cutaneous papillomaviruses. Recent findings indicate that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated during the HPV life cycle and that the viral replication protein E1 might play a role in this process. We used a U2OS cell-based system to study E1-dependent DDR activation and the involvement of these pathways in viral transient replication. We demonstrated that the E1 protein could cause double-strand DNA breaks in the host genome by directly interacting with DNA. This activity leads to the induction of an ATM-dependent signaling cascade and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2 phases. However, the transient replication of HPV genomes in U2OS cells induces the ATR-dependent pathway, as shown by the accumulation of γH2AX, ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) in viral replication centers. Viral oncogenes do not play a role in this activation, which is induced only through DNA replication or by replication proteins E1 and E2. The ATR pathway in viral replication centers is likely activated through DNA replication stress and might play an important role in engaging cellular DNA repair/recombination machinery for effective replication of the viral genome upon active amplification. PMID:23135710

  4. Comparison of the Radiosensitizing Effect of ATR, ATM and DNA-PK Kinase Inhibitors on Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Vávrová, J; Zárybnická, L; Jošt, P; Tichý, A; Řezáčová, M; Šinkorová, Z; Pejchal, J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compared the effects of inhibitors of three phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related kinases, ATM, ATR a DNA-PK, on radiosensitization of cervical carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441 enhanced phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases 2 h after irradiation of HeLa cells at a dose of 8 Gy in contrast to ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, which completely blocked the Chk2 kinase phosphorylation on threonine 68, and ATR kinase inhibitor VE-821, which blocked the Chk1 kinase phosphorylation on serine 345. Most HeLa cells were accumulated in G2 phase of the cell cycle 24 h after irradiation at a high dose of 15 Gy, which was even potentiated after adding the inhibitors NU7441 and KU55933. Compared to all other irradiated groups, inhibitor VE-821 increased the number of cells in S phase and reduced the number of cells in G2 phase 24 h after irradiation at the high dose of 15 Gy. HeLa cells entered the mitotic cycle with unrepaired DNA, which resulted in cell death and the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821. Short-term application of the inhibitors (2 h before and 30 min after the irradiation by the dose of 8 Gy) significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of HeLa cells. Using real-time monitoring of cell proliferation by the xCELLigence system we demonstrated that while the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821 (ATR inhibitor) is manifested early after the irradiation, the radiosensitizing effect of KU55933 (ATM inhibitor) and NU7441 (DNA-PK inhibitor) is only observed as late as 72 h after the irradiation. PMID:27643582

  5. In situ-ATR-FTIR analysis on the uptake and release of streptomycin from polyelectrolyte complex layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torger, B.; Müller, M.

    2013-03-01

    In-situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and line shape analysis of the diagnostic spectral region was used to quantify the bound amount and release of the antibiotic streptomycin (STRP) at polyelectrolyte (PEL) multilayers (PEM) of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or PEI and sodium alginate (ALG). Unlike common concepts based on the drug enrichment of the release medium, this analytical concept allowed to measure quantitatively the drug depletion in the delivery matrix. The measured kinetic in situ ATR-FTIR data were analysed by a modified Korsmeyer-Peppas equation based on two characteristic release parameters k and n. As main experimental parameters the number of PEL layers (adsorption steps) z and the STRP/PEL ratio were varied. For z = 8 the STRP/PEL ratio showed the most significant influence on release kinetics, whereby for STRP/PEL = 1:25 slowest (n = 0.77) and lowest (k = 21.4%) and for STRP/PEL = 1:5 most rapid (n = 0.30) and highest (k = 58.6%) drug releases were found. PEM-PEI/ALG-8 (STRP/PEL = 1:5) revealed slower release rates (n = 0.58) and lower released STRP amounts (k = 17.1%) compared to PEI/PAA. UV-VIS data on time dependent STRP enrichment of the release medium showed a similar trend compared to respective ATR-FTIR data on STRP depletion in PEM. Released amounts of around 1-2 mg from the herein introduced PEM films could be determined. The introduced analytical concept will be used as screening tool for other drugs, drug eluting films and bone substituting materials.

  6. A dynamic thermal ATR-FTIR/chemometric approach to the analysis of polymorphic interconversions. Cimetidine as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-04-01

    Crystal polymorphism of active ingredients is relevant to the pharmaceutical industry, since polymorphic changes taking place during manufacture or storage of pharmaceutical formulations can affect critical properties of the products. Cimetidine (CIM) has several relevant solid state forms, including four polymorphs (A, B, C and D), an amorphous form (AM) and a monohydrate (M1). Dehydration of M1 has been reported to yield mixtures of polymorphs A, B and C or just a single form. Standards of the solid forms of CIM were prepared and unequivocally characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, digital microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was coupled to variable temperature attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to dynamically characterize the behavior of form M1 of CIM over a temperature range from ambient to 160°C, without sample pretreatment. MCR-ALS analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra obtained from the tested solid under variable temperature conditions unveiled the pure spectra of the species involved in the polymorphic transitions. This allowed the simultaneous observation of thermochemical and thermophysical events associated to the changes involved in the solid forms, enabling their unequivocal identification and improving the understanding of their thermal behavior. It was demonstrated that under the experimental conditions, dehydration of M1 initially results in the formation of polymorph B; after melting and upon cooling, the latter yields an amorphous solid (AM). It was concluded that the ATR-FTIR/MCR association is a promising and useful technique for monitoring solid-state phase transformations.

  7. Investigation of switch from ATM to ATR signaling at the sites of DNA damage induced by low and high LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-12-01

    Upon induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-PKcs, and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) maintain genomic integrity by mounting DNA damage response (DDR). Recent reports suggest that activation of ATM and ATR are oppositely regulated by the length of single stranded overhangs generated during end processing by nucleases at the break sites. These stretches of single stranded overhangs hold the clue for the transition from ATM to ATR signaling at broken DNA ends. We investigated whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation augments the phenomenon of switching from ATM to ATR kinase and hence a concomitant NHEJ to HR transition at the sites of DNA damage. 82-6 human fibroblasts were irradiated with 1 or 2Gy of γ-rays and particle radiation of increasing LET in order to increase the complexity and variability of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) structures. The activation kinetics of ATM and ATR kinases along with their downstream substrates were determined utilizing Western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. Our data provide evidence of a potential switch from ATM to ATR kinase signaling in cells treated with γ-rays at approximately 2h post irradiation, with induction and completion of resection denoted by Rad51 foci resolution kinetics and observed with a significant decline of phosphorylated ATR kinase 8h after IR. On the other hand, irradiation with high LET 600MeV/u (56)Fe (180keV/μm) and 170MeV/u (28)Si (99keV/μm) particles show a similar Rad51 foci decay kinetics, however, exhibiting prolonged resection, evident by the persistent phosphorylated ATM and ATR kinase until 24h post irradiation. This residual effect, however, was significantly reduced for 250MeV/u (16)O particles of moderate LET (25keV/μm) and absent for γ-rays. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that the transition

  8. A Study of Electrochemical Reduction of Ethylene and PropyleneCarbonate Electrolytes on Graphite Using ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Blizanac, Berislav; Ross Jr.,Philip N.

    2005-05-12

    We present results testing the hypothesis that there is a different reaction pathway for the electrochemical reduction of PC versus EC-based electrolytes at graphite electrodes with LiPF6 as the salt in common. We examined the reduction products formed using ex-situ Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry. The results show the pathway for reduction of PC leads nearly entirely to lithium carbonate as the solid product (and presumably ethylene gas as the co-product) while EC follows a path producing a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Possible explanations for the difference in reaction pathway are discussed.

  9. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  10. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  11. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W Matthew

    2016-06-17

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes.

  12. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  13. Parvovirus B19 Infection of Human Primary Erythroid Progenitor Cells Triggers ATR-Chk1 Signaling, Which Promotes B19 Virus Replication ▿

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Lou, Sai; Deng, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhengwen; Li, Yi; Kleiboeker, Steve; Qiu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells of the human bone marrow. Although the mechanism by which the B19V genome replicates in these cells has not been studied in great detail, accumulating evidence has implicated involvement of the cellular DNA damage machinery in this process. Here, we report that, in ex vivo-expanded human erythroid progenitor cells, B19V infection induces a broad range of DNA damage responses by triggering phosphorylation of all the upstream kinases of each of three repair pathways: ATM (ataxia-telangiectasi mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3 related), and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit). We found that phosphorylated ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs, and also their downstream substrates and components (Chk2, Chk1, and Ku70/Ku80 complex, respectively), localized within the B19V replication center. Notably, inhibition of kinase phosphorylation (through treatment with either kinase-specific inhibitors or kinase-specific shRNAs) revealed requirements for signaling of ATR and DNA-PKcs, but not ATM, in virus replication. Inhibition of the ATR substrate Chk1 led to similar levels of decreased virus replication, indicating that signaling via the ATR-Chk1 pathway is critical to B19V replication. Notably, the cell cycle arrest characteristic of B19V infection was not rescued by interference with the activity of any of the three repair pathway kinases. PMID:21680529

  14. Characterization of Torin2, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR, ATM, and ATR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsong; Xu, Chunxiao; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Xin; Hur, Wooyoung; Liu, Yan; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas P; Wang, Jinhua; Westover, Kenneth D; Gao, Peng; Ercan, Dalia; Niepel, Mario; Thoreen, Carson C; Kang, Seong A; Patricelli, Matthew P; Wang, Yuchuan; Tupper, Tanya; Altabef, Abigail; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Held, Kathryn D; Chou, Danny M; Elledge, Stephen J; Janne, Pasi A; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sabatini, David M; Gray, Nathanael S

    2013-04-15

    mTOR is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a central regulator of cell growth, survival, and autophagy. Deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway occurs commonly in cancer and numerous inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding site of these kinases are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Here, we report the characterization of Torin2, a second-generation ATP-competitive inhibitor that is potent and selective for mTOR with a superior pharmacokinetic profile to previous inhibitors. Torin2 inhibited mTORC1-dependent T389 phosphorylation on S6K (RPS6KB1) with an EC(50) of 250 pmol/L with approximately 800-fold selectivity for cellular mTOR versus phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Torin2 also exhibited potent biochemical and cellular activity against phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-like kinase (PIKK) family kinases including ATM (EC(50), 28 nmol/L), ATR (EC(50), 35 nmol/L), and DNA-PK (EC(50), 118 nmol/L; PRKDC), the inhibition of which sensitized cells to Irradiation. Similar to the earlier generation compound Torin1 and in contrast to other reported mTOR inhibitors, Torin2 inhibited mTOR kinase and mTORC1 signaling activities in a sustained manner suggestive of a slow dissociation from the kinase. Cancer cell treatment with Torin2 for 24 hours resulted in a prolonged block in negative feedback and consequent T308 phosphorylation on Akt. These effects were associated with strong growth inhibition in vitro. Single-agent treatment with Torin2 in vivo did not yield significant efficacy against KRAS-driven lung tumors, but the combination of Torin2 with mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor AZD6244 yielded a significant growth inhibition. Taken together, our findings establish Torin2 as a strong candidate for clinical evaluation in a broad number of oncologic settings where mTOR signaling has a pathogenic role.

  15. Ageing of EUROBITUM bituminised radioactive waste: An ATR-FTIR spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcke, E.; Rorif, F.; Smets, S.

    2009-08-01

    The extent of the physico-chemical processes of concern in the study of the acceptability of Eurobitum bituminised radioactive waste for underground disposal (water uptake by hygroscopic NaNO 3 - swelling - pressure build-up - NaNO 3 leaching) will depend on the degree of ageing of the bituminous matrix. In the work reported here, the ageing behaviour was studied by comparing the characteristics of 25 years old radioactive Eurobitum with those of 25 years old non-radioactive Eurobitum samples that were heated or gamma-irradiated in the presence or absence of oxygen. Chemical changes in the bitumen structure were followed in the mid-infrared region with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) by measuring the evolution of the band heights at 1700 cm -1 (C dbnd O functional groups) and 1600 cm -1 (C dbnd C double bonds). Needle penetration depths and ring and ball softening points were determined for some samples. Oxidation of bitumen in the presence of oxygen results in a distinct increase of both the number of C dbnd O and C dbnd C functionalities, with a positive linear relationship existing between the two groups. The production of C dbnd O functional groups seems to promote the generation of C dbnd C double bonds. Heating at 130 °C is much more efficient than gamma irradiation at low to moderate dose rates (20-140 Gy/h) to oxidise the bitumen. As the oxygen concentration decreases, for instance by diffusion limitation deeper inside the bitumen, the number of C dbnd O and C dbnd C functionalities formed per unit of time decreases. A similar behaviour was observed for 25 years old radioactive Eurobitum. In absence of oxygen, gamma irradiation still results in a small increase of the number of C dbnd O functional groups, probably by oxygen still adsorbed on the bitumen, and in a relatively higher amount of C dbnd C double bonds. The surface layer (<5 cm) of 25 years old radioactive Eurobitum was heavily oxidised. The

  16. Reactor Physics Scoping and Characterization Study on Implementation of TRIGA Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Lyons; Wade R. Marcum; Mark D. DeHart; Sean R. Morrell

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is conducting feasibility studies for the conversion of its fuel from a highly enriched uranium (HEU) composition to a low enriched uranium (LEU) composition. These studies have considered a wide variety of LEU plate-type fuels to replace the current HEU fuel. Continuing to investigate potential alternatives to the present HEU fuel form, this study presents a preliminary analysis of TRIGA® fuel within the current ATR fuel envelopes and compares it to the functional requirements delineated by the Naval Reactors Program, which includes: greater than 4.8E+14 fissions/s/g of 235U, a fast to thermal neutron flux ratio that is less than 5% deviation of its current value, a constant cycle power within the corner lobes, and an operational cycle length of 56 days at 120 MW. Other parameters outside those put forth by the Naval Reactors Program which are investigated herein include axial and radial power profiles, effective delayed neutron fraction, and mean neutron generation time.

  17. Fabrication of Uranium Oxycarbide Kernels for HTR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Barnes; CLay Richardson; Scott Nagley; John Hunn; Eric Shaber

    2010-10-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) has been producing high quality uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels for Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel tests at the Idaho National Laboratory. In 2005, 350-µm, 19.7% 235U-enriched UCO kernels were produced for the AGR-1 test fuel. Following coating of these kernels and forming the coated-particles into compacts, this fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 2006 until November 2009. B&W produced 425-µm, 14% enriched UCO kernels in 2008, and these kernels were used to produce fuel for the AGR-2 experiment that was inserted in ATR in 2010. B&W also produced 500-µm, 9.6% enriched UO2 kernels for the AGR-2 experiments. Kernels of the same size and enrichment as AGR-1 were also produced for the AGR-3/4 experiment. In addition to fabricating enriched UCO and UO2 kernels, B&W has produced more than 100 kg of natural uranium UCO kernels which are being used in coating development tests. Successive lots of kernels have demonstrated consistent high quality and also allowed for fabrication process improvements. Improvements in kernel forming were made subsequent to AGR-1 kernel production. Following fabrication of AGR-2 kernels, incremental increases in sintering furnace charge size have been demonstrated. Recently small scale sintering tests using a small development furnace equipped with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) has increased understanding of how kernel sintering parameters affect sintered kernel properties. The steps taken to increase throughput and process knowledge have reduced kernel production costs. Studies have been performed of additional modifications toward the goal of increasing capacity of the current fabrication line to use for production of first core fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and providing a basis for the design of a full scale fuel fabrication facility.

  18. Improving the AGR Fuel Testing Power Density Profile Versus Irradiation-Time in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang; David A. Petti; John T. Maki; Misti A. Lillo

    2009-05-01

    The Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles. Each TRISO-coated fuel particle has its own containment which serves as the principal barrier against radionuclide release under normal operating and accident conditions. These fuel particles, in the form of graphite fuel compacts, are currently undergoing a series of irradiation tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification program. A representive coated fuel particle with an 235U enrichment of 19.8 wt% was used in this analysis. The fuel burnup analysis tool used to perform the neutronics study reported herein, couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. The fuel burnup methodology known as Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) was used to evaluate the AGR experiment assembly and demonstrate compliance with ATR safety requirements. For the AGR graphite fuel compacts, the MCWO-calculated fission power density (FPD) due to neutron fission in 235U is an important design parameter. One of the more important AGR fuel testing requirements is to maintain the peak fuel compact temperature close to 1250°C throughout the proposed irradiation campaign of 550 effective full power days (EFPDs). Based on the MCWO-calculated FPD, a fixed gas gap size was designed to allow regulation of the fuel compact temperatures throughout the entire fuel irradiation campaign by filling the gap with a mixture of helium and neon gases. The chosen fixed gas gap can only regulate the peak fuel compact temperature in the desired range during the irradiation test if the ratio of the peak power density to the time-dependent low power density (P/T) at 550 EFPDs is less than 2.5. However, given the near constant neutron flux within the ATR driver core and the depletion of 235U in

  19. PU Disposition in Russian VVERs: Physics Studies of Lead Test Assembly Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.

    2000-05-07

    As part of Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) physics support was given to the design of a MOX lead test assembly (LTA) for use in Russian VVER nuclear reactors. This paper discusses some of the pertinent findings and assessments for two distinct LTA designs for weapons-grade (WG) Pu dispositioning in Russian VVER-1000 nuclear reactors. The two assessed MOX LTA designs are the graded-zone full MOX LTA and the Island LTA (2 central zones of MOX pins surrounded by UO{sub 2} pins). The process of optimizing the graded Pu-content by zone in the fuel assembly is discussed. Eigenvalue and power peaking comparisons are made as a function of fuel burnup. Zero-power reactivity effects were calculated for the different LTA options. For the ORNL results, the n,{gamma}-transport lattice physics code HELIOS-1.4 was used with nuclear data libraries (based on ENDF/B-VI) in 89 and 190 neutron energy groups. Some comparisons are made between the ORNL HELIOS results and corresponding Russian LTA calculations by the RRC-KI (Kurchatov Institute) using the code TVS-M. Also in this paper, pertinent results are discussed from a study of void reactivity effects for LEU, RG MOX and WG MOX fuels in PWR and VVER-1000 nuclear reactors. These void reactivity calculations were performed for a large range of LEU enrichments (2-20 wt% {sup 235}U), and large ranges of Pu-content (2-20 wt% Pu) in RG and WG MOX fuel.

  20. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  1. [A case of X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome with repeated apnea attacks due to laryngomalacia].

    PubMed

    Ebishima, Yuko; Misaki, Takako; Owa, Kenji; Okuno, Takehiko; Wada, Takahito; Suehiro, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X) with repeated apnea attacks dating from the patient's 12th year. We initially diagnosed them as obstructive apnea due to upper pharyngeal stenosis and laryngomalacia by polysomnography and laryngo-fiberscopy. However, reevaluation after one and a half years revealed that the boy had central and mixed apnea, as well as obstructive apnea. To date, few reports have been published on the causes of apnea attacks in ATR-X patients. We clinicians should therefore consider laryngomalacia as one cause of apnea attacks in ATR-X patients, and choose the appropriate therapy for a pattern of apnea that can change during its clinical course. PMID:23593745

  2. Splicing mutation in the ATR-X gene can lead to a dysmorphic mental retardation phenotype without {alpha}-thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Villard, L.; Lossi, A.M.; Fontes, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from Xq13 that codes for a putative regulator of transcription (XNP) and has now been shown to be the gene involved in the X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia with mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. The widespread expression and numerous domains present in the putative protein suggest that this gene could be involved in other phenotypes. The predominant expression of the gene in the developing brain, as well as its association with neuron differentiation, indicates that mutations of this gene might result in a mental retardation (MR) phenotype. In this paper we present a family with a splice junction mutation in XNP that results in the skipping of an exon and in the introduction of a stop codon in the middle of the XNP-coding sequence. Only the abnormal transcript is expressed in two first cousins presenting the classic ATR-X phenotype (with {alpha}-thalassemia and HbH inclusions). In a distant cousin presenting a similar dysmorphic MR phenotype but not having thalassemia, {approximately}30% of the XNP transcripts are normal. These data demonstrate that the mode of action of the XNP gene product on globin expression is distinct from its mode of action in brain development and facial morphogenesis and suggest that other dysmorphic mental retardation phenotypes, such as Juberg-Marsidi or some sporadic cases of Coffin-Lowry, could be due to mutations in XNP. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. SAXS and ATR-FTIR studies on EBT-TSX mixtures in their sol-gel phases.

    PubMed

    Hirun, Namon; Rugmai, Supagorn; Sangfai, Tanatchaporn; Tantishaiyakul, Vimon

    2012-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that mixtures of tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) with appropriate concentrations of eriochrome black T (EBT) produced a gel that could be of benefit for medical use. Here, the sol-gel systems of various fresh and aged mixtures were further investigated using rheological measurements. The nanostructural changes of EBT-TSX sol-gel phases were analyzed using SAXS. The interactions between EBT and TSX in the sol and gel states were examined using ATR-FTIR. SAXS data analysis demonstrated that the mixture containing lower concentration of EBT formed rod-like structures and that with higher concentrations of EBT produced flat particles. The sizes of the TSX structures from the aged mixtures in the gel stage were larger than those from the same mixtures in the sol state. ATR-FTIR spectral changes revealed that the azo and sulfonic acid groups of EBT interacted with the TSX, and the characteristic spectrum of the sulfonic acid group of EBT could discriminate between the sol and gel state of the EBT-TSX systems. The interactions between EBT and TSX may cause conformational changes to TSX and facilitate the sol-gel transition or formation of a gel.

  4. An overactivated ATR/CHK1 pathway is responsible for the prolonged G2 accumulation in irradiated AT cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiang; Khadpe, Jay; Hu, Baocheng; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2003-01-01

    Induction of checkpoint responses in G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a key role in initiating this response in all three phases of the cell cycle. However, cells lacking functional ATM exhibit a prolonged G2 arrest after IR, suggesting regulation by an ATM-independent checkpoint response. The mechanism for this ataxia telangiectasia (AT)-independent G2-checkpoint response remains unknown. We report here that the G2 checkpoint in irradiated human AT cells derives from an overactivation of the ATR/CHK1 pathway. Chk1 small interfering RNA abolishes the IR-induced prolonged G2 checkpoint and radiosensitizes AT cells to killing. These results link the activation of ATR/CHK1 with the prolonged G2 arrest in AT cells and show that activation of this G2 checkpoint contributes to the survival of AT cells.

  5. Characterization of compression-molded UHMWPE, PMMA and PMMA/MMA treated UHMWPE: density measurement, FTIR-ATR, and DSC.

    PubMed

    Park, K D; Khang, G S; Lee, H B; Park, J B

    2001-01-01

    Considered one of the weak links in the total hip replacement (THR), efforts to enhance the interfacial strength between bone cement and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup had been conducted in this laboratory. Following the successful demonstration of high interfacial strengths for our new acetabular component design, the nature of physical, chemical, and thermal property of the compression-molded specimens, including UHMWPE, PMMA/MMA treated UHMWPE, and PMMA has been investigated in this study. Density results from a density gradient column showed that the molding processes and conditions were adequate for complete sintering of UHMWPE and PMMA powders. FTIR-ATR results gave a direct evidence that PMMA did exist in the PMMA/MMA treated UHMWPE matrix. It also revealed a clear diffusion-related behavior across the interface. Under the high temperature and pressure, the UHMWPE powders undergo drastic changes of their morphology and crystalline structures. These changes were examined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) which showed a large difference in terms of % crystallinity. The percent of PMMA deposited in the treated UHMWPE was 17.8%, 18.8%, and 24.3% from the analyses of density, FTIR-ATR, and DSC, respectively. Finally, an evidence of diffusive behavior at the interface exhibited diffusion of PMMA occurring across the interfaces between the treated UHMWPE and UHMWPE or PMMA.

  6. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  7. Galiellalactone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the ATM/ATR pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Cantarero, Irene; Sterner, Olov; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-26

    Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal metabolite that presents antitumor activities on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. In this study we show that GL induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, caspase-dependent apoptosis and also affected the microtubule organization and migration ability in DU145 cells. GL did not induce double strand DNA break but activated the ATR and ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) inducing CHK1, H2AX phosphorylation (fH2AX) and CDC25C downregulation. Inhibition of the ATM/ATR activation with caffeine reverted GL-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage measured by fH2AX. In contrast, UCN-01, a CHK1 inhibitor, prevented GL-induced cell cycle arrest but enhanced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Furthermore, we found that GL did not increase the levels of intracellular ROS, but the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely prevented the effects of GL on fH2AX, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In contrast to NAC, other antioxidants such as ambroxol and EGCG did not interfere with the activity of GL on cell cycle. GL significantly suppressed DU145 xenograft growth in vivo and induced the expression of fH2AX in the tumors. These findings identify for the first time that GL activates DDR in prostate cancer.

  8. Galiellalactone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the ATM/ATR pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    García, Víctor; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Cantarero, Irene; Sterner, Olov; Calzado, Marco A.; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Galiellalactone (GL) is a fungal metabolite that presents antitumor activities on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. In this study we show that GL induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, caspase-dependent apoptosis and also affected the microtubule organization and migration ability in DU145 cells. GL did not induce double strand DNA break but activated the ATR and ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) inducing CHK1, H2AX phosphorylation (fH2AX) and CDC25C downregulation. Inhibition of the ATM/ATR activation with caffeine reverted GL-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage measured by fH2AX. In contrast, UCN-01, a CHK1 inhibitor, prevented GL-induced cell cycle arrest but enhanced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Furthermore, we found that GL did not increase the levels of intracellular ROS, but the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely prevented the effects of GL on fH2AX, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In contrast to NAC, other antioxidants such as ambroxol and EGCG did not interfere with the activity of GL on cell cycle. GL significantly suppressed DU145 xenograft growth in vivo and induced the expression of fH2AX in the tumors. These findings identify for the first time that GL activates DDR in prostate cancer. PMID:26683224

  9. Cell cycle-dependent DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 involves ATM, ATR, CHK2, and BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Iha; Avraham, Hava Karsenty . E-mail: havraham@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2006-07-01

    Topoisomerase II is essential for cell proliferation and survival and has been a target of various anticancer drugs. ICRF-193 has long been used as a catalytic inhibitor to study the function of topoisomerase II. Here, we show that ICRF-193 treatment induces DNA damage signaling. Treatment with ICRF-193 induced G2 arrest and DNA damage signaling involving {gamma}-H2AX foci formation and CHK2 phosphorylation. DNA damage by ICRF-193 was further demonstrated by formation of the nuclear foci of 53BP1, NBS1, BRCA1, MDC1, and FANCD2 and increased comet tail moment. The DNA damage signaling induced by ICRF-193 was mediated by ATM and ATR and was restricted to cells in specific cell cycle stages such as S, G2, and mitosis including late and early G1 phases. Downstream signaling of ATM and ATR involved the phosphorylation of CHK2 and BRCA1. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ICRF-193 induces DNA damage signaling in a cell cycle-dependent manner and suggest that topoisomerase II might be essential for the progression of the cell cycle at several stages including DNA decondensation.

  10. In situ ATR-IR spectroscopic and electron microscopic analyses of settlement secretions of Undaria pinnatifida kelp spores

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, L.; Easingwood, R.; Barker, M. F.; McQuillan, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the settlement of marine organisms on substrates is important for the development of environmentally benign new methods for control of marine biofouling. The adhesion to substrates by spores of Undaria pinnatifida, a kelp species that is invasive to several countries, was studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) as well as by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The IR spectra showed that adhesive secretion began approximately 15 min after initial settlement and that the adhesive bulk material contained protein and anionic polysaccharides. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the adhesive identified sulphur and phosphorus as well as calcium and magnesium ions, which facilitate the gelation of the anionic polysaccharides in the sea water. The adhesive may be secreted from Golgi bodies in the spore, which were imaged by TEM of spore thin sections. Additionally, an in situ settlement study on TiO2 particle film by ATR-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of phosphorylated moieties directly binding the substrate. The presence of anionic groups dominating the adhesive suggests that inhibition of spore adhesion will be favoured by negatively charged surfaces. PMID:20685693

  11. Identifying the mechanisms of drug release from amorphous solid dispersions using MRI and ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Punčochová, Kateřina; Ewing, Andrew V; Gajdošová, Michaela; Sarvašová, Nina; Kazarian, Sergei G; Beránek, Josef; Štěpánek, František

    2015-04-10

    The dissolution mechanism of a poorly aqueous soluble drug from amorphous solid dispersions was investigated using a combination of two imaging methods: attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The rates of elementary processes such as water penetration, polymer swelling, growth and erosion of gel layer, and the diffusion, release and in some cases precipitation of drug were evaluated by image analysis. The results from the imaging methods were compared with drug release profiles obtained by classical dissolution tests. The study was conducted using three polymeric excipients (soluplus, polyvinylpyrrolidone - PVP K30, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose - HPMC 100M) alone and in combination with a poorly soluble drug, aprepitant. The imaging methods were complementary: ATR-FTIR imaging enabled a qualitative observation of all three components during the dissolution experiments, water, polymer and drug, including identifying structural changes from the amorphous form of drug to the crystalline form. The comparison of quantitative MRI data with drug release profiles enabled the different processes during dissolution to be established and the rate-limiting step to be identified, which - for the drug-polymer combinations investigated in this work - was the drug diffusion through the gel layer rather than water penetration into the tablet. PMID:25686660

  12. SAXS and ATR-FTIR studies on EBT-TSX mixtures in their sol-gel phases.

    PubMed

    Hirun, Namon; Rugmai, Supagorn; Sangfai, Tanatchaporn; Tantishaiyakul, Vimon

    2012-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that mixtures of tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) with appropriate concentrations of eriochrome black T (EBT) produced a gel that could be of benefit for medical use. Here, the sol-gel systems of various fresh and aged mixtures were further investigated using rheological measurements. The nanostructural changes of EBT-TSX sol-gel phases were analyzed using SAXS. The interactions between EBT and TSX in the sol and gel states were examined using ATR-FTIR. SAXS data analysis demonstrated that the mixture containing lower concentration of EBT formed rod-like structures and that with higher concentrations of EBT produced flat particles. The sizes of the TSX structures from the aged mixtures in the gel stage were larger than those from the same mixtures in the sol state. ATR-FTIR spectral changes revealed that the azo and sulfonic acid groups of EBT interacted with the TSX, and the characteristic spectrum of the sulfonic acid group of EBT could discriminate between the sol and gel state of the EBT-TSX systems. The interactions between EBT and TSX may cause conformational changes to TSX and facilitate the sol-gel transition or formation of a gel. PMID:22652217

  13. Identification of the First ATRIP–Deficient Patient and Novel Mutations in ATR Define a Clinical Spectrum for ATR–ATRIP Seckel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Tom; Hobson, Emma; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Carpenter, Gillian; Prescott, Katrina; Suri, Mohnish; Byrd, Philip J.; Matsuse, Michiko; Mitsutake, Norisato; Nakazawa, Yuka; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Barrow, Margaret; Stewart, Grant S.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.

    2012-01-01

    A homozygous mutational change in the Ataxia-Telangiectasia and RAD3 related (ATR) gene was previously reported in two related families displaying Seckel Syndrome (SS). Here, we provide the first identification of a Seckel Syndrome patient with mutations in ATRIP, the gene encoding ATR–Interacting Protein (ATRIP), the partner protein of ATR required for ATR stability and recruitment to the site of DNA damage. The patient has compound heterozygous mutations in ATRIP resulting in reduced ATRIP and ATR expression. A nonsense mutational change in one ATRIP allele results in a C-terminal truncated protein, which impairs ATR–ATRIP interaction; the other allele is abnormally spliced. We additionally describe two further unrelated patients native to the UK with the same novel, heterozygous mutations in ATR, which cause dramatically reduced ATR expression. All patient-derived cells showed defective DNA damage responses that can be attributed to impaired ATR–ATRIP function. Seckel Syndrome is characterised by microcephaly and growth delay, features also displayed by several related disorders including Majewski (microcephalic) osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) type II and Meier-Gorlin Syndrome (MGS). The identification of an ATRIP–deficient patient provides a novel genetic defect for Seckel Syndrome. Coupled with the identification of further ATR–deficient patients, our findings allow a spectrum of clinical features that can be ascribed to the ATR–ATRIP deficient sub-class of Seckel Syndrome. ATR–ATRIP patients are characterised by extremely severe microcephaly and growth delay, microtia (small ears), micrognathia (small and receding chin), and dental crowding. While aberrant bone development was mild in the original ATR–SS patient, some of the patients described here display skeletal abnormalities including, in one patient, small patellae, a feature characteristically observed in Meier-Gorlin Syndrome. Collectively, our analysis exposes an

  14. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  15. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  16. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  17. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P < 0

  18. High-performance liquid chromatography with diamond ATR-FTIR detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Andrea; Diewok, Josef; Baena, Josefa Rodriguez; Lendl, Bernhard

    2003-05-01

    A horizontal diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element has been incorporated in a flow-through cell with low dead volume and used for on-line mid-IR detection in high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical inertness of the ATR element permitted the use of a strongly acidic mobile phase in the isocratic separation. The hyphenation was used for the analysis of organic acids, sugars and alcohols in red wine. In the case of co-eluting analytes multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was successfully employed for quantitative analysis.

  19. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  20. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  1. Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control for each capsule. The swept gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The design of the first experiment (designated AGR-1) was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the test train as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that monitor and control the experiment during irradiation were completed in September 2006. The experiment was inserted in the ATR in December 2006, and is serving as a shakedown test of the multi-capsule experiment design that will be used in the subsequent irradiations as well as a test of the early variants of the fuel produced under this program. The experiment test train as well as the monitoring, control, and data collection systems are discussed and the status of the experiment is provided.

  2. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  3. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151B-2, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B and 154A

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2013-09-01

    This report documents the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, and 154A, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 13,400,520 every minute instantaneous TC and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. Of these data, 8,911,791 records (66.5% of the total) were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. For temperature, there were 4,266,081 records (74% of the total TC data) that were Failed due to TC instrument failures. For sweep gas flows, there were 222,648 gas flow records (2.91% of the flow data) that were Failed. The inlet gas flow failures due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred after Cycle 150A were corrected by using the same gas mixture in all six capsules and the Leadout. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for three reactor cycles (Cycles 149B, 150B, and 151A) . This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The qualification status of these FPMS data has been set to In Process until receipt of Quality Assurance-approved data generator reports. All of the above data have been processed and tested using a SAS®-based enterprise application software system, stored in a secure Structured Query Language database, made available on the NDMAS Web portal (http://ndmas.inl.gov), and approved by the INL STIM for release to both internal and appropriate external Very High Temperature Reactor Program participants.

  4. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (<1 μm) in the fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  5. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  6. X-linked [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: Localization to Xq12-q21. 31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.J.; Buckle, V.J.; Higgs, D.R.; Suthers, G.K. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with [alpha]-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, they have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH (hemoglobin H) inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DCS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the [alpha]-globin genes. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: localization to Xq12-q21.31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R J; Suthers, G K; Wilkie, A O; Buckle, V J; Higgs, D R

    1992-01-01

    We have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, we have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DXS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the alpha-globin genes. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1415255

  8. Minimum criticality dose evaluation for the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    The Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The mission of the facility is to provide safe dry storage for various types of irradiated fuels. Included are fuel elements such as irradiated ATR, EBR, MTR, Fort St. Vrain, TRIGA, and ROVER Parka fuels. Fuels requiring dry storage are received at the IFSF in fuel-shipping casks. At the facility receiving dock, the casks are removed from the transport vehicle, positioned in a cask transport car, and moved into the fuel-handling cave. Several functions are performed in the fuel-handling cave, including transferring fuel from shipping casks to storage canisters, preparing fuel elements for storage and processing. The minimum postulated criticality dose calculations were performed for the cask-receiving and fuel-handling areas to place criticality alarm system (CAS) detectors. The number of fissions for the minimum accident of concern is based on a dose of 20-rad air at 2 m in 1 min. The eigenvalue calculations were first performed to determine the size of the critical source. Then, two sets of fixed-source calculations were followed to calculate contributions from neutron and capture gamma rays and from prompt gamma rays. Two sets of MCNP calculations involved point and spherical critical sources. Validity of the Monte Carlo results was tested against ANISN deterministic calculations. The flux-to-dose conversion factors are based on ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977. All of the MCNP runs used continuous-energy ENDF/B-V cross sections. The BUGLE-80 cross-section library was used for the ANISN calculations.

  9. FABRICATION OF URANIUM OXYCARBIDE KERNELS AND COMPACTS FOR HTR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    As part of the program to demonstrate tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel is being irradiation tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This testing has led to improved kernel fabrication techniques, the formation of TRISO fuel particles, and upgrades to the overcoating, compaction, and heat treatment processes. Combined, these improvements provide a fuel manufacturing process that meets the stringent requirements associated with testing in the AGR experimentation program. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are working in conjunction with a team from Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to (a) improve the quality of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel kernels, (b) deposit TRISO layers to produce a fuel that meets or exceeds the standard developed by German researches in the 1980s, and (c) develop a process to overcoat TRISO particles with the same matrix material, but applies it with water using equipment previously and successfully employed in the pharmaceutical industry. A primary goal of this work is to simplify the process, making it more robust and repeatable while relying less on operator technique than prior overcoating efforts. A secondary goal is to improve first-pass yields to greater than 95% through the use of established technology and equipment. In the first test, called “AGR-1,” graphite compacts containing approximately 300,000 coated particles were irradiated from December 2006 to November 2009. The AGR-1 fuel was designed to closely replicate many of the properties of German TRISO-coated particles, thought to be important for good fuel performance. No release of gaseous fission product, indicative of particle coating failure, was detected in the nearly 3-year irradiation to a peak burn up of 19.6% at a time-average temperature of 1038–1121°C. Before fabricating AGR-2 fuel, each

  10. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  11. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K Hartwell; John B. Walter

    2008-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  12. Monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum by combined ATR-FTIR and tape-stripping experiments.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Holper, Evelyn; Baurecht, Dieter; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and tape-stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of different surfactants in the stratum corneum (SC). To reveal a possible connection between the size of the formed micelles and skin penetration, dynamic light-scattering measurements of the aqueous surfactant solutions were also taken. Compared to an alkyl polyglycoside and sucrose laurate, a deeper skin penetration of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) und sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) could be related to a smaller size of the formed micelles. Beside the differences in spatial distribution, a link between the physical presence of anionic surfactants in the SC and a decrease of skin hydration was found. Furthermore, the incorporation of SDS and SLES into the SC, even after a brief, consumer-orientated washing procedure with commercially available hair shampoos, was confirmed. PMID:25612540

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  14. Rapid evaluation and quantitative analysis of thyme, origano and chamomile essential oils by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Krüger, Hans

    2003-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from various chemotypes of thyme, origano and chamomile species were studied by ATR/FT-IR as well as NIR spectroscopy. Application of multivariate statistics (PCA, PLS) in conjunction with analytical reference data leads to very good IR and NIR calibration results. For the main essential oil components (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, α-bisabolol and β-farnesene) standard errors are in the range of the applied GC reference method. In most cases the multiple coefficients of determination ( R2) are >0.97. Using the IR fingerprint region (900-1400 cm -1) a qualitative discrimination of the individual chemotypes is possible already by visual judgement without to apply any chemometric algorithms.The described rapid and non-destructive methods can be applied in industry to control very easily purifying, blending and redistillation processes of the mentioned essential oils.

  15. Tensile and impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at low temperatures in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Subsize tensile and Charpy specimens made from several V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on mechanical properties. These specimens were contained in lithium-bonded subcapsules and irradiated at temperatures between {approx}200 and 300 C. Peak neutron damage was {approx}4.7 dpa. Postirradiation testing of these specimens has begun. Preliminary results from a limited number of specimens indicate a significant loss of work-hardening capability and dynamic toughness due to the irradiation. These results are consistent with data from previous low-temperature neutron irradiation experiments on these alloys.

  16. Crystallization kinetics from mixture Na2SO4/glycerol droplets of Na2SO4 by FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dan-Ting; Cai, Chen; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Na; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The efflorescence of mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols on the ZnSe substrate with various mole ratios (Na2SO4/glycerol = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4) has been studied in the relative humidity (RH) linearly decline process, using a situ Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique. The crystal ratio at a given RH can be gained by the absorbance of the band at 1132 cm-1, which shows the incomplete nucleation for mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols and the decreased amount of the droplets crystallized at the lowest RH with the glycerol increase. Using the volume fraction of droplets that have yet to crystallize, the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics has been gained. By the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the nucleation rate as the function of solute saturation degree has been gained for various mixed Na2SO4/glycerol aerosols.

  17. Bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo: Dose and schedule predictions for the ATR inhibitor AZD6738

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, Stephen; MacCallum, Linda; Yates, James; Jasper, Paul; Luo, Haobin; Tolsma, John; Bendtsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the therapeutic effect of drug dose and scheduling is critical to inform the design and implementation of clinical trials. The increasing complexity of both mono, and particularly combination therapies presents a substantial challenge in the clinical stages of drug development for oncology. Using a systems pharmacology approach, we have extended an existing PK-PD model of tumor growth with a mechanistic model of the cell cycle, enabling simulation of mono and combination treatment with the ATR inhibitor AZD6738 and ionizing radiation. Using AZD6738, we have developed multi-parametric cell based assays measuring DNA damage and cell cycle transition, providing quantitative data suitable for model calibration. Our in vitro calibrated cell cycle model is predictive of tumor growth observed in in vivo mouse xenograft studies. The model is being used for phase I clinical trial designs for AZD6738, with the aim of improving patient care through quantitative dose and scheduling prediction. PMID:26310312

  18. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  19. Cellulose acetate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolyte: ATR-FTIR and ionic conductivity behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Razalli, Siti Masyitah; Sheikh Mohd Saaid, Siti Irma Yuana; Marwan Ali, Ab Malik; Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on cellulose acetate (CA) doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt are prepared by solution cast technique. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the polymer salt complexes are recorded in the frequency range between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. The shifting of carbonyl band (C=O) at 1737 cm-1 to a lower wavenumber confirms the occurrence of complexation between the polymer and the salt. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis discovered that the film with 25 wt.% of salt shows the highest ionic conductivity at room temperature. The change in real dielectric permittivity (ɛr) as a function of frequency at different salt concentrations which exhibits a dispersive behavior at low frequencies and decays at higher frequencies, shows the electrode polarization and space charge effect. The real modulus formalism (Mr) analysis shows that the polymer electrolytes in this work are ionic conductors.

  20. Immobilization of proteins in their physiological active state at functionalized thiol monolayers on ATR-germanium crystals.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Jonas; Gavriljuk, Konstantin; Nabers, Andreas; Weide, Philipp; Muhler, Martin; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2014-11-24

    Protein immobilization on solid surfaces has become a powerful tool for the investigation of protein function. Physiologically relevant molecular reaction mechanisms and interactions of proteins can be revealed with excellent signal-to-noise ratio by vibrational spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on germanium crystals. Protein immobilization by thiol chemistry is well-established on gold surfaces, for example, for surface plasmon resonance. Here, we combine features of both approaches: a germanium surface functionalized with different thiols to allow specific immobilization of various histidine-tagged proteins with over 99% specific binding. In addition to FTIR, the surfaces were characterized by XPS and fluorescence microscopy. Secondary-structure analysis and stimulus-induced difference spectroscopy confirmed protein activity at the atomic level, for example, physiological cation channel formation of Channelrhodopsin 2.

  1. Monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum by combined ATR-FTIR and tape-stripping experiments.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Holper, Evelyn; Baurecht, Dieter; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and tape-stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of different surfactants in the stratum corneum (SC). To reveal a possible connection between the size of the formed micelles and skin penetration, dynamic light-scattering measurements of the aqueous surfactant solutions were also taken. Compared to an alkyl polyglycoside and sucrose laurate, a deeper skin penetration of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) und sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) could be related to a smaller size of the formed micelles. Beside the differences in spatial distribution, a link between the physical presence of anionic surfactants in the SC and a decrease of skin hydration was found. Furthermore, the incorporation of SDS and SLES into the SC, even after a brief, consumer-orientated washing procedure with commercially available hair shampoos, was confirmed.

  2. Formulation and drug-content assay of microencapsulated antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB using ATR-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwale, Rodney; Meadows, Fred; Mody, Vicky V.; Shah, Samit

    2013-09-01

    Antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB sequence: 5‧-GGA AAC ACA TCC TCC ATG-3‧, was microencapsulated in an albumin matrix by the method of spray dryingTM. Spectral analysis was performed on varying drug loading formulations of both drugs by mid-IR attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An out of plane O-H bending vibration at 948 cm-1, unique to both the native and microencapsulated drugs was identified. The calculated peak areas corresponded to the drug loadings in the microsphere formulations. A standard curve could then be used to determine the drug content of an unknown microsphere formulation. Accuracy and precision were determined to be comparable to other analytical techniques such as HPLC.

  3. ATR-IR spectroscopic study of the structural changes in the hydrophobic region of ICPAN/DPPC bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Perevozkina, Margarita; Filarowski, Aleksander; Boens, Noël; De Borggraeve, Wim M.; Koll, Aleksander

    2008-04-01

    Structural changes in the hydrophobic region in the self-aggregates of the long hydrocarbon chain ICPAN ((( N, N-dimethyl- N-octyl-2-ammonioethyl)-3-(3,5-di- tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate bromide)) homologues and their interaction with a DPPC (dipalmitoylophosphatidylcholine) bilayer were the subject of detailed investigation using ATR infrared spectroscopy. On the base of analysis of the bands assigned to CH 2 stretching, scissoring, and rocking and CH wagging vibrations it was revealed that the hydrophobic parts ICPANs adopt a gauche-rich disordering structure. Moreover, it was shown that the micellar- or lamellar-like character of these structures depends on the hydrocarbon chain length. Results obtained from the ICPAN/DPPC mixtures indicate an increase in the conformational disorder in hydrophobic part compare to pure DPPC film. This effect depends on the length of the aliphatic chain of ICPAN homologues and on the relative concentrations of DPPC and ICPAN.

  4. Bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo: Dose and schedule predictions for the ATR inhibitor AZD6738.

    PubMed

    Checkley, Stephen; MacCallum, Linda; Yates, James; Jasper, Paul; Luo, Haobin; Tolsma, John; Bendtsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the therapeutic effect of drug dose and scheduling is critical to inform the design and implementation of clinical trials. The increasing complexity of both mono, and particularly combination therapies presents a substantial challenge in the clinical stages of drug development for oncology. Using a systems pharmacology approach, we have extended an existing PK-PD model of tumor growth with a mechanistic model of the cell cycle, enabling simulation of mono and combination treatment with the ATR inhibitor AZD6738 and ionizing radiation. Using AZD6738, we have developed multi-parametric cell based assays measuring DNA damage and cell cycle transition, providing quantitative data suitable for model calibration. Our in vitro calibrated cell cycle model is predictive of tumor growth observed in in vivo mouse xenograft studies. The model is being used for phase I clinical trial designs for AZD6738, with the aim of improving patient care through quantitative dose and scheduling prediction. PMID:26310312

  5. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Evidence for Biomolecular Phosphorus and Carboxyl Groups Facilitating Bacterial Adhesion to Iron Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Sanjai J.; Mukome, Fungai N.D.; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to probe the binding of bacteria to hematite (α-Fe2O3) and goethite (α-FeOOH). In situ ATR-FTIR experiments with bacteria (Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), mixed amino acids, polypeptide extracts, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and a suite of model compounds were conducted. These compounds represent carboxyl, catecholate, amide, and phosphate groups present in siderophores, amino acids, polysaccharides, phospholipids, and DNA. Due in part to the ubiquitous presence of carboxyl groups in biomolecules, numerous IR peaks corresponding to outer-sphere or unbound (1400 cm−1) and inner-sphere (1310-1320 cm−1) coordinated carboxyl groups are noted following reaction of bacteria and biomolecules with α-Fe2O3 and α-FeOOH. However, the data also reveal that the presence of low-level amounts (i.e., 0.45-0.79%) of biomolecular phosphorous groups result in strong IR bands at ~1043 cm−1, corresponding to inner-sphere Fe-O-P bonds, underscoring the importance of bacteria associated P-containing groups in biomolecule and cell adhesion. Spectral comparisons also reveal slightly greater P-O-Fe contributions for bacteria (Pseudomonad, E. coli) deposited on α-FeOOH, as compared to α-Fe2O3. This data demonstrates that slight differences in bacterial adhesion to Fe oxides can be attributed to bacterial species and Fe-oxide minerals. However, more importantly, the strong binding affinity of phosphate in all bacteria samples to both Fe-oxides results in the formation of inner-sphere Fe-O-P bonds, signifying the critical role of biomolecular P in the initiation of bacterial adhesion. PMID:24859052

  6. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Roger, J. C.; Sellegri, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Gomes, L.; Quennehen, B.; Roberts, G.; Weigel, R.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Bourrianne, T.; Laj, P.

    2013-05-01

    Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project, the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped to study the aerosol physical, chemical, hygroscopic and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin, allowing for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. This study shows that the extensive aerosol parameters (aerosol mass and number concentrations) show vertical decreasing gradients and in some air masses maximum mass concentrations (mainly organics) in an intermediate layer (1-3 km). The observed mass concentrations (in the boundary layer (BL): between 10 and 30 μg m-3; lower free troposphere (LFT): 0.8 and 14 μg m-3) are high especially in comparison with the 2015 European norms for PM2.5 (25 μg m-3) and with previous airborne studies performed over England (Morgan et al., 2009; McMeeking et al., 2012). Particle number size distributions show a larger fraction of particles in the accumulation size range in the LFT compared to BL. The chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organics in the BL, while ammonium sulphate dominates the submicron aerosols in the LFT, especially in the aerosol particles originated from north-eastern Europe (~ 80%), also experiencing nucleation events along the transport. As a consequence, first the particle CCN acting ability, shown by the CCN/CN ratio, and second the average values of the scattering cross sections of optically active particles (i.e. scattering coefficient divided by the optical active particle concentration) are increased in the LFT compared to BL.

  7. Classification of agents using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (CTA) with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Trevisan, Júlio; Pang, Weiyi; Riding, Matthew J; Strong, Rebecca J; Llabjani, Valon; Pant, Kamala; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Martin, Francis L

    2015-09-01

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (pH 6.7) has a reported sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 83%, and an overall concordance of 85% with in vivo rodent bioassay data. To date, the SHE assay is the only in vitro assay that exhibits multistage carcinogenicity. The assay uses morphological transformation, the first stage towards neoplasm, as an endpoint to predict the carcinogenic potential of a test agent. However, scoring of morphologically transformed SHE cells is subjective. We treated SHE cells grown on low-E reflective slides with 2,6-diaminotoluene, N-nitroso-N-ethylnitroguanidine, N-nitroso-N-methylurea, N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, EDTA, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO; vehicle control), methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[e]pyrene, mitomycin C, ethyl methanesulfonate, ampicillin or five different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Macroscopically visible SHE colonies were located on the slides and interrogated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy acquiring five spectra per colony. The acquired IR data were analysed using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) followed by principal component analysis (PCA)-LDA cluster vectors to extract major and minor discriminating wavenumbers for each treatment class. Each test agent vs. DMSO and treatment-induced transformed cells vs. corresponding non-transformed were classified by a unique combination of major and minor discriminating wavenumbers. Alterations associated with Amide I, Amide II, lipids and nucleic acids appear to be important in segregation of classes. Our findings suggest that a biophysical approach of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could facilitate a more objective interrogation of SHE cells towards scoring for transformation and ultimately employing the assay for risk assessment of test agents.

  8. Specific interactions between alkali metal cations and the KcsA channel studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Yuji; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Asai, Yusuke; Oiki, Shigetoshi; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray structure of KcsA, a eubacterial potassium channel, displays a selectivity filter composed of four parallel peptide strands. The backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms of these strands solvate multiple K+ ions. KcsA structures show different distributions of ions within the selectivity filter in solutions containing different cations. To assess the interactions of cations with the selectivity filter, we used attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Ion-exchange-induced ATR-FTIR difference spectra were obtained by subtracting the spectrum of KcsA soaked in K+ solution from that obtained in Li+, Na+, Rb+, and Cs+ solutions. Large spectral changes in the amide-I and -II regions were observed upon replacing K+ with smaller-sized cations Li+ and Na+ but not with larger-sized cations Rb+ and Cs+. These results strongly suggest that the selectivity filter carbonyls coordinating Rb+ or Cs+ adopt a conformation similar to those coordinating K+ (cage configuration), but those coordinating Li+ or Na+ adopt a conformation (plane configuration) considerably different from those coordinating K+. We have identified a cation-type sensitive amide-I band at 1681 cm−1 and an insensitive amide-I band at 1659 cm−1. The bands at 1650, 1639, and 1627 cm−1 observed for Na+-coordinating carbonyls were almost identical to those observed in Li+ solution, suggesting that KcsA forms a similar filter structure in Li+ and Na+ solutions. Thus, we conclude that the filter structure adopts a collapsed conformation in Li+ solution that is similar to that in Na+ solution but is in clear contrast to the X-ray crystal structure of KcsA with Li+. PMID:27493853

  9. Orientations of carboxylate groups coupled to the Mn cluster in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center as studied by polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iizasa, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Takumi

    2010-04-13

    It is essential to clarify the structures and interactions of amino acids surrounding the Mn cluster in photosystem II (PSII) to understand the molecular mechanism of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. In this study, polarized attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was applied for the first time to PSII to investigate the orientation of carboxylate groups coupled to the oxygen-evolving Mn cluster. PSII membranes from spinach were oriented on the surface of a silicon ATR crystal, and flash-induced polarized ATR-FTIR difference spectra for the S(1) --> S(2) transition (S(2)/S(1) spectra) were obtained. The distribution of membrane orientations by mosaic spread was estimated from the semiquinone CO peak in polarized Q(A)(-)/Q(A) difference spectra recorded using the same oriented sample by buffer exchange. The orientations of carboxylate groups coupled to the Mn cluster were estimated from the dichroic ratios of the symmetric COO(-) bands in the polarized S(2)/S(1) ATR-FTIR spectra. We found that most of the carboxylate groups perturbed during the S(1) --> S(2) transition, due to direct ligation to the Mn cluster or though a hydrogen bond network, have orientations in a relatively narrow angle range of 34-48 degrees with respect to the membrane normal. Implications of the obtained orientations and the changes upon formation of S(2) are discussed on the basis of the information from previous FTIR studies and the X-ray structures. The results in this study show that polarized ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy is a fruitful method for investigating the orientations and their reaction-induced changes in redox cofactors and coupled amino acid side chains in photosynthetic proteins.

  10. Characterization of LWRS Hybrid SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding after Gamma Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Isabella J van Rooyen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the gamma irradiation tests conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was to obtain a better understanding of chemical interactions and potential changes in microstructural properties of a mock-up hybrid nuclear fuel cladding rodlet design (unfueled) in a simulated PWR water environment under irradiation conditions. The hybrid fuel rodlet design is being investigated under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program for further development and testing of one of the possible advanced LWR nuclear fuel cladding designs. The gamma irradiation tests were performed in preparation for neutron irradiation tests planned for a silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) hybrid fuel rodlet that may be tested in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) if the design is selected for further development and testing

  11. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report December 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Renae Soelberg

    2014-12-01

    • PNNL has completed sectioning of the U.C. Berkeley hydride fuel rodlet 1 (highest burn-up) and is currently polishing samples in preparation for optical metallography. • A disk was successfully sectioned from rodlet 1 at the location of the internal thermocouple tip as desired. The transition from annular pellet to solid pellet is verified by the eutectic-filled inner cavity located on the back face of this disk (top left) and the solid front face (bottom left). Preliminary low-resolution images indicate interesting sample characteristics in the eutectic surrounding the rodlet at the location of the outer thermocouple tip (right). This sample has been potted and is currently being polished for high-resolution optical microscopy and subsequent SEM analysis. (See images.)

  12. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  13. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  14. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  15. Analysis of the Reactor Physics of Low-Enrichment Fuel for the INL Advanced Test Reactor in support of RERTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mark DeHart; William Skerjanc; Sean Morrell

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of the performance of the ATR with a LEU fuel design shows promise in terms of a core design that will yield the same neutron sources in target locations. A proposed integral cladding burnable absorber design appears to meet power profile requirements that will satisfy power distributions for safety limits. Performance of this fuel design is ongoing; the current work is the initial evaluation of the core performance of this fuel design with increasing burnup. Results show that LEU fuel may have a longer lifetime that HEU fuel however, such limits may be set by mechanical performance of the fuel rather that available reactivity. Changes seen in the radial fuel power distribution with burnup in LEU fuel will require further study to ascertain the impact on neutron fluxes in target locations. Source terms for discharged fuel have also been studied. By its very nature, LEU fuel produces much more plutonium than is present in HEU fuel at discharge. However, the effect of the plutonium inventory appears to have little affect on radiotoxicity or decay heat in the fuel.

  16. Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, Stanley Blaine; Metcalfe, M. P.

    2002-04-01

    A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on their graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment.

  17. Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.B.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    2002-03-14

    A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on the ir graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment.

  18. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  19. An FTIR method for the analysis of crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes to assist in oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brenden J; Lennard, Chris; Fuller, Stephen; Spikmans, Val

    2016-09-01

    A proof-of-concept spectroscopic method for crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes was developed to complement existing methods for source determination of oil spills. Current methods rely on the analysis of the volatile fraction of oils by Gas Chromatography (GC), whilst the non-volatile fraction, including asphaltenes, is discarded. By discarding the non-volatile fraction, important oil fingerprinting information is potentially lost. Ten oil samples representing various geographical regions were used in this study. The asphaltene fraction was precipitated from the oils using excess n-pentane, and analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Based on visual interpretation of FTIR spectra along with peak height ratio comparisons, all ten oil samples could be differentiated from one another. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR was not able to differentiate a weathered crude oil sample from its source sample, demonstrating significant potential for the application of asphaltenes in oil fingerprinting.

  20. An FTIR method for the analysis of crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes to assist in oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brenden J; Lennard, Chris; Fuller, Stephen; Spikmans, Val

    2016-09-01

    A proof-of-concept spectroscopic method for crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes was developed to complement existing methods for source determination of oil spills. Current methods rely on the analysis of the volatile fraction of oils by Gas Chromatography (GC), whilst the non-volatile fraction, including asphaltenes, is discarded. By discarding the non-volatile fraction, important oil fingerprinting information is potentially lost. Ten oil samples representing various geographical regions were used in this study. The asphaltene fraction was precipitated from the oils using excess n-pentane, and analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Based on visual interpretation of FTIR spectra along with peak height ratio comparisons, all ten oil samples could be differentiated from one another. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR was not able to differentiate a weathered crude oil sample from its source sample, demonstrating significant potential for the application of asphaltenes in oil fingerprinting. PMID:27518037

  1. Investigation of aged Asian dust particles by the combined use of quantitative ED-EPMA and ATR-FTIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.-C.; Eom, H.-J.; Jung, H.-J.; Malek, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Geng, H.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-03-01

    In our previous works, it was demonstrated that the combined use of quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), which is also known as low-Z particle EPMA, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) imaging has great potential for a detailed characterization of individual aerosol particles. In this study, extensively chemically modified (aged) individual Asian dust particles collected during an Asian dust storm event on 11 November 2002 in Korea were characterized by the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and ATR-FTIR imaging. Overall, 109 individual particles were classified into four particle types based on their morphology, elemental concentrations, and molecular species and/or functional groups of individual particles available from the two analytical techniques: Ca-containing (38%), NaNO3-containing (30%), silicate (22%), and miscellaneous particles (10%). Among the 41 Ca-containing particles, 10, 8, and 14 particles contained nitrate, sulfate, and both, respectively, whereas only two particles contained unreacted CaCO3. Airborne amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles were observed in this Asian dust sample for the first time, where their IR peaks for the insufficient symmetric environment of CO32- ions of ACC were clearly differentiated from those of crystalline CaCO3. This paper also reports the first inland field observation of CaCl2 particles probably converted from CaCO3 through the reaction with HCl(g). HCl(g) was likely released from the reaction of sea salt with NOx/HNO3, as all 33 particles of marine origin contained NaNO3 (no genuine sea salt particle was encountered). Some silicate particles with minor amounts of calcium were observed to be mixed with nitrate, sulfate, and water. Among 24 silicate particles, 10 particles are mixed with water, the presence of which could facilitate atmospheric heterogeneous reactions of silicate particles including swelling minerals, such

  2. Surface processes occurring on Rh/alumina during chiral modification by cinchonidine: an ATR-IR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Erik; Ferri, Davide; Baiker, Alfons

    2007-07-17

    Cinchona alkaloids are frequently used for chiral modification of supported noble metal catalysts employed in heterogeneous enantioselective hydrogenation. In order to gain molecular insight into the surface processes occurring at the metal/liquid interface, cinchonidine (CD) adsorption on vapor-deposited Rh/Al2O3 films has been studied in the presence of solvent and hydrogen by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The spectrum of CD adsorbed on Rh exhibited two dominant signals at 1593 and 1511 cm(-1), which are characteristic of a surface species having a quinoline ring tilted with respect to the metal. Interestingly, no adsorbed modifier in the flat geometry (quinoline parallel to the metal plane) was observed. During desorption, these signals vanished, and a new prominent signal appeared at 1601 cm(-1) which belongs to a species with the quinoline ring hydrogenated on the heteroaromatic side. Concentration-dependent experiments and the reversibility of the observed phenomenon indicate that CD was readily hydrogenated to 1',2',3',4',10,11-hexahydrocinchonidine (CDH(6)) on Rh. The ATR-IR spectra also reveal that the flat species was indeed immediately hydrogenated when CD was provided from solution, and the only visible adsorbed species was the tilted species, which displaced the hydrogenation product from the metal surface. In the absence of dissolved CD, during desorption, the tilted species was converted to the flat species and rapidly hydrogenated. The hydrogenation product was stable on the metal surface only in the absence of CD. Therefore, the adsorption strength of the different species is as follows: flat > tilted > CDH(6). Evidence for the formation of the flat species and its role as an intermediate to the hydrogenation product is given by an experiment in which CD was adsorbed in the absence of dissolved hydrogen after surface cleaning. The adsorption and hydrogenation of CD on Rh deviate significantly from that

  3. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  4. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  5. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lawal, Adeniyi

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a demonstration size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  6. Effects of thermal treatment on the co-rolled U-Mo fuel foils

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Brady L. Mackowiak; Glenn A. Moore; Barry H. Rabin; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-11-01

    A monolithic fuel type is being developed to convert US high performance research and test reactors such as Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). The interaction between the cladding and the U-Mo fuel meat during fuel fabrication and irradiation is known to have negative impacts on fuel performance, such as mechanical integrity and dimensional stability. In order to eliminate/minimize the direct interaction between cladding and fuel meat, a thin zirconium diffusion barrier was introduced between the cladding and U-Mo fuel meat through a co-rolling process. A complex interface between the zirconium and U-Mo was developed during the co-rolling process. A predictable interface between zirconium and U-Mo is critical to achieve good fuel performance since the interfaces can be the weakest link in the monolithic fuel system. A post co-rolling annealing treatment is expected to create a well-controlled interface between zirconium and U-Mo. A systematic study utilizing post co-rolling annealing treatment has been carried out. Based on microscopy results, the impacts of the annealing treatment on the interface between zirconium and U-Mo will be presented and an optima annealing treatment schedule will be suggested. The effects of the annealing treatment on the fuel performance will also be discussed.

  7. Simultaneous monitoring of curing shrinkage and degree of cure of thermosets by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Francos, Xavier; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ramis, Xavier; Serra, Àngels

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel methodology to simultaneously monitor of the degree of cure and curing shrinkage of thermosetting formulations. This methodology is based on the observation of changes in the infrared absorption of reactive functional groups and the groups used as a standard reference for normalization. While the optical path length is exact and controlled in transmission infrared spectroscopy, in attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR), the exact determination of volume changes requires the measurement of the refractive indices of the studied system throughout the curing process or at least an indirect parallel measurement of this property. The methodology presented here allows one to achieve quantitative measurements of the degree of cure and shrinkage for thermosets using in situ ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

  8. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace

  9. Fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, S.L.

    1983-09-20

    A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

  10. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics of the Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) and Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) Dependent DNA Damage Response in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Roitinger, Elisabeth; Hofer, Manuel; Köcher, Thomas; Pichler, Peter; Novatchkova, Maria; Yang, Jianhua; Schlögelhofer, Peter; Mechtler, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is an important biological regulatory mechanism. In the context of genome integrity, signaling cascades driven by phosphorylation are crucial for the coordination and regulation of DNA repair. The two serine/threonine protein kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) are key factors in this process, each specific for different kinds of DNA lesions. They are conserved across eukaryotes, mediating the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints, chromatin modifications, and regulation of DNA repair proteins. We designed a novel mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics approach to study DNA damage repair in Arabidopsis thaliana. The protocol combines filter aided sample preparation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography, metal oxide affinity chromatography, and strong cation exchange chromatography for phosphopeptide generation, enrichment, and separation. Isobaric labeling employing iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) was used for profiling the phosphoproteome of atm atr double mutants and wild type plants under either regular growth conditions or challenged by irradiation. A total of 10,831 proteins were identified and 15,445 unique phosphopeptides were quantified, containing 134 up- and 38 down-regulated ATM/ATR dependent phosphopeptides. We identified known and novel ATM/ATR targets such as LIG4 and MRE11 (needed for resistance against ionizing radiation), PIE1 and SDG26 (implicated in chromatin remodeling), PCNA1, WAPL, and PDS5 (implicated in DNA replication), and ASK1 and HTA10 (involved in meiosis). PMID:25561503

  11. Installation and Final Testing of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) to Support Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert; J. B. Walter

    2006-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating tests of reactor fuel for use in an Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR). The AGR will use helium coolant, a low-power-density ceramic core, and coated-particle fuel. A series of eight (8) fuel irradiation tests are planned for the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). One important measure of fuel performance in these tests is quantification of the fission gas releases over the nominal 2-year duration of each irradiation experiment. This test objective will be met using the AGR Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) which includes seven (7) on-line detection stations viewing each of the six test capsule effluent lines (plus one spare). Each station incorporates both a heavily-shielded high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer for quantification of the isotopic releases, and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to monitor the total count rate and identify the timing of the releases. The AGR-1 experiment will begin irradiation after October 1, 2006. To support this experiment, the FPMS has been completely assembled, tested, and calibrated in a laboratory at the INL, and then reassembled and tested in its final location in the ATR reactor basement. This paper presents the details of the equipment performance, the control and acquisition software, the test plan for the irradiation monitoring, and the installation in the ATR basement. Preliminary on-line data may be available by the Conference date.

  12. Structural changes in cytochrome c oxidase induced by binding of sodium and calcium ions: an ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Amandine; Iwaki, Masayo; Rich, Peter R

    2013-04-17

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+)cations to bovine cytochrome c oxidase in its fully oxidized and partially reduced, cyanide-ligated (a(2+)a3(3+)-CN) (mixed valence) forms. These ions induced distinctly different IR binding spectra, indicating that the induced structural changes are different. Despite this, their binding spectra were mutually exclusive, confirming their known competitive binding behavior. Dissociation constants for Na(+) and Ca(2+) with the oxidized enzyme were 1.2 mM and 11 μM, respectively and Na(+) binding appeared to involve cooperative binding of two Na(+). Ca(2+) binding induced a large IR spectrum, with prominent amide I/II polypeptide changes, bandshifts assigned to carboxylate and an arginine, and a number of bandshifts of heme a. The Na(+)-induced binding spectrum showed much weaker amide I/II and heme a changes but had similar shifts assignable to carboxylate and arginine residues. Yeast CcO also displayed a calcium-induced IR and UV/visible binding spectra, though of lower intensities. This was attributed to the difficulty in fully depleting Ca(2+) from its binding site, as has been found with bacterial CcOs. The implications of Ca(2+)/Na(+) ion binding are discussed in terms of structure and possible modulation of core catalytic function. PMID:23537388

  13. Detection of lipid phase coexistence and lipid interactions in sphingomyelin/cholesterol membranes by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2008-04-01

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of egg sphingomyelin and cholesterol has been inspected by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in the amide I' band region of the spectrum. Because cholesterol does not have any major absorption bands in this region, effects seen in the spectra of mixtures of sphingomyelin and cholesterol can be attributed to the change in the lipid phase and to the interaction with cholesterol. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the overall bandwidth of the amide I' band displays a phase-specific behavior. In addition, it is observed that the amide I' band for a sample exhibiting phase coexistence can be described by a linear combination of the spectra of the individual lipid phases. Description of changes in the amide I' band shape and by that the study of possible hydrogen bonding interactions of sphingomyelin with cholesterol was assisted by the use of curve fitting. It turns out that the presence of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of cholesterol and carbonyl group of sphingomyelin is obscured by the complexity of different possible hydrogen bonding and coupling between the N-H (N-D) and the CO group vibrations. PMID:18191633

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  15. Validation of the combined ATR-FTIR/tape stripping technique for monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Baurecht, Dieter; Holper, Evelyn; Mahrhauser, Denise; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-09-10

    The physical presence of surfactants in the skin is linked to their skin irritation potential. Combined ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and tape stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) in the stratum corneum and to assess its effects on conformational order of stratum corneum intercellular lipids, secondary structure of keratin and skin hydration. It was possible to monitor the spatial distribution of SLES in the stratum corneum for the first time by subtracting spectra of untreated from treated skin samples and without the need of a perdeuterated form. This method of analysis was evaluated by addressing potential error sources such as differences in removed amounts of corneocytes and intra-individual changes in stratum corneum composition as a function of depth. The obtained results indicate a penetration of SLES into deep layers of the stratum corneum. Furthermore, SLES treatment led to significantly decreased skin hydration levels, whereas the secondary structure of keratin remained nearly unaffected. The reliability of this semi-quantitative method of analysis was confirmed by receiving a coefficient of determination of 0.9963 after making a correlation of deep depended absorbances of two different characteristic bands with different absorption coefficients.

  16. The effect of solvent on permeant diffusion through membranes studied using ATR-FTIR and chemometric data analysis.

    PubMed

    Dias, M; Hadgraft, J; Raghavan, S L; Tetteh, J

    2004-01-01

    One method of improving the bioavailability of a topical formulation is to add an appropriate solvent that will act as a solubilizer for the permeant and, at the same time, modify the barrier properties of the stratum corneum. It has proved very difficult to determine the precise mechanisms of action involved; this is complicated by the concurrent diffusion of the solvent and the permeant into the skin. Under these circumstances the barrier function may well be changing as a function of time as the solvent disrupts it. We have observed this phenomenon in a model silicone membrane system that we have chosen to study initially to avoid the complexity of the heterogeneous nature of skin and its inherent biological variability. Diffusion experiments were conducted using an established ATR-FTIR approach but the data interpreted using sophisticated chemometric approaches that allowed us to deconvolve the IR signals from the permeant, the solvent, and the membrane. Data are presented that show the concurrent diffusion of benzoic acid (permeant), octanol (solvent), and how the octanol modifies the characteristics of the silicone membrane. Initial data are then presented using human skin to show the power of the diffusion approach coupled to the data deconvolution technique.

  17. The effect of solvent on permeant diffusion through membranes studied using ATR-FTIR and chemometric data analysis.

    PubMed

    Dias, M; Hadgraft, J; Raghavan, S L; Tetteh, J

    2004-01-01

    One method of improving the bioavailability of a topical formulation is to add an appropriate solvent that will act as a solubilizer for the permeant and, at the same time, modify the barrier properties of the stratum corneum. It has proved very difficult to determine the precise mechanisms of action involved; this is complicated by the concurrent diffusion of the solvent and the permeant into the skin. Under these circumstances the barrier function may well be changing as a function of time as the solvent disrupts it. We have observed this phenomenon in a model silicone membrane system that we have chosen to study initially to avoid the complexity of the heterogeneous nature of skin and its inherent biological variability. Diffusion experiments were conducted using an established ATR-FTIR approach but the data interpreted using sophisticated chemometric approaches that allowed us to deconvolve the IR signals from the permeant, the solvent, and the membrane. Data are presented that show the concurrent diffusion of benzoic acid (permeant), octanol (solvent), and how the octanol modifies the characteristics of the silicone membrane. Initial data are then presented using human skin to show the power of the diffusion approach coupled to the data deconvolution technique. PMID:14648648

  18. Evidence of acid-base interactions between amines and model indoor surfaces by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Singer, Brett C.; Gundel, Lara A.

    Molecular associations of pyridine with cellulose and gypsum, surrogates for common indoor surface materials, were studied using an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometric method. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the molecular interactions of amines with well-characterized materials that affect their partitioning between indoor air and surfaces. The experimental results suggest the presence of at least two sorptive states for volatile and semivolatile amines, attributed to the chemisorbed species and to a more labile surface state (i.e., physisorbed pyridine). Both exhibited spectroscopic signatures corresponding to aromatic C-H stretching modes (2950-3100 cm -1) in the studied spectral region. Chemisorbed pyridine could be identified by the presence of additional IR signals in the N-H and O-H stretching region of the spectrum (2900-3600 cm -1). During desorption under a stream of N 2, surface enrichment in the chemisorbed species was evidenced by a slower reduction of the absorbance of the broad band at 2900-3600 cm -1 in relation to the total pyridine absorbance change. This spectroscopic evidence for acid-base interactions between amines and surfaces is consistent with the desorption behavior observed in previous work for nicotine from model surfaces.

  19. Intra-operative on-line discrimination of kidney cancer from normal tissue by IR ATR spectroscopy of extracellular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urboniene, V.; Velicka, M.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.

    2016-03-01

    Determination of cancerous and normal kidney tissues during partial, simple or radical nephrectomy surgery was performed by using differences in the IR absorption spectra of extracellular fluid taken from the corresponding tissue areas. The samples were prepared by stamping of the kidney tissue on ATR diamond crystal. The spectral measurements were performed directly in the OR during surgery for 58 patients. It was found that intensities of characteristic spectral bands of glycogen (880-1200 cm-1) in extracellular fluid are sensitive to the type of the tissue and can be used as spectral markers of tumours. Characteristic spectral band of lactic acid (1730 cm-1) - product of the anaerobic glycolysis, taking place in the cancer cells is not suitable for use as a spectral marker of cancerous tissue, since it overlaps with the band of carbonyl stretch in phospholipids and fatty acids. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis of the spectra show that the spectra of healthy and tumour tissue films can be reliably separated into two groups. On the other hand, possibility to differentiate between tumours of different types and grades remains in question. While the fluid from highly malignant G3 tumour tissue contains highly pronounced glycogen spectral bands and can be well separated from benign and G1 tumours by principal component analysis, the variations between spectra from sample to sample prevent from obtaining conclusive results about the grouping between different tumour types and grades. The proposed method is instant and can be used in situ and even in vivo.

  20. The Dimeric Architecture of Checkpoint Kinases Mec1ATR and Tel1ATM Reveal a Common Structural Organization*

    PubMed Central

    Sawicka, Marta; Wanrooij, Paulina H.; Darbari, Vidya C.; Tannous, Elias; Hailemariam, Sarem; Bose, Daniel; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases are key regulators controlling a wide range of cellular events. The yeast Tel1 and Mec1·Ddc2 complex (ATM and ATR-ATRIP in humans) play pivotal roles in DNA replication, DNA damage signaling, and repair. Here, we present the first structural insight for dimers of Mec1·Ddc2 and Tel1 using single-particle electron microscopy. Both kinases reveal a head to head dimer with one major dimeric interface through the N-terminal HEAT (named after Huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A, and yeast kinase TOR1) repeat. Their dimeric interface is significantly distinct from the interface of mTOR complex 1 dimer, which oligomerizes through two spatially separate interfaces. We also observe different structural organizations of kinase domains of Mec1 and Tel1. The kinase domains in the Mec1·Ddc2 dimer are located in close proximity to each other. However, in the Tel1 dimer they are fully separated, providing potential access of substrates to this kinase, even in its dimeric form. PMID:27129217

  1. Characterization of Conformation and Locations of C-F Bonds in Graphene Derivative by Polarized ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Weimiao; Liu, Yang; Ren, Mengmeng; Xiao, Huining; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    It is still a challenge to explore the orientation and location of chemical groups in the two-dimensional derivative of graphene. In this study, polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (polarized ATR-FTIR) was employed to investigate the orientation and location of C-F groups in the corresponding graphene derivative sheets, which facilitates building a relationship between the bonding nature and fine structure. There were two types of C-F bonding, (C-F)I and (C-F)II, in fluorinated graphene sheets. It was found that (C-F)II bonds were linked at the coplanar carbon atoms in the weakly fluorinated region (CxF, x ≥ 2), whereas the (C-F)I bonds cluster at the strongly deformed carbon framework with a F/C ratio of about 1. The thermostability of (C-F)II is lower than that of (C-F)I bonds. This is because the coplanar structure of the weakly fluorinated region tends to transform to the planar aromatic ring with the breaking of the C-F bond as compared with the strong fluorinated nonplanar region.

  2. [Study of photocatalytic performance of TiO2 membrane for oleic acid by FTIR-ATR technique].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-xiang; Wang, Xu-xu; Dai, Wen-xin; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2005-07-01

    The TiO2 membranes were prepared on glass, ceramic tile and aluminum pieces by Sol-Gel and PVD methods. A fast and exact evaluation on the photocatalytic self-cleaning performance of the membrane materials was achieved by FTIR-ATR technique using oleic acid which was laid on the surface of the membrane. The hydrophilic property of the samples was also determined by the contact angle with water. The results showed that both the TiO2 membrane prepared on glass by the Sol-Gel and PVD methods displayed good photo-induced hydrophilic property and degradation activity of oleic acid, and no difference in hydrophilic property, but the former was a little superior to the latter in photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic conversion of oleic acid on the TiO2/glass, TiO2/ceramic tile and TiO2 aluminum piece were 92%, 85% and 46%, respectively after illumination 3.5 h, showing a distinct effect of support material property on TiO2 photocatalytic performance. The results suggested that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 membrane coated on insulator support was higher than that coated on conductor support.

  3. ATR-FTIR study of water in Nafion membrane combined with proton conductivity measurements during hydration/dehydration cycle.

    PubMed

    Kunimatsu, Keiji; Bae, Byungchan; Miyatake, Kenji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2011-04-21

    We have conducted combined time-resolved attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and proton conductivity measurements of Nafion NRE211 membrane during hydration/dehydration cycles at room temperature. Conductivity change was interpreted in terms of different states of water in the membrane based on its δ(HOH) vibrational spectra. It was found that hydration of a dry membrane leads first to complete dissociation of the sulfonic acid groups to liberate hydrated protons, which are isolated from each other and have δ(HOH) vibrational frequency around 1740 cm(-1). The initial hydration is not accompanied by a significant increase of the proton conductivity. Further hydration gives rise to a rapid increase of the conductivity in proportion to intensity of a new δ(HOH) band around 1630 cm(-1). This was interpreted in terms of formation of channels of weakly hydrogen-bonded water to combine the isolated hydrophilic domains containing hydrated protons and hydrated sulfonate ions produced during the initial stage of hydration. Upon dehydration, proton conductivity drops first very rapidly due to loss of the weakly hydrogen bonded water from the channels to leave hydrophilic domains isolated in the membrane. Dehydration of the protons proceeds very slowly after significant loss of the proton conductivity.

  4. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis–linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10–9 M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10–5 M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose–response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  5. "Soft"-cuticle protein secondary structure as revealed by FT-Raman, ATR FT-IR and CD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, V A; Chryssikos, G D; Gionis, V; Willis, J H; Hamodrakas, S J

    2001-07-26

    The nature of the interaction of insect cuticular proteins and chitin is unknown even though about half of the cuticular proteins sequenced thus far share a consensus region that has been predicted to be the site of chitin binding. We previously predicted the preponderance of a beta-pleated sheet in the consensus region and proposed its responsibility for the formation of helicoidal cuticle (Iconomidou et al., Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29 (1999) 285). In this study, we examined experimentally the secondary structure of intact and guanidine hydrochloride extracted cuticle and the cuticular protein extract. The studied cuticle came from the larval dorsal abdomen of the lepidopteran Hyalophora cecropia, a classical example of "soft" cuticle. Analysis with FT-Raman, ATR FT-IR and CD spectroscopy indicates that antiparallel beta-pleated sheet is the predominant molecular conformation of "soft-cuticle" proteins both in situ in the cuticle and following extraction. It seems that this conformation dictates the modes of chitin-protein interaction in cuticle, in agreement with earlier proposals (Atkins, J. Biosci. 8 (1985) 375). PMID:11439247

  6. Colloidal carriers of isotretinoin for topical acne treatment: skin uptake, ATR-FTIR and in vitro cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, Aslı; Özhan, Gül; Güngör, Sevgi; Erdal, M Sedef

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is the chronical, multifactorial and complex disease of the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. The main goal of the topical therapy in acne is to target the drug to epidermal and deep dermal regions by minimizing systemic absorption . Isotretinoin, a retinoic acid derivative, is the most effective drug in acne pathogenesis. Because systemic treatment may cause many side effects, topical isotretinoin treatment is an option in the management of acne. However, due to its high lipophilic character, isotretinoin tends to accumulate in the upper stratum corneum, thus its penetration into the lower layers is limited, which restricts the efficiency of topical treatment. Microemulsions are fluid, isotropic, colloidal drug carriers that have been widely studied as drug delivery systems. The percutaneous transport of active agents can be enhanced by microemulsions when compared with their conventional formulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microemulsions as alternative topical carriers for isotretinoin with an objective to improve its skin uptake. After in vitro permeation studies, the dermal penetration of isotretinoin from microemulsions was investigated by tape stripping procedure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy provided insight about the localization of the drug in the skin. The interaction between the microemulsion components and stratum corneum lipids is studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The relative safety of the microemulsions was assessed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts using MTT viability test. The results indicate that microemulsion-based novel colloidal carriers have a potential for enhanced skin delivery and localization of isotretinoin.

  7. Assay of bacteriorhodopsin stability on polycarbonate surface by using of FTIR-ATR: a model of disk-based bioassays.

    PubMed

    Molaeirad, Ahmad; Asl, Amineh Leilabadi; Khayati, Maryam; Alijanianzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a transmembrane protein which able to transport protons through cell membrane and thus converting solar energy to electrical energy. Up to now different strategies have been used to immobilize BR. In the present study the BR has been immobilized on polycarbonate surface with two different methods. The functional groups of polycarbonate were modified in two ways (sulfuric acid, PDAC and HNO3) and then the BR was immobilized on two different modified polycarbonate surfaces. The modified surfaces were characterized by ATR-FTIR and AFM techniques. Afterward the activity of bounded BR to two different modified polycarbonate surfaces was measured. Our results show that BR bounded to modified polycarbonate surface with HNO3 (nitrated polycarbonate) has higher activity in comparison to modified with sulfuric acid (electrostatically bounded BR). Also the activities of both types of Bounded BR after 10 days were measured. The results showed that unlike electrostatically bounded BR, bounding BR to nitrated polycarbonate keeps its activity after 10 days. In conclusion, nitrated polycarbonate surface is a suitable candidate due to immobilizing BR in order to manufacture of BioCDs.

  8. Mismatch repair-dependent G2 checkpoint induced by low doses of SN1 type methylating agents requires the ATR kinase.

    PubMed

    Stojic, Lovorka; Mojas, Nina; Cejka, Petr; Di Pietro, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Stefano; Marra, Giancarlo; Jiricny, Josef

    2004-06-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents represent an important class of chemotherapeutics, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity are unknown. Thus, although these substances modify predominantly purine nitrogen atoms, their toxicity appears to result from the processing of O(6)-methylguanine ((6Me)G)-containing mispairs by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, because cells with defective MMR are highly resistant to killing by these agents. In an attempt to understand the role of the MMR system in the molecular transactions underlying the toxicity of alkylating agents, we studied the response of human MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells to low concentrations of the prototypic methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We now show that MNNG treatment induced a cell cycle arrest that was absolutely dependent on functional MMR. Unusually, the cells arrested only in the second G(2) phase after treatment. Downstream targets of both ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) kinases were modified, but only the ablation of ATR, or the inhibition of CHK1, attenuated the arrest. The checkpoint activation was accompanied by the formation of nuclear foci containing the signaling and repair proteins ATR, the S(*)/T(*)Q substrate, gamma-H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA). The persistence of these foci implied that they may represent sites of irreparable damage. PMID:15175264

  9. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  10. Selective detection of the structural changes upon photoreactions of several redox cofactors in photosystem II by means of light-induced ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Tatsunori; Noguchi, Takumi

    2007-04-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to detect the structural changes upon photoreactions of redox cofactors in photosystem II (PSII). The PSII-enriched membranes from spinach were adsorbed on the surface of a silicon prism, and FTIR measurements of various redox cofactors were performed for the same sample but under different conditions by exchanging buffers in a flow cell. Light-induced FTIR difference spectra upon redox reactions of the oxygen-evolving Mn cluster, the primary quinone electron acceptor Q A, the redox-active tyrosine Y D, the primary electron acceptor pheophytin, and the primary electron donor chlorophyll P680 were successively recorded in buffers including different redox reagents and inhibitors. All of these cofactors remained active in the PSII membranes on the silicon surface, and the resultant spectra were basically identical to those previously recorded by the conventional transmission method. These ATR-FTIR measurements enable accurate comparison between reactions of different active sites in a single PSII sample. The present results demonstrated that the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a useful technique for investigation of the reaction mechanism of PSII.

  11. Testing of Gas Reactor Fuel and Materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The recent growth in interest for high temperature gas reactors has resulted in an increased need for materials and fuel testing for this type of reactor. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, has long been involved in testing gas reactor fuel and materials, and has facilities and capabilities to provide the right environment for gas reactor irradiation experiments. These capabilities include both passive sealed capsule experiments, and instrumented/actively controlled experiments. The instrumented/actively controlled experiments typically contain thermocouples and control the irradiation temperature, but on-line measurements and controls for pressure and gas environment have also been performed in past irradiations. The ATR has an existing automated gas temperature control system that can maintain temperature in an irradiation experiment within very tight bounds, and has developed an on-line fission product monitoring system that is especially well suited for testing gas reactor particle fuel. The ATR’s control system, which consists primarily of vertical cylinders used to rotate neutron poisons/reflectors toward or away from the reactor core, provides a constant vertical flux profile over the duration of each operating cycle. This constant chopped cosine shaped axial flux profile, with a relatively flat peak at the vertical centre of the core, is more desirable for experiments than a constantly moving axial flux peak resulting from a control system of axially positioned control components which are vertically withdrawn from the core.

  12. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM.

  13. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  14. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  15. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  16. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator, and (ii) an additive selected from the group consisting of alkenyl substituted succinimide, alkenyl substituted succinamide and mixtures thereof. The alkenyl substituent contains about 12-36 carbon atoms, the additive being made by the process comprising (a) isomerizing the double bond of an ..cap alpha..-olefin containing about 12-36 carbon atoms to obtain a mixture of internal olefins, (b) reacting the mixture of internal olefins with maleic acid, anhydride or ester to obtain an intermediate alkenyl substituted succinic acid, anhydride or ester, and (c) reacting the intermediate with ammonia to form a succinimide, succinamide or mixture thereof. The combination is present in an amount sufficient to minimize the coking characteristics of such fuel, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel.

  17. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  18. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  19. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  20. Genomic DNA damage and ATR-Chk1 signaling determine oncolytic adenoviral efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Claire M.; Shibata, Atsushi; Tookman, Laura A.; Archibald, Kyra M.; Flak, Magdalena B.; Pirlo, Katrina J.; Lockley, Michelle; Wheatley, Sally P.; McNeish, Iain A.

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses replicate selectively within and lyse malignant cells. As such, they are being developed as anticancer therapeutics. However, the sensitivity of ovarian cancers to adenovirus cytotoxicity varies greatly, even in cells of similar infectivity. Using both the adenovirus E1A-CR2 deletion mutant dl922-947 and WT adenovirus serotype 5 in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines that cover a 3-log range of sensitivity, we observed profound overreplication of genomic DNA only in highly sensitive cell lines. This was associated with the presence of extensive genomic DNA damage. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related checkpoint kinase 1 (ATR-Chk1), but not ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), promoted genomic DNA damage and overreplication in resistant and partially sensitive cells. This was accompanied by increased adenovirus cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. We also demonstrated that Cdc25A was upregulated in highly sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines after adenovirus infection and was stabilized after loss of Chk1 activity. Knockdown of Cdc25A inhibited virus-induced DNA damage in highly sensitive cells and blocked the effects of Chk1 inhibition in resistant cells. Finally, inhibition of Chk1 decreased homologous recombination repair of virus-induced genomic DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, virus-induced host cell DNA damage signaling and repair are key determinants of oncolytic adenoviral activity, and promoting unscheduled DNA synthesis and/or impeding homologous recombination repair could potentiate the effects of oncolytic adenoviruses in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:21383502

  1. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment-modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  2. Kinetics study of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with erucic acid using an ATR-IR flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunbo; Hiltner, Joseph; Pham, Hai; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-01

    The ozone initiated heterogeneous oxidation of erucic acid (EA) thin film was investigated using a flow system combined with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) over wide ranges of ozone concentrations (0.25-60 ppm), thin film thickness (0.1-1.0 μm), temperatures (263-298 K), and relative humidities (0-80% RH) for the first time. Pseudo-first-order rate constants, kapp, and overall reactive uptake coefficients, γ, were obtained through changes in the absorbance of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching bands at 1695 cm(-1), which is assigned to the carbonyl group in carboxylic acid. Results showed that the reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and kapp was largely dominated by surface reaction over bulk phase reaction. In addition, both the kapp and the γ values showed very strong temperature dependences (∼two orders of magnitude) over the temperature range; in contrast, they only slightly increased with increasing RH values from 0-80%. According to the kapp values as a function of temperature, the activation energy for the heterogeneous reaction was estimated to be 80.6 kJ mol(-1). Our results have suggested that heterogeneous reactions between ozone and unsaturated solid surfaces likely have a substantially greater temperature dependence than liquid ones. Moreover, the hygroscopic properties of EA thin films before and after exposure to ozone were also studied by measurement of water uptake. Based on the hygroscopicity data, the insignificant RH effect on reaction kinetics was probably due to the relatively weak water uptake by the unreacted and reacted EA thin films.

  3. Reactor Physics Characterization of the HTR Module with UCO Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HTR Module [1] is a graphite-moderated, helium cooled pebble bed High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design that has been extensively used as a reference template for the former South African and current Chinese HTR [2] programs. This design utilized spherical fuel elements packed into a dynamic pebble bed, consisting of TRISO coated uranium oxide (UO2) fuel kernels with a U-235 enrichment of 7.8% and a Heavy Metal loading of 7 grams per pebble. The main objective of this study is to compare several important reactor physics and core design parameters for the HTR Module and an identical design utilizing UCO fuel kernels. Fuel kernels of this type are currently being tested in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as part of the larger Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The PEBBED-THERMIX [3] code, which was developed specifically for the analysis of pebble bed HTRs, was used to compare the coupled neutronic and thermal fluid performance of the two designs.

  4. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-03

    Low-enrichment (U-235 < 20%) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing was comprised of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates that were tested in INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. Adjacent to the AA6061 cladding were Mg-rich precipitates, which was in close proximity to the region where Xe is observed to be enriched. In samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface were possible indications of porosity/debonding, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.

  5. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-03

    Low-enrichment (U-235 < 20%) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing was comprised of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates that were tested inmore » INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. Adjacent to the AA6061 cladding were Mg-rich precipitates, which was in close proximity to the region where Xe is observed to be enriched. In samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface were possible indications of porosity/debonding, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.« less

  6. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  7. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  8. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  9. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  10. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  11. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M. A.; DeHart, M. D.; Morrell, S. R.; Jamison, R. K.; Nef, E. C.; Nigg, D. W.

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  12. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  13. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  14. Molecular level investigations of phosphate sorption on corundum (α-Al2O3) by 31P solid state NMR, ATR-FTIR and quantum chemical calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Pierre-Louis, Andro-Marc; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kubicki, James D.; Strongin, Daniel R.; Phillips, Brian L.

    2013-04-01

    Phosphate sorption at the corundum (α-Al2O3)/water interface was investigated as a function of phosphate concentration (0.1-1 mM) and pH (3-11) by 31P solid state NMR spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR, and quantum chemical calculation. The 31P NMR spectra indicate that under these experimental conditions phosphate adsorbs onto corundum mainly as inner-sphere complexes that yield a peak at δP = -2.8 ppm with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 9.2 ppm, with a small amount aluminum phosphate surface precipitates as suggested by an NMR signal observed from δP = -12 to -20 ppm. We employed 31P{27Al} rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) to further analyze the phosphate adsorption samples prepared at pH 5 and 9 in order to determine the phosphate/Al coordination. To aid interpretation of the NMR data, a series of bidentate and monodentate structural models of phosphate adsorbed on corundum (0 0 1) and (0 1 2) surfaces were calculated using density function theory (DFT). By comparing the experimental REAPDOR curves and those simulated from these models, we can assign the dominant peaks to bidentate binuclear surface complexes. Formation of bidentate binuclear surface complexes is supported by the ATR/FTIR spectra combined with DFT calculation, which further suggests a mixture of non-protonated bidentate and mono-protonated bidentate surface complexes on the corundum surface at pH 5. At pH 9, both NMR and ATR/FTIR indicate the formation of bidentate surface complexes on corundum surface.

  15. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains were put on high fat diet and gross-compositional changes in adipose, liver and muscle tissues were measured by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 12 for the content of fat and collagen, collagen integrity, and the lipid to protein ratio in adipose tissue and on chromosome 17 for lipid to protein ratio in liver. Using gene expression and sequence information, we suggest Rsad2 (viperin) and Colec11 (collectin-11) on chromosome 12 as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Rsad2 may act as a modulator of lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis; Colec11 might play a role in apoptopic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue. An increased level of Rsad2 transcripts in adipose tissue of DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice suggests a cis-acting genetic variant leading to differential gene activation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy effectively contributed to decompose the macromolecular composition of tissues that accumulate fat and to link this information with genetic determinants. The candidate genes in the QTL regions may contribute to obesity-related diseases in humans, in particular if the results can be verified in a bigger BXD cohort. PMID:23758785

  16. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  17. Formation of Assemblies Comprising Ru–Polypyridine Complexes and CdSe Nanocrystals Studied by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and DFT Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Koposov, Alexey Y.; Cardolaccia, Thomas; Albert, Victor; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Kilina, Svetlana; Meyer, Thomas J.; Tretiak, Sergei; Sykora, Milan

    2011-07-05

    The interaction between CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) passivated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) ligands and a series of Ru–polypyridine complexes was studied by attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and modeled using density functional theory (DFT). The results of DFT modeling are consistent with the experiment, showing that for the deprotonated carboxylic acid group the coupling to two Cd atoms via a bridging mode is the energetically most favorable mode of attachment for all nonequivalent NC surface sites and that the attachment of the protonated carboxylic acid is thermodynamically significantly less favorable.

  18. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopic investigation of the electroporation-mediated transdermal delivery of a nanocarrier system containing an antitumour drug.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Boglárka; Sipos, Péter; Danciu, Corina; Avram, Stefana; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina; Varju, Gábor; Erős, Gábor; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Berkó, Szilvia; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the optimization of the transdermal delivery of a lyotropic liquid crystal genistein-based formulation (LLC-GEN). LLC was chosen as medium in view of the poor solubility of GEN in water. Membrane diffusion and penetration studies were carried out with a Franz diffusion cell, through a synthetic membrane in vitro, a chick chorioallantoic membrane ex ovo, and ex vivo excised human epidermis. Thereafter, LLC-GEN was combined with electroporation (EP) to enhance the transdermal drug delivery. The synergistic effect of EP was verified by in vivo ATR-FTIR and ex vivo Raman spectroscopy on hairless mouse skin. PMID:26819818

  19. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopic investigation of the electroporation-mediated transdermal delivery of a nanocarrier system containing an antitumour drug

    PubMed Central

    Balázs, Boglárka; Sipos, Péter; Danciu, Corina; Avram, Stefana; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina; Varju, Gábor; Erős, Gábor; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Berkó, Szilvia; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the optimization of the transdermal delivery of a lyotropic liquid crystal genistein-based formulation (LLC-GEN). LLC was chosen as medium in view of the poor solubility of GEN in water. Membrane diffusion and penetration studies were carried out with a Franz diffusion cell, through a synthetic membrane in vitro, a chick chorioallantoic membrane ex ovo, and ex vivo excised human epidermis. Thereafter, LLC-GEN was combined with electroporation (EP) to enhance the transdermal drug delivery. The synergistic effect of EP was verified by in vivo ATR-FTIR and ex vivo Raman spectroscopy on hairless mouse skin. PMID:26819818

  20. Spectral features of guanidinium-carboxylate salt bridges. The combined ATR-IR and theoretical studies of aqueous solution of guanidinium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levina, Elena O.; Lokshin, Boris V.; Mai, Bich D.; Vener, Mikhail V.

    2016-08-01

    The spectrum of guanidinium acetate in aqueous solution has been recorded by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Assignments of the bands have been done using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Three IR intensive bands at 1670, 1550, and 1410 cm-1 are associated with stretching and bending vibrations of the groups forming a ring of six heavy atoms of the bidentate configuration of guanidinium acetate. The relatively weak broad band near 2200 cm-1 is tentatively assigned to the stretching vibration of the Nsbnd H⋯O fragment of the hydrogen-bonded ion pairs.

  1. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  2. Kinetic and Conformational Insights of Protein Adsorption onto Montmorillonite Revealed Using in Situ ATR-FTIR/2D-COS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael P; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2016-08-01

    Protein adsorption onto clay minerals is a process with wide-ranging impacts on the environmental cycling of nutrients and contaminants. This process is influenced by kinetic and conformational factors that are often challenging to probe in situ. This study represents an in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic investigation of the adsorption of a model protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) onto a clay mineral (montmorillonite) at four concentrations (1.50, 3.75, 7.50, and 15.0 μM) under environmentally relevant conditions. At all concentrations probed, FTIR spectra show that BSA readily adsorbs onto montmorillonite. Adsorption kinetics follow an Elovich model, suggesting that primary limitations on adsorption rates are surface-related heterogeneous energetic restrictions associated with protein rearrangement and lateral protein-protein interaction. BSA adsorption onto montmorillonite fits the Langmuir model, yielding K = 5.97 × 10(5) M(-1). Deconvolution and curve fitting of the amide I band at the end of the adsorption process (∼120 min) shows a large extent of BSA unfolding upon adsorption at 1.50 μM, with extended chains and turns increasing at the expense of α-helices. At higher concentrations/surface coverages, BSA unfolding is less pronounced and a more compact structure is assumed. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic (2D-COS) analysis reveals three different pathways corresponding to adsorbed conformations. At 1.50 μM, adsorption increases extended chains, followed by a loss in α-helices and a subsequent increase in turns. At 3.75 μM, extended chains decrease and then aggregated strands increase and side chains decrease, followed by a decrease in turns. With 7.50 and 15.0 μM BSA, the loss of side-chain vibrations is followed by an increase in aggregated strands and a subsequent decrease in turns and extended chains. Overall, the BSA concentration and resultant surface coverage have a profound

  3. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  4. Fuel densifier converts biomass into fuel cubes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A new cost-effective means to produce clean-burning and low cost commercial and industrial fuel is being introduced by Columbia Fuel Densification Corp., Phoenix. The Columbia Commercial Hydraulic Fuel Densifier converts raw biomass materials such as wood chips, paper, peat moss and rice hulls into densified fuel cubes. The densifier is mobile and its operation is briefly outlined.

  5. Phase Characteristics of a Number of U-Pu-Am-Np-Zr Metallic Alloys for Use as Fast Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; J. Rory Kennedy; Thomas Hartmann; Cynthia A. Papesch; Denis D. Keiser, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic fuel alloys consisting of uranium, plutonium, and zirconium with minor additions of americium and neptunium are under evaluation for potential use to transmute long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes in fast reactors. A series of test designs for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) have been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), designated as the AFC-1 and AFC-2 designs. Metal fuel compositions in these designs have included varying amounts of U, Pu, Zr, and minor actinides (Am, Np). Investigations into the phase behavior and relationships based on the alloy constituents have been conducted using x-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Results of these investigations, along with proposed relationships between observed behavior and alloy composition, are provided. In general, observed behaviors can be predicted by a ternary U-Pu-Zr phase diagram, with transition temperatures being most dependent on U content. Furthermore, the enthalpy associated with transitions is strongly dependent on the as-cast microstructural characteristics.

  6. Irradiation performance of U-Mo-Ti and U-Mo-Zr dispersion fuels in Al-Si matrixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G. L.; Robinson, A. B.; Wachs, D. M.; Ryu, H. J.; Park, J. M.; Yang, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Performance of U-7 wt.%Mo with 1 wt.%Ti, 1 wt.%Zr or 2 wt.%Zr, dispersed in an Al-5 wt.%Si alloy matrix, was investigated through irradiation tests in the ATR at INL and HANARO at KAERI. Post-irradiation metallographic features show that the addition of Ti or Zr suppresses interaction layer growth between the U-Mo and the Al-5 wt.%Si matrix. However, higher fission gas swelling was observed in the fuel with Zr addition, while no discernable effect was found in the fuel with Ti addition as compared to U-Mo without the addition. Known to have a destabilizing effect on the γ-phase U-Mo, Zr, either as alloy addition or fission product, is ascribed for the disadvantageous result. Considering its benign effect on fuel swelling, with slight disadvantage from neutron economy point of view, Ti may be a better choice for this purpose.

  7. Gradiently crosslinked polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, De; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Genlei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cells should be high in both ionic conductivity and mechanical strength. However, the two are often exclusive to each other. To solve this conundrum, a novel strategy is proposed in this paper, with extensively researched sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membrane as a paradigm. A SPEEK membrane of high sulfonation degree is simply post-treated with NaBH4 and H2SO4 solution at ambient temperature for a certain time to afford the membrane with a gradient crosslinking structure. Measurements via 1H NMR, ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS are conducted to verify such structural changes. The gradient crosslinks make practically no damage to proton conductance, but effectively restrain the membrane from over swelling and greatly enhance its tensile strength. A H2-O2 fuel cell with the gradiently crosslinked SPEEK membrane shows a maximal power density of 533 mW cm-2 at 80 °C, whereas the fuel cell with the pristine SPEEK membrane cannot be operated beyond 30 °C.

  8. TRF1 negotiates TTAGGG repeat-associated replication problems by recruiting the BLM helicase and the TPP1/POT1 repressor of ATR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michal; Kibe, Tatsuya; Kabir, Shaheen

    2014-01-01

    The semiconservative replication of telomeres is facilitated by the shelterin component TRF1. Without TRF1, replication forks stall in the telomeric repeats, leading to ATR kinase signaling upon S-phase progression, fragile metaphase telomeres that resemble the common fragile sites (CFSs), and the association of sister telomeres. In contrast, TRF1 does not contribute significantly to the end protection functions of shelterin. We addressed the mechanism of TRF1 action using mouse conditional knockouts of BLM, TRF1, TPP1, and Rap1 in combination with expression of TRF1 and TIN2 mutants. The data establish that TRF1 binds BLM to facilitate lagging but not leading strand telomeric DNA synthesis. As the template for lagging strand telomeric DNA synthesis is the TTAGGG repeat strand, TRF1-bound BLM is likely required to remove secondary structures formed by these sequences. In addition, the data establish that TRF1 deploys TIN2 and the TPP1/POT1 heterodimers in shelterin to prevent ATR during telomere replication and repress the accompanying sister telomere associations. Thus, TRF1 uses two distinct mechanisms to promote replication of telomeric DNA and circumvent the consequences of replication stress. These data are relevant to the expression of CFSs and provide insights into TIN2, which is compromised in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and related disorders. PMID:25344324

  9. ATR checkpoint kinase and CRL1βTRCP collaborate to degrade ASF1a and thus repress genes overlapping with clusters of stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Im, Jun-Sub; Keaton, Mignon; Lee, Kyung Yong; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Jonghoon; Dutta, Anindya

    2014-04-15

    Many agents used for chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin, interfere with DNA replication, but the effect of this interference on transcription is largely unknown. Here we show that doxorubicin induces the firing of dense clusters of neoreplication origins that lead to clusters of stalled replication forks in gene-rich parts of the genome, particularly on expressed genes. Genes that overlap with these clusters of stalled forks are actively dechromatinized, unwound, and repressed by an ATR-dependent checkpoint pathway. The ATR checkpoint pathway causes a histone chaperone normally associated with the replication fork, ASF1a, to degrade through a CRL1(βTRCP)-dependent ubiquitination/proteasome pathway, leading to the localized dechromatinization and gene repression. Therefore, a globally active checkpoint pathway interacts with local clusters of stalled forks to specifically repress genes in the vicinity of the stalled forks, providing a new mechanism of action of chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin. Finally, ASF1a-depleted cancer cells are more sensitive to doxorubicin, suggesting that the 7%-10% of prostate adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas reported to have homozygous deletion or significant underexpression of ASF1a should be tested for high sensitivity to doxorubicin.

  10. Surface characterization of poly(L-lactic acid)-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, FTIR, and ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Mert, O; Doganci, E; Erbil, H Y; Demir, A S

    2008-02-01

    The surface composition and surface free energy properties of two types of amphiphilic and semicrystalline diblock copolymers consisting of poly(L-lactic acid) coupled to (methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-MePEG) having differing block lengths of PEG were investigated by using static and dynamic contact angle measurements, transmission Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and compared with results obtained from PLLA and MePEG homopolymers. The contact angle results were evaluated by using the van Oss-Good method (acid-base method), and it was determined that the Lewis base surface tension coefficient (gamma-) of the copolymers increased with an increase of the PEG molar content at the copolymer surface. This result is in good agreement with the transmission FTIR and ATR-FTIR results but not proportional to them, indicating that the surfaces of the copolymers are highly mobile and that the molecular rearrangement takes place upon contact with a polar liquid drop. The dynamic contact angle measurements showed that the strong acid-base interaction between the oxygen atoms in the copolymer backbone of the relatively more hydrophilic PEG segments with the Lewis acidic groups of the polar and hydrogen-bonding water molecules enabled the surface molecules to restructure (conformational change) at the contact area, so that the PEG segments moved upward, whereas the apolar methyl pendant groups of PLLA segments buried downward.

  11. Sensing cocaine in saliva with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with a one-step extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Kerstin M.-C.; Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-03-01

    On-site drug tests have gained importance, e.g., for protecting the society from impaired drivers. Since today's drug tests are majorly only positive/negative, there is a great need for a reliable, portable and preferentially quantitative drug test. In the project IrSens we aim to bridge this gap with the development of an optical sensor platform based on infrared spectroscopy and focus on cocaine detection in saliva. We combine a one-step extraction method, a sample drying technique and infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy. As a first step we have developed an extraction technique that allows us to extract cocaine from saliva to an almost infrared-transparent solvent and to record ATR spectra with a commercially available Fourier Transform-infrared spectrometer. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that such a simple and easy-to-use one-step extraction method is used to transfer cocaine from saliva into an organic solvent and detect it quantitatively. With this new method we are able to reach a current limit of detection around 10 μg/ml. This new extraction method could also be applied to waste water monitoring and controlling caffeine content in beverages.

  12. Spectroscopic study of galena surface oxidation in aqueous solutions I. Identification of surface species by XPS and ATR/FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, I. V.; Andreev, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The measurements by ATR/FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed in order to identify galena surface compounds formed in air-saturated solutions under different experimental conditions. Wet polishing under distilled water was found to produce lead- or sulphur-rich galena surface depending on the semiconducting nature of the sample. The probable mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed. After cathodic polarization at -0.5 V (SHE) in borate buffer (pH 9.2), the surface appears to be lead-rich regardless of the origin of galena. Bulk lead hydroxide Pb(OH) 2 was established to be the major product of the galena oxidation at +0.4 V in the air-saturated buffer. The assignment of IR bands and XPS peaks of bulk lead hydroxide was made. It was shown with the ATR/FTIR spectroscopy that galena, when being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, is covered by lead hydroxide, lead thiosulphate and adsorbed oxygen in addition to elemental sulphur and basic lead sulphate (detected earlier by XPS). The relative quantity of each compound as well as the outermost layer composition was found to depend strongly on the oxidation kinetics.

  13. De novo truncation of chromosome 16p and healing with (TTAGGG)[sub n] in the [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-16)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.; Harris, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Higgs, D.R. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. ); Dauwerse, J.G. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have previously described a series of patients in whom the deletion of 1--2 megabases (Mb) of DNA from the tip of the short arm of chromosome 16 (band 16p13.3) is associated with [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-16). They now show that one of these patients has a de novo truncation of the terminal 2 Mb of chromosome 16p and that telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)[sub n] has been added at the site of breakage. This suggests that the chromosomal break, which is paternal in origin and which probably arose at meiosis, has been stabilized in vivo by the direct addition of the telomeric sequence. Sequence comparisons of this breakpoint with that of a previously described chromosomal truncation ([alpha][alpha][sup TI]) do not reveal extensive sequence homology. However, both breakpoints show minimal complementarity (3--4 bp) to the proposed RNA template of human telomerase at the site at which telomere repeats have been added. Unlike previously characterized individuals with ATR-16, the clinical features of this patient appear to be solely due to monosomy for the terminal portion of 16p13.3. The identification of further patients with [open quotes]pure[close quotes] monosomy for the tip of chromosome 16p will be important for defining the loci contributing to the phenotype of this syndrome. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FTIR-ATR study of water uptake and diffusion through ion-selective membranes based on poly(acrylates) and silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Sundfors, Fredrik; Lindfors, Tom; Höfler, Lajos; Bereczki, Róbert; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E

    2009-07-15

    For the first time, FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to study the water uptake and its diffusion in ion-selective membranes (ISMs) based on poly(acrylates) (PAs) and silicone rubber (SR), which are emerging materials for the fabrication of ISMs for ultratrace analysis. Three different types of PA membranes were studied, consisting of copolymers of methyl methacrylate with n-butyl acrylate, decyl methacrylate, or isodecyl acrylate. Numerical simulations with the finite difference method showed that in most cases the water uptake of the PA and SR membranes could be described with a model consisting of two diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of the PA membranes were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based ISMs and only slightly influenced by the membrane matrix composition. However, the simulations indicated that during longer contact times, the water uptake of PA membranes was considerably higher than that for plasticized PVC membranes. Although the diffusion coefficients of the SR and plasticized PVC membranes were similar, the SR membranes had the lowest water uptake of all membranes. This can be beneficial in preventing the formation of detrimental water layers in all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes. With FTIR-ATR, one can monitor the accumulation of different forms of water, i.e., monomeric, dimeric, clustered, and bulk water. PMID:19527006

  15. Development of a rapid Buffer-exchange system for time-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with the step-scan mode

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Yuji; Kimura, Tetsunari; Okamoto, Kido

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy has been widely used to probe protein structural changes under various stimuli, such as light absorption, voltage change, and ligand binding, in aqueous conditions. Time-resolved measurements require a trigger, which can be controlled electronically; therefore, light and voltage changes are suitable. Here we developed a novel, rapid buffer-exchange system for time-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the ligand- or ion-binding re-action of a protein. By using the step-scan mode (time resolution; 2.5 ms), we confirmed the completion of the buffer-exchange reaction within ∼25 ms; the process was monitored by the infrared absorption change of a nitrate band at 1,350 cm−1. We also demonstrated the anion-binding reaction of a membrane protein, Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (pHR), which binds a chloride ion in the initial anion-binding site near the retinal chromophore. The formation of chloride- or nitrate-bound pHR was confirmed by an increase of the retinal absorption band at 1,528 cm−1. It also should be noted that low sample consumption (∼1 µg of protein) makes this new method a powerful technique to understand ligand–protein and ion–protein interactions, particularly for membrane proteins. PMID:27493550

  16. MRN- and 9-1-1-Independent Activation of the ATR-Chk1 Pathway during the Induction of the Virulence Program in the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Gómez, María; de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Pérez-Martín, Jose

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) leads to DNA repair, and depending on the extent of the damage, to further events, including cell death. Evidence suggests that cell differentiation may also be a consequence of the DDR. During the formation of the infective hypha in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, two DDR kinases, Atr1 and Chk1, are required to induce a G2 cell cycle arrest, which in turn is essential to display the virulence program. However, the triggering factor of DDR in this process has remained elusive. In this report we provide data suggesting that no DNA damage is associated with the activation of the DDR during the formation of the infective filament in U. maydis. We have analyzed bulk DNA replication during the formation of the infective filament, and we found no signs of impaired DNA replication. Furthermore, using RPA-GFP fusion as a surrogate marker of the presence of DNA damage, we were unable to detect any sign of DNA damage at the cellular level. In addition, neither MRN nor 9-1-1 complexes, both instrumental to transmit the DNA damage signal, are required for the induction of the above mentioned cell cycle arrest, as well as for virulence. In contrast, we have found that the claspin-like protein Mrc1, which in other systems serves as scaffold for Atr1 and Chk1, was required for both processes. We discuss possible alternative ways to trigger the DDR, independent of DNA damage, in U. maydis during virulence program activation.

  17. Adsorption kinetics of L-glutathione on gold and structural changes during self-assembly: an in situ ATR-IR and QCM study.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Marco; Bürgi, Thomas

    2006-01-28

    The adsorption of L-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) from ethanol on gold surfaces was studied in situ by both attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The molecule is firmly anchored to the gold surface through the thiol group. Different IR signals of adsorbed L-glutathione, notably the amide I and nu(-COOH), show significantly different behavior with time, which reveals that their increase is not related to adsorption (mass uptake) alone. This indicates that structural transformations take place during the formation of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). In particular, the intensity of the acid signal increases quickly only within the first couple of minutes. The complexity of the self-assembling process is confirmed by QCM measurements, which show fast mass uptake within about 100 s followed by a considerably slower regime. The structural change superimposed on the mass uptake is, based on the in situ time-resolved ATR-IR measurements, assigned to the interaction of the acid group of the Gly moiety with the surface. The latter group is protonated in ethanol but deprotonates upon interaction with the gold surface. The protonation-deprotonation equilibrium is sensitive to external stimuli, such as the presence of dissolved L-glutathione molecules. The interaction of the acid group with the surface and concomitant deprotonation proceeds via two distinguishable steps, the first being a reorientation of the molecule, followed by the deprotonation.

  18. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  19. Detection and quantification of soymilk in cow-buffalo milk using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Borah, Anjan; Gautam, Anuj; Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jindal, Gaurav

    2015-02-01

    Milk consumption is steadily increasing, especially in India and China, due to rising income. To bridge the gap between supply and demand, unscrupulous milk vendors add milk-like products from vegetable sources (soymilk) to milk without declaration. A rapid detection technique is required to enforce the safety norms of food regulatory authorities. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has demonstrated potential as a rapid quality monitoring method and was therefore explored for detection of soymilk in milk. In the present work, spectra of milk, soymilk (SM), and milk adulterated with known quantity of SM were acquired in the wave number range of 4000-500cm(-1) using Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)-FTIR. The acquired spectra revealed differences amongst milk, SM and adulterated milk (AM) samples in the wave number range of 1680-1058cm(-1). This region encompasses the absorption frequency of amide-I, amide-II, amide-III, beta-sheet protein, α-tocopherol and Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clustering of samples based on SM concentration at 5% level of significance and thus SM could be detected in milk using ATR-FTIR. The SM was best predicted in the range of 1472-1241cm(-1) using multiple linear regression with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 and 0.92 for calibration and validation, respectively.

  20. Fundamental SAR ATR performance predictions for design trade-offs: 1D HRR versus 2D SAR versus 3D SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Larry L.; Brendel, Gary F.

    1999-08-01

    This paper continues the development of a fundamental, algorithm-independent view of the ATR performance that can be achieved using SAR data. Such ATR performance predictions are intended to enable evaluation of performance tradeoffs for SAR designs, including both parameter selections (e.g., bandwidth and transmit power) and added domains of SAR observation, such as 3-D, full polarimetry, aspect diversity, and/or frequency diversity. Using a Bayesian framework, we show target classification performance predictions for two tactical targets (either stationary with radar netting assumed deployed, or moving) using three different domains of observation: 1-D HRR (high-range-resolution radar), 2-D SAR, and 3-D SAR. Comparisons of the three domains are made at 3m, 1m, 0.5m and 0.3m range and cross-range resolutions. The discussion of 3-D SAR includes parameter tradeoffs of various height resolutions at the target, and various numbers of sensors. For each measurement modality, we list some of the unique sensitivities which could cause performance degradations.