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Sample records for atrophic posterior mandible

  1. Horizontal Ridge Augmentation with Piezoelectric Hinge-Assisted Ridge Split Technique in the Atrophic Posterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Min-Sang; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Woon; Cho, Lee-Ra; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Lee, You-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Onlay bone grafting, guided bone regeneration, and alveolar ridge split technique are considered reliable bone augmentation methods on the horizontally atrophic alveolar ridge. Among these techniques, alveolar ridge split procedures are technique-sensitive and difficult to perform in the posterior mandible. This case report describes successful implant placement with the use of piezoelectric hinge-assisted ridge split technique in an atrophic posterior mandible. PMID:27489822

  2. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-01-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction. PMID:24403798

  3. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  4. Decision-making algorithm in treatment of the atrophic mandible fractures*

    PubMed Central

    DE FEUDIS, F.; DE BENEDITTIS, M.; ANTONICELLI, V.; VITTORE, P.; CORTELAZZI, R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Closed treatment of atrophic mandible fractures often results in malunion, pseudoarthrosis and pain. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) is still indicated for displaced atrophic mandible fractures. The Authors report a treatment protocol that allows to gain the best results using reconstruction plates, autologous bone grafting and free fibula flap reconstruction when necessary. Methods Retrospective analysis of 15 patients with atrophic mandible fractures who underwent treatment between 2007 and 2011. 7 cases did not receive any treatment because of their general condition, while the others 8 were surgically managed by external approach. In all cases load-bearing osteosynthesis plates with locking screws were used; in 2 of them contextual bone grafts were performed; in 1 case mandible reconstruction needed harvesting a free fibula flap. Results In 6 out of 8 cases complete functional and morphological restoration were obtained without any major complication. In 1 case suppurative infection and necrosis of the bone graft occurred, which made necessary its removing, leaving in situ only the reconstruction plate. In another case, during the first year after surgical treatment, atrophic mandible resorption occurred from one angle to the other, resulting in loss of the anchoring reconstruction plate. Conclusions ORIF is the gold standard procedure for the of atrophic mandible fractures, because it guarantees best morpho-functional outcomes and predictability. Nevertheless the Authors suggest contextual bone grafting in case of substance loss, or a poor quality bone or for dental implant surgery and free fibula flap in selected cases. PMID:24841687

  5. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 1: Technique.

    PubMed

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    In severely atrophic or osteoporotic mandibles, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve may vary considerably, both superoinferiorly and mediolaterally. A clinician's ability to reliably locate this nerve within the mandible would permit the surgical planning of implant placement in the posterior edentulous mandible. Eight edentulous cadaver mandibles were studied. A technique that precisely locates the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandible is described. The technique will aid the surgeon in planning a surgical approach to the posterior mandible with reduced risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:2391135

  6. Rehabilitation of Edentulous Atrophic Anterior Mandible – The Role of Vertical Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Latha P; Sequiera, Joyce; Rao, B H Sripathi; Chandra, Jagadish; Rai, Gunachandra

    2014-01-01

    The rehabilitation of patients with edentulous alveolar ridge is always a challenge, more so in case of a long standing atrophic mandible. Mandible, the largest movable bone in the maxillofacial skeleton is associated with many soft tissue attachments which imparts dislodging forces to prosthesis. In addition to this, the rate of resorption of the mandibular ridge is four times that of the maxilla. These factors make the environment of the mandibular arch less favorable to complete denture stability and retention. An ideal solution would be to augment the atrophic alveolar ridge with native bone of the individual which shall eliminate the possible complications, associated with conventional ridge augmentation procedures. With advent of modern technology, and increased biological understanding, the principles of distraction osteogenesis are increasingly being applied to the craniofacial skeleton and have been found to be a viable option in augmenting the native alveolar bone in the mandible. Here the application of an indigenous stainless steel vertical alveolar distraction device to augment atrophic anterior mandibular ridge is assessed in six patients. PMID:25584344

  7. An unusual case of atrophic mandible fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and on oral bisphosphonate therapy: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Osaimi, Abdulrahman; Samman, Mahmood; Al-Shakhs, Mohammad; Al-Suhaim, Faisal; Ramalingam, Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of severely atrophic (height < 10 mm) edentulous mandibles are infrequent and challenging to manage. Factors such as sclerotic bone and decreased vascularity combined with systemic diseases complicate the management of such fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of type I collagen metabolism. Patients with OI characteristically present with histories of long bone fractures, deformities, blue sclerae, and opalescent dentin. However, fractures of the facial skeleton are rare. Bisphosphonate therapy has been proven to effectively reduce the fracture risk in patients with OI. The purpose of this clinical report is to present an unusual case of spontaneous fracture of the atrophic mandible in a patient with OI. Despite open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with miniplate osteosynthesis, the patient developed a second fracture at a screw placement site distal to the first fracture. The patient was successfully treated with ORIF using locking reconstruction plates fixed in the symphyseal and angle regions. Bone healing following ORIF was normal, and no clinical sign of osteonecrosis as a result of bisphosphonate therapy was observed. Patients with OI can present with spontaneous fractures of already weakened mandibles. Although such fractures can be managed with care using established protocols, further research is required to examine the effects of concomitant medication, such as bisphosphonates. PMID:25408599

  8. Case report of a dilated odontome in the posterior mandible

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Bruno; Silva, António; Pereira, Miguel; Silva, Mariana; Nunes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a developmental malformation resulting from an invagination of enamel organ into the dental papilla, beginning at the crown and sometimes extending into the root before calcification occurs. Dilated odontome is the most extreme form of dens invaginatus and it is extremely rare in the posterior mandible. Presentation of case A 47 years old female patient with occasional episodes of diffuse pain and discomfort in the left posterior mandibular region. The extra-oral examination showed slight facial asymmetry. Panoramic and intra-oral X-rays show an intraosseous circular formation with radiopaque external limits and radiolucent interior. Discussion Computerized tomography scan reveals the bone integrity around the formation, as well as the independence of the neuro-vascular structures of the region. The most likely diagnostic option was dilated odontome. The enucleation procedure was carried out, and the fragments were sent to histopathological examination that revealed a diagnosis consistent with a dilated odontome. Conclusion In this case, the conservative surgical approach after planning was effective and predictable in the treatment of the pathology and patient symptoms without major complications. PMID:26780470

  9. A two-short-implant-supported molar restoration in atrophic posterior maxilla: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the stress distribution of 2-short implants (2SIs) installed in a severely atrophic maxillary molar site. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different diameters of internal connection implants were modeled: narrow platform (NP), regular platform (RP), and wide platform (WP). The maxillary first molars were restored with one implant or two short implants. Three 2SI models (NP-oblique, NP-vertical, and NP-horizontal) and four single implant models (RP and WP in a centered or cantilevered position) were used. Axial and oblique loadings were applied on the occlusal surface of the crown. The von Mises stress values were measured at the bone-implant, peri-implant bone, and implant/abutment complex. RESULTS The highest stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and the peri-implant bone was noticed in the RP group, and the lowest stress distribution was observed in the 2SI groups. Cantilevered position showed unfavorable stress distribution with axial loading. 2SI types did not affect the stress distribution in oblique loading. The number and installation positions of the implant, rather than the bone level, influenced the stress distribution of 2SIs. The implant/abutment complex of WP presented the highest stress concentration while that of 2SIs showed the lowest stress concentration. CONCLUSION 2SIs may be useful for achieving stable stress distribution on the surrounding bone and implant-abutment complex in the atrophic posterior maxilla. PMID:27555900

  10. Single-stage implantation in the atrophic alveolar ridge of the mandible with the Norian skeletal repair system.

    PubMed

    Hölzle, Frank; Bauer, Florian; Kesting, Marco R; Mücke, Thomas; Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Swaid, Sami

    2011-10-01

    Dental implants have played a part in rehabilitation of the jaws for more than 40 years, but in some cases they alone are inadequate because of extreme alveolar resorption. Correction may necessitate a two-stage procedure with additional interventions. We have made a preliminary study of the use of the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS), a carbonated calcium phosphate bone cement used to augment the alveolar ridge as a single-stage procedure, with the placement of implants. Ten edentulous patients with insufficient vertical bone in the interforaminal area were treated. After a horizontal osteotomy and crestal mobilisation of the alveolar ridge, implants were placed through the crestal part and fixed in the basal part of the mandible. Norian SRS was used to fill the gap created. The prostheses were inserted 3 months later. Forty implants were inserted. The follow up period was 60 months, and no fractures or dislocations developed. One of the implants was lost and there was one wound dehiscence, but no surgical intervention or revision was necessary. Radiographs showed good consolidation of the bony structure in all cases. We have described a reliable, single-stage procedure for augmentation and implantation in a highly atrophic alveolar crest. A 98% survival is comparable with those of other techniques. Further clinical trials are necessary to replicate these promising results.

  11. Rehabilitation With Implants After Bone Lid Surgery in the Posterior Mandible.

    PubMed

    Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; De Biagi, Marleen; Bacci, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Bone defects are often secondary to alveolar disease removal. Creating a bone lid with piezosurgery is a valid method to preserve the alveolar bone. A careful and precise osteotomy associated with a firm placement of the bone lid in its original position enables better bone healing, thus allowing for the delayed insertion of dental implants at the operated site with no need for any bone augmentation procedures. The aim of this technical note is to present the application of the bone lid surgery in the posterior mandible before dental implant rehabilitation.

  12. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 2: Clinical application.

    PubMed

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of implant placement in the posterior region of eight edentulous cadaver mandibles was performed. The results demonstrated that the radiographic technique developed can be employed to safely place implants adjacent to the inferior alveolar nerve in the posterior mandible by using radiographic laminography and a specially designed intraoral reference splint. PMID:2391136

  13. Morphometric analysis of the mandible in growing rats with different masticatory functional demands: adaptation to an upper posterior bite block.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Bresin, Andrea; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2004-06-01

    Functional appliances displace the mandible forward and/or downward, causing a stretching of the orofacial soft tissues, muscles included. The resulting forces are directly or indirectly transmitted to the underlying dento-skeletal tissues. The hypothesis underlying the present investigation was that the insertion of a bite-opening appliance influences the lateral morphology of the rat mandible during growth, and that, moreover, this influence depends on the masticatory functional demands. One-hundred and four 4-wk-old male albino rats were divided into two groups, fed a hard and soft diet, respectively. After 2 wk, half of the animals in each experimental group were fitted with upper posterior blocks, and 4 wk later they were killed. Their left hemi-mandibles were transilluminated, photographed under magnification, and digitized on screen. A total of 170 points were used to draw the lateral outline of the mandible. In addition to the inhibitory effect on the height of the dento-alveolar process, the upper bite block resulted in significant changes in the condyle inclination, the length of the coronoid process, and the occlusal plane inclination. Masticatory functional demands influenced this adaptation in an additive way. The results raise the question of whether orthodontic treatment with posterior bite blocks might have different effects on the mandible, depending on the characteristics of the orofacial soft tissues.

  14. Influence of bone parameters on peri-implant bone strain distribution in the posterior mandible

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawakami, Masayoshi; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The success rate of dental implants depends on the type of bone at the implant site. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the bone parameters at the implant-placement site on peri-implant bone strain distributions. Study Design: The morphologies and bone densities of seventy-five potential implant sites in the posterior mandible were measured using computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT data, we defined bone parameters (low and high in terms of cancellous-bone density and crestal-cortical bone density, and thin and thick in terms of crestal-cortical bone thickness), and we constructed finite-element models simulating the various bone types. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. The von Mises equivalent (EQV) strains in the crestal-cortical bone and in the cancellous bone around the implant were calculated. Results: Cancellous-bone density greatly affected the maximum EQV strain regardless of the density and thickness of the crestal cortical-bone. The maximum EQV strains in the crestal cortical-bone and the cancellous bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models (of 150 Hounsfield units (HU) were 1.56 to 2.62-fold and 3.49 to 5.31-fold higher than those in the high-density cancellous-bone models (of 850 HU), respectively. The crestal cortical-bone density affected the maximum EQV strains in the crestal cortical-bone and in the cancellous bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models. The crestal cortical-bone thickness affected the maximum EQV strains in the cancellous bone and in the crestal cortical-bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models. Conclusions: Our results confirm the importance of bone types for the peri-implant bone strain distribution. Cancellous-bone density may be a critical factor for peri-implant bone strain. Key words:Dental implant, bone density, finite-element analysis. PMID:25129251

  15. Management of the edentulous/atrophic mandibular fracture.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shahid R; Najjar, Talib

    2009-03-01

    Edentulous or atrophic mandible fractures are rare and potentially problematic for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. With the loss of teeth, atrophy of the alveolar bony apparatus ensues, creating a mandible more prone to fracture. This article describes the management of edentulous/atrophic mandibular fractures.

  16. A tender swelling of the left posterior mandible: An unusual case.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Harshaminder K; Goel, Poonam; Batra, Ranmeet; Chopra, Sumit

    2014-05-01

    Tender swellings of the mandible are majorly due to inflammatory lesions like infected dental cyst, peri-apical abscess or neoplasms like osteoblastomas, cementoblastomas, osteosarcoma and intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a subgroup of cemento-osseous dysplasia typically found in middle-aged black women as multiple, non-tender, diffuse, lobulated radio-opacities distributed throughout the maxilla and mandible, which are usually bilaterally symmetrical. Histologically, they are composed of proliferating fibrous connective tissue stroma containing foci of cementum, osteoid and bone. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is rare in Indian population and among all cases of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, almost 97% of the cases reported till date are in females. The present case describes florid cemento-osseous dysplasia in a 26-year-old male who reported with pain in the left mandibular premolar region. PMID:25328327

  17. Effects of inter-implant distance and implant length on the response to frontal traumatic force of two anterior implants in an atrophic mandible: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, B; Coskunses, F M; Mutlu, I; Ugur, L; Meral, D G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this three-dimensional finite element analysis study was to examine the biomechanical behaviour of dental implants and the surrounding bone under traumatic frontal force. Models were created of an edentulous atrophic mandible using cone beam computed tomography data from a patient; two titanium alloy implants (Ti-6Al-4V) were virtually inserted into the anterior of the mandible. Six different variations were modelled to represent differences in implant location (lateral incisor vs. canine placement) and implant length (monocortical, bicortical, and long-bicortical). A static force of 10 MPa was applied frontally to the symphysis region of each model, and the maximum equivalent von Mises strain of bone, maximum von Mises stress of implants, and chromatic force distributions in bone and implants were recorded. In general, when compared to lateral incisor placement, canine placement of implants resulted in greater von Mises stress on implants and greater equivalent von Mises strain on bone. The findings of the present study showed the distribution of traumatic force to be affected more by inter-implant distance than by implant length. The insertion of implants in the lateral incisor area was found to be a better solution than canine area placement in terms of frontal plane trauma and fracture risk. PMID:25818310

  18. Alterations of the rat temporomandibular joint in functional posterior displacement of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Cholasueksa, Purisa; Warita, Hiroyuki; Soma, Kunimichi

    2004-10-01

    Functional malocclusion that induces posterior condylar displacement may affect the remodeling processes of the temporomandibular joint structures. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent posterior condylar displacement due to functional malocclusion traumatizes condylar cartilage and joint innervated nerve fibers. Thirty-nine eight-week-old Wistar rats were used. To induce functional posterior condylar displacement, guiding appliances were attached to maxillary incisors of 24 rats for four, seven, and 14 days. Fifteen normal rats served as controls. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or processed for immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5 and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Functional posterior condylar displacement led to a diminution in proliferative cells, reduction in cartilage width, and re-expression of GAP-43-immunoreactive nerve fibers. These results indicate that intermittent posterior condylar displacement due to functional malocclusion causes dysfunctional remodeling of condylar cartilage and nerve injury.

  19. Immediate versus conventional loaded single implants in the posterior mandible: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Porto Barboza, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare implant survival, marginal bone loss, and complications between immediate and conventional loading of single implants installed in the posterior mandible. An extensive electronic search was performed of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant articles published up to January 2015. After the selection process, five studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD), with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Results were pooled according to heterogeneity using the fixed- or random-effects model. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (immediate loading vs. conventional loading) with regard to implant survival (OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.40 to 7.36; P=0.47). There was no statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.55 to 0.38; P=0.24). The reported mechanical and biological complications were common to both types of intervention, with the exception of probing depth, which was greater following the immediate loading technique (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.44), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.43).

  20. Atrophic rhinitis caused by Cedecea davisae with accompanying mucocele.

    PubMed

    Bayır, Ömer; Yıldırım, Gökçe Aksoy; Saylam, Güleser; Yüksel, Elvan; Özdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive atrophy of nasal mucosa. Cedecea davisae, a rare pathogen, is a new member of Enterobacteriaceae family. In this article, we report a patient with atrophic rhinitis whose culture test revealed Cedecea davisae. The patient was operated due to accompanying posterior ethmoid mucocele. Levofloxacin and nasal irrigation were administered for two months. Significant improvement was observed in patient's complaints and nasal signs at postoperative sixth month. In conclusion, Cedecea davisae has been thought to cause atrophic rhinitis and mucocele in this patient. Patient recovered with simple treatment. These bacteria should be kept in mind as a causative agent for atrophic rhinitis.

  1. Miniplate osteosynthesis of fractures of the edentulous mandible.

    PubMed

    Mugino, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shinji; Oya, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Syoichi; Ikemura, Kunio

    2005-12-01

    This study was performed to analyze treatment of fractures of the edentulous mandible and to discuss this method in relation to the mandibular height at the fracture site. Fifteen fracture sites in 11 patients with an edentulous mandible were retrospectively examined. These fractures were located: nine fractures in the mandibular body, three in the paramedian region, and three in the mandibular angle. Fractures in a mandible measuring more than 10 mm in the vertical height were treated with one miniplate. Fractures in an extremely atrophic mandible with 10 mm or less were treated using one or two miniplates, also using a modified Champy plate with 1.3 mm in thickness. A mandibular fracture with a height of 5 mm was treated with a combination of a microplate on the buccal side and a miniplate on the inferior border of the mandible with additional direct circumferential wiring. Oblique or splitting fractures were treated with direct circumferential wiring or a Herbert screw, at one fracture site each, respectively. Complications, including infection, fibrous union, nonunion and trismus, were not seen. In one patient, hypesthesia of the lower lip was, however, persistent 1 month after surgery. Miniplate osteosynthesis is the less invasive treatment, and it is suitable for fractures of the atrophic edentulous mandible, except for comminuted or defect fractures. To obtain stable fixation in severely atrophic mandibles, we need to consider the use of two miniplates or a combination with microplates. PMID:16311742

  2. Retrospective long-term analysis of bone level changes after horizontal alveolar crest reconstruction with autologous bone grafts harvested from the posterior region of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term success of horizontal alveolar crest augmentation of the retromolar region of the mandible with particulated bone, as well as factors affecting subsequent peri-implant bone loss. Methods A total of 109 patients (68 female, 41 male) suffering from alveolar ridge deficiencies of the maxilla and mandible were included in this study. All patients were treated with particulated retromolar bone grafts from the mandible prior to the insertion of endosseous dental implants. Mesial and distal peri-implant crestal bone changes were assessed at six time points. Several parameters, including implant survival and the influence of age, gender, localisation of the implant, diameter, covering procedures, and time points of implant placement, were analysed to identify associations with bone level changes using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Results A total of 164 dental implants were placed in the maxilla (n=97) and in the mandible (n=67). The mean observation period was 105.26±21.58 months after implantation. The overall survival rate was 97.6% after 10 years. Overall, peri-implant bone loss was highest during the first year, but decreased over time. The mean amount of bone loss after 10 years was 2.47 mm mesially and 2.50 mm distally. Bone loss was significantly influenced by implant type and primary stability. Conclusions The use of particulated autologous retromolar bone grafts is a reliable technique for the horizontal reconstruction of local alveolar ridge deficiencies. Our results demonstrate that implants placed in augmented bone demonstrated similar bone level changes compared to implants inserted in non-augmented regions. PMID:27127688

  3. Atrophic Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

  4. Mandible and Tongue Development

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The tongue and mandible have common origins. They arise simultaneously from the mandibular arch and are coordinated in their development and growth, which is evident from several clinical conditions such as Pierre Robin sequence. Here, we review in detail the molecular networks controlling both mandible and tongue development. We also discuss their mechanical relationship and evolution as well as the potential for stem cell-based therapies for disorders affecting these organs. PMID:26589920

  5. Mandible and Tongue Development.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The tongue and mandible have common origins. They arise simultaneously from the mandibular arch and are coordinated in their development and growth, which is evident from several clinical conditions such as Pierre Robin sequence. Here, we review in detail the molecular networks controlling both mandible and tongue development. We also discuss their mechanical relationship and evolution as well as the potential for stem cell-based therapies for disorders affecting these organs.

  6. Biomechanics of the mandible.

    PubMed

    van Eijden, T M

    2000-01-01

    In this review the biomechanical behavior of the mandibular bone tissue, and of the mandibular bone as a whole, in response to external loading is discussed. A survey is given of the determinants of mandibular stiffness and strength, including the mechanical properties and distribution of bone tissue and the size and shape of the mandible. Mandibular deformations, stresses, and strains that occur during static biting and chewing are reviewed. During biting and the powerstroke of mastication, a combination of sagittal bending, corpus rotation, and transverse bending occurs. The result is a complex pattern of stresses and strains (compressive, tensile, shear, torsional) in the mandible. To be able to resist forces and bending and torsional moments, not only the material properties of the mandible but also its geometrical design is of importance. This is reflected by variables like polar and maximum and minimum moments of inertia and the relative amount and distribution of bone tissue. In the longitudinal direction, the mandible is stiffer than in transverse directions, and the vertical cross-sectional dimension of the mandible is larger than its transverse dimension. These features enhance the resistance of the mandible to the relatively large vertical shear forces and bending moments that come into play in the sagittal plane.

  7. Biomechanics of the weakened mandible: use of image correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Yachouh, J; Domergue, S; Hoarau, R; Loosli, Y; Goudot, P

    2013-10-01

    Uninterrupted resection of mandibular bone is often necessary during maxillofacial operations for cancer. This weakens the mandible, and increases the risk of fracture. To our knowledge no biomechanical analysis has been made of deformations and strains that occur during chewing if this happens, so we have made such an analysis of the weakened mandible using a new technique: image correlation. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were prepared with black and white lacquer, and placed in a loading device that allowed replication of a physiological biting exercise. Calibrated pieces of bone were resected from the right body of each mandible. Images of the mandibular surface were recorded by 2 cameras and analysed with an algorithm to correlate them, which allowed us to confirm the distribution of strain on the body of the mandible, and to focus on the weak points. Before the bone was resected, we noted tensile strains on the alveolar border of the body, and compressive strains on the basilar border. The intensity of the strains in the posterior angle of the resected bony area then increased, with reduction in the height of the bone until fracture. The orientation of the fracture line started at the lower posterior angle of the resection area and spread in a lower posterior direction until it reached the basilar border of the mandible. Image correlation is a new technique for the study of mandibular biomechanics that provides accurate measurements on a wide bony surface with high definition images and without modification of the structure. Its application to weakened mandible provided reliable images of modifications to strains during simulated biting exercises.

  8. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Boddepalli, Rajyalakshmi; Uppala, Divya; Rao, A Kameswara

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (MC) are rare and aggressive forms of chondrosarcoma. They are distinct tumors arising in unicentric or multicentric locations from both skeletal and extraskeletal tissues. The most affected region is the facial skeleton, especially the jaws. In this report, we present a case of MC primarily involving the mandible in a 60-year-old female patient. PMID:27721626

  9. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  10. Microneedling Therapy for Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time. PMID:26203319

  11. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingrong

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333

  12. Plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Yuan; Kuang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Nie, Hao-Jie; Guo, Hong

    2008-10-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered active peptide isolated from the stomach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the modification of plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. Men older than 65 years undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. All patients with chronic atrophic gastritis underwent multiple biopsies. Fasting plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels were examined in 50 men with chronic atrophic gastritis and 50 healthy men. Plasma obestatin levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. Plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin to obestatin ratio was decreased in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. There was a significant relationship between atrophy and decreased obestatin. A negative correlation was found between circulating obestatin levels and body mass index (BMI) in healthy subjects, but not in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The data indicated that chronic atrophic gastritis influenced plasma obestatin levels as well as ghrelin to obestatin ratio in elderly men.

  13. Postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Montes, Laëtitia; Lamrous, Hayat; Ventura, Jacint; Cubo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The mandible of the house mouse, Mus musculus, is a model structure for the study of the development and evolution of complex morphological systems. This research describes the histomorphogenesis of the house mouse mandible and analyses its biological significance from the first to the eighth postnatal weeks. Histological data allowed us to test a hypothesis concerning modularity in this structure. We measured the bone growth rates by fluorescent labelling and identified the bone tissue types through microscopic analysis of histological cross-sections of the mandible during its postnatal development. The results provide evidence for a modular structure of the mouse mandible, as the alveolar region and the ascending ramus show histological differences throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region increases in length during the first two postnatal weeks by bone growth in the posterior region, while horizontally positioned incisors preclude bone growth in the anterior region. In the fourth postnatal week, growth dynamics shows a critical change. The alveolar region drifts laterally and the ramus becomes more vertical due to the medial growth direction of the coronoid region and the lateral growth of the ventral region of the ramus. Diet changes after weaning are probably involved in these morphological changes. In this way, the development of the masticatory muscles that insert on the ascending ramus may be particularly related to this shape modeling of the house mouse mandible. PMID:22372819

  14. Actinomycotic Osteomyelitis of Mandible.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Hamid; Sheibani, Mohammad Sina Arab

    2016-07-01

    Actinomycosis is an infection of filamentous, gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Actinomycosis of jaw bone is rare and the diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this patient report is to present an actinomycotic osteomyelitis of mandible in a 30-year-old male patient. The patient presented with a chief complaint of pain and unhealed dental socket after mandibular teeth extractions. Radiographs showed ill-defined radiolucencies and perforation of buccal and lingual cortical plate; several biopsies and different therapy could not improve the lesion because of fault diagnosis and improper treatment. Finally, the authors' histopathological examination revealed granulation tissue surrounded bacterial colonies compatible with actinomycotic colonies. Follow-up examinations showed that the patient was well 6 months after prolonged treatment without any pain and discharge from dental socket. PMID:27391512

  15. Bone remodelling in Neanderthal mandibles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Rosas, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; Estalrrich, Almudena; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Skull morphology results from the bone remodelling mechanism that underlies the specific bone growth dynamics. Histological study of the bone surface from Neanderthal mandible specimens of El Sidrón (Spain) provides information about the distribution of the remodelling fields (bone remodelling patterns or BRP) indicative of the bone growth directions. In comparison with other primate species, BRP shows that Neanderthal mandibles from the El Sidrón (Spain) sample present a specific BRP. The interpretation of this map allows inferences concerning the growth directions that explain specific morphological traits of the Neanderthal mandible, such as its quadrangular shape and the posterior location of the mental foramen. PMID:21307043

  16. Radiographic Evaluation of Crestal Bone Loss Around Dental Implants in Maxilla and Mandible: One Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanović, Muhamed; Hamzić, Adis; Redžepagić, Sead; Kamber-Ćesir, Alma; Tosum, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze the amount of maxillary and mandibular crestal bone loss around Bredent Sky Blue type of implants of different dimensions one year after implantation. Materials and Methods 36 implants of diameter 3.5 x 10 mm were inserted in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible. 52 implants of diameter 4.0 x 8 mm were inserted in the maxilla, and 61 in the mandible (two-stage implant surgery). Results No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side of the maxilla and between the right and left side of the mandible at the implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla and anterior mandible and posterior mandible at implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA). PMID:27688395

  17. Radiographic Evaluation of Crestal Bone Loss Around Dental Implants in Maxilla and Mandible: One Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanović, Muhamed; Hamzić, Adis; Redžepagić, Sead; Kamber-Ćesir, Alma; Tosum, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze the amount of maxillary and mandibular crestal bone loss around Bredent Sky Blue type of implants of different dimensions one year after implantation. Materials and Methods 36 implants of diameter 3.5 x 10 mm were inserted in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible. 52 implants of diameter 4.0 x 8 mm were inserted in the maxilla, and 61 in the mandible (two-stage implant surgery). Results No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side of the maxilla and between the right and left side of the mandible at the implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla and anterior mandible and posterior mandible at implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  18. Scaling of the mandible in squirrels.

    PubMed

    Velhagen, W A; Roth, V L

    1997-05-01

    We compared the shape of the mandible among New World tree squirrels and selected outgroup taxa using linear measurements and areas defined by the median axis and conventional anatomical landmarks. We modified the median axis technique to define novel measurements, which proved complementary to those obtained from conventional landmarks. Allometric analyses showed that the scaling of the mandible among the New World tree squirrels is generally isometric (as has been observed in other groups of mammals), but diverges from isometry in a tendency in smaller animals for the masseteric ridge to be displaced anteriorly, the condylar process and posterior portion of the ascending ramus to be relatively elongated, and the coronoid process to be shortened. Allometric analyses also revealed the ways and extent that outgrowth taxa deviated from the scaling pattern observed for the New World tree squirrels. A flying squirrel (subfamily Pteromyinae), a moderate-sized callosciurine squirrel, and three species of pygmy tree squirrels from Asia and Africa show mandibular proportions very similar to those predicted for New World tree squirrels of corresponding size. Ground squirrels (tribe Marmotini) and successively more distant relatives such as Aplodontia, two myomorph rodents, and a rabbit show greater differences from the New World tree squirrels in their mandibular proportions. Combining the use of median-axis and conventional measurements makes it possible to examine changing relationships between locations of anatomically homologous landmarks and the geometry of the form. PMID:9097464

  19. Fracture properties of the human mandible.

    PubMed

    Unnewehr, M; Homann, C; Schmidt, P F; Sotony, P; Fischer, G; Brinkmann, B; Bajanowski, T; DuChesne, A

    2003-12-01

    A total of seven human mandibles were struck to breaking point under standardised conditions using a pendulum. The cortical deformation for two impact directions was measured with strain gauge strips located at eight defined sites. Fronto-median impacts led to mostly bilateral and always multiple fractures in the posterior area of the bone, especially in the collum and the condyle. The fracture threshold was between 2.5 and 3.1 kN. Lateral impact caused fractures near the impact area as direct fractures of the ipsilateral corpus. Mainly single and double fractures were observed. For lateral impact the fracture threshold was between 0.6 and 0.8 kN. PMID:13680253

  20. How to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yan-Cheng; Tang, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Li

    2011-04-01

    Atrophic gastritis, is the main consequence of long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection, and is linked to the development of gastric cancer. The severity of atrophic gastritis is related to the lifetime risk of gastric cancer development, especially in terms of its degree and extent of mucosal damage. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis, interfere with the disease progress, and reverse gastric mucosal atrophy. In the article, we demonstrated some methods (conventional endoscopy, modern endoscopic technology and noninvasive methods) that may help assess the severity of atrophic gastritis and select the reasonable treatment protocols.

  1. Management of pediatric mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Goth, Stephen; Sawatari, Yoh; Peleg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The pediatric mandible fracture is a rare occurrence when compared with the number of mandible fractures that occur within the adult population. Although the clinician who manages facial fractures may never encounter a pediatric mandible fracture, it is a unique injury that warrants a comprehensive discussion. Because of the unique anatomy, dentition, and growth of the pediatric patient, the management of a pediatric mandible fracture requires true diligence with a variance in treatment ranging from soft diet to open reduction and internal fixation. In addition to the variability in treatment, any trauma to the face of a child requires additional management factors including child abuse issues and long-term sequelae involving skeletal growth, which may affect facial symmetry and occlusion. The following is a review of the incidence, relevant anatomy, clinical and radiographic examination, and treatment modalities for specific fracture types of the pediatric mandible based on the clinical experience at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery program. In addition, a review of the literature regarding the management of the pediatric mandible fracture was performed to offer a more comprehensive overview of this unique subset of facial fractures. PMID:22337373

  2. Pediatric atrophic rhinosinusitis: what can we do?

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Clara; Viana, Miguel; Alves, Valquíria; Nakamura, Roberto; Duarte, Delfim

    2015-05-01

    A 5-year-old female had history of chronic foul smelling nasal discharge. Rhinoscopy showed greenish crusts lining the nasal cavities and inferior turbinates were shriveled significantly. Nasal cavity cultures of crusts by swab revealed Klebsiella ozaenae making the diagnosis of primary atrophic rhinosinusitis. After several unsuccessful treatment, we have decided to try sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim prophylaxis and 1 year later there was a complete clinical improvement. There are many medical therapies and surgical options described, but none of them showed effective at long term. We present antibiotic prophylaxis as a viable alternative for long term control of the disease. PMID:25799383

  3. An Atrophic Plaque with Arborizing Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Martinez, Alejandra; Chavez-Alvarez, Sonia; Herz-Ruelas, Maira; Miranda-Maldonado, Ivette; Vázquez-Martinez, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are a common finding in the daily clinical practice. Most lesions are found incidentally or because patients seek medical attention due to the aspect of the lesion. Rare variants of dermatofibroma such as aneurismatic or atrophic dermatofibroma can be encountered simultaneously; thus, these combined features may raise the possibility of other diagnoses to be considered. By providing diverse clinical and dermoscopic examples of dermatofibromas, we may prevent misdiagnosing these lesions. This case illustrates how two rare variants of dermatofibroma can coexist. Clinical presentation of dermatofibromas may vary greatly, and it is essential for dermatologists to recognize them clinically and dermoscopically before obtaining histopathological diagnosis. PMID:27790113

  4. Atrophic gastritis is associated with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Hasegawa, Goji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-07-01

    Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ≤ 70 ng/mL and pepsinogen I/II ratio ≤ 3.0), and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in general Japanese population. Among 2,633 study subjects, 531 subjects (20.2%) were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis. The prevalence of coronary artery disease was higher in the atrophic gastritis-positive group than that in the atrophic gastritis-negative group (5.8% vs 2.8%, p = 0.0005). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that atrophic gastritis was independently associated with coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.72), after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and habits of smoking and drinking. These results suggest that atrophic gastritis is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa may be associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease.

  5. Gorham disease of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Su-Feng; Wang, Yu-Xin; Yang, Xu-Dong; Tang, En-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Gorham disease, or massive osteolysis, is a rare condition of unknown etiology. The disease is characterized by spontaneous progressive osteolysis of 1 or more skeletal bones. The mandible is the most commonly involved bone in the maxillofacial region. This article reports a case of Gorham disease with mandibular involvement in a 46-year-old male patient with a 7-year follow-up. In this case, we performed lower right mandibular osteotomy and reconstruction with a phased titanium plate. Postoperative follow-up showed continued mandibular bone loss that was progressing to the contralateral mandible. Massive osteolysis of the mandible is a rare clinical condition that must be differentiated from mandibularosteomyelitis, benign and malignant tumors, as well as hyperparathyroidism. Improved differential diagnoses and disease follow-up are required to effectively manage massive osteolysis.

  6. Primary Ewing sarcoma of the coronoid process of mandible.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Husain; Kumbhare, S; Pande, S; Sachdeva, S; Gajbhiye, N

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a rare, primary malignancy of the bone that occurs mainly in childhood and early adolescence. ES usually occurs in long bones of the axial skeleton. Although uncommon in the jaws, ES at this site is most likely to occur in the posterior mandible. The outcome for patients with localised disease has improved over the decades, due to better combination chemotherapies and better methods of local control. We present the clinicopathologic features and management of a case of ES that developed in the left coronoid process of the mandible of a 31-year-old male. Chemotherapy and, later, a segmental mandibulectomy were used to achieve local control. A fibula-free flap repair was performed with good aesthetic results. This case elucidates the importance of the interdisciplinary approach required for the evaluation and treatment of this aggressive neoplasm.

  7. An Uncommon Case of Solitary Peripheral Osteoma in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Agrawal, Shipra; Bhargava, Shitij; Motlani, Mahesh; Agrawal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign osteogenic lesion which is composed of well differentiated mature compact and/or cancellous bone that proliferates continuously. Its prevalence is 4%. Its pathogenesis is still controversial. Solitary peripheral osteoma of craniofacial region is a rare finding. We report a case of 30-year-old female having solitary peripheral osteoma present on the lingual cortex of the left posterior mandible which was initially asymptomatic but now is causing discomfort while chewing and not associated with Gardner's syndrome. We also laid emphasis on its clinical, differential diagnosis, radiological, surgical, and histopathological features. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon case of solitary peripheral osteoma in the mandible along with analysis of literature for peripheral osteomas of jaws and to contribute to the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of these lesions. PMID:26788378

  8. An Uncommon Case of Solitary Peripheral Osteoma in the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rohit; Agrawal, Shipra; Bhargava, Shitij; Motlani, Mahesh; Agrawal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign osteogenic lesion which is composed of well differentiated mature compact and/or cancellous bone that proliferates continuously. Its prevalence is 4%. Its pathogenesis is still controversial. Solitary peripheral osteoma of craniofacial region is a rare finding. We report a case of 30-year-old female having solitary peripheral osteoma present on the lingual cortex of the left posterior mandible which was initially asymptomatic but now is causing discomfort while chewing and not associated with Gardner's syndrome. We also laid emphasis on its clinical, differential diagnosis, radiological, surgical, and histopathological features. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon case of solitary peripheral osteoma in the mandible along with analysis of literature for peripheral osteomas of jaws and to contribute to the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of these lesions. PMID:26788378

  9. An Uncommon Case of Solitary Peripheral Osteoma in the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rohit; Agrawal, Shipra; Bhargava, Shitij; Motlani, Mahesh; Agrawal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign osteogenic lesion which is composed of well differentiated mature compact and/or cancellous bone that proliferates continuously. Its prevalence is 4%. Its pathogenesis is still controversial. Solitary peripheral osteoma of craniofacial region is a rare finding. We report a case of 30-year-old female having solitary peripheral osteoma present on the lingual cortex of the left posterior mandible which was initially asymptomatic but now is causing discomfort while chewing and not associated with Gardner's syndrome. We also laid emphasis on its clinical, differential diagnosis, radiological, surgical, and histopathological features. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon case of solitary peripheral osteoma in the mandible along with analysis of literature for peripheral osteomas of jaws and to contribute to the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of these lesions.

  10. Elastic properties and apparent density of human edentulous maxilla and mandible.

    PubMed

    Seong, W-J; Kim, U-K; Swift, J Q; Heo, Y-C; Hodges, J S; Ko, C-C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether elastic properties and apparent density of bone differ in different anatomical regions of the maxilla and mandible. Additional analyses assessed how elastic properties and apparent density were related. Four pairs of edentulous maxilla and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Bone samples from four anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, mandibular posterior) were obtained. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness (H) were measured using the nano-indentation technique. Bone samples containing cortical and trabecular bone were used to measure composite apparent density (cAD) using Archimedes' principle. Statistical analyses used repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Bone physical properties differed between regions of the maxilla and mandible. Generally, mandible had higher physical property measurements than maxilla. EM and H were higher in posterior than in anterior regions; the reverse was true for cAD. Posterior maxillary cAD was significantly lower than that in the three other regions. PMID:19647417

  11. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    PubMed

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane. PMID:26749676

  12. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Vadera, Hitesh; Sharma, Vimal; Bhad, Kaustubh; Patel, Zinal; Thakkar, Mimansa

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst. PMID:24818100

  13. Ontogenetic study of allometric variation in Homo and Pan mandibles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandini

    2014-02-01

    Investigating ontogenetic variation and allometry in the mandible can provide valuable insight and aid in addressing questions related to the ontogeny of the skull. Here, patterns of ontogenetic shape change and allometric trajectories were examined in the mandible of 187 sub-adult and adult humans, bonobos, and chimpanzees. Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics was employed to quantify and analyze mandibular form. Thirty three-dimensional landmarks were used to capture the overall morphology of the mandible, and the landmarks were analyzed as a whole and subdivided into separate anterior and posterior units. Principal component analyses in Procrustes shape-space and form-space, and multivariate regressions were used to examine patterns of ontogenetic and allometric shape change. Results suggest that humans are distinct from Pan both in their mandibular morphology, particularly in the anterior-alveolar region, and direction of allometric trajectory. Chimpanzees and bonobos have parallel ontogenetic trajectories, but also show differences in mandibular shape. Species-specific features and adult mandibular shape are established before or by the eruption of the deciduous dentition. This suggests that developmental processes prior to deciduous teeth eruption have a stronger effect establishing taxa-specific phenotypes than later postnatal effects. This additionally implies that divergent trajectories between Pan and Homo do not contribute much to the adult mandibular shape after deciduous teeth eruption. Separate analyses of the anterior-alveolar region and ascending ramus show that these regions are semi-independent in their developmental pattern of shape change and allometry. This implies that allometric variation and ontogenetic shape change in the hominoid mandible is decoupled.

  14. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  15. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors. PMID:25815692

  16. Cementoblastoma of posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Dadhich, Anuj S.; Nilesh, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare neoplasm, representing <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It usually occurs in the posterior mandible and is associated with roots of a mandibular first molar or second premolar. This paper presents a rare case of cementoblastoma in the maxillary posterior region involving the maxillary sinus, in a young female patient. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed along with a review of previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:26389052

  17. Erupted complex odontoma of the posterior maxilla: A rarity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sonika; Arul, A. Sri Kennath J.; Arul, A. Sri Sennath J.; Chitra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Complex odontomas, hamartomas of aborted tooth development, mainly occur in posterior part of the mandible and rarely erupt into the oral cavity. The spontaneous eruption may be associated with pain, inflammation of adjacent soft tissues or recurrent infection. The present case of complex odontoma is of particular interest due to its apparent eruption in the maxillary posterior segment, its association with agenesis of the second molar and impacted third molar; with the lesion being completely asymptomatic. PMID:26604611

  18. Erupted complex odontoma of the posterior maxilla: A rarity.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sonika; Arul, A Sri Kennath J; Arul, A Sri Sennath J; Chitra, S

    2015-08-01

    Complex odontomas, hamartomas of aborted tooth development, mainly occur in posterior part of the mandible and rarely erupt into the oral cavity. The spontaneous eruption may be associated with pain, inflammation of adjacent soft tissues or recurrent infection. The present case of complex odontoma is of particular interest due to its apparent eruption in the maxillary posterior segment, its association with agenesis of the second molar and impacted third molar; with the lesion being completely asymptomatic.

  19. Simultaneous Bimaxillary Surgery and Mandibular Reconstruction With a 3-Dimensional Printed Titanium Implant Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting: A Preliminary Mechanical Testing of the Printed Mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ui-Lyong; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Woo, Su-Heon; Choi, Young-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A woman presented with a long history of mandibular defects posterior to the left lower first premolar caused by inadequate reconstruction after removal of a tumor on the left side of the mandible. In the frontal view, extreme facial asymmetry was apparent. The dental midline of the mandible was deviated 10 mm to the left compared with the dental midline of the maxilla, and all maxillary teeth were inclined to the left owing to dental compensation. There was an 8-mm maxillary occlusal cant relative to the maxillary first molar. Bimaxillary surgery using computer-assisted designed and computer-assisted manufactured devices without an intermediate occlusal splint was performed to align the maxilla and mandible at the correct position, and reconstructive surgery for the mandible using a 3-dimensional printed titanium mandible was concurrently performed. In particular, during the virtual mandible design, 2 abutments that enabled the prosthetic restoration were included in the mandible using a computer-assisted design program. This report describes the successful functional and esthetic reconstruction of the mandible using electron beam melting technology, an alternative technique for reconstruction of mandibles that did not undergo radiation therapy. PMID:27060494

  20. Mandible shape in hybrid mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Sabrina; Alibert, Paul; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2009-09-01

    Hybridisation between closely related species is frequently seen as retarding evolutionary divergence and can also promote it by creating novel phenotypes due to new genetic combinations and developmental interactions. We therefore investigated how hybridisation affects the shape of the mouse mandible, a well-known feature in evo-devo studies. Parental groups corresponded to two strains of the European mouse sub-species Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus. Parents and hybrids were bred in controlled conditions. The mandibles of F1 hybrids are mostly intermediate between parental phenotypes as expected for a complex multigenic character. Nevertheless, a transgressive effect as well as an increased phenotypic variance characterise the hybrids. This suggests that hybridisation between the two subspecies could lead to a higher phenotypic variance due to complex interactions among the parental genomes including non-additive genetic effects. The major direction of variance is conserved, however, among hybrids and parent groups. Hybridisation may thus play a role in the production of original transgressive phenotypes occurring following pre-existing patterns of variance.

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future.

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

  3. Fractures of the growing mandible.

    PubMed

    Kushner, George M; Tiwana, Paul S

    2009-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must constantly weigh the risks of surgical intervention for pediatric mandible fractures against the wonderful healing capacity of children. The majority of pediatric mandibular fractures can be managed with closed techniques using short periods of maxillomandibular fixation or training elastics alone. Generally, the use of plate- and screw-type internal fixation is reserved for difficult fractures. This article details general and special considerations for this surgery including: craniofacial growth & development, surgical anatomy, epidemiology evaluation, various fractures, the role rigid internal fixation and the Risdon cable in pediatric maxillofacial trauma. It concludes with suggestions concerning long-term follow-up care in light of the mobility, insurance obstacles, and family dynamics facing the patient population.

  4. Pediatric non-Helicobacter pylori atrophic gastritis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Pogoriler, Jennifer; Kamin, Daniel; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D

    2015-06-01

    Although autoimmune atrophic gastritis is classically a disease of elderly adults, recent studies have described the disease in younger adults, particularly in those with other autoimmune diseases and iron-deficiency anemia. Atrophic gastritis in pediatrics is a rare and possibly underdiagnosed entity that has been primarily reported as single-case reports. This retrospective study of atrophic gastritis not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection was performed to further expand the knowledge of clinical presentation, pathologic findings, and natural history of this disease in the pediatric population. Twelve patients with a histologic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis were identified, with an age range of 8 months to 18 years. Seven had other autoimmune diseases and/or immunodeficiency. Atrophy was confined to the oxyntic mucosa in 10 patients, with intramucosal inflammation in a diffuse or basal-predominant pattern. Active inflammation was present in 7 patients. Pseudopyloric, intestinal, or squamous/mucinous metaplasia was seen at initial biopsy or on follow-up in 8 patients, and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia was seen in 5. One patient developed an adenocarcinoma during the follow-up period of 10 years. Two false-negative diagnoses were retrospectively identified. In the majority of cases, the possibility of atrophic gastritis was not raised by the submitting physician, and the endoscopic findings were not specific. Therefore, accurate diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion on the part of the pathologist, and the diagnosis should be considered particularly in patients with a clinical history of other autoimmune diseases or iron-deficiency anemia.

  5. Recording of the retruded position of the mandible in patients with mandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Helkimo, M; Ingervall, B

    1978-01-01

    The precision (reproducibility) of active and passive recordings of the retruded position of the mandible was studied by two examiners on 10 patients with mandibular dysfunction symptoms. The position of the mandible was recorded with an intra-oral graphic method, before and after treatment of the symptoms. The precision of the recording was highest when the retruded position was recorded by passive hinge movement and lowest when it was recorded by active hinge movement and when recording habitual closure. Both systematical and accidental errors tended to be somewhat larger among these patients than that previously found among individuals without signs or symptoms of mandibular dysfunction. The accidental errors in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions were the same fo both examiners and of the same magnitude before and after treatment of the symptoms. Both examiners recorded the retruded position on the average 0.20 mm more posterior after treatment than before. The results showed that because of its good reproducibility the retruded position of the mandible can be recommended as a reference position in functional analysis of occlusion and for jaw recordings also in patients with TMJ muscle-pain dysfunction symptoms. During the recording the conventional technique with passive hinge movement and a posterior pressure should be used.

  6. Correlations Among Endoscopic, Histologic and Serologic Diagnoses for the Assessment of Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Oh, Jane C.; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Ki Chul; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, AeRa; Jeong, Yeonsang; Jo, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic gastritis is a precancerous condition, which can be diagnosed by several methods. However, there is no consensus for the standard method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations among endoscopic, histologic, and serologic findings for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. Methods: From March 2003 to August 2013, a total of 2,558 subjects were enrolled. Endoscopic atrophic gastritis was graded by Kimura-Takemoto classification and histological atrophic gastritis was assessed by updated Sydney system. Serological assessment of atrophic gastritis was based on serum pepsinogen test. Results: The serum pepsinogen I/II ratio showed a significant decreasing nature when the extent of atrophy increased (R2=0.837, P<0.001) and the cut-off value for distinguishing between presence and absence of endoscopic atrophic gastritis was 3.2. The serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen I/II ratio were significantly lower when the histological atrophic gastritis progressed and the cut-off value was 3.0 for a diagnosis of histological atrophic gastritis. A significant correlation between endoscopic and histological atrophic gastritis was noted and the sensitivity and specificity of endoscopic diagnosis were 65.9% and 58.0% for antrum, 71.3% and 53.7% for corpus, respectively. Conclusions: The endoscopic, histological, and serological atrophic gastritis showed relatively good correlations. However, as these three methods have a limitation, a multifactorial assessment might be needed to ameliorate the diagnostic accuracy of atrophic gastritis. PMID:25337572

  7. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Mandible Fractures-Level 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Audigé, Laurent; Kunz, Christoph; Rudderman, Randal; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Frodel, John; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial outlines the details of the AOCMF image-based classification system for fractures of the mandibular arch (i.e. the non-condylar mandible) at the precision level 3. It is the logical expansion of the fracture allocation to topographic mandibular sites outlined in level 2, and is based on three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques/computed tomography (CT)/cone beam CT). Level 3 allows an anatomical description of the individual conditions of the mandibular arch such as the preinjury dental state and the degree of alveolar atrophy. Trauma sequelae are then addressed: (1) tooth injuries and periodontal trauma, (2) fracture involvement of the alveolar process, (3) the degree of fracture fragmentation in three categories (none, minor, and major), and (4) the presence of bone loss. The grading of fragmentation needs a 3D evaluation of the fracture area, allowing visualization of the outer and inner mandibular cortices. To document these fracture features beyond topography the alphanumeric codes are supplied with distinctive appendices. This level 3 tutorial is accompanied by a brief survey of the peculiarities of the edentulous atrophic mandible. Illustrations and a few case examples serve as instruction and reference to improve the understanding and application of the presented features. PMID:25489389

  8. A case of cholecystohepatic duct with atrophic common hepatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, A; Hankins, J

    2003-01-01

    Background Cholecystohepatic ducts are rare congenital variants of the biliary tree. Case outline An 81-year-old woman presented with biliary colic and elevated liver function tests. An ERCP demonstrated a common bile duct stone and stricture of the common hepatic duct. An operative cholangiogram demonstrated an atrophic common hepatic duct and retrograde filling of the gallbladder through a large cholecystoheptic duct. The patient had a cholecystectomy and reconstructive cholecystohepatic duct jejunostomy. Discussion This case demonstrates a rare congenital anomaly where the gallbladder fills retrograde during an intraoperative cholangiogram despite clipping of the cystic duct. The major path of biliary drainage was through a large cholecystoheptic duct similar to a gallbladder interposition; however, the common hepatic duct was still present but atrophic. This anomaly has not been described previously. PMID:18332999

  9. Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

  10. X-linked recessive atrophic macular degeneration from RPGR mutation.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Radha; Demirci, F Yesim; Liu, Jiafan; Bingham, Eve L; Stringham, Heather; Kakuk, Laura E; Boehnke, Michael; Gorin, Michael B; Richards, Julia E; Sieving, Paul A

    2002-08-01

    We mapped a new X-linked recessive atrophic macular degeneration locus to Xp21.1-p11.4 and show allelic involvement of the gene RPGR, which normally causes severe peripheral retinal degeneration leading to global blindness. Ten affected males whom we examined had primarily macular atrophy causing progressive loss of visual acuity with minimal peripheral visual impairment. One additional male showed extensive macular degeneration plus peripheral loss of retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaries. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) showed normal cone and rod responses in some affected males despite advanced macular degeneration, emphasizing the dissociation of atrophic macular degeneration from generalized cone degenerations, including X-linked cone dystrophy (COD1). The RPGR gene nonsense mutation G-->T at open reading frame (ORF)15+1164 cosegregated with the disease and may create a donor splice site. Identification of an RPGR mutation in atrophic maculardegeneration expands the phenotypic range associated with this gene and provides a new tool for the dissection of the relationship between clinically different retinal pathologies.

  11. Enucleation of large keratocystic odontogenic tumor at mandible via unilateral sagittal split osteotomy: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Geun; Rhee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Chung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a common benign tumor of osseous lesions in dental and maxillofacial practice. We describe three cases of large KCOT located in the posterior part of the mandible extending to the angle and ramus region, which were enucleated via sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) of the mandible. There are cases in which a conventional enucleation procedure does not ensure complete excision of the entire lesion without damage to vital structures like the inferior alveolar nerve. In such cases, a SSO approach could be a better choice than conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience using unilateral mandibular SSO for removal of a KCOT from the mandible. PMID:26339581

  12. Peripheral osteoma of the body of mandible.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Das, Nagarajappa; Sutariya, Rakesh; Ahmed, Tanveer

    2013-08-08

    Osteoma is a benign osteogenic neoplasm microscopically consisting of proliferation of cancellous or compact bone. Peripheral osteomas (PO) arise from the periosteum and are quite uncommon in the jaw bones. POs of mandible are considered as rare entity and very few cases have been reported in the literature. The pathogenesis of PO is unclear. Some investigators consider it a true neoplasm, while others believe it as a developmental anomaly, a reactive mechanism due to trauma or infection. The purpose of this article is to present the clinical, radiographic, surgical and histological features of a solitary peripheral osteoma of the mandible in a 43-year-old woman and to review the literature for PO located in the mandible.

  13. Peripheral osteoma of the body of mandible

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B S; Das, Nagarajappa; Sutariya, Rakesh; Ahmed, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign osteogenic neoplasm microscopically consisting of proliferation of cancellous or compact bone. Peripheral osteomas (PO) arise from the periosteum and are quite uncommon in the jaw bones. POs of mandible are considered as rare entity and very few cases have been reported in the literature. The pathogenesis of PO is unclear. Some investigators consider it a true neoplasm, while others believe it as a developmental anomaly, a reactive mechanism due to trauma or infection. The purpose of this article is to present the clinical, radiographic, surgical and histological features of a solitary peripheral osteoma of the mandible in a 43-year-old woman and to review the literature for PO located in the mandible. PMID:23929608

  14. Cherubism With Bilateral Mandible and Maxilla Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyang; Zhai, Miao; Gan, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yuxia; Wen, Haixia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cherubism is a rare, nonneoplastic, self-limiting fibro-osseous that occurs in children. Affected children usually appear normal at birth. Lesions are characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrovascular tissue containing many multinucleated giant cells. Most studies have reported cherubism to be familial and with bilateral involvement of the mandibles. The authors describe a nonfamilial case of cherubism, involving both the mandible and the maxilla, in a 4-year-old female child with slowly enlarging, painless, symmetrical swelling of both cheeks. Cherubism is a rare disease that is usually limited to the mandible, but the maxilla may be involved. Computed tomography scan and biopsy are helpful for early diagnosis. PMID:26656340

  15. Three dimensional model of the human mandible.

    PubMed

    Muftić, O; Milcić, D; Saucha, J; Carek, V

    2000-07-01

    A new biomechanical three-dimensional (3D) model for the human mandible is proposed. A simple two-dimensional model cannot explain the biomechanics of the human mandible, where muscular forces through occlusion and condylar surfaces are in a state of dynamical 3D equilibrium. All forces are resolved into components according to a selected coordinate system. The muscular forces, which during clenching act on the jaw, along with the necessary force level for chewing, also act as some kind of stabilizers of the mandibular condyles preventing dislocation and loading of nonarticular tissues.

  16. Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible: Is a Conservative Treatment Sufficient for Local Disease Control?

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Paola; Gallesio, Cesare; Longoni, Valentina; Ramieri, Guglielmo

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is the most benign and common form of the Langerhans cell histiocytosis, a rare proliferative disease that can affect single or multiple organs. In the quite common head and neck manifestation these lesions can be confused in the beginning, with other bone diseases such as odontogenic cysts, periodontal disease, or malignancies. Treatment varies depending on the size, number, localization of the lesions, and patient's general conditions. The authors describe here a patient of a single lesion of eosinophilic granuloma localized in the posterior mandible region treated with a very conservative surgical approach in a patient with poor socio-economic conditions. The authors performed teeth extractions, an excisional biopsy and open curettage and after a follow-up of 24 months without partial mandible resection and reconstruction time the lesion had healed. The clinical situation confirmed that, in carefully selective patients, a conservative approach could be a useful therapeutic opportunity.

  17. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  18. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Aditya, Amita; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination.

  19. A Rare Simultaneous Occurrence of Odontogenic Keratocyst and Unicystic Ameloblastoma in Mandible: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dugal, Arun Govind; Pawar, Sudhir Ramlal; Khandelwal, Saurabh Girish; Iyengar, Apoorva

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) and Ameloblastomas are slow growing benign odontogenic lesions that primarily occur in the molar region of the mandible. Clinically and radiographically both ameloblastoma, especially the Unicystic ameloblastoma and OKC are indistinguishable due to the similar location of occurrence and the age of patients. It is very rare for these lesions to arise simultaneously in a patient’s jaw. The co-occurrence of Ameloblastomas with odontogenic cysts or other odontogenic lesions (histologically in a single lesion)have already been described as combined or hybrid lesions. There are very few reported cases in the English literature for simultaneous occurrence of Unicystic Ameloblastoma and OKC as completely distinct lesions. Here we present such a rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of OKC and ameloblastoma in the posterior region of the mandible of a 22-year-old male in close relation. PMID:27656574

  20. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis subgroup was 1.155220 ± 0.9470246 ng/g (mean ± SD) and that in chronic superficial gastritis subgroup was 0.604732 ± 0.6942509 ng/g (mean ± SD); the former level was significantly higher than the latter level (p<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic superficial gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.05). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.01). Stratified analysis indicated that the hair mercury level in healthy controls with eating seafood was significantly higher than that in healthy

  1. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis subgroup was 1.155220 ± 0.9470246 ng/g (mean ± SD) and that in chronic superficial gastritis subgroup was 0.604732 ± 0.6942509 ng/g (mean ± SD); the former level was significantly higher than the latter level (p<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic superficial gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.05). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.01). Stratified analysis indicated that the hair mercury level in healthy controls with eating seafood was significantly higher than that in healthy

  2. Hollow dentures: treatment option for atrophic ridges. a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Caculo, Shweta Pandurang; Aras, Meena Ajay; Chitre, Vidya

    2013-04-01

    Severely atrophic ridges provide decreased retention, support, and stability and pose a clinical challenge to the success of complete denture prostheses. Extreme ridge resorption also increases the interridge distance. Restoration of the vertical dimension and esthetics thus demands increased height of the prosthesis and in turn leads to an increase in prosthesis weight. Reducing the weight of the denture enhances stability and retention and reduces further resorption of the jaw, thereby favoring the prognosis of the denture. This report describes the rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with resorbed maxillary and mandibular ridges and an increased interridge distance using simplified techniques of fabricating hollow dentures.

  3. A suggested mechanism for the pathogenesis of infectious atrophic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, D L; Switzer, W P; Harris, R A

    1971-10-01

    Boivin extracts of Bordetella bronchiseptica inhibited or uncoupled the energized processes of bovine heart and pig heart mitochondria. Energy-dependent accumulation of calcium phosphate by both types of mitochondria was markedly inhibited by the extracts. The thesis is advanced that Boivin extracts of B. bronchiseptica may contain the membrane-damaging component responsible for infectious atrophic rhinitis. The action of the extracts was decreased by heat but seemed rather insensitive to digestion by trypsin or extraction by lipid solvents. Attempts to resolve the active component from the extracts were unsuccessful.

  4. Bilateral low condylectomy of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Worthington, P

    1980-03-01

    The operation of low condylectomy of the mandible is seldom performed bilaterally. The indications and consequences are reviewed, and a case is reported in which the adverse sequelae commonly attributed to this procedure were avoided over an 11-year follow-up period. PMID:6928301

  5. Analysis of Fractured Mandible Over Two Decades.

    PubMed

    Oruç, Melike; Işik, Veysel Murat; Kankaya, Yüksel; Gürsoy, Koray; Sungur, Nezih; Aslan, Gürcan; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-09-01

    Mandible fractures have a special place within the injuries of the other bones of the maxillofacial system. In their management, cosmetic issues and functional aspects such as chewing, speaking, and swallowing become very important.In this study, a retrospective analysis of 419 mandible fractures in 283 patients was performed in relation to epidemiologic factors, treatment strategies, and complications. The average age was 32.14 years (4-69 years). The male/female ratio was 4/1. The most frequent etiologic factor was interpersonal violence (104 patients, 36.7%). The parasymphysis region was the mostly affected site (28.4%). A total of 157 patients (55.5%) were presented with single fracture and the rest with 2, 3, or 4 fracture lines on the mandible. The most common fracture combination was angulus-parasymphysis fracture combination (24.6%). Open reduction and fixation with mini plates and screws was the most preferred treatment strategy (48.2%). Transient short arch bars were not used intraoperatively for any of the patients. There was not any difference in terms of complications between the patients treated with plating systems and plating systems plus intermaxillary fixation.In conclusion, proper treatment of mandible fractures is critical. Except certain fracture types, the usage of intermaxillary fixation as an adjunct to fixation with plating systems is not necessary. PMID:27536913

  6. Analysis of Fractured Mandible Over Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Oruç, Melike; Işik, Veysel Murat; Kankaya, Yüksel; Gürsoy, Koray; Sungur, Nezih; Aslan, Gürcan; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mandible fractures have a special place within the injuries of the other bones of the maxillofacial system. In their management, cosmetic issues and functional aspects such as chewing, speaking, and swallowing become very important. In this study, a retrospective analysis of 419 mandible fractures in 283 patients was performed in relation to epidemiologic factors, treatment strategies, and complications. The average age was 32.14 years (4–69 years). The male/female ratio was 4/1. The most frequent etiologic factor was interpersonal violence (104 patients, 36.7%). The parasymphysis region was the mostly affected site (28.4%). A total of 157 patients (55.5%) were presented with single fracture and the rest with 2, 3, or 4 fracture lines on the mandible. The most common fracture combination was angulus–parasymphysis fracture combination (24.6%). Open reduction and fixation with mini plates and screws was the most preferred treatment strategy (48.2%). Transient short arch bars were not used intraoperatively for any of the patients. There was not any difference in terms of complications between the patients treated with plating systems and plating systems plus intermaxillary fixation. In conclusion, proper treatment of mandible fractures is critical. Except certain fracture types, the usage of intermaxillary fixation as an adjunct to fixation with plating systems is not necessary. PMID:27536913

  7. [Chronic atrophic gastritis and the risk of cancer].

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, F; Nemeth, A

    1990-10-15

    Chronic gastritis, which is frequent in subjects over 50 years old, is caused by the concurrence of predisposing and congenital conditions and exogenous harmful factors, in particular foods. In etiopathogenetic terms it is worth considering autoimmune diseases and duodenogastric back-flow separately. Lesions develop progressively from superficial gastritis to atrophic gastritis and finally to gastric atrophy; they are frequently found together with intestinal metaplasia, formed by areas of the epithelium with the morphological and histochemical characteristics of intestinal mucosa, which are the expression of a modified regeneration of the gastric wall. It is acknowledged that chronic atrophic gastritis is a precancerous phenomenon which is the majority of cases leads to the onset of intestinal cancer, passing through the stages of chronic gastritis, metaplasia and dysplasia. Identification of this lesion may therefore help to prevent cancer: diagnosis is essentially performed using endoscopy (together with histocytological tests and bioptic staining) and laboratory tests (enzyme and CEA assays in the gastric juices). Rather than prescribing generic medical therapy or surgical treatment, which is only possible in selected cases of alkaline gastritis, attention is focused on curing unhealthy habits and on an endoscopic follow-up (every 2 years in cases of gastritis, and more frequently in cases of metaplasia or dysplasia).

  8. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis--pathogenesis, pathology and management.

    PubMed

    Neumann, William L; Coss, Elizabeth; Rugge, Massimo; Genta, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition that results in the replacement of the parietal cell mass by atrophic and metaplastic mucosa. A complex interaction of autoantibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and sensitized T cells progressively destroy the parietal cells, inducing hypochlorhydria and then achlorhydria, while autoantibodies against the intrinsic factor impair the absorption of vitamin B₁₂. The resulting cobalamin deficiency manifests with megaloblastic anaemia and neurological and systemic signs and symptoms collectively known as pernicious anaemia. Previously believed to be predominantly a disease of elderly women of Northern European ancestry, autoimmune gastritis has now been recognized in all populations and ethnic groups, but because of the complexity of the diagnosis no reliable prevalence data are available. For similar reasons, as well as the frequent and often unknown overlap with Helicobacter pylori infection, the risk of gastric cancer has not been adequately assessed in these patients. This Review summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathological aspects of autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis. We also provide practical advice for the diagnosis and management of patients with this disease. PMID:23774773

  9. Multimodal management of atrophic acne scarring in the aging face.

    PubMed

    O'Daniel, T Gerald

    2011-12-01

    Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers, and surgical techniques such as subcision or punch excision. Depending on the type and extent of scarring, a multimodal approach is generally necessary to provide satisfactory results. Resurfacing techniques correct surface irregularities, long-lasting dermal fillers address the volume loss resulting from acne, and sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) face-lift procedures counter the soft tissue laxity and ptosis associated with aging. This article briefly reviews the evolution of individual approaches to treating atrophic acne scarring, followed by case examples illustrating results that can be achieved using a multimodal approach. Representative cases from patients in their 30s, 40s, and 50s are presented. In the author's clinical practice, multimodal approaches incorporating fractionated laser, injectable poly-L: -lactic acid, and sub-SMAS face-lift procedures have achieved optimal aesthetic outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and durability of aesthetic effect over time. PMID:21491169

  10. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis--pathogenesis, pathology and management.

    PubMed

    Neumann, William L; Coss, Elizabeth; Rugge, Massimo; Genta, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition that results in the replacement of the parietal cell mass by atrophic and metaplastic mucosa. A complex interaction of autoantibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and sensitized T cells progressively destroy the parietal cells, inducing hypochlorhydria and then achlorhydria, while autoantibodies against the intrinsic factor impair the absorption of vitamin B₁₂. The resulting cobalamin deficiency manifests with megaloblastic anaemia and neurological and systemic signs and symptoms collectively known as pernicious anaemia. Previously believed to be predominantly a disease of elderly women of Northern European ancestry, autoimmune gastritis has now been recognized in all populations and ethnic groups, but because of the complexity of the diagnosis no reliable prevalence data are available. For similar reasons, as well as the frequent and often unknown overlap with Helicobacter pylori infection, the risk of gastric cancer has not been adequately assessed in these patients. This Review summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathological aspects of autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis. We also provide practical advice for the diagnosis and management of patients with this disease.

  11. On the Variability of the Dmanisi Mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Sier, Mark Jan; Martín-Francés, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The description of a new skull (D4500) from the Dmanisi site (Republic of Georgia) has reopened the debate about the morphological variability within the genus Homo. The new skull fits with a mandible (D2600) often referred as ‘big’ or ‘enigmatic’ because of its differences with the other Dmanisi mandibles (D211 and D2735). In this report we present a comparative study of the variability of the Dmanisi mandibles under a different perspective, as we focus in morphological aspects related to growth and development. We have followed the notion of modularity and phenotypic integration in order to understand the architectural differences observed within the sample. Our study reveals remarkable shape differences between D2600 and the other two mandibles, that are established early in the ontogeny (during childhood or even before) and that do not depend on size or sexual dimorphism. In addition, D2600 exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features regarding the Homo clade, which is absent in D211 and D2735. This mosaic expression is related to the location of the features and can be explained under the concept of modularity. Our study would support the possibility of two different paleodemes represented at the Dmanisi site. This hypothesis has been previously rejected on the basis that all the individuals were constrained in the same stratigraphic and taphonomic settings. However, our revision of the complex Dmanisi stratigraphy suggests that the accumulation could cover an undetermined period of time. Even if “short” in geological terms, the hominin accumulation was not necessarily synchronic. In the same line we discard that the differences between D2600 and the small mandibles are consequence of wear-related dentoalveolar remodeling. In addition, dental wear pattern of D2600 could suggest an adaptation to a different ecological niche than the other Dmanisi individuals. PMID:24586309

  12. Bilateral coronoid hypoplasia and complex odontoma: a rare concurrence of developmental pathology and odontogenic tumour of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mohd Arif; Alaparthi, Ravikiran; Yalamanchili, Samatha; Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra

    2015-10-13

    We present a rare case of concurrent bilateral coronoid hypoplasia and complex odontoma in the mandible, with replacement of missing posterior teeth in both sides of the lower jaw. A 20-year-old woman was diagnosed with bilateral occurrence of coronoid hypoplasia and unerupted complex odontoma after radiographic and histopathological examination. The patient was surgically treated with complete removal of the unerupted complex odontoma and prosthetic replacement of the missing teeth.

  13. Benign mixed tumor of the mandible 17 years after the occurrence of a similar lesion in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Drinkard, D W; Schow, C E

    1986-10-01

    Presented is a salivary tumor occurring in the posterior mandible. This tumor was preceded by a mixed tumor of the ipsilateral parotid gland, which was removed surgically 17 years earlier. The actual connection between the two lesions is discussed, but the true relationship can only be speculative. The mandibular lesion may represent a recurrence of the parotid tumor, a second primary tumor, or may possibly be metastatic in origin.

  14. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve impairment*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Wenliang; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosisis is a rare, multisystem obliterative vasculopathy of unknown etiology, occasionally involving the cranial nerve. We describe the first case of malignant atrophic papulosisis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve involvement in China. A 47-year-old woman presented to our hospital with atrophic porcelain white papules over the trunk and extremities, numbness in the right calf, vision decrease and impaired movement of the right eye. She was diagnosed with malignant atrophic papulosisis, based on characteristic symptoms and histopathologic examination. The patient was treated with dipyridamole and aspirin for 9 months, but later died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We reviewed currently available case reports on cranial nerve involvement in malignant atrophic papulosisis and emphasized the importance of skin biopsy in diagnosing this disease. PMID:26312664

  15. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Wenliang; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosisis is a rare, multisystem obliterative vasculopathy of unknown etiology, occasionally involving the cranial nerve. We describe the first case of malignant atrophic papulosisis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve involvement in China. A 47-year-old woman presented to our hospital with atrophic porcelain white papules over the trunk and extremities, numbness in the right calf, vision decrease and impaired movement of the right eye. She was diagnosed with malignant atrophic papulosisis, based on characteristic symptoms and histopathologic examination. The patient was treated with dipyridamole and aspirin for 9 months, but later died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We reviewed currently available case reports on cranial nerve involvement in malignant atrophic papulosisis and emphasized the importance of skin biopsy in diagnosing this disease. PMID:26312664

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the mandible.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mia E; McCall, Andrew A; Juillard, Guy F; Nadelman, Celina M; Wang, Marilene B; Nabili, Vishad

    2013-02-01

    We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with known multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who presented with a painful mandibular mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed the presence of bile canaliculi and bile formation, an extremely rare finding. Findings on immunoperoxidase staining of the aspirate were consistent with an HCC. Since the patient was known to have multiorgan metastatic disease, he was administered palliative radiation therapy to the mandibular metastasis for pain control, which was achieved. One year after presentation, the patient died as a result of disease progression. HCC rarely metastasizes to the mandible, as only about 70 such cases have been reported in the literature. We discuss the histopathologic appearance of HCC metastatic to the mandible, the radiologic findings, and the established treatment modalities.

  17. Solitary Periosteal Osteoma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Reema; Yadav, Archana; Bansal, Shivani P.; Deshpande, Mohan D.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoma of the jaw bones is a rare entity with very few cases reported in the literature. Osteomas are benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumours of the bone commonly encountered in the craniofacial skeleton and characterised by the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. They can be central, peripheral or extra-skeletal in their location. In the facial region, periosteal osteomas occur more frequently in the paranasal sinuses, but solitary periosteal osteomas of the jaw bones are quite rare. The mandible is more commonly affected than the maxilla, with the sites of predilection being the lingual aspect of the body, the angle and the inferior border. We report a case of a solitary periosteal osteoma on the buccal aspect of the mandible in a 42-year-old woman. PMID:24516749

  18. Fibrosarcoma of the mandible: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Nanda, Jasmine

    2013-08-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts that rarely affects oral cavity and can cause local recurrences or metastasis. The aetiologic factors are still unknown, but many authors have reported the radiation therapy history as an important aetiological factor, followed by trauma and underlying conditions like Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia or chronic osteomyelitis. Fibrosarcoma of mandible is rare, with an incidence which ranges from 0-6.1% of all primary fibrosarcomas of the bone. This paper has described a case of a swelling in the mandible of a 17-years old female who had a radiolucency in association with crown of an impacted tooth and foci of radiopacity, which led to a misdiagnosis of either an odontogenic lesion or a bone tumour, but proved to be a fibrosarcoma on histopathological and immunohistochemistry investigations.

  19. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Niharika; Madala, Jaya Kiran; Mareddy, Ajay Reddy; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal tissue such as the periodontal ligament, dental papilla or dental follicle. It is an extremely rare tumor, accounting less than five percent of all odontogenic tumors. In this report, we describe the case of an eight year old girl who presented with a painless swelling of the left mandible. Radiographic evaluation revealed a well-defined unilocular radiolucency extending from the distal aspect of the displaced mandibular left premolar to the ascending ramus of the mandible. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of COF of the simple type. Surgical excision of the lesion was done and no recurrence was noted thereafter. PMID:27620521

  20. Unusual intraosseous capillary hemangioma of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    Dereci, Omur; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Ay, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm, which is mostly seen in vertebrae, maxillofacial bones, and long bones. Intraosseous hemangioma is rarely seen on jaw bones compared to other skeletal bones and usually occurs in the cavernous form. Capillary intraosseous hemangioma of jaws is an uncommon form of intraosseous hemangioma and has not been thoroughly described so far. In this study, a case of capillary intraosseous hemangioma of the mandible was presented with relevant literature review. PMID:26430377

  1. Time-dependent effects of a 'functional'-type orthopedic appliance on the rat mandible growth.

    PubMed

    Oudet, C; Petrovic, A; Stutzmann, J

    1984-01-01

    The modus operandi and the time-dependent variations in the effects of the LSU-activator, an orthopedic appliance currently used in human orthodontic therapy, was experimentally analyzed in growing rats. This appliance causes a forward positioning of the lower jaw and a restriction of mandibular motility. After a 4-week treatment, the following changes were observed: (i) the growth rate of the condylar cartilage was accelerated, this growth-promoting effect being more pronounced when the LSU-activator was worn during the animal's rest span. (ii) the direction of condylar growth became more backward-oriented; no significant difference between day and night treatment, i.e. during the rest and activity spans could be detected; (iii) the supplementary lengthening of the mandible was greater in rats treated during rest than in rats treated during waking and (iv) the number of serial sarcomeres in the lateral pterygoid muscle was smaller. This growth retardation of the muscle was greater in rest-time than in waking-time treated individuals. The LSU-type activator's action implies a two-step effect: during the time of wearing the appliance, the more forward positioning of the mandible causes a reduced growth of the lateral pterygoid muscle; during the time the LSU-type activator is not worn, the mandible is functioning in a more forward position such a way that it stimulates the growth rate of the condylar cartilage and the subperiosteal ossification of the posterior border of the ramus. It is therefore essential, for a few hours every day, that the mandible be allowed to move freely from the appliance in a more forward position.

  2. [Defining groups of patients with atrophic gastritis for endoscopic mucosal resection using mathematical modeling].

    PubMed

    Blashentseva, S A; Tiumikov, D K; Savchenkov, N N

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of diagnostics of atrophic gastritis. The main principles of morphological diagnostics are presented. The endoscopic findings are discussed. The authors had used the mathematical regression model to reveal groups of patients with some specific signs of atrophic gastritis, such as endoscopic sings, morphological and clinical signs. This model can be used to put a diagnosis and to look after the patients with metaplasia, dysplasia and early cancer.

  3. Rhabdomyosarcoma of mandible: A diagnostic predicament

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Kundendu; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Rao, Nirmala N

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children under 15 years of age and rare among persons older than 45 years of age. It is considered to result from malignant transformation of primitive mesenchymal cells. Although it has a relative predominance for head and neck region, it is found less often in oral cavity. Here we report a case of RMS of mandible in an adult patient, which was initially diagnosed as carcinosarcoma. Clinical and pathologic findings are described, which were confirmed by histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. PMID:22144838

  4. Rapidly Progressing Osteomyelitis of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken; Okada, Shino; Takeuchi, Noritami; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Acute osteomyelitis exists as a refractory disease even now, which usually exhibits systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise and local redness or swelling. The present paper describes a case of acute osteomyelitis of the mandible that was rapidly progressing without typical symptoms. The patient had liver cirrhosis, which should be one of the systemic factors that affect immune surveillance and metabolism. Actinomycotic druses and filaments were detected from the sequestrum. These were considered to play a role in the rapid progression of osteomyelitis without typical symptoms. There has been no evidence of local recurrence 24 months after surgery. PMID:24349802

  5. Comparison of transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy outcomes in atrophic and hydronephrotic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Gülpınar, Murat Tolga; Akçay, Muzaffer; Sancak, Eyüp Burak; Akbaş, Alpaslan; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Reşorlu, Berkan; Armağan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy in patients with atrophic and hydronephrotic kidneys. Material and methods Clinical data were collected from 35 patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomies for atrophic or hydronephrotic non-functioning kidneys between January 2010 and March 2014. Comparative analysis was carried out between the two groups examining demographic characteristics, imaging modalities, etiology, operative times, port numbers, conversion to open surgery, complications, pre-and post-operative hemoglobin and creatinine values, transfusion rates and length of hospital stays. Results Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed for atrophic kidneys in 20 (57%) patients and for hydronephrotic kidneys in 15 (42%) patients. In the atrophic group, 3 patients (15%) required transfusion because of bleeding but none of the patients required conversion to open surgery. In the hydronephrotic group one patient (6.6%) required transfusion and conversion to open surgery because of bleeding. Both of the groups were similar in terms of postoperative hospital stay but compared to the atrophic kidneys, hydronephrotic ones were associated with a longer total operative times (90.1 min vs. 73.6 min, p=0.03). Any serious complication (except for bleeding) and mortality were not encountered in both groups. Conclusion Laparoscopic nephrectomy is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique that can be used in atrophic and hydronephrotic non-functioning kidneys. PMID:26623146

  6. Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation, which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarises recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem cell-based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  7. Current Therapeutic Development for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarizes recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem-cell based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  8. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nilton; de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  9. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  10. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mandible: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bugshan, Amr; Kassolis, James; Basile, John

    2015-01-01

    In the oral cavity, extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can occur in the periapical region either in the maxilla or mandible. Also, it can mimic inflammatory lesions that arise around the teeth apices such as periapical granuloma, radicular cyst and osteomyelitis. Misdiagnosis of lymphomas in the jaws may reduce the chance of successful treatment and worsen the prognosis. Therefore, any growth of periapical tissue must be submitted for histopathological evaluation to avoid a delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of a 53-year-old male in the right posterior mandible that was initially misdiagnosed as a reactive periapical lesion. This case illustrates the importance for both the pathologist and the clinician of considering malignant lesions such as lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucency.

  11. Osteochondroma of the Mandible: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nanda Kishore, Donepudi; Shiva Kumar, H. R.; Umashankara, K. V.; Rai, Kirthi Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondroma, also known as osteocartilaginous exostosis is a benign cartilage forming tumor that usually develops in long bones and relatively uncommon in the craniofacial region. Both the condyle and coronoid tip being the most common sites of occurrence in the mandible, it rarely appears at the symphysis region. Here, we describe a case of osteochondroma arising from the left parasymphysis of mandible. PMID:24191218

  12. An Experimental Method for Stereolithic Mandible Fabrication and Image Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Russett, Shawn; Major, Paul; Carey, Jason; Toogood, Roger; Boulanger, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction of anatomical structures by rapid prototyping has proven to be a valid adjunct for craniofacial surgery, providing alternative methods to produce prostheses and development of surgical guides. The aim of this study was to introduce a methodology to fabricate asymmetric human mandibles by rapid prototyping to be used in future studies for evaluating mandibular symmetries. Stereolithic models of human mandibles were produced with varying amounts of asymmetry in the condylar neck, ramus and body of the mandible by means of rapid prototyping. A method for production of the synthetic mandibles was defined. Model preparation, landmark description and development of the experimental model were described. A series of synthetic mandibles ranging in asymmetry were accurately produced from a scanned human mandible. A method for creating the asymmetries, fabricating, coating and landmarking the synthetic mandibles was formulated. A description for designing a reproducible experimental model for image acquisition was also outlined. Production of synthetic mandibles by stereolithic modeling is a viable method for creating skeletal experimental models with known amounts of asymmetry. PMID:19662121

  13. Posterior malleolus fracture.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Todd A; Lien, John; Kadakia, Anish R

    2013-01-01

    Posterior malleolus fractures are a common component of ankle fractures. The morphology is variable; these fractures range from small posterolateral avulsion injuries to large displaced fracture fragments. The integrity of the posterior malleolus and its ligamentous attachment is important for tibiotalar load transfer, posterior talar stability, and rotatory ankle stability. Fixation of posterior malleolus fractures in the setting of rotational ankle injuries has certain benefits, such as restoring articular congruity and rotatory ankle stability, as well as preventing posterior talar translation, but current indications are unclear. Fragment size as a percentage of the anteroposterior dimension of the articular surface is often cited as an indication for fixation, although several factors may contribute to the decision, such as articular impaction, comminution, and syndesmotic stability. Outcome studies show that, in patients with ankle fractures, the presence of a posterior malleolus fracture negatively affects prognosis. Notable variability is evident in surgeon practice. PMID:23281469

  14. Functional unilateral posterior crossbite effects on mastication movements using axiography.

    PubMed

    Salioni, Marco Antonio Canada; Pellizoni, Silmara Elena Papa; Guimarães, Antonio Sérgio; Juliano, Yara; Alonso, Luís Garcia

    2005-05-01

    This prospective study investigated the influence of functional unilateral posterior crossbite on mastication movements. The study group included 16 patients (nine girls and seven boys) with functional unilateral posterior crossbite involving three or more posterior teeth. A control group comprised 15 individuals (nine girls and six boys) with normal occlusion and the mean age of both groups was 9.17 years. The mandibular masticatory movements were registered, using computer axiography, for 30 seconds during chewing to determine the preference side of chewing. The patterns of the first, third, and fifth chewing cycles were compared with the preference side to establish whether they would predict the chewing preference side. The extent of the maximal lateral and vertical displacements of the mandible during chewing were compared between study and control groups. This study found that overall the left side was the preferred mastication side in 43.7% of individuals in the study and 46.7% in the control group. There was no relationship between the side of the crossbite and the masticatory preference side (Mc Nemar test, P = .5). No correlation was present between the patterns of chewing movements in the first, third, or fifth cycles. Both study and control groups showed similar maximal lateral and vertical mandible displacement.

  15. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    PubMed Central

    Moogala, Srinivas; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Boyapati, Ramanarayana; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Chakrapani, Swarna; Kolaparthy, Laxmikanth

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM) is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement. PMID:25210267

  16. Differential Proteomics of Helicobacter pylori Associated with Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ombretta; Zanussi, Stefania; Casarotto, Mariateresa; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Paoli, Paolo; Cannizzaro, Renato; De Re, Valli

    2014-01-01

    Atrophic autoimmune gastritis (AAG) is a condition of chronic inflammation and atrophy of stomach mucosa, for which development can be partially triggered by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HP). HP can cause a variety of gastric diseases, such as duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric cancer (GC). In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was used by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify differentially expressed proteins of HP strains isolated from patients with AAG, to identify markers of HP strain associated with AAG. Proteome profiles of HP isolated from GC or DU were used as a reference to compare proteomic levels. Proteomics analyses revealed 27 differentially expressed spots in AAG-associated HP in comparison with GC, whereas only 9 differential spots were found in AAG-associated HP profiles compared with DU. Proteins were identified after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-TOF and peptide mass fingerprinting. Some AAG-HP differential proteins were common between DU- and GC-HP (peroxiredoxin, heat shock protein 70 [HSP70], adenosine 5′-triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit α, flagellin A). Our results presented here may suggest that comparative proteomes of HP isolated from AAG and DU share more common protein expression than GC and provide subsets of putative AAG-specific upregulated or downregulated proteins that could be proposed as putative markers of AAG-associated HP. Other comparative studies by two-dimensional maps integrated with functional genomics of candidate proteins will undoubtedly contribute to better decipher the biology of AAG-associated HP strains. PMID:24395566

  17. Fibula free flap for mandible reconstruction: analysis of 30 consecutive cases and quality of life evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Adam; Szymczyk, Cezary

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of fibula free flaps (FFF) for mandible reconstruction in patients with oral cavity cancer and to assess the quality of life (QOL) of the patients who underwent reconstructive surgery. Thirty patients with T(3), T(4) oral cavity carcinoma underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor infiltrating the mandible or primarily originating from the mandible. According to the length (less or more than 8 cm) and localization (anterior or posterior) of the mandibular defect, patients were subdivided into four groups. In all cases an osseoseptocutaneous FFF was chosen for postresective defect reconstruction. To reconstruct anterior mandibular defects, two osteotomies were needed to give the fibula a proper shape. For extended defects, the fibula usually required more than one osteotomy. Skin islands were designed based on Doppler cutaneous perforator findings. The fibular free skin islands remained viable in all patients and no partial or total skin loss was observed. In the majority of patients (87 percent) the facial artery was used for arterial anastomosis. In 6 month follow-ups, the QOL was evaluated as very good except for socioeconomic items. Pain was mild and incidental. Appearance and subjective feeling scores were excellent in two groups with mandibular defects smaller than 8 cm, although in patients with larger defects, they were still very good. Functional effects remained good, and they correlated with the size of defects. In contrast, social activities, recreation, and employment were below patients' expectations and generally reflected the current situation in Poland, but no correlation with the results of reconstruction was found. The present results show that osseocutaneous fibula free flap used in reconstructive surgery for cancer of the oral cavity allows more radical and aggressive resection with very good or excellent functional and aesthetic outcome. Estimated QOL seems an important part of

  18. Treatment of the patient with extensive osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    SciTech Connect

    Dolezal, R.F.; Baker, S.R.; Krause, C.J.

    1982-03-01

    The management of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible remains controversial. Involvement of large areas of the mandible or the entire mandible with osteoradionecrosis may result in severe functional disability and cosmetic deformity. Pain, trismus, difficulty with speech and eating, and a malodorous wound are all problems that must be corrected. Local forms of therapy may be inadequate in the treatment of extensive osteoradionecrosis, and more aggressive surgical management is required. The extent of surgical intervention depends on the individual case. However, preservation of function and avoidance of disfigurement are important goals in the treatment plan. From both a functional and cosmetic standpoint, surgical management can be effective in achieving satisfactory rehabilitation goals.

  19. Report of four cases of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in mandible and discussion of the literature about the treatment.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Helder Antonio Rebelo; Pontes, Flavia Sirotheau Correa; Lameira, Aladim Gomes; Salim, Rodrigo Alves; Carvalho, Pedro Luiz de; Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Pinto, Décio Dos Santos

    2012-02-01

    The ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is defined as a tumour with the general features of the ameloblastic fibroma but that also contains enamel and dentine. AFO normally presents as a painless swelling in the posterior portion of the maxilla or mandible. Radiographs show a well-defined radiolucent area containing various amounts of radiopaque material of irregular size and form. The most appropriate treatment for a large AFO has not been completely determined. This paper reports four large AFO cases and reviews the relevant literature regarding the clinical and surgical features of this lesion.

  20. Determination of whether screening tests for chronic atrophic gastritis really has a positive predictive value.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Flaviano; D'Angelo, Valentina; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Rizzo, Marianna; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo; Cavalcanti, Ernesta

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal‑type gastric adenocarcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions, which begin with chronic atrophic gastritis. Over the last few years, multiple serological screening techniques have been performed and commercialized for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis. In the present study, 123 patients were recruited at the International Cancer Institute 'G. Pascale' Foundation (Naples, Italy) to test commercial kits for the serological determination of chronic atrophic gastritis, supported by histological analysis, according to the International Group of Gastroenterologists 'Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment Staging System'. The results revealed a significant discrepancy between serological screening and histological evaluation in 10.6% of patients, which highlighted the dubious positive predictive value of commercial serological screening kits.

  1. Posterior partially edentulous jaws, planning a rehabilitation with dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Emily V F; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Filho, Osvaldo Magro; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To discuss important characteristics of the use of dental implants in posterior quadrants and the rehabilitation planning. METHODS: An electronic search of English articles was conducted on MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1990 up to the period of March 2014. The key terms were dental implants and posterior jaws, dental implants/treatment planning and posterior maxilla, and dental implants/treatment planning and posterior mandible. No exclusion criteria were used for the initial search. Clinical trials, randomized and non randomized studies, classical and comparative studies, multicenter studies, in vitro and in vivo studies, case reports, longitudinal studies and reviews of the literature were included in this review. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two articles met the inclusion criteria of treatment planning of dental implants in posterior jaw and were read in their entirety. The selected articles were categorized with respect to their context on space for restoration, anatomic considerations (bone quantity and density), radiographic techniques, implant selection (number, position, diameter and surface), tilted and pterygoid implants, short implants, occlusal considerations, and success rates of implants placed in the posterior region. The results derived from the review process were described under several different topic headings to give readers a clear overview of the literature. In general, it was observed that the use of dental implants in posterior region requires a careful treatment plan. It is important that the practitioner has knowledge about the theme to evaluate the treatment parameters. CONCLUSION: The use of implants to restore the posterior arch presents many challenges and requires a detailed treatment planning. PMID:25610852

  2. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  3. Correlation of images: technique for mandible biomechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yachouh, Jacques; Domergue, Sophie; Loosli, Yannick; Goudot, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    Various experimental or physicomathematical methods can be used to calculate the biomechanical behavior of the mandible. In this study, we tested a new tool for the analysis of mandibular surface strain based on the correlation of images. Five fresh explanted human mandibles were placed in a loading device allowing replication of a physiologic biting exercise. Surfaces of the mandibles were prepared with white and black lacquer. Images were recorded by 2 cameras and analyzed with an algorithm to correlate those images. With the Limess Measurement & Software system and VIC 3D software, we obtained data output concerning deformations, strains, and principal strains. This allowed us to confirm strain distribution on the mandibular corpus and to focus on weak points. Image correlation is a new technique to study mandible biomechanics, which provides accurate measurements on a wide bone surface, with high-definition images and without modification of the structure.

  4. 'Skullduggery': Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992) that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should ideally be

  5. 'Skullduggery': Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992) that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should ideally be

  6. Osteochondroma at the angle of mandible: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Mamatha, NS; Shah, Anjan; Narayan, TV; Savita, JK

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondroma (OC) is one of the most common benign tumor of osseous and cartilaginous origin. It usually occurs in the skeletal bones and very rarely in craniofacial region. In the craniofacial region, condyle and coronoid process of the mandible are the most commonly affected areas. The present article reports the extremely rare case of OC arising from the angle of the mandible causing facial asymmetry. PMID:26097327

  7. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the tendon may not be ... repetitive use. Once the tendon becomes inflamed or torn, the arch will slowly fall (collapse) over time. ...

  8. Indirect posterior composite resins.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, Karl F

    2005-07-01

    The use of indirect posterior composite restorations has facilitated the generation of ideal anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and appropriate proximal contact and contour. Unfortunately, however, the use of post-cure heat treatments has done little to enhance the overall clinical performance of the restoration. The development of new curing techniques in conjunction with modifications of the formulae have contributed to a substantial improvement in both the mechanical characteristics and long-term clinical performance of indirect posterior composite resins.

  9. Pain Sensation and Postsurgical Complications in Posterior Mandibular Implant Placement Using Ridge Mapping, Panoramic Radiography, and Infiltration Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate intrasurgical and after surgical, pain and the incidence of after surgical alteration of sensation in the mandible and lower lip when placing implants in the posterior mandible using ridge mapping, panoramic radiography, and infiltration anesthesia. Methods. This was a longitudinal clinical study of healthy patients needing implant placement in the posterior mandible. After thorough examination and treatment plan using ridge mapping and panoramic radiography, all patients received dental implants under local infiltration anesthesia. The patients were then given a questionnaire to assess the pain during anesthesia and implant surgery. Change of sensation in the lower lip was evaluated by standard neurosensory examination tests at 7 days and 1 and 4 months. Prosthetic treatment was carried out 4 months postsurgery and the patients were followed for an average of 28.5 months afterwards. Results. A total of 103 implants were placed in 62 patients. Patients reported very minor pain during injection. No pain was reported during either implant placement or bone grafting procedures. No alteration of sensation in the mandible or lower lip was recorded postsurgery. Conclusion. In most cases, ridge mapping, panoramic radiography, and infiltration anesthesia are sufficient for posterior mandibular implant placement without pain or complications. PMID:23762571

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella bronchiseptica S798, an Isolate from a Pig with Atrophic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keisuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Abe, Akio; Kuwae, Asaomi; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica colonizes the respiratory tracts of a wide variety of mammals and causes a range of diseases, from lethal pneumonia to asymptomatic chronic infection. We report the complete genome sequence of Bordetella bronchiseptica strain S798, isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis in Japan. PMID:24831150

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella bronchiseptica S798, an Isolate from a Pig with Atrophic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keisuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Abe, Akio; Kuwae, Asaomi; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica colonizes the respiratory tracts of a wide variety of mammals and causes a range of diseases, from lethal pneumonia to asymptomatic chronic infection. We report the complete genome sequence of Bordetella bronchiseptica strain S798, isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis in Japan.

  12. Combining traditional techniques to correct anterior open bite and posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Ritter, Daltro Eneas; Locks, Arno

    2013-03-01

    The treatment of anterior open bite often requires the use of skeletal anchorage to prevent excessive eruption of the posterior teeth and consequent downward rotation of the mandible. However, this procedure might not always be accomplished. This article reports the successful treatment of an anterior open bite and a posterior crossbite in a young boy, combining traditional techniques and involving high-pull maxillary traction to help growth to correct the skeletal Class II malocclusion without skeletal anchorage. The vertical dentoalveolar contribution of maxillary growth was also favorable to close the bite, whereas cross-elastics corrected the axial inclination of the mandibular posterior teeth, eliminating the inverted posterior crossbite. The open bite was completely closed with edgewise appliances, which also achieved normal overjet, intercuspation, and incisor exposure on smiling. Traditional mechanics for the treatment of open bite and crossbite remain a useful alternative when patients do not accept skeletal anchorage.

  13. Ontogenetic relationships between cranium and mandible in coyotes and hyenas.

    PubMed

    La Croix, Suzanne; Holekamp, Kay E; Shivik, John A; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Zelditch, Miriam Leah

    2011-06-01

    Developing animals must resolve the conflicting demands of survival and growth, ensuring that they can function as infants or juveniles while developing toward their adult form. In the case of the mammalian skull, the cranium and mandible must maintain functional integrity to meet the feeding needs of a juvenile even as the relationship between parts must change to meet the demands imposed on adults. We examine growth and development of the cranium and mandible, using a unique ontogenetic series of known-age coyotes (Canis latrans), analyzing ontogenetic changes in the shapes of each part, and the relationship between them, relative to key life-history events. Both cranial and mandibular development conform to general mammalian patterns, but each also exhibits temporally and spatially localized maturational transformations, yielding a complex relationship between growth and development of each part as well as complex patterns of synchronous growth and asynchronous development between parts. One major difference between cranium and mandible is that the cranium changes dramatically in both size and shape over ontogeny, whereas the mandible undergoes only modest shape change. Cranium and mandible are synchronous in growth, reaching adult size at the same life-history stage; growth and development are synchronous for the cranium but not for the mandible. This synchrony of growth between cranium and mandible, and asynchrony of mandibular development, is also characteristic of a highly specialized carnivore, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), but coyotes have a much less protracted development, being handicapped relative to adults for a much shorter time. Morphological development does not predict life-history events in these two carnivores, which is contrary to what has been reported for two rodent species. The changes seen in skull shape in successive life-history stages suggest that adult functional demands cannot be satisfied by the morphology characterizing

  14. Ontogenetic relationships between cranium and mandible in coyotes and hyenas.

    PubMed

    La Croix, Suzanne; Holekamp, Kay E; Shivik, John A; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Zelditch, Miriam Leah

    2011-06-01

    Developing animals must resolve the conflicting demands of survival and growth, ensuring that they can function as infants or juveniles while developing toward their adult form. In the case of the mammalian skull, the cranium and mandible must maintain functional integrity to meet the feeding needs of a juvenile even as the relationship between parts must change to meet the demands imposed on adults. We examine growth and development of the cranium and mandible, using a unique ontogenetic series of known-age coyotes (Canis latrans), analyzing ontogenetic changes in the shapes of each part, and the relationship between them, relative to key life-history events. Both cranial and mandibular development conform to general mammalian patterns, but each also exhibits temporally and spatially localized maturational transformations, yielding a complex relationship between growth and development of each part as well as complex patterns of synchronous growth and asynchronous development between parts. One major difference between cranium and mandible is that the cranium changes dramatically in both size and shape over ontogeny, whereas the mandible undergoes only modest shape change. Cranium and mandible are synchronous in growth, reaching adult size at the same life-history stage; growth and development are synchronous for the cranium but not for the mandible. This synchrony of growth between cranium and mandible, and asynchrony of mandibular development, is also characteristic of a highly specialized carnivore, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), but coyotes have a much less protracted development, being handicapped relative to adults for a much shorter time. Morphological development does not predict life-history events in these two carnivores, which is contrary to what has been reported for two rodent species. The changes seen in skull shape in successive life-history stages suggest that adult functional demands cannot be satisfied by the morphology characterizing

  15. The tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Lhoste-Trouilloud, A

    2012-02-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.

  16. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures.

  17. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures. PMID:26991573

  18. Fractures of angle of mandible – A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourav; Fry, Ramesh R.; Joshi, Ajit; Sharma, Geeta; Singh, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Aims This retrospective study was done to evaluate the efficacy of single miniplate osteosynthesis at superior border of angle of mandible. Material and methods In this study 50 patients were treated by single miniplate osteosynthesis according to Champy's principle. Bite force generated was used as a parameter for judging the efficacy of internal fixation. In this article we present our experience over the years in the management of the fractures of angle of mandible based on this model. Results Most patients were of 21–30 yrs of age with unilateral angle fracture of mandible except one patient who had isolated bilateral angle fracture. The patients were treated successfully according to Champy's principle of osteosynthesis. There was a progressive improvement in the bite force generated after osteosynthesis. Conclusions The angle of the mandible is an anatomically weak and an area susceptible to fracture. The presence of an impacted or partially erupted third molar tooth further weakens it. Angle of mandible is the most common site for fracture however, bilateral angle fracture is very rare and uncommon. Osteosynthesis according to Champy's model led to an early functional improvement as demonstrated by the bite force generated. PMID:25737858

  19. Cherubism With Bilateral Mandible and Maxilla Involvement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyang; Zhai, Miao; Gan, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yuxia; Wen, Haixia

    2015-12-01

    Cherubism is a rare, nonneoplastic, self-limiting fibro-osseous that occurs in children. Affected children usually appear normal at birth. Lesions are characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrovascular tissue containing many multinucleated giant cells. Most studies have reported cherubism to be familial and with bilateral involvement of the mandibles. The authors describe a nonfamilial case of cherubism, involving both the mandible and the maxilla, in a 4-year-old female child with slowly enlarging, painless, symmetrical swelling of both cheeks.Cherubism is a rare disease that is usually limited to the mandible, but the maxilla may be involved. Computed tomography scan and biopsy are helpful for early diagnosis.

  20. Osteopetrosis of the mandible masquerading as tubercular osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subramanya S; Saravanan, C; Sathyabama, V; Satish, C

    2013-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare congenital (autosomal type) disorder of the skeletal system. Several variants have been described in the literature with grossly variant prognosis and clinical behaviour. Several reports of intractable osteomyelitis of the jaw bones secondary to osteopetrosis, particularly the mandible, have been published widely. However, there is no published report of the complete mandible sequestrating de novo, in the literature. An overview of this spectrum of sclerotic bone disease, its presentation in the oro-facial region, the diagnostic challenge it poses and the management dilemma it offers to the maxillofacial surgeon is discussed and a protocol for managing this disease effectively is presented. A clinical illustration of the complexities of management of osteopetrosis-induced osteomyelitis of jaw bones is demonstrated with a very rare case in which the entire mandible had sequestrated. PMID:23314447

  1. B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mandible: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Adouani, Ali; Bouguila, Jed; Jeblaoui, Yassine; Ben Aicha, Mehdi; Abdelali, Mouhamed Ali; Hellali, Mouna; Zitouni, Karima; Amani, Landolsi; Issam, Zairi

    2008-01-01

    Summary Introduction The mandible is an infrequent localisation of primary osseous non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Few cases of mandibular non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) have been reported. Case report A rare condition of primary malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the mandible in 53-year-old man, was reported at the Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery in Charles Nicolle Hospital (Tunis, Tunisia). Histologic and Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination Confirmed a B-Cell lymphoma. Discussion The purpose of this report is to describe this rare case of NHL of the mandible, explore the diagnosis and workup, and discuss treatment strategies. In this localisation, neither the clinical features nor the radiologic appearances are often pathognomonic. Conclusion Particular care must be taken to consider lymphoma in the differential diagnosis because this uncommon lesion can pose significant diagnostic problems and is frequently misdiagnosed. PMID:21892315

  2. Aspiration pneumonia associated with a double fracture of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Sano, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is one of the most life-threatening diseases in the elderly. A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia after a mandibular fracture. Because her persistent aspiration pneumonia was accompanied by a diminished swallowing function that was believed to be due to a double fracture of the mandible, the patient underwent an open reduction while having pneumonia. Her symptoms of aspiration pneumonia improved immediately after the surgery. The hyoid bone was repositioned to its original position, and the movements of the hyoid bone and mandible were recovered after the surgery. In cases in which the medial bone segment of the mandible moves inside because of a double fracture and the movement of the hyoid bone declines, we strongly suggest that an open reduction should be performed as soon as possible to prevent aspiration pneumonia caused by a swallowing dysfunction.

  3. Morphological Integration of the Modern Human Mandible during Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial integration is prevalent in anatomical modernity research. Little investigation has been done on mandibular integration. Integration patterns were quantified in a longitudinal modern human sample of mandibles. This integration pattern is one of modularization between the alveolar and muscle attachment regions, but with age-specific differences. The ascending ramus and nonalveolar portions of the corpus remain integrated throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region is dynamic, becoming modularized according to the needs of the mandible at a particular developmental stage. Early in ontogeny, this modularity reflects the need for space for the developing dentition; later, modularity is more reflective of mastication. The overall pattern of modern human mandibular integration follows the integration pattern seen in other mammals, including chimpanzees. Given the differences in craniofacial integration patterns between humans and chimpanzees, but the similarities in mandibular integration, it is likely that the mandible has played the more passive role in hominin skull evolution. PMID:21716741

  4. Management and treatment of a mandible fracture in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Koloskie, J; Orr, D L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a treatment program that may permit a student-athlete who has a mandible fracture to continue participation in a sport without further jeopardizing his or her health. This article is based on an actual case in which a student-athlete sustained a mandible fracture during an intercollegiate basketball game. Within 24 hours, the injured athlete resumed basketball practice. Three days following the injury, he was permitted to compete in a game. In addition to recommendations regarding acute care, we discuss protective equipment, follow-up guidelines, and nutritional considerations. These guidelines may assist the sports medicine team in determining when an athlete with a mandible fracture can return to competitive and contact sports.

  5. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  6. Geometric properties and comparative biomechanics of Homo floresiensis mandibles.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; Patel, Biren A; Jungers, William L

    2014-03-01

    The hypodigm of Homo floresiensis from the cave of Liang Bua on Flores Island in the archipelago of Indonesia includes two mandibles (LB1/2 and LB6/1). The morphology of their symphyses and corpora has been described as sharing similarities with both australopiths and early Homo despite their Late Pleistocene age. Although detailed morphological comparisons of these mandibles with those of modern and fossil hominin taxa have been made, a functional analysis in the context of masticatory biomechanics has yet to be performed. Utilizing data on cortical bone geometry from computed tomography scans, we compare the mechanical attributes of the LB1 and LB6 mandibles with samples of modern Homo, Pan, Pongo, and Gorilla, as well as fossil samples of Paranthropus robustus, Australopithecus africanus and South African early Homo. Structural stiffness measures were derived from the geometric data to provide relative measures of mandibular corpus strength under hypothesized masticatory loading regimes. These mechanical variables were evaluated relative to bone area, mandibular length and estimates of body size to assess their functional affinities and to test the hypothesis that the Liang Bua mandibles can be described as scaled-down variants of either early hominins or modern humans. Relative to modern hominoids, the H. floresiensis material appears to be relatively strong in terms of rigidity in torsion and transverse bending, but is relatively weak under parasagittal bending. Thus, they are 'robust' relative to modern humans (and comparable with australopiths) under some loads but not others. Neither LB1 nor LB6 can be described simply as 'miniaturized' versions of modern human jaws since mandible length is more or less equivalent in Homo sapiens and H. floresiensis. The mechanical attributes of the Liang Bua mandibles are consistent with previous inferences that masticatory loads were reduced relative to australopiths but remained elevated relative to modern Homo.

  7. Geometric properties and comparative biomechanics of Homo floresiensis mandibles.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; Patel, Biren A; Jungers, William L

    2014-03-01

    The hypodigm of Homo floresiensis from the cave of Liang Bua on Flores Island in the archipelago of Indonesia includes two mandibles (LB1/2 and LB6/1). The morphology of their symphyses and corpora has been described as sharing similarities with both australopiths and early Homo despite their Late Pleistocene age. Although detailed morphological comparisons of these mandibles with those of modern and fossil hominin taxa have been made, a functional analysis in the context of masticatory biomechanics has yet to be performed. Utilizing data on cortical bone geometry from computed tomography scans, we compare the mechanical attributes of the LB1 and LB6 mandibles with samples of modern Homo, Pan, Pongo, and Gorilla, as well as fossil samples of Paranthropus robustus, Australopithecus africanus and South African early Homo. Structural stiffness measures were derived from the geometric data to provide relative measures of mandibular corpus strength under hypothesized masticatory loading regimes. These mechanical variables were evaluated relative to bone area, mandibular length and estimates of body size to assess their functional affinities and to test the hypothesis that the Liang Bua mandibles can be described as scaled-down variants of either early hominins or modern humans. Relative to modern hominoids, the H. floresiensis material appears to be relatively strong in terms of rigidity in torsion and transverse bending, but is relatively weak under parasagittal bending. Thus, they are 'robust' relative to modern humans (and comparable with australopiths) under some loads but not others. Neither LB1 nor LB6 can be described simply as 'miniaturized' versions of modern human jaws since mandible length is more or less equivalent in Homo sapiens and H. floresiensis. The mechanical attributes of the Liang Bua mandibles are consistent with previous inferences that masticatory loads were reduced relative to australopiths but remained elevated relative to modern Homo. PMID

  8. Management of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible with myocutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.

    1983-12-01

    Involvement of large areas of the mandible or the entire mandible with osteoradionecrosis may result in severe functional disability and cosmetic deformity. The use of a well-vascularized pectoralis major myocutaneous flap from outside the original field of irradiation has been successful in obtaining functional and cosmetic goals. Myocutaneous flaps provide bulk for contour and tissue support, and their rich vascular supply promotes healing of the heavily irradiated soft tissue and bone. Successful bone grafting for mandibular reconstruction may follow control of the osteoradionecrosis.

  9. Posterior microphthalmos pigmentary retinopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pehere, Niranjan; Jalali, Subhadra; Deshmukh, Himanshu; Kannabiran, Chitra

    2011-04-01

    Posterior Microphthalmos Pigmentary Retinopathy Syndrome (PMPRS). Posterior microphthalmos (PM) is a relatively infrequent type of microphthalmos where posterior segment is predominantly affected with normal anterior segment measurements. Herein, we report two siblings with posterior microphthalmos retinopathy syndrome with postulated autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A 13-year-old child had PM and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and his 7-year-old sister had PM, RP, and foveoschisis. The genetics of this syndrome and variable phenotype is discussed. Importance of being aware of posterior microphthalmos and its posterior segment associations is highlighted.

  10. An incidental solitary fibrous tumour in the retroperitoneum, coexisting with ipsilateral atrophic kidney.

    PubMed

    Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Ozgonul, Abdullah; Sogut, Ozgur; Guldur, Muhammet E

    2011-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a relatively uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most commonly arises in the pleura, but which may also arise from other serosal surfaces outside the pleura. However, SFT is now known to affect various serosal surfaces including pericardium, peritoneum, retroperitoneum nasal and paranasal sinuses, thyroid, cavernous sinus or pituitary fossa. The histologic features of this lesion may create diagnostic confusion with a variety of other spindle-cell tumours. To the best our knowledge, no cases with SFT have been previously noted in the retroperitoneum coexisting with atrophic kidney. Herein, we report the unique association of a solitary fibrous tumour in the retroperitoneum coexisting with ipsilateral atrophic kidney in a 60-year-old man and define histopatological findings of this tumour.

  11. Severely Atrophic Human Muscle Fibers With Nuclear Misplacement Survive Many Years of Permanent Denervation.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut

    2016-06-13

    Likewise in rodents, after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) the lower motor neuron (LMN) denervated human muscle fibers lose completely the myofibrillar apparatus and the coil distribution of myonuclei that are relocated in groups (nuclear clumps) in the center of severely atrophic muscle fibers. Up to two years of LMN denervation the muscle fibers with nuclear clumps are very seldom, but in this cohort of patients the severely atrophic muscle fibers are frequent in muscle biopsies harvested three to six years after SCI. Indeed, the percentage increased to 27 ± 9% (p< 0.001), and then abruptly decreased from the 6th year onward, when fibrosis takes over to neurogenic muscle atrophy. Immunohistochemical analyses shown that nuclear misplacements occurred in both fast and slow muscle fibers. In conclusion, human muscle fibers survive permanent denervation much longer than generally accepted and relocation of nuclei is a general behavior in long term denervated muscle fibers. PMID:27478559

  12. Severely Atrophic Human Muscle Fibers With Nuclear Misplacement Survive Many Years of Permanent Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Likewise in rodents, after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) the lower motor neuron (LMN) denervated human muscle fibers lose completely the myofibrillar apparatus and the coil distribution of myonuclei that are relocated in groups (nuclear clumps) in the center of severely atrophic muscle fibers. Up to two years of LMN denervation the muscle fibers with nuclear clumps are very seldom, but in this cohort of patients the severely atrophic muscle fibers are frequent in muscle biopsies harvested three to six years after SCI. Indeed, the percentage increased to 27 ± 9% (p< 0.001), and then abruptly decreased from the 6th year onward, when fibrosis takes over to neurogenic muscle atrophy. Immunohistochemical analyses shown that nuclear misplacements occurred in both fast and slow muscle fibers. In conclusion, human muscle fibers survive permanent denervation much longer than generally accepted and relocation of nuclei is a general behavior in long term denervated muscle fibers. PMID:27478559

  13. Major motor atrophic patterns in the face and neck: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, H.R.; Dillon, W.P.

    1985-06-01

    Cranial nerve deficits from various pathologic processes of the head and neck may result in characteristic patterns of denervation muscular atrophy. Such atrophic patterns may be clues to the location and extent of the lesion, particularly when cranial nerves are involved early in the course of the disease process. Thirty-six patients with computed tomographic (CT) evidence of muscular atrophy secondary to pathologic conditions involving the motor division of cranial nerves were examined. Five characteristic denervation muscular atrophy patterns seen on CT scans were identified. Recognition of these atrophic patterns can prevent misinterpretation of their CT appearance and direct the CT examination to the course of the compromised cranial nerve from the brainstem to its peripheral innervation.

  14. Measurement of Mucosal Thickness in Denture-bearing Area of Edentulous Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jian; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Wu, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: The thickness of the alveolar mucosa influences the probability of the occurrence of denture-induced irritations. Thick denture-supporting tissues offer relief from mucosal tenderness and ulcers; however, the uniformity of the thickness across the entire mandibular alveolar mucosa cannot be accurately determined in edentulous patients. This study aimed to assess the mucosal thickness of the denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible. Methods: Twenty-seven edentulous patients underwent cone-beam computed tomography scanning, wherein the patients wore a record base to retract soft tissues away from the alveolar mucosa. The measured regions were the central incisor (IC), lateral incisor (IL), canine (Ca), first premolar (P1), second premolar (P2), first molar (M1), and second molar (M2) regions. The thickness was measured in the alveolar ridge crest (T), buccal (B1–B4), and lingual (L1–L4) alveolar ridge mucosa. The average thickness of the mucosa at buccal sides (B) and lingual sides (L) were also assessed. Results: The differences in the mucosal thickness between the left and right sides were not significant. In the Ca–M2 regions, T was the thickest, and L3 was the thinnest of all the measured points in the same regions. L was significantly less than B in posterior regions (P < 0.01). On the other hand, M2 at L4 was thinnest of all the measured regions from Ca to M2 (P < 0.01), and was thicker than IC, IL, P1, and P2 at B2. Conclusions: Since the mucosal thickness of denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible is not uniform; the tissue surface of the denture base or custom tray should be selectively relieved, which may reduce the risk of denture-induced irritations. PMID:25635429

  15. An Unusual Presentation of Pseudothrombotic Microangiopathy in a Patient with Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Nasnas, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We hereby describe the case of a young female patient who presented with pseudothrombotic microangiopathy, as well as pancytopenia accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department with fatigue and dyspnea on minimal exertion. Physical examination was unremarkable except for pallor and noninjected conjunctiva. Laboratory tests revealed high LDH and low hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, and haptoglobin. The peripheral blood smear showed schistocytes suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. Low cobalamin level and hyperhomocysteinemia were also detected. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis was confirmed by gastric biopsy and positive anti-intrinsic factor antibodies. Vitamin B12 supplements were given which led to rapid recovery and normalization of blood parameters. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance and serves as a reminder to clinicians to rule out cobalamin deficiency and autoimmune atrophic gastritis in patients presenting with a picture suggestive of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia, which was completely reversible after appropriate replacement therapy without recurring to unnecessary and invasive procedures such as plasma exchange. PMID:27018160

  16. [Atrophic gastritis as a pre-cancer gastric condition: a new view of the old problem].

    PubMed

    Kreĭmer, V D; Tiurin, V P; Kogan, E A; Khomiakova, I A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the relationship between structural changes in gastric mucosa affected by atrophic gastritis and inflammation associated with Hp infection. Endoscopic examination and NBI-visualization were used to assess distribution and severity of inflammation in 500 patients with different gastric pathologies. Histological material was studied to detect Hp. Structural changes of metaplastic type most frequently occurred in patients with atrophic gastritis (72 of 81, 88.9%), surface and erosive gastritis (13 or 3.5% and 16 or 14.3% respectively), p < 0.001. Hp infection and inflammatory-destructive changes showed no apparent trends. Mucosal changes characteristic of atrophy were only rarely accompanied by marked inflammation (14.8%) and were either mild (21%) or moderately severe (64.2%). It suggests that atrophy of gastric mucosa should be regarded as independent condition while the term atrophic gastritis should be used only in case of association between atrophy and inflammation confirmed by microscopic studies.

  17. [Peculiarities of relationship between atrophic gastritis and stomach cancer in the population of Eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, V V; Butorin, N N; Maady, A S; Shtygasheva, O V; Amel'chugova, O S; Tonkikh, Iu L; Bronnikova, E P

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of atrophic gastritis, H.pylori strains carrying the CagA gene, seeding and apoptosis indices of gastric mucosa in indigenous and newcomer residents of Evenkia. A total of 136 Evenks and 159 newcomers were examined using fibrogastroscopy and biopsy of antral gastric mucosa. Morphological study included light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin-stained biopsies and their analysis using a visual-analog scale to reveal signs of inflammation, apoptosis, intestinal metaplasia and the degree of insemination by P. pylori. Urease and morphological tests were used to identify H. pylori and the TUNEL technique (Mebstain Apoptosis kit direct, France) to determine apoptosis index; serum anti-Helicobacter and CagA antibodies were detected by an immunoenzyme assay in 22 Evenks and 24 newcomers with chronic H. pylori-associated gastritis. The prevalence of atrophic gastritis in these groups was estimated at 13.2 and 23.9% respectively, seeding density 45.37 +/- 2.01 and 214 +/- 8.75 (p < 0.001). H. pylori strains carrying the CagA gene were identified in 59.6 and 43.6% of the newcomers and Evenks (p = 0.01), total apoptosis index in greater curvature mucosa was 4.99 +/- 0.23 and 3.19 +/- 0.28 (p < 0.01) respectively. These ethnic difference in the prevalence of atrophic gastritis appear to be attributable to different intensity of apoptosis in greater curvature mucosa.

  18. Pseudotumour of the Mandible Associated with von Willebrand's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daniel Sathiya, S S; Pari Selvakumar, P; Singh, Mandeep; Abraham, Aby; Koshy, Santosh

    2015-03-01

    Patients with bleeding disorders may occasionally present with pseudotumours. Most commonly these occur in the soft tissues and long bones, and are very rare in the maxillofacial region. We present the clinical details and management of a pseudotumour of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl with von Willebrand's disease.

  19. [Mandible regional blood circulation peculiarities by dental implants placement].

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, V A; Tsilenko, O L; Grabovetskiĭ, P V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents data on regional blood circulation in mandible implant placement sites. Rheographic assessment in 50 patients divided in two groups according to implant placement protocol revealed that circulation volume and peripheral vessels tonus restored on the 14th day after implant placement with wound draining while in conventional implant placement protocol these values remained disturbed even 21 days after surgical procedure.

  20. Morphometric growth relationships of the immature human mandible and tongue.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley

    2014-06-01

    The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions.

  1. Evolution of Skull and Mandible Shape in Cats (Carnivora: Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-01-01

    The felid family consists of two major subgroups, the sabretoothed and the feline cats, to which all extant species belong, and are the most anatomically derived of all carnivores for predation on large prey with a precision killing bite. There has been much controversy and uncertainty about why the skulls and mandibles of sabretoothed and feline cats evolved to become so anatomically divergent, but previous models have focused on single characters and no unifying hypothesis of evolutionary shape changes has been formulated. Here I show that the shape of the skull and mandible in derived sabrecats occupy entirely different positions within overall morphospace from feline cats, and that the evolution of skull and mandible shape has followed very different paths in the two subgroups. When normalised for body-size differences, evolution of bite forces differ markedly in the two groups, and are much lower in derived sabrecats, and they show a significant relationship with size and cranial shape, whereas no such relationship is present in feline cats. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in modern cats has been governed by the need for uniform powerful biting irrespective of body size, whereas in sabrecats, shape evolution was governed by selective pressures for efficient predation with hypertrophied upper canines at high gape angles, and bite forces were secondary and became progressively weaker during sabrecat evolution. The current study emphasises combinations of new techniques for morphological shape analysis and biomechanical studies to formulate evolutionary hypotheses for difficult groups. PMID:18665225

  2. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Mandible: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ankur; Kaur, Gursheen; Sood, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst. It is a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling, usually affecting middle aged men and has tendency to reoccur. Here, we report a case of GOC in the anterior portion of mandible diagnosed by histopathology. PMID:26813085

  3. The Design of Mechanically Compatible Fasteners for Human Mandible Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Ecker, John A.; Biermann, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanically compatible fasteners for use with thin or weakened bone sections in the human mandible are being developed to help reduce large strain discontinuities across the bone/implant interface. Materials being considered for these fasteners are a polyetherertherketone (PEEK) resin with continuous quartz or carbon fiber for the screw. The screws were designed to have a shear strength equivalent to that of compact/trabecular bone and to be used with a conventional nut, nut plate, or an expandable shank/blind nut made of a ceramic filled polymer. Physical and finite element models of the mandible were developed in order to help select the best material fastener design. The models replicate the softer inner core of trabecular bone and the hard outer shell of compact bone. The inner core of the physical model consisted of an expanding foam and the hard outer shell consisted of ceramic particles in an epoxy matrix. This model has some of the cutting and drilling attributes of bone and may be appropriate as an educational tool for surgeons and medical students. The finite element model was exercised to establish boundary conditions consistent with the stress profiles associated with mandible bite forces and muscle loads. Work is continuing to compare stress/strain profiles of a reconstructed mandible with the results from the finite element model. When optimized, these design and fastening techniques may be applicable, not only to other skeletal structures, but to any composite structure.

  4. Comparative anatomic study of mandibular growth in rats after bilateral resections of superficial masseter, posterior temporal, and anterior digastric muscles.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, J

    1976-01-01

    Bilateral resections of the superficial masseter, posterior temporal, and anterior digastric muscles of rats were done to determine their effects on mandibular growth. The macroscopic findings support the functional matrix theory of mandibular growth. The analysis of body weight and the statistical two-way analysis of variance done suggest that malnutrition was the main factor that caused the mandibles of rats in the experimental groups of remain undersized.

  5. Posterior Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  6. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  7. Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Shane, Amber M; Reeves, Christopher L; Cameron, Jordan D; Vazales, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    When performed correctly with the right patient population, a tibialis posterior muscle/tendon transfer is an effective procedure. Many different methods have been established for fixating the tendon, each of which has its' own indications. Passing through the interosseous membrane is the preferred and recommended method and should be used unless this is not possible. Good surgical planning based on patient needs and expectations, along with excellent postoperative care including early range of motion and physical therapy minimizes risk of complications and allows for the optimal outcome to be achieved. PMID:26590722

  8. Immunoproteomics of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with atrophic body gastritis, a predisposing condition for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lahner, Edith; Bernardini, Giulia; Possenti, Silvia; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Santucci, Annalisa; Annibale, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Atrophic body gastritis is considered an outcome of H. pylori infection at high risk for gastric cancer. Immunoproteomics has been used to detect H. pylori antigens, which may act as potential markers for neoplastic disease and may be used in specific serological tests. We used immunoproteome technology to identify H. pylori antigens, recognized by sera from patients with atrophic body gastritis. Here, we performed 2DE protein maps of H. pylori strain 10K, probed against single sera from 3 groups of H. pylori-positive patients (atrophic body gastritis; intestinal-type gastric cancer; peptic ulcer) and negative controls. Immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 155 immunoreactive spots were detected corresponding to 14.1% of total spots detected in our reference map of H. pylori strain 10K. Sera from atrophic body gastritis (40.5±2%) and gastric cancer patients (25.9±1.8%) showed a significantly higher and stronger mean immunoreactivity versus H. pylori antigens compared to peptic ulcer patients (11.2±1.3%). The average intensity of immunoreactivity of sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients was significantly stronger compared to peptic ulcer patients. Sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients differentially recognized 17 H. pylori spots. Immunoproteome technology may discriminate between different H. pylori-related disease phenotypes showing a serological immunorecognition pattern common to patients with gastric cancer and atrophic body gastritis, its precursor condition. This tool may be promising for developing specific serological tests to identify patients with gastritis at high risk for gastric cancer, to be evaluated in prospective investigations.

  9. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  10. Posterior bilateral condylar displacement: its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1976-10-01

    One type of condylar displacement (posterior bilateral) was discussed as an etiologic factor in TMJ dysfunction. Joint noise, tenderness on muscle palpation, and acute TMJ pain are all considered signs of TMJ dysfunction. Any joint noise is considered to be an early dysfunctional symptom because of its higher incidence in association with palpable muscle pain or acute TMJ dysfunction. Sometimes the joint noise will immediately precede acute muscle pain and/or fluctuate with the painful symptoms. The treatment of bilateral posterior condyle displacement has been described. The mandibular anterior teeth were shortened and the maxillary posterior occlusion adjusted so that the mandible could be respositioned in an anterior position without increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion. A silver-plated maxillary cast was obtained and mounted on a semiadjustable articulator (Hanau) with a face-bow. The mandibular cast was mounted in the dysfunctional (retruded) centric relation. The articulator was moved into a protrusive position by the amount of anterior correction that is needed to reposition the condyles into the middle of the fossae symmetrically on both sides. The original TMJ radiographs provide the necessary information for this clinical judgment. Acrylic resin was placed in the space created between the condylar sphere and stop on the articulator. An acrylic resin temporary repositioning prosthesis constructed on the metal cast has two functions. It provides a therapeutic trial for the anterior condylar respositioning, and it holds the mandible in the therapeutic position while TMJ radiographs confirm the corrective position of the condyles in the fossae. After a successful 6 to 8 week trial period with remission of symptoms, a gold prosthesis was constructed on the same cast in the same therapeutic position. It remains to be seen whether, after several years, the condylar suspension system changes from a dysfunctional centric relation to a new functional

  11. Peripheral Osteoma of the Body of Mandible: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Karthik; Priyadharsini, Indira; Sanjay, P; Yuvaraj, V; Balaji, T S

    2015-12-01

    Osteoma is a slow growing benign tumor consisting of well differentiated compact or cancellous bone that increases in size by continuous growth. It can be of a central, peripheral, or extraskeletal type. The peripheral type arises from the periosteum and is rarely seen in mandible. Although completely curable with adequate surgical treatment, osteomas precede the clinical radiographic evidence of colonic polyposis/Gardner's syndrome. Therefore they may be sensitive markers for the disease. Recurrence of peripheral osteoma after surgical excision is extremely rare. However it is appropriate to provide both clinical and radiographic follow up after surgical excision of peripheral osteoma. This article describes the case of a 45 year old male who presented with painless swelling of the right body of mandible and resultant cosmetic facial disfigurement and functional impairment.

  12. Solitary Peripheral Osteoma of the Angle of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Kapil; Bhate, Kalyani; Pawar, Vivek; SanthoshKumar, S. N.; Kheur, Supriya; Dusane, Shrikant

    2015-01-01

    Solitary peripheral osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor arising from craniofacial bones such as the sinus, temporal, or jaw bones but rarely originating from the mandible. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be of peripheral, central, or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Solitary peripheral osteomas are characterized by well-defined, rounded, or oval radiopaque mass in the computed tomography. Although multiple osteomas of the jaws are a hallmark of Gardner's syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis), nonsyndromic cases are typically solitary. Herein, we report a rare case of solitary peripheral osteoma of the angle of the mandible in a 27-year-old female with clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. PMID:26421198

  13. Biomechanics and functional distortion of the human mandible.

    PubMed

    Choi, Andy H; Conway, Richard C; Taraschi, Valerio; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2015-11-01

    The reaction to the use of finite element analysis (FEA) in the study of the human body has been particularly enthusiastic. Of equal and challenging complexity is the investigation of load/stress distribution and morphological distortion of the human mandible under functional loads. Furthermore, the mandible also impacts directly on body function and esthetics, playing a vital role, such as mastication and speech. The application of FEA to the biomechanical investigation of the oral systems, such as human teeth and mandibular bone remodeling, began in the early 1970s. The clinical significance of jaw deformation is unknown. The primary concern is that deformation might result in an ill-fitting superstructure or the creation of harmful strains in the patient-implant complex. Although mandibular implant treatment has a high success rate, the possibility of failure caused by these dimensional changes and the related micromotion cannot be ignored.

  14. Myosin heavy chain composition in normal and atrophic equine laryngeal muscle.

    PubMed

    Adreani, C M; Li, Z B; Lehar, M; Southwood, L L; Habecker, P L; Flint, P W; Parente, E J

    2006-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of a given muscle determines the contractile properties and, therefore, the fiber type distribution of the muscle. MHC isoform expression in the laryngeal muscle is modulated by neural input and function, and it represents the cellular level changes that occur with denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of MHC isoform expression in laryngeal muscle harvested from normal cadavers and cadavers with naturally occurring left laryngeal hemiplegia secondary to recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. Left and right thyroarytenoideus (TA) and cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) were obtained from 7 horses affected with left-sided intrinsic laryngeal muscle atrophy and from 2 normal horses. Frozen sections were evaluated histologically for degree of atrophy and fiber type composition. MHC isoform expression was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of muscle protein. Histologic atrophy was seen in all atrophic muscles and some right-sided muscles of 3 affected horses, as well as the left TA of 1 normal horse. Fiber type grouping or loss of type I muscle fibers was observed in the left-sided laryngeal muscles in all but 1 affected horse, as well as in the right muscles of 2 affected horses, and the left TA of 1 normal horse. SDS-PAGE showed 2 bands corresponding to the type I and type IIB myosin isoforms in the CAD and TA of the 2 normal horses. Affected horses demonstrated a trend toward increased expression of the type IIB isoform and decreased expression of the type I isoform in atrophic muscles. This study confirmed the presence of histologic abnormalities in grossly normal equine laryngeal muscle, and it demonstrated an increased expression of type IIB MHC with a concurrent decreased expression of type I MHC in affected muscles. Evaluation of muscle fiber changes at the cellular level under denervated and reinnervated conditions

  15. Multilobular tumor of bone in the mandible of a dog.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Diana L; Ray, Joel D; Bushby, Philip A; Anderson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old Siberian husky dog was presented for a mass involving the rostral mandible. Intraoral radiographs demonstrated diffusely irregular bone and displacement of all mandibular incisor teeth. The mass was diagnosed as a grade I multilobular tumor of bone based on incisional biopsy. A bilateral rostral mandibulectomy was performed with tumor negative margins. Oral examination at 14-months following surgery indicated normal healing with minimal side effects and no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  16. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  17. Leucocyte migration inhibition test with two gastric antigens in pernicious anaemia and in simple atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Nozicka, Z

    1979-02-01

    Leucocyte migration inhibition test was used for evaluation of cell-mediated immunity in patients with pernicious anaemia (PA) and simple atrophic gastritis (SAG). As antigens microsomal antigen from gastric mucosa of swine foetus and relatively pure hog intrinsic factor (IF) were used. Significant differences were found between PA and SAG with microsomal antigen, but not with IF. It was concluded, that the microsomal antigen might be more active than IF. This observation could contribute to explane the higher incidence of parietal cell antibody than that of IF antibody in PA patients.

  18. An atrophic plaque on the breast six years after breast reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Michele; Torbeck, Richard; Kauh, Young

    2016-01-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a cutaneous disease entity that typically manifests as atrophic yellow plaques with telangiectasias on the anterior tibial region. Although NL is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus, the role of trauma in disease development is less commonly emphasized. The relationship between NL and the Köbner phenomenon has been established, as a few cases of NL occurring in surgical scars have been reported in the literature. We report the first case of NL occurring in a mastectomy scar on the breast in a non-diabetic female, and explore the relationship between NL, diabetes mellitus, and trauma. PMID:27617606

  19. [Collagenous colitis, IgA deficiency, Basedow's disease and atrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Pariente, E A; Chaumette, M T; Maître, F; Delchier, J C; Soulé, J C; Bader, J P

    1985-10-01

    In a 37-year-old woman with chronic watery diarrhea of three years duration, the diagnostic of collagenous colitis was established by optical and ultrastructural examination of rectal and colonic biopsies. No other cause of diarrhea could be found. Moreover, this patient had also selective IgA deficiency, Grave's disease and chronic atrophic gastritis of auto-immune type. Sequential treatments with loperamide, cholestyramine and antibiotics did not modified diarrhea which improved with salazosulfapyridine and betamethasone enemas. These observations suggest that collagenous colitis might be a part of the spectrum of enteropathies associated with immunoglobulin deficiencies. PMID:3840757

  20. A study of cell-mediated immunity to gastric antigens in patients with atrophic type A and B gastritis.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, J; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Goulis, G

    1982-05-01

    The leucocyte migration in the presence of gastric antigens was studied in 10 patients with type A gastritis, 38 patients with type B gastritis (28 with atrophic and 10 with superficial gastritis) and 10 healthy controls. A positive leucocyte migration was found in a significant proportion of patients with both types of gastritis, whereas no difference between the two types was observed. These results indicate that cellular immunity is implicated in the aetiology of both types of gastritis, is of greater importance than auto-antibody production and is associated with the severity of the atrophic lesion.

  1. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. J. M.; Mitchell, G.; Bailie, N.; Thornhill, D.; Watterson, J.; Kimbell, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  2. Clonally Expanding Thymocytes Having Lineage Capability in Gamma-Ray-Induced Mouse Atrophic Thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Morita, Shin-ichi; Go, Rieka; Obata, Miki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Fujita, Yukari; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To characterize, in the setting of gamma-ray-induced atrophic thymus, probable prelymphoma cells showing clonal growth and changes in signaling, including DNA damage checkpoint. Methods and Materials: A total of 111 and 45 mouse atrophic thymuses at 40 and 80 days, respectively, after gamma-irradiation were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for D-J rearrangements at the TCRbeta locus, flow cytometry for cell cycle, and Western blotting for the activation of DNA damage checkpoints. Results: Limited D-J rearrangement patterns distinct from normal thymus were detected at high frequencies (43 of 111 for 40-day thymus and 21 of 45 for 80-day thymus). Those clonally expanded thymocytes mostly consisted of CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} double-positive cells, indicating the retention of lineage capability. They exhibited pausing at a late G1 phase of cell cycle progression but did not show the activation of DNA damage checkpoints such as gammaH2AX, Chk1/2, or p53. Of interest is that 17 of the 52 thymuses showing normal D-J rearrangement patterns at 40 days after irradiation showed allelic loss at the Bcl11b tumor suppressor locus, also indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: The thymocytes of clonal growth detected resemble human chronic myeloid leukemia in possessing self-renewal and lineage capability, and therefore they can be a candidate of the lymphoma-initiating cells.

  3. Effect of the additional installation of implants in the posterior region on the prognosis of treatment in the edentulous mandibular jaw.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Youji; Fujisawa, Kenji; Takechi, Masaaki; Momota, Yukihiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Tatehara, Seiko; Nagayama, Masaru; Yamauchi, Eiji

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of the additional installation of implants in the posterior region on the prognosis of treatment in the edentulous mandibular jaw. Fifteen patients who had received implants (Brånemark system, Nobel Biocare, Gotebörg, Sweden) in the edentulous mandible and completed a 1-year follow-up after the fitting of implant-anchored fixed prostheses were selected. In seven patients (Group A), four or five implants were installed between the mental foramina, and in eight patients (Group P), one or two implants, one on each side, were installed in the posterior regions in addition to the implants between the foramina. All implants of both groups achieved osseointegration. In Group A, there was no implant loss after loading. Six implants were lost in five patients of Group P within 1 year after loading. All of them were located in the posterior region. To elucidate whether or not the failure rate of the implants in the posterior region of Group P after loading was especially high, the failures were also compared with 89 implants, which were installed in the posterior region of the mandibles to support implant-anchored fixed partial prosthesis, during the same period (Group C). The cumulative survival rate of the implants of Group P was 60%, while that of the implants of Group C was 100% (P<0.001). When the survival rates of posterior implants with the same length of the two groups were compared, there were significant differences for the 7- and 10-mm-length implants only. These data demonstrate that the posterior implants in Group P are at greater risk. Deformation of the mandible due to jaw movement was thought to be the most likely cause of the implant loss. Therefore, when such modified treatment is chosen, it should be performed with meticulous attention. PMID:15015949

  4. Gossypiboma mimicking posterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bindey; Kumar, Prem; Sinha, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Neelam; Hasan, Zaheer; Thakur, Vinit Kumar; Anand, Utpal; Priyadarshi, Rajiv Nayan; Mandal, Manish

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies in the urogenital tract are not uncommon. Hairpins, glass rods, umbilical tapes, ball point pen are described in lower urogenital tract. Retained gauze piece (gossypiboma) in posterior urethra may cause diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms and investigations may mimic stricture of posterior urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two cases of retained gauze pieces in the urethra are described here. The micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of posterior urethral stricture. DISCUSSION Two cases described here had retained gauze piece as a cause of filling defect and abnormal appearance in the micturating cystourethrogram. Gossypiboma may be a possibility where posterior urethral stricture are seen after previous surgery in paediatric age group. CONCLUSION In the setting of previous urogenital surgery gossypiboma should be kept in the differential diagnosis where posterior urethral stricture are seen in the paediatric age group. PMID:23500749

  5. Unique zinc mass in mandibles separates drywood termites from other groups of termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribb, Bronwen W.; Stewart, Aaron; Huang, Han; Truss, Rowan; Noller, Barry; Rasch, Ronald; Zalucki, Myron P.

    2008-05-01

    Previously, the presence of metals in arthropod mandibles has been linked with harder cuticle, and in termites, a 20% increase in hardness has been found for mandibles containing major quantities of zinc. The current study utilises electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to assess incidence and abundance of metals in all extant subfamilies of the Isoptera. The basal clades contain no zinc and little to no manganese in the cutting edge of the mandible cuticle, suggesting that these states are ancestral for termites. However, experimentation with mandibles in vitro indicates the presence of some elements of the cuticular biochemistry necessary to enable uptake of zinc. The Termopsidae, Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae all contain minor quantities of manganese, while trace to minor quantities of zinc occur in all except the Serritermitidae. In contrast, all Kalotermitidae or drywood termites contain major levels of zinc in the mandible edge. Diet and life type are explored as links to metal profiles across the termites. The presence of harder mandibles in the drywood termites may be related to lack of access to free water with which to moisten wood. Scratch tests were applied to a set of mandibles. The coefficient of friction for Cryptotermes primus (Kalotermitidae) mandibles, when compared with species from other subfamilies, indicates that zinc-containing mandibles are likely to be more scratch resistant.

  6. Functional mechanics of beetle mandibles: Honest signaling in a sexually selected system.

    PubMed

    Mills, Maria R; Nemri, Rahmi S; Carlson, Emily A; Wilde, William; Gotoh, Hiroki; Lavine, Laura C; Swanson, Brook O

    2016-01-01

    Male stag beetles possess colossal mandibles, which they wield in combat to obtain access to females. As with many other sexually selected weapons, males with longer mandibles win more fights. However, variation in the functional morphology of these structures, used in male-male combat, is less well understood. In this study, mandible bite force, gape, structural strength, and potential tradeoffs are examined across a wide size range for one species of stag beetle, Cyclommatus metallifer. We found that not only does male mandible size demonstrate steep positive allometry, but the shape, relative bite force, relative gape, and safety factor of the mandibles also change with male size. Allometry in these functionally important mandibular traits suggests that larger males with larger mandibles should be better fighters, and that the mandibles can be considered an honest signal of male fighting ability. However, negative allometry in mandible structural safety factor, wing size, and flight muscle mass suggest significant costs and a possible limit on the size of the mandibles. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:3-12, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Therapy-resistant aggressive cystic lesion of the mandible].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C M; Bergstrand, S; Lund, J-A; Viset, T

    2011-10-01

    Several extensive surgical interventions of a cystic lesion in the left mandible were followed by recurrences. The lesion extended from the primary mandibular region into the area of pterygopalatine fossa finally infiltrating the orbital region and the skull base. Histological results could never demonstrate a malignancy with certainty. Due to the patient's poor general condition, the refusal for further surgical inventions and due to the malignoma-like growth pattern radiation treatment was performed. However, this had no effect on tumor progression. PMID:21845481

  8. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Mahesh, Nirujogi; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin.

  9. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  10. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of mandible: A rare case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Anil; Saxena, Sujata; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Chondrosarcomas (MCs) are rare malignant connective tissue neoplasms representing approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas (CSs) that can arise from both soft and hard tissues. They are distinct tumors arising in unicentric or multicentric locations. The tumor is most unusual as it has been described as a particularly aggressive neoplasm with a high tendency for late recurrence and delayed metastasis. It is a biphasic tumor with areas comprising of spindle cell mesenchyme having areas of chondroid differentiation. Here we report a case of 60-year-old male with mesenchymal CS of the mandible. PMID:25364172

  11. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Pandey, Arun; Verma, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoma is a monoclonal, neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells that usually arises within bone marrow or soft tissue sites. It can involve either a single bone (solitary) or multiple bones. Solitary plasmacytoma has a predisposition for the red marrow-containing axial skeleton and is most frequently seen in the thoracic vertebrae, followed by the ribs, sternum, clavicle, or scapula. Its presence in the jaws is extremely rare. We present a case of a 54-year-old female with a well-defined radiolucency of the body region of the mandible later diagnosed as solitary plasmacytoma. PMID:26668458

  12. Giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Naik, Raghavendra Mahadev; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Sujatha, D; Gurudath, Shubha; Pai, Anuradha; Suresh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is classified as a fibro-osseous neoplasm and included among the non-odontogenic tumors derived from the mesenchymal blast cells of the periodontal ligament, with a potential for forming fibrous tissue, cementum and bone, or a combination of such elements. These are slow-growing lesions, and are more frequent in women between the third and fourth decades of life. Case reports of massive expansile COF, measuring more than 10 cm are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 34 year old female patient. PMID:24678226

  13. Giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Naik, Raghavendra Mahadev; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Sujatha, D; Gurudath, Shubha; Pai, Anuradha; Suresh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is classified as a fibro-osseous neoplasm and included among the non-odontogenic tumors derived from the mesenchymal blast cells of the periodontal ligament, with a potential for forming fibrous tissue, cementum and bone, or a combination of such elements. These are slow-growing lesions, and are more frequent in women between the third and fourth decades of life. Case reports of massive expansile COF, measuring more than 10 cm are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 34 year old female patient.

  14. Distinctive renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with 2 types of microcalcifications. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondrej; de Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Pivovarcikova, Kristyna; Grossmann, Petr; Martinek, Petr; Kuroda, Naoto; Kacerovska, Denisa; Svajdler, Marian; Straka, Lubomir; Petersson, Fredrik; Hora, Milan; Michal, Michal

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases of primary renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with distinct gross, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features. The tumors were retrieved out of more than 17 000 renal tumors from the Plzen Tumor Registry. Tissues for light microscopy had been fixed, embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin using routine procedures. The tumors were further analyzed using immunohistochemistry, array comparative genomic hybridization, and human androgen receptor. Analyses of VHL gene and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) 3p were also performed. The patients were 2 women and 1 man, with ages ranging from 29 to 35 years (mean, 31.3 years). Grossly, the neoplasms were encapsulated and round with largest diameter of 3.5 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). Follow-up available for all patients ranged from 2 to 14 years (mean, 8 years). No aggressive behavior was noted. Histologically, akin to atrophic (postpyelonephritic) kidney parenchyma, the tumors were composed of follicles of varying sizes that were filled by eosinophilic secretion. Rare areas contained collapsed follicles. Each follicle was endowed with a small capillary. The stroma was loose, inconspicuous, and focally fibrotic. Two types of calcifications were noted: typical psammoma bodies and amorphous dark-blue stained calcified deposits. Immunohistochemically, tumors were strongly positive for cytokeratins (OSCAR), CD10, and vimentin, with weak immunopositivity for CAM5.2 and AE1-AE3. WT1 and cathepsin K were weakly to moderately focally to diffusely positive. Tumors were negative for cytokeratin 20, carbonic anhydrase IX, parvalbumin, HMB45, TTF1, TFE3, chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, PAX8, and ALK. Only 1 case was suitable for molecular genetic analyses. No mutations were found in the VHL gene; no methylation of VHL promoter was noted. No numerical aberrations were found by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. LOH for chromosome 3p was not detected. Analysis of clonality (human

  15. Distinctive renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with 2 types of microcalcifications. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondrej; de Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Pivovarcikova, Kristyna; Grossmann, Petr; Martinek, Petr; Kuroda, Naoto; Kacerovska, Denisa; Svajdler, Marian; Straka, Lubomir; Petersson, Fredrik; Hora, Milan; Michal, Michal

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases of primary renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with distinct gross, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features. The tumors were retrieved out of more than 17 000 renal tumors from the Plzen Tumor Registry. Tissues for light microscopy had been fixed, embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin using routine procedures. The tumors were further analyzed using immunohistochemistry, array comparative genomic hybridization, and human androgen receptor. Analyses of VHL gene and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) 3p were also performed. The patients were 2 women and 1 man, with ages ranging from 29 to 35 years (mean, 31.3 years). Grossly, the neoplasms were encapsulated and round with largest diameter of 3.5 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). Follow-up available for all patients ranged from 2 to 14 years (mean, 8 years). No aggressive behavior was noted. Histologically, akin to atrophic (postpyelonephritic) kidney parenchyma, the tumors were composed of follicles of varying sizes that were filled by eosinophilic secretion. Rare areas contained collapsed follicles. Each follicle was endowed with a small capillary. The stroma was loose, inconspicuous, and focally fibrotic. Two types of calcifications were noted: typical psammoma bodies and amorphous dark-blue stained calcified deposits. Immunohistochemically, tumors were strongly positive for cytokeratins (OSCAR), CD10, and vimentin, with weak immunopositivity for CAM5.2 and AE1-AE3. WT1 and cathepsin K were weakly to moderately focally to diffusely positive. Tumors were negative for cytokeratin 20, carbonic anhydrase IX, parvalbumin, HMB45, TTF1, TFE3, chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, PAX8, and ALK. Only 1 case was suitable for molecular genetic analyses. No mutations were found in the VHL gene; no methylation of VHL promoter was noted. No numerical aberrations were found by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. LOH for chromosome 3p was not detected. Analysis of clonality (human

  16. Alveolar regions of the mandible for the installation of immediate-implant fixtures and bone screws of alveolar distractors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Park, Man-Soo; Won, Sung-Yoon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Han, Dong-Hoo; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the anatomic relationship between the dental roots and surrounding tissues and to identify the optimal sites at which to install dental surgical devices including immediate-implant fixtures and alveolar distractors. We made 5 types of measurements on horizontal cross sections obtained at 1-mm intervals from 20 Korean mandibles. The following results were obtained: (1) the mandibular facial plate was thinnest at the canine (0.5-0.7 mm) and became thicker toward the molar region; (2) the thicknesses of the facial and lingual cortical bone in the interdental region increased from anterior to posterior and from coronal to apical aspects; (3) in each section, the buccolingual root was narrower than 4 mm at depths greater than 8 and 9 mm in the central and lateral incisors, respectively, and the maximum mesiodistal root widths were 3.0 and 3.3 mm; (4) the interroot distance increased from anterior to posterior and from coronal to apical aspects; and (5) on the sections of the first and second molars, the diameter of the septal bone ranged from 4.2 to 7.9 mm buccolingually and from 1.3 to 3.3 mm mesiodistally. Achieving successful placements of implant fixtures and bone screws requires an accurate understanding of the anatomic structure at the installation site. The reported anatomic data might facilitate successful treatments and provide crucial information for use when planning and performing placements of dental surgical devices.

  17. Injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Moyer, R A; Marchetto, P A

    1993-04-01

    A review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the posterior cruciate ligament, and the systematic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries and posterior cruciate ligament insufficiency in combination with other ligamentous instabilities is discussed.

  18. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  19. Atrophic nerve fibers in regions of reduced MIBG uptake in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Hajime; Ozawa Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Isao

    1995-11-01

    A myocardial MIBG-SPECT examination was conducted 2 wk after doxorubicin chemotherapy on a 52-yr-old woman without cardiac symptoms. Despite normal {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy, reduced MIBG uptake was detected in the apical anterior, inferior and lateral segments of the left ventricle. The patient died of congestive heart failure due to doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy 10 mo later. At necropsy, the left ventricle was markedly dilated and the apical anterior, inferior and lateral walls were thin, stiff and whitish. Nerve fibers in the apical inferior wall were atrophic and markedly fibrotic where MIBG uptake was most reduced. Nerve fibers in the septum were normal where MIBG uptake had remained normal. The histologic findings correspond with the findings on the MIBG image. MIBG imaging may detect cardiac sympathetic denervation in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy before cardiac symptoms are manifest and cardiac function deteriorates. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Factors Modulating Recovery Rate after Intermittent Tetanic Fatigue in Atrophic Soleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhibin

    2008-06-01

    To specify the factors modulating the recovery rate after intermittent tetanic fatigue in soleus, and to seek the reasons for the decrease of recovery rate in atrophic soleus, we observed the recovery time course of different types of fatigue in isolated muscle strips. A 10 % or 50 % decrease in maximal contraction tension of tetani was defined respectively as slight or moderate fatigue. Tetanic tension recovery rates after short-term and long-term of slight or moderate fatigue were observed, some pharmacological intervention were also used. The results showed that slight fatigue only induced an inhibition to myofibril, while moderate fatigue induced an inhibition in myofibril and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. There were significant decreases in all of the fatigue groups in one-week tail-suspended rats. These suggest that both slight and moderate fatigue inhibit the myofibrils and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels in one-week unloaded soleus.

  1. Comparison of aesthetic posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, R D

    1991-09-01

    In the past decade there has been an increased desire by the profession and the public for an aesthetic restoration that will restore a posterior tooth to its original form and function. The currently available aesthetic posterior restoration materials and techniques are porcelain, cast ceramic, direct composite, direct-indirect composite, indirect composite, and CAD-CAM fabrications. The indications and contraindications of these restorative materials and proper diagnosis and case selection are described.

  2. Time Course of Atrophic Remodeling: Effects of Exercise on Cardiac Morpology and Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. M.; Martin, D.; Caine, T.; Matz, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Early and consistent evaluation of cardiac morphology and function throughout an atrophic stimulus is critically important for the design and optimization of interventions. Exercise training is one intervention that has been shown to confer favorable improvements in LV mass and function during unloading. However, the format and intensity of exercise required to induce optimal cardiac improvements has not been investigated. PURPOSE: This randomized, controlled trial was designed to 1) comprehensively characterize the time course of unloading-induced morpho-functional remodeling, and 2) examine the effects of high intensity exercise training on cardiac structural and functional parameters during unloading. METHODS: Twenty six subjects completed 70 days of head down tilt bed rest (HDBR): 17 were randomized to exercise training (ExBR) and 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of integrated high intensity, continuous, and resistance exercise. We assessed cardiac morphology (left ventricular mass; LVM) and function (speckle-tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist) before (BR-2), during (BR7,21,31,70), and following (BR+0, +3) HDBR. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was evaluated before (BR- 3), during (BR4,25,46,68) and following (BR+0) HDBR. RESULTS: Sedentary HDBR resulted in a progressive decline in LVM, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain, and an increase in twist. ExBR mitigated decreases in LVM and function. Change in twist was significantly related to change in VO2max (R=0.68, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in cardiac morphology and function begin early during unloading. High-intensity exercise attenuates atrophic morphological and functional remodeling.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones

    PubMed Central

    Phedy, P.; Kholinne, E.; Djaja, Y. P.; Kusnadi, Y.; Merlina, M.; Yulisa, N. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the therapeutic potential of combining bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules to treat nonunion of the long bone. Methods Ten patients with an atrophic nonunion of a long bone fracture were selectively divided into two groups. Five subjects in the treatment group were treated with the combination of 15 million autologous BM-MSCs, 5g/cm3 (HA) granules and internal fixation. Control subjects were treated with iliac crest autograft, 5g/cm3 HA granules and internal fixation. The outcomes measured were post-operative pain (visual analogue scale), level of functionality (LEFS and DASH), and radiograph assessment. Results Post-operative pain evaluation showed no significant differences between the two groups. The treatment group demonstrated faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. Statistically significant differences in functional scores were present during the first (p = 0.002), second (p = 0.005) and third (p = 0.01) month. Both groups achieved similar outcomes by the end of one-year follow-up. No immunologic or neoplastic side effects were reported. Conclusions All cases of nonunion of a long bone presented in this study were successfully treated using autologous BM-MSCs. The combination of autologous BM-MSCs and HA granules is a safe method for treating nonunion. Patients treated with BM-MSCs had faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. By the end of 12 months, both groups had similar outcomes. Cite this article: H.D. Ismail, P. Phedy, E. Kholinne, Y. P. Djaja, Y. Kusnadi, M. Merlina, N. D. Yulisa. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones: A translational study. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:287–293. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.2000587. PMID:27412657

  4. Compact bone distribution and biomechanics of early hominid mandibles.

    PubMed

    Daegling, D J; Grine, F E

    1991-11-01

    This investigation explores the effects of compact bone distribution on the biomechanical properties of the postcanine mandibular corpus of the fossil hominid taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. The mandibles of extant great apes, modern humans, and the fossil hominids are examined by computed tomography (CT), and compact bone contours are used to calculate cross-sectional biomechanical properties (cortical area, second moments of area, and Bredt's formula for torsional strength). The relative amount of compact bone is comparable in the modern and fossil mandibles, but the mechanical properties of A. africanus and P. robustus jaws are distinct in terms of the ratio of minimum to maximum second moments of area. This difference most likely represents a structural response to elevated torsional moments in the fossil hominids. Although the relative amount of compact bone in cross-section does not differ significantly between taxa by statistical criteria, A. africanus utilizes less cortical bone than P. robustus in the same manner in which Pongo is separated from the condition in other extant large-bodied hominoids. It has been suggested that the phenomenon of mandibular "robusticity" (expressed as an index of corpus breadth/corpus height) may be an effect of postcanine megadontia and/or reduced canine size in the australopithecines. Results presented here, however, indicate that it is unlikely that either factor adequately accounts for mandibular size and shape variation in early hominids. PMID:1746641

  5. Bilateral Radicular Cyst in Mandible: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area. PMID:25859111

  6. Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Mutlu; Uyar, Yavuz; Azimov, Ahmet; Demirkan, Abdullah; Esen, Haci Hasan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws, including juvenile ossifying fibroma, pose diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties due to their clinical, radiological and histological variability. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of a 9 years old girl with diagnosed juvenile ossifying fibroma treatment. Methods A 9 years old girl presented with a 6 x 8 cm sized hard fixed tumour on right ramus and corpus of the mandible. On the radiological examination tumour showed an irregular but well bordered, unilocular and expansive lesion on the right corpus and ramus of the mandible. There was no teeth displacement or teeth root resorbtion. Microscopically, the tumour had trabeculae, fibrillary osteoid and woven bone. After the clinical, radiological (panoramic radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and histologic analysis it was diagnosed juvenile ossifying fibroma. In the history of the patient there has been an acute lymphocytic leukaemia in the remission for 3 years. Results Because of large size of mandibular tumour, resultant expansion and destruction of mandibular cortex, the patient underwent right hemimandibulectomy using transmandibular approach. There was no recurrence or complications for two years follow-up. Conclusions Although juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon clinical entity, its aggressive local behaviour and high recurrence rate means that it is important to make an early diagnosis, apply the appropriate treatment and, especially, follow-up the patient over the long-term. PMID:24421970

  7. Spontaneous fractures of the mandible concept & treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Marcussen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous fractures of the mandible dispose a surgical challenge in comparisons to fractures caused by trauma due to several complicating factors. Additionally: controversies exist concerning the terminology of the field. Material and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with mandibular fractures, with exclusion of fractures of the coronoid process and the alveolar process, treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark between February 2003 and February 2013. Data collected from the medical records included sex, age, cause of fracture, site of fracture, and treatment. Results We identified 517 patients with 684 mandible fractures. Twenty-five of these were spontaneous fractures and 659 fractures were of traumatic origin. Condylar fractures rarely occur spontaneously, but constitute the majority of the traumatic fractures. Excluding these fractures from the analysis, we found a non-surgical approach in 14 of 24 (58%) of the spontaneous fractures and 110 of 376 (29%) of the traumatic fractures. This was statistically significant. Conclusions We found a statistical significant difference in favor of non-surgical approach in spontaneous fractures and we discussed the treatment challenges of these fractures. We addressed the terminological controversies regarding pathological fractures, and suggested the term spontaneous fractures denoting a fracture occurring during normal jaw function being either pathological or non-pathological. Key words:Mandibular fractures, spontaneous fractures, pathological fractures, traumatic fractures, treatment. PMID:26636905

  8. Solitary central osteoma of mandible in a geriatric patient: Report and review

    PubMed Central

    Bhujbal, Ravi B.; Nayak, Ajay G.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary central osteomas of jaw are extremely rare lesions with only few previously documented cases. This paper reports a case of large solitary central osteoma involving mandible symphysis- parasymphysis region in an elderly female patient. A brief review of similar cases reported in the literature is also provided in this paper. Key words:Osteomas, osteogenic,bone, tumor, jaw, mandible. PMID:27034765

  9. New data evaluation procedure including advanced background subtraction for radiography using the example of insect mandibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Stefan; van de Kamp, Thomas; Steininger, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    The usefulness of full field transmission spectroscopy is shown using the example of mandible of the stick insect Peruphasma schultei. An advanced data evaluation tool chain with an energy drift correction and highly reproducible automatic background correction is presented. The results show significant difference between the top and the bottom of the mandible of an adult stick insect.

  10. Radiometric dating of quaternary deposits and the hominid mandible of lake banyolas, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julia, R.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    We report results of U-series analyses of the travertine matrix surrounding the Banyolas mandible that indicate an age of 45??4 ka bp. The mandible, an archaic hominid fossil generally deemed of mid-Pleistocene age, was recovered from a travertine matrix in 1887. Similar analyses on 21 travertine samples from quarries near the discovery site yield coherent U-series dates in correct stratigraphic order, ranging from 44 ka bp to 117 ka bp. Isotopic composition of these samples and the mandible matrix show no evidence of open system behaviour. Coherent isotopic results from adjacent quarries support the validity of the date on the mandible travertine, and we conclude the mandible is much younger than previously believed. ?? 1991.

  11. Onset of mandible and tibia osteoradionecrosis – a comparative pilot study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Both, Stefan; Wright, Alexander C.; Maity, Amit; Akintoye, Sunday O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is common in the jaws following radiotherapy. We hypothesized that mandible is more susceptible to ORN than tibia based on site-disparity in hypoxic-hypocellular-hypovascular tissue breakdown. Study Design Twelve rats received 50 Gy irradiation to mandible or tibia; 4 of 12 rats further received minor surgical trauma to the irradiated sites. Structural and cellular skeletal changes were assessed with computer tomography, histology and immunostaining. Results Mandible developed ORN with 70% mean bone loss 10 weeks post-irradiation (p < 0.05) while tibia was structurally and radiological intact for 20 weeks post-irradiation. Hypocellularity, hypoxia and oxidative stress were higher in irradiated mandible (p < 0.001) than tibia (p < 0.01) but vascular damage was similar at both skeletal sites. Combined effects of radiation and minor trauma promoted mandibular alveolar bone loss and tibial fracture Conclusion ORN has a more rapid onset in mandible relative to tibia in the rat PMID:23254371

  12. Children's understanding of posterior probability.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five, children's decisions under uncertainty (Study 1) and judgments about random outcomes (Study 2) are correctly affected by posterior information. From the same age, children correctly revise their decisions in situations in which they face a single, uncertain event, produced by an intentional agent (Study 3). The finding that young children have some understanding of posterior probability supports the theory of naive extensional reasoning, and contravenes some pessimistic views of probabilistic reasoning, in particular the evolutionary claim that the human mind cannot deal with single-case probability. PMID:17391661

  13. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes.

  14. Spindle cell carcinoma of the mandible: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayaty, Haytham; Balkaran, Ramaa L

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma, a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma, has propensity to occur in the upper aero digestive tract, including the oral mucosa. In this oral pathology communication, we report the occurrence of this neoplasm in the left mandible as a large fleshy growth with destruction of bone in a 73-year-old Afro-Trinidadian female. The distinction of this tumor from other malignant spindle cell mesenchymal tumors is important. Selective sampling of this specimen for possible transitional areas of squamous and spindle cell appearance, immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin, vimentin, and S-100 protein are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. According to the patient's insistence, debulking of the tumor was performed under general anesthesia. Eight months later the patient succumbed to the disease.

  15. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Sercan; Karan, Nazife Begüm; Senguven, Burcu; Kahraman, Sevil

    2016-03-09

    Plasma cell neoplasms (plasmacytoma) are discrete, solitary masses of lymphoid neoplastic proliferations of B cells. Plasmacytomas comprise three groups: multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma (SP) and extramedullary plasmacytoma. SP originates as a clone of transformed malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. SP of the jaw is a rare condition; therefore diagnosis is quite difficult and often results in misdiagnosis. MM is a lymphoproliferative disease the prognosis of which is worse than SP. SP can progress to MM in a few months to years after diagnosis. In this regard, early diagnosis of the disease is of utmost importance. This article presents two cases of SP diagnosed in the mandible and documented with clinical, radiographic and histological findings.

  16. Primary chronic osteomyelitis in the mandible: a conservative approach.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anuja; Kumar, Nishant; Tyagi, Amit; De, Nayana

    2014-04-03

    Primary chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw is an uncommon non-suppurative, chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin. It can manifest as early or adult onset and is characterised by lack of pus formation, fistula or bony sequestra formation. A 28-year-old woman presented with swelling on the left side of her mandible. On the basis of clinical, radiological and histological findings, primary chronic osteomyelitis was diagnosed. Surgical decortication and contouring of the affected bone was performed and no signs of recurrence were seen at 2-year follow-up. Hence we emphasise the importance of decortication over peripheral or segmental resection of the jaw for the treatment of primary chronic osteomyelitis since this procedure is less aggressive and more functionally and aesthetically acceptable.

  17. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vijayabanu, B; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Dhivya, K

    2015-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM.

  18. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Armağan; Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-08-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  19. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs.

  20. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vijayabanu, B.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Dhivya, K.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM. PMID:26538963

  1. [Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible: A case report].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, M; Droz, D; Mansuy, L; Simon, E; Chastagner, P

    2015-06-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation is usually dominated by local pain and a palpable mass. These symptoms justify imaging investigations: the first one, when an osseous lesion is suspected, is usually a conventional radiograph in two planes. Ewing sarcoma appears as a poorly defined osteolytic lesion that may frequently be associated with cortical erosion or laminar periosteal response ("onion skin"). However, this aspect is not pathognomonic and the definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Absence of pain or an unusual localization can lead to misdiagnosis. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible with a clinical picture including progressive mandibular swelling but no pain. PMID:25896628

  2. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vijayabanu, B; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Dhivya, K

    2015-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM. PMID:26538963

  3. Parathyroid adenoma presenting as a brown tumour of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Fu, Bertram; Barbaccia, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Parathyroid adenoma is the commonest cause of primary hypercalcaemia and usually presents with symptoms/signs of hypercalcaemia. This paper highlights an unusual presentation. Case Report. A 27-year-old female presented with a painful left mandibular swelling, suspicious of neoplasia. A computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy was performed. Based on the histology result, serum calcium was carried out, confirming hypercalcaemia. A left inferior parathyroid adenoma was subsequently removed. CT mandible showed extensive erosive lesions at the left 2nd/3rd inferior molar roots with protrusion to adjacent soft tissues. USS revealed a hypoechoic lesion on the left inferior parathyroid gland. Sestamibi scan showed a focus of MIBI uptake and retention at the inferior aspect of the left thyroid lobe. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of a thorough history and examination. Clinicians should always bear in mind atypical presentations of parathyroid adenomas, with the need to exclude this differential in the presence of hypercalcaemia. PMID:23251179

  4. Avascular osteonecrosis of the mandible following bisphosphonate therapy.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Preeti A; Chandra, Abhinav B; Todd, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Cancer patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy, both intravenously and orally, are predisposed to developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. We present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer who spontaneously developed avascular necrosis of the mandible after being on intravenous zoledronic acid for 1 year. Jaw osteonecrosis commonly presents with mild to severe jaw pain. Although most of the reported cases give a history of dental procedures, there have been cases of osteonecrosis developing spontaneously. In cases of established osteonecrosis of the jaw, there is little evidence to suggest that the discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy aides in healing, as bisphosphonates have a very long half-life in the bone tissue. Treatment measures include evaluation by dental and oncological services, consideration for antibiotic therapy, and mainly a minimally to nonsurgical approach. In the absence of a definitive cure, the emphasis rests greatly on prevention.

  5. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  6. Primary intraosseous myoepithelioma of the mandible with ameloblastomalike features.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Mishima, Kenji; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru

    2012-12-01

    Primary intraosseous salivary gland tumors of the jaw are overwhelmingly malignant. We describe, for the first time, a genuine myoepithelioma originating centrally in the mandible. A 33-year-old man had a well-circumscribed, unilocular osteolytic lesion between the roots of the mandibular second premolar and first molar with no extraosseous extension. Histologically, an encapsulated, solid/trabecular tumor was composed of benign epithelioid > spindled > basaloid > plasmacytoid cells and showed a distinctive myoepithelial immunoprofile. Multiple sections revealed neither duct formation nor myxochondroid stroma. In addition, focal areas shared features with conventional ameloblastoma histologically and immunohistochemically. This unique biphenotypic cellular and architectural make-up indicates the possibility of divergent myoepithelial and ameloblastic differentiation in the present jawbone tumor.

  7. Semireal Time Monitoring Of The Functional Movements Of The Mandible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Robert J.; Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean; Molthen, Robert A.

    1983-07-01

    Many branches of dental practice would benefit from the availability of a relatively accurate, precise, and efficient method for monitoring the movements of the human mandible during function. Mechanical analog systems have been utilized in the past but these are difficult to quantify, have limited accuracy due to frictional resistance of the components, and contain information only on the borders of the envelopes of possible movement of the landmarks measured (rather than on the functional paths of the landmarks which lie within their envelopes). Those electronic solutions which have been attempted thus far have been prohibitively expensive and time consuming for clinical use, have had lag times between data acquisition and display, or have involved such restrictions of freedom of motion as to render ambiguous the meaning of the data obtained. We report work aimed at developing a relatively non-restrictive semi-real time acoustical system for monitoring the functional movement of the mandible relative to the rest of the head. A set of three sparking devices is mounted to the mandibular component of a light, relatively non-constraining extra-oral harness and another set of three sparkers is attached to the harness' cranial or skull component. The sparkers are fired sequentially by a multiplexer and the sound associated with each firing is recorded by an array of three or more microphones. Computations based on the known speed of sound are used to evaluate the distances between the sparkers and the microphones. These data can then be transformed by computer to provide numeric or graphic information on the movement of selected mandibular landmarks with respect to the skull. Total elapsed time between the firing of the sparkers and the display of graphic information need not exceed 30-60 seconds using even a relatively modest modern computer.

  8. Diverse Osteoclastogenesis of Bone Marrow From Mandible versus Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Chaichanasakul, Thawinee; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Background Mandible (MB) and maxilla possess unique metabolic and functional properties and demonstrate discrete responses to homeostatic, mechanical, hormonal and developmental stimuli. Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differs between MB versus long bones (LB). Furthermore, MB versus LB derived osteoclasts (OCs) have disparate functional properties. Here, we explored the osteoclastogenic potential of rat MB versus LB marrow in vitro and in vivo under basal and stimulated conditions. Methods Bone marrow from rat MB and LB was cultured in osteoblastic or osteoclastic differentiation media. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, resorption pit assays, and real-time PCR were performed. Additionally, osmotic mini-pumps were implanted in animals, mandibles and tibiae were isolated and multinucleated cells (MNCs) were measured. Results MB versus LB marrow cultures differentiated with RANKL and M-CSF produced more TRAP+ multinucleated cells (MNCs) and greater resorptive area. To explore MB versus LB BMSC supported osteoclastogenesis, confluent BMSCs were cultured with parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1α,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25D3), or PTH+1,25D3. 1,25D3 or PTH+1,25D3 treated LB BMSCs expressed significantly higher RANKL and lower OPG mRNA and increased RANKL:OPG ratio. When whole marrow was cultured with PTH+1,25D3, more TRAP+ MNCs were seen in LB versus MB cultures. Ultimately, rats were infused with PTH+1,25D3 and MB versus tibia MNCs were measured. Hormonal stimulation increased osteoclastogenesis in both MB and tibia. However, higher TRAP+ MNC numbers were observed in tibia versus MB under basal and hormonal stimulation. Conclusions Collectively, our data illustrate differences both on osteoclastogenic potential and OC numbers of MB versus LB marrow. PMID:24003963

  9. Unsuccessful outcomes after posterior urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Engel, Oliver; Fisch, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Posterior urethroplasty is the most common strategy for the treatment of post-traumatic urethral injuries. Especially in younger patients, post-traumatic injuries are a common reason for urethral strictures caused by road traffic accidents, with pelvic fracture or direct trauma to the perineum. In many cases early endoscopic realignment is the first attempt to restore the junction between proximal and distal urethra, but in some cases primary realignment is not possible or not enough to treat the urethral injury. In these cases suprapubic cystostomy alone and delayed repair by stricture excision and posterior urethroplasty is an alternative procedure to minimise the risk of stricture recurrence.

  10. Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T D; Roe, J M; Hayes, C M; Jones, P; Pearson, G R; Webster, A J

    1999-03-01

    Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The

  11. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura B; Metzger, Keith A; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Ross, Callum F

    2013-01-01

    Forces experienced during feeding are thought to strongly influence the morphology of the vertebrate mandible; in vivo strain data are the most direct evidence for deformation of the mandible induced by these loading regimes. Although many studies have documented bone strains in the mammalian mandible, no information is available on strain magnitudes, orientations or patterns in the sauropsid lower jaw during feeding. Furthermore, strain gage experiments record the mechanical response of bone at a few locations, not across the entire mandible. In this paper, we present bone strain data recorded at various sites on the lower jaw of Alligator mississippiensis during in vivo feeding experiments. These data are used to understand how changes in loading regime associated with changes in bite location are related to changes in strain regime on the working and balancing sides of the mandible. Our results suggest that the working side mandible is bent dorsoventrally and twisted about its long-axis during biting, and the balancing side experiences primarily dorsoventral bending. Strain orientations are more variable on the working side than on the balancing side with changes in bite point and between experiments; the balancing side exhibits higher strain magnitudes. In the second part of this paper, we use principal strain orientations and magnitudes recorded in vivo to evaluate a finite element model of the alligator mandible. Our comparison demonstrates that strain orientations and mandibular deformation predicted by the model closely match in vivo results; however, absolute strain magnitudes are lower in the finite element model. PMID:23855772

  12. Lights and shadows of bone augmentation in severe resorbed mandible in combination with implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Baj, A; Sollazzo, V; Lauritano, D; Candotto, V; Mancini, G E; Gianni, A B

    2016-01-01

    Edentulous mandible frequently undergoes severe bone atrophy with problems of prosthetic instability. Instability of the lower denture may cause difficulties with eating and speech, ulcerations of the oral mucosa for lower denture trauma, loss of facial vertical dimension. These problems may be solved by bone augmentation of severe resorption of edentulous mandible. The aim of this short review is to describe surgical techniques for bone augmentation of the severe resorption of edentulous mandible. In this paper, we define a severe resorption of edentulous mandible as a mandibular height in the symphyseal area of 12 mm or less as measured on a standardized lateral cephalogram. Bone grafts and distraction osteogenesis have allowed improving implantology from an experimental to a consolidate dental procedure. It is currently a valuable treatment modality in the prosthetic treatment of severe resorption of edentulous mandible. Numerous techniques have been developed for the rehabilitation of edentulous mandible with fixed or removable mandibular dentures. Today, the options for the restoration of the severe resorption of edentulous mandible with implants can be categorized as follows: insertion of short and narrow implants and a fixed or removable prosthesis; augmentation of the bone with the use of distraction osteogenesis or grafting procedures in combination with the insertion of dental implants loaded with fixed or removable prosthesis; placement of a transosteal dental implants supporting a denture. PMID:27469566

  13. Insect mandibles--comparative mechanical properties and links with metal incorporation.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Bronwen W; Stewart, Aaron; Huang, Han; Truss, Rowan; Noller, Barry; Rasch, Ronald; Zalucki, Myron P

    2008-01-01

    A number of arthropod taxa contain metals in their mandibles (jaws), such as zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium. The occurrence of zinc and its co-located halogen chlorine have been studied in relation to the mechanical properties and shown to be linked in a direct fashion with increasing concentration. Hardness along with elastic modulus (stiffness) has also been linked to zinc and halogen concentration in some marine polychaete worms. The metal appears to be incorporated within the biological matrix, possibly bonding with proteins. However, the comparative advantage of metal inclusion has not been tested. It is possible that without metals, alternative mechanisms are used to achieve hardness of equal value in similar 'tools' such as mandibles. This question has direct bearing on the significance of metal hardening. In the present article, we compare across mandibles from six termite species, including samples with major zinc concentration, minor manganese, and no metals. Nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and electron microanalysis are used to assess metal concentration, form, and mechanical properties. The data demonstrate that termite mandibles lacking metals when fully developed have lower values for hardness and elastic modulus. Zinc is linked to a relative 20% increase in hardness when compared with mandibles devoid of metals. The similar transition metal, manganese, found in minor concentrations, is not linked to any significant increase in these mechanical properties. This raises the question of the function of manganese, which is as commonly found in insect mandibles as zinc and often located in the same mandibles.

  14. Mechanical testing of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 regenerated bone in sheep mandibles.

    PubMed

    Kontaxis, A; Abu-Serriah, M; Ayoub, A F; Barbenel, J C

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed in this study for testing excised sheep mandibles as a cantilever. The method was used to determine the strength and stiffness of sheep hemi-mandibles including a 35 mm defect bridged by regenerated bone. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in a bovine collagen type-I carrier was used for the bone regeneration. Initial tests on ten intact sheep mandibles confirmed that the strength, stiffness and area beneath the load-deformation curves of the right and left hemi-mandibles were not significantly different, confirming the validity of using the contra-lateral hemi-mandible as a control side. Complete bone regeneration occurred in six hemi-mandibles treated with rhBMP, but the quality and mechanical properties of the bone were very variable. The new bone in three samples contained fibrous tissue and was weaker and less stiff than the contra-lateral side (strength, 10-20 per cent; stiffness, 6-15 per cent). The other half had better-quality bone and was significantly stiffer and stronger (p < 0.05), with strength 45-63 per cent and stiffness 35-46 per cent of the contra-lateral side. Hemi-mandibles treated with collagen alone had no regenerated bone bridge suggesting that 35 mm is a critical-size bone defect. PMID:15648662

  15. Insect mandibles--comparative mechanical properties and links with metal incorporation.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Bronwen W; Stewart, Aaron; Huang, Han; Truss, Rowan; Noller, Barry; Rasch, Ronald; Zalucki, Myron P

    2008-01-01

    A number of arthropod taxa contain metals in their mandibles (jaws), such as zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium. The occurrence of zinc and its co-located halogen chlorine have been studied in relation to the mechanical properties and shown to be linked in a direct fashion with increasing concentration. Hardness along with elastic modulus (stiffness) has also been linked to zinc and halogen concentration in some marine polychaete worms. The metal appears to be incorporated within the biological matrix, possibly bonding with proteins. However, the comparative advantage of metal inclusion has not been tested. It is possible that without metals, alternative mechanisms are used to achieve hardness of equal value in similar 'tools' such as mandibles. This question has direct bearing on the significance of metal hardening. In the present article, we compare across mandibles from six termite species, including samples with major zinc concentration, minor manganese, and no metals. Nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and electron microanalysis are used to assess metal concentration, form, and mechanical properties. The data demonstrate that termite mandibles lacking metals when fully developed have lower values for hardness and elastic modulus. Zinc is linked to a relative 20% increase in hardness when compared with mandibles devoid of metals. The similar transition metal, manganese, found in minor concentrations, is not linked to any significant increase in these mechanical properties. This raises the question of the function of manganese, which is as commonly found in insect mandibles as zinc and often located in the same mandibles. PMID:17646951

  16. [The application of helium-neon laser radiation for the combined treatment of the patients with atrophic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Sharipov, R A; Sharipova, E R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the efficacy of the treatment of the patients presenting with atrophic rhinitis (ozena) of the upper respiratory tract by the application of helium-neon laser radiation. A total of 120 patients aged from 15 to 53 years were treated based at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, G.G. Kuvatov Republican Clinical Hospital, Ufa. All these patients underwent routine clinical, roentgenological, microbiological, and rheographic examination. The method for the treatment of atrophic rhinitis is described; it includes the application of helium-neon laser radiation in combination with the administration of the purified preparation of liquid polyvalent Klebsiella bacteriophage. The positive results of the treatment by the proposed method were documented in 90% of the patients. PMID:23268248

  17. [Reasoning of the usage of multimicroelement drugs and monophytodrugs in complex treatment of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Molodovets', O B; Pozur, N Z; Havrysh, T Iu; Chaplyns'ka, N V; Zozuliak, N V; Iurak, M Z; Kulaiets', V M

    2014-01-01

    It was investigeted 126 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis, aged 19-73 years. Chronic inflammatory and degenerative processes of the gastric mucosa contributed to the destabilization of cell membranes. We found that patients with chronicatrophic gastritis have disturbances of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense, which is manifested by the accumulation of products of peroxidation and decreased activity of enzymes of antioxidant defense. Activation of lipid peroxidation, accompanied by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and deficiency of essential trace elements imbalance contributes antioxidant defense. After using basic therapy, it was no certain normalization of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense and restoration of microelement homeostasis in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis, which served as the justification for the development and testing of methods of treatment with the purpose of regulation of these processes.

  18. Serum OPN Expression for Identification of Gastric Cancer and Atrophic Gastritis and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tiejun; Sun, Liping; He, Caiyun; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies have found that osteopontin (OPN) expression level is related to the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, few studies have examined the relationship between OPN expression and gastric precancerous diseases, and the potential role of OPN in the formation and development of GC. We investigated the relationships between serum OPN levels and the risks of gastric cancer (GC) and its precancerous disease, to explore the diagnostic efficacy of serum OPN level for GC and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors. Methods A total of 1,452 patients were enrolled, including 609 with mild superficial gastritis (SG), 594 with atrophic gastritis (AG) and 249 with GC. The levels of serum OPN and serum Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum OPN levels increased from mild SG (1.99±1.91 ng/ml) to AG (2.37±2.27 ng/ml) to GC (5.94±4.52 ng/ml) (P≤0.002), along with increasing severity of gastric disease. OPN levels were significantly higher in patients with GC compared with the non-cancer population (2.17±2.10, P<0.0001). Serum OPN level was positively correlated with age and was higher in men than women, but was not correlated with H. pylori infection status. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.805, the optimal cutoff was 2.56 ng/ml and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.3% and 71.8%, respectively, for the ability of serum OPN to discriminate GC. Conclusions Serum OPN expression was closely related to the risks of GC and AG, and it might be a useful marker for the discrimination of GC. OPN level was positively correlated with age and male sex, but was not affected by H. pylori infection, and it was promoted by smoking and drinking, in patients with mild SG. PMID:25479069

  19. A strategy for removal of foreign body in mandible with navigation system.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Z; Tian, W; Tang, W

    2015-07-01

    Navigation surgery in the mandible has rarely been reported because of the complexities of navigating a mobile structure. In this article, we present a simple and novel strategy for removal of a foreign body in the mandible using a navigation system. A female diagnosed with a foreign body in the left mandible underwent navigation surgery using a BrainLAB system. We used a special open splint fabricated with acrylic resin to successfully perform the mandibular navigation. This strategy may be appropriate for many types of mandibular navigation surgery.

  20. A new find of a Middle Pleistocene mandible from Bilzingsleben, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, E.; Mania, D.; Mania, U.

    The Middle Pleistocene site at Bilzingsleben is being excavated by the Forschungsstelle Bilzingsleben, FSU Jena. It is a living floor with structures of settlement and a great number of Lower Palaeolithic cultural remains. So far, 28 human skull fragments have been discovered, which can be reconstructed into two individual skulls. Recently, the right mandible has also been discovered (Bilzingsleben E7). Morphological comparisons indicate that there is a great similarity to the mandibles of HI and BI of Sinanthropus. A strong likeness to Arago II and XIII was also discovered. There are various different archaic features which assign the Bilzingsleben mandible and the two skulls to the advanced Homo erectus.

  1. Metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma to the mandible: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Misir, Ahmet Ferhat; Mercan, Uğur; Günhan, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung that metastasizes to the mandible is uncommon. There are only a few cases described in the English-language literature regarding metastasis to mandible from adenocarcinoma of the lung. This article shows a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung affecting the mandible of a 55-year-old male patient where the metastatic lesion was detected before primary tumor. This article emphasizes the importance of detailed dentoalveolar examination and early diagnosis for finding the primary focus of metastatic lesions. PMID:24250088

  2. [Developing a finite element model of human head with true anatomic structure mandible].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunsheng; Zhang, Haizhong; Du, Huiliang; Huang, Shilin; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2005-02-01

    A finite element model of human mandible is developed from CT scan images by the technologies of three-dimensional reconstruction, image processing and meshing. The mandible model is connected to one modified head model of Hybrid III dummy with joint according to the anatomic structure and mechanical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Then a finite element model of the human head with the true anatomic structure mandible is developed. This model has been validated with the cadaver test results. It can be used in researches on the mechanism of craniofacial blunt-impact injury and on the assessment of injury severity. PMID:15762115

  3. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. Methods A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. Results and conclusion The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and

  4. Correction of dental Class III with posterior open bite by simple biomechanics using an anterior C-tube miniplate

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kang, Suk-Man; Lin, Lu; Nelson, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the correction of dental Class III molar relationship in skeletal Class II patients, uprighting of the mandibular posterior segments without opening the mandible is an important treatment objective. In the case reported herein, a C-tube miniplate fixed to the lower labial symphysis and connected with a nickel-titanium reverse-curved archwire provided effective uprighting of the lower molars, without the need of orthodontic appliances on the mandibular anteriors. Using this approach, an appropriate magnitude of force is exerted on the molars while avoiding any negative effect on the mandibular anteriors. PMID:23173121

  5. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  6. Neonatal posterior fossa subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Coker, S; Beltran, R; Fine, M

    1987-07-01

    Hemorrhage into the posterior fossa is a rare neurosurgical emergency in neonates. CT scanning is diagnostic. Blood layering under the apex of the tentorium cerebelli, however, may resemble a dilated vascular structure, and the rigidity of the pressured tentorium may prevent upward transmission of increased intracranial pressure, resulting in a soft fontanelle.

  7. Artificial neural networks in the recognition of the presence of thyroid disease in patients with atrophic body gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Lahner, Edith; Intraligi, Marco; Buscema, Massimo; Centanni, Marco; Vannella, Lucy; Grossi, Enzo; Annibale, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of artificial neural networks in predicting the presence of thyroid disease in atrophic body gastritis patients. METHODS: A dataset of 29 input variables of 253 atrophic body gastritis patients was applied to artificial neural networks (ANNs) using a data optimisation procedure (standard ANNs, T&T-IS protocol, TWIST protocol). The target variable was the presence of thyroid disease. RESULTS: Standard ANNs obtained a mean accuracy of 64.4% with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 59.8% in recognizing atrophic body gastritis patients with thyroid disease. The optimization procedures (T&T-IS and TWIST protocol) improved the performance of the recognition task yielding a mean accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 74.7% and 75.8%, 78.8% and 81.8%, and 70.5% and 69.9%, respectively. The increase of sensitivity of the TWIST protocol was statistically significant compared to T&T-IS. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that artificial neural networks may be taken into consideration as a potential clinical decision-support tool for identifying ABG patients at risk for harbouring an unknown thyroid disease and thus requiring diagnostic work-up of their thyroid status. PMID:18203288

  8. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  9. Effects of low dose estrogen therapy on the vaginal microbiomes of women with atrophic vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jian; Song, Ning; Williams, Christopher J.; Brown, Celeste J.; Yan, Zheng; Xu, Chen; Forney, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Atrophic vaginitis (AV) is common in postmenopausal women, but its causes are not well understood. The symptoms, which include vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and dyspareunia, can usually be alleviated by low doses of estrogen given orally or locally. Regrettably, the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in women with AV have not been fully characterized and little is known as to how these communities change over time in response to hormonal therapy. In the present intervention study we determined the response of vaginal bacterial communities in postmenopausal women with AV to low-dose estrogen therapy. The changes in community composition in response to hormonal therapy were rapid and typified by significant increases in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. that were mirrored by a decreased relative abundance of Gardnerella. These changes were paralleled by a significant four-fold increase in serum estradiol levels and decreased vaginal pH, as well as nearly a two-fold increase in the Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI). The results suggest that after menopause a vaginal microbiota dominated by species of Lactobacillus may have a beneficial role in the maintenance of health and these findings that could lead to new strategies to protect postmenopausal women from AV. PMID:27103314

  10. Effects of low dose estrogen therapy on the vaginal microbiomes of women with atrophic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Song, Ning; Williams, Christopher J; Brown, Celeste J; Yan, Zheng; Xu, Chen; Forney, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    Atrophic vaginitis (AV) is common in postmenopausal women, but its causes are not well understood. The symptoms, which include vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and dyspareunia, can usually be alleviated by low doses of estrogen given orally or locally. Regrettably, the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in women with AV have not been fully characterized and little is known as to how these communities change over time in response to hormonal therapy. In the present intervention study we determined the response of vaginal bacterial communities in postmenopausal women with AV to low-dose estrogen therapy. The changes in community composition in response to hormonal therapy were rapid and typified by significant increases in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. that were mirrored by a decreased relative abundance of Gardnerella. These changes were paralleled by a significant four-fold increase in serum estradiol levels and decreased vaginal pH, as well as nearly a two-fold increase in the Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI). The results suggest that after menopause a vaginal microbiota dominated by species of Lactobacillus may have a beneficial role in the maintenance of health and these findings that could lead to new strategies to protect postmenopausal women from AV.

  11. Are atrophic long-bone nonunions associated with low-grade infections?

    PubMed Central

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Spranger, Ole; Gantz, Simone; Burckhardt, Irene; Zimmermann, Stefan; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing, especially when associated with bacterial infection, is a severe complication following long-bone fractures and requires special treatment. Because standard diagnostic techniques might provide falsely negative results, we evaluated the sonication method for detection of bacteria on implants of patients with fracture nonunions. A total of 49 patients with a nonunion (group NU) and, for comparison, 45 patients who had undergone routine removal of osteosynthetic material (group OM), were included in the study. Five different diagnostic methods (culture of tissue samples, culture of intraoperative swabs, histopathology of tissue samples, culture of sonication fluid, and 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction of sonication fluid) were compared and related to clinical data. Among the diagnostic tests, culture of sonication fluid demonstrated by far the highest detection rate of bacteria (57%) in group NU, and rather unexpectedly 40% in group OM. Culture of sonication samples also revealed a broad spectrum of bacteria, in particular Propionibacterium spp. In conclusion, our results indicate that more bacteria can be detected on implants of patients with atrophic nonunions of long-bone fractures by means of the sonication procedure, which provides a valuable additional diagnostic tool to decide on a surgical procedure (eg, two-step procedure) and to further specify antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26719698

  12. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  13. The Diagnostic Value of Gastrin-17 Detection in Atrophic Gastritis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ling, Li; Li, Shanshan; Qin, Guiping; Cui, Wei; Li, Xiang; Ni, Hong

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of gastrin-17 (G-17) for the early detection of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).An extensive literature search was performed, with the aim of selecting publications that reported the accuracy of G-17 in predicting CAG, in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP. To assess the diagnostic value of G-17, the following statistics were estimated and described: sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 894 patients and 1950 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45-0.51) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77-0.81), respectively. The DOR was 5.93 (95% CI: 2.93-11.99), and the AUC was 0.82.G-17 may have potential diagnostic value because it has good specificity and a moderate DOR and AUC for CAG. However, more studies are needed to improve the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool in the future.

  14. Risk for gastric neoplasias in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: A critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias. PMID:22493541

  15. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  16. [Multifocal gastric carcinoid associated with chronic type A atrophic gastritis. Analysis of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Moneghini, D; Fontana, M G; Villanacci, V; Salerni, B

    2001-01-01

    Gastric carcinoid is a rare disease, representing less than 1% of gastric tumours and 11-41% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids. The recent Solcia's classification distinguishes three subtypes of these neoplasms, which show specific clinical and pathological features. Type one arises in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CGA), achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and consequent enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and dysplasia. Type two is related to Zollinger Ellison syndrome and type three represents the sporadic kind. We report two cases of multifocal gastric carcinoid associated to CGA, one of them with pernicious anemia. Both patients had aspecific abdominal symptoms; the diagnosis was suspected by upper endoscopy and confirmed by histological examination. Patients were submitted to total gastrectomy. They are still alive six years after surgery, without signs or symptoms of recurrences. Treatment of these tumours is controversial, because of their uncertain biological and clinical behaviour. Some Authors propose a conservative strategy (only endoscopic surveillance or removal); others stress importance of surgery (antrectomy or gastric resection). We discuss and underline the role of surgical therapy and the relevance of radical approach.

  17. Effects of low dose estrogen therapy on the vaginal microbiomes of women with atrophic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Song, Ning; Williams, Christopher J; Brown, Celeste J; Yan, Zheng; Xu, Chen; Forney, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    Atrophic vaginitis (AV) is common in postmenopausal women, but its causes are not well understood. The symptoms, which include vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and dyspareunia, can usually be alleviated by low doses of estrogen given orally or locally. Regrettably, the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in women with AV have not been fully characterized and little is known as to how these communities change over time in response to hormonal therapy. In the present intervention study we determined the response of vaginal bacterial communities in postmenopausal women with AV to low-dose estrogen therapy. The changes in community composition in response to hormonal therapy were rapid and typified by significant increases in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. that were mirrored by a decreased relative abundance of Gardnerella. These changes were paralleled by a significant four-fold increase in serum estradiol levels and decreased vaginal pH, as well as nearly a two-fold increase in the Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI). The results suggest that after menopause a vaginal microbiota dominated by species of Lactobacillus may have a beneficial role in the maintenance of health and these findings that could lead to new strategies to protect postmenopausal women from AV. PMID:27103314

  18. Treatment of atrophic maxilla with zygomatic implants in 29 consecutives patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Chessa, Jaime G; Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Shibli, Jamil; de Moraes, Márcio; Mazzonetto, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Atrophic maxilla is a common condition in older population; some treatments are proposed with bone reconstruction or zygomatic implant. Long-term follow up show the efficiencies of zygomatic implant but limited data are associated to consecutive patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the zygomatic implants performed consecutively in 29 patients. Data from clinical records of 29 patients treated with zygomatic implants were analyzed; were include patient with at least 10 month of prosthetic function. Four surgeons realized all surgeries using local anesthesia with a slot technique on local anesthesia; the variables analyzed were implant survival, complications, prosthetic load and satisfaction of patient; data collection was analyzed by descriptive statistic and chi-square test with p<0.05 for significance statistical. 67 zygomatic implants and 84 conventional implants were installed in patients between 35 and 69 year old being 18 (62%) female and 11 (38%) male.The main indication was the case of severe alveolar resorption in 21 cases (72.41%), followed by failures in maxillary reconstruction with bone graft in 4 (13.79%). The implant success was 79.1% and the immediate or delayed load was not associated to statistical difference (p=0.104). The main complication was the loss of osseointegration and mucositis. Analogue Visual Scale (AVS) for satisfaction show acceptable esthetic and function. Finally we conclude that zygomatic implant present adequate survivor and a good response of patient; important complication can be present in a learn curve for this surgery. PMID:24600500

  19. Risk for gastric neoplasias in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-03-28

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias.

  20. Occurrence, isolation and differentiation of Candida spp. and prevalence of variables associated to chronic atrophic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Lund, Rafael Guerra; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Etges, Adriana; Ribeiro, Gladis Aver; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the frequency of Candida spp. in patients with chronic atrophic candidiasis (CAC), to differentiate Candida species and to assess the prevalence of certain infection-associated variables to this disease. Patients with CAC and wearing partial or complete dentures were recruited. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire with details involving identification of the subject, demographic characteristics, behaviour and medical history, clinical and mycological evaluation and identification of yeast. The sample collection was carried out in the palate or palate and tongue of the subjects using sterilised swabs. Data were submitted to statistical analyses using Fischer's test. Forty-three (53%) cases of CAC showed the presence of Candida albicans. Females (75.2%) wearing complete dentures (60.1%) for more than 10 years (58%) were risk factors to CAC development. It could be concluded that: (a) the results did not confirm a significant difference among patients with CAC concerning the presence or absence of Candida spp.; (b) the occurrence of Candida was negatively related to important factors associated to this opportunistic infection; and (c) mycological findings did not indicate that the variables investigated have a significant effect on oral infections by C. albicans or other Candida species.

  1. [A modular approach to studying of fluctuating asymmetry of complex morphological structures in rodents with the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicolinae, Rodentia) as an example].

    PubMed

    Ialkovskaia, L É; Borodin, A V; Fominykh, M A

    2014-01-01

    The expediency of a modular approach to estimating fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of complex morphological structures was shown using the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780) as an example. FA of the shape of two mandibular regions (modules) defined developmentally and functionally, was assessed by means of geometric morphometrics. The differences between mandibular regions in the FA levels were found for both individual landmarks and integral indices of asymmetry. Regardless of age, gender or sampling year, FA estimates obtained for posterior region including part of the ramus and processes were higher than those for anterior region including the diastemal area. The results suggest that modularity of complex morphological structures should be taken into account when analyzing FA.

  2. Use of a permanent soft denture liner in the retromylohyoid eminence and knife-edge ridge areas of the mandible to aid in retention and stability.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Maritza; Lee, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Many edentulous patients who wear complete dentures have alveolar ridge resorption. While retention is a concern in both arches, the mandibular arch presents more of a challenge due to less available bone. Mini-implants may not be an option in a case with knife-edge ridges. Lingual undercuts in the posterior mandibular region of the retromylohyoid eminence can be used to increase retention. A permanent soft denture liner is ideal for this application. It is softer than the acrylic denture material that is typically utilized, thus there is less discomfort when the patient inserts or removes the denture. A literature search indicates underutilization or lack of knowledge of this technique. This article presents a case involving a patient who could not tolerate traditional dentures. A silicone-based permanent soft denture liner was placed over the knife-edge ridge and retromylohyoid areas of the mandible.

  3. Chronic Sclerosing Osteomyelitis of the Mandible Treated with Hemimandibulectomy and Fibular Free Flap Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shubhi; Graham, M Elise; Bullock, Martin; Rigby, M H; Taylor, S Mark; Trites, Jonathan R B; Hart, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Primary chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible is a rare condition that presents with a long-standing chronic facial swelling over the mandible, pain with mastication, and trismus. With no clinically appreciated acute phase, the aetiology often remains unknown. Many patients achieve adequate symptom control with broad-spectrum antibiotics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and surgical debridement, or decortication of bone sequestration. However, because of the rarity of primary chronic osteomyelitis and the extensive involvement of the mandible that can result, we present a case of a 32-year-old woman with chronic disease of the left mandible requiring a left hemimandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction. Few such cases have been reported in the literature, which require such extensive resection and reconstruction to control long-standing symptoms.

  4. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features. PMID:20890172

  6. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features.

  7. ‘Skullduggery’: Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Vivienne L.; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Newton, David J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992) that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should ideally be

  8. [Garrè's osteomyelitis with bilateral mandible: a case report].

    PubMed

    Gao, Pan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xuan, Ming; Ma, Xiangrui; Chang, Zheng; Xiong, Shenghua

    2015-08-01

    Garrès osteomyelitis is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that most commonly occurs in young patients, secondary to dental infection, and affects the unilateral side of the mandible. Bilateral mandibular Garrè's osteomyelitis is rare. In this article, a case of Garrè's osteomyelitis with bilateral mandible is reported. Its etiology, clinical pathologic features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment methods are discussed by reviewing relevant literature.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in the Atapuerca-SH hominids: the evidence from the mandibles.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María

    2002-04-01

    The pattern of sexual dimorphism in 15 mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH Middle Pleistocene site, attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, is explored. Two modern human samples of known sex are used as a baseline for establishing sexing criteria. The mandible was divided for analysis into seven study regions and differential expression of sexual dimorphism in these regions is analysed. A total of 40 continuous and 32 discrete variables were scored on the mandibles. The means method given in Regh & Leigh (Am. J. phys. Anthrop.110, 95-104, 1999) was followed for evaluating the potential of correct sex attribution for each variable. On average, the mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH site present a degree of sexual dimorphism about eight points higher than in H. sapiens samples. However, mandibular anatomy of the European Middle Pleistocene hominid records sexual dimorphism differentially. Different areas of the Atapuerca-SH mandibles exhibit quite distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism. For instance, variables of the alveolar arcade present very low or practically no sexual dimorphism. Variables related to overall size of the mandible and symphysis region present a medium degree of sex differences. Finally, ramus height, and gonion and coronoid process present a high degree of sexual dimorphism (indexes of sexual dimorphism are all above 130%). Whether this marked sexual dimorphism in specific anatomical systems affects sexual differences in body size is not completely clear and further studies are needed. Sexual differences detected in the mandible of modern humans have at least two components: differences related to musculo-skeletal development and differences related to a different growth trajectory in males and females (relative development of some of the basal border features). The Atapuerca-SH mandibles display little variation in the basal border, however. The limited variation of this mandibular region may indicate that the pattern of sexual variation in H

  10. Fixation of a severely resorbed mandible for complete arch screw-retained rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Vinicius; Bacchi, Atais

    2016-05-01

    Severely resorbed mandibles with placed endosteal dental implants can fracture. Therefore, techniques to reduce the risk or minimize the consequences of these fractures are needed. This clinical report presents a technique for placing a titanium plate in a severely resorbed mandible subjected to complete-arch implant therapy. The titanium plate is placed in the same surgical procedure as the implants, allowing immediate implant loading. This technique provides safe implant-supported treatment for patients with severe mandibular resorption.

  11. Creep of posterior dental composites.

    PubMed

    Papadogianis, Y; Boyer, D B; Lakes, R S

    1985-01-01

    The creep of microspecimens of posterior dental composites was studied using a torsional creep apparatus. Shear stresses were maintained for 3 h and recovery was followed for 50 h. Creep curves were obtained at 21, 37, and 50 degrees C and four torque levels. The effect of conditioning the specimens in water up to 8 weeks was studied. The posterior composites exhibited linear viscoelastic behavior at low deformations. They had higher shear moduli and greater resistance to creep than conventional and microfilled composites. In aging experiments, maximum shear moduli occurred when specimens were 48 h to 1 week old. Subsequent softening was attributed to water absorption. Residual strain was highest when the composites were stressed within 24 h of initiating polymerization. Residual strain was very low in specimens 48 h to 8 weeks of age.

  12. Dynamic simulation and finite element analysis of the human mandible injury protected by polyvinyl alcohol sponge.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    There have been intensive efforts to find a suitable kinetic energy absorbing material for helmet and bulletproof vest design. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is currently in extensive use as scaffolding material for tissue engineering applications. PVA can also be employed instead of commonly use kinetic energy absorbing materials to increase the kinetic energy absorption capacity of current helmet and bulletproof vest materials owing to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, a combined hexahedral finite element (FE) model is established to determine the potential protection ability of PVA sponge in controlling the level of injury for gunshot wounds to the human mandible. Digital computed tomography data for the human mandible are used to establish a three-dimensional FE model of the human mandible. The mechanism by which a gunshot injures the protected mandible by PVA sponge is dynamically simulated using the LS-DYNA code under two different shot angles. The stress distributions in different parts of the mandible and sponge after injury are also simulated. The modeling results regardless of shot angle reveal that the substantial amount of kinetic energy of the steel ball (67%) is absorbed by the PVA sponge and, consequently, injury severity of the mandible is significantly decreased. The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. The results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and bulletproof vest design to absorb most of the impact energy and reduce the transmitted load.

  13. Posterior cruciate ligament of the knee (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a powerful ligament extending from the top-rear surface of the tibia to the bottom-front surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from posterior instability.

  14. Osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Prabhusankar, K.; Karande, Amol; Jerry, Jeethu J.; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a very uncommon tumor of the maxillofacial region. Due to the occurrence of the tumor at a young age and its aggressive nature, radical surgery forms the only modality of treatment. A combination of radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy has been used for the management of this tumor. A case report of osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla in an adolescent with a 1-year disease-free follow-up is presented in this report. PMID:27652252

  15. Osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Prabhusankar, K; Karande, Amol; Jerry, Jeethu J; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is a very uncommon tumor of the maxillofacial region. Due to the occurrence of the tumor at a young age and its aggressive nature, radical surgery forms the only modality of treatment. A combination of radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy has been used for the management of this tumor. A case report of osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla in an adolescent with a 1-year disease-free follow-up is presented in this report. PMID:27652252

  16. Osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Prabhusankar, K.; Karande, Amol; Jerry, Jeethu J.; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a very uncommon tumor of the maxillofacial region. Due to the occurrence of the tumor at a young age and its aggressive nature, radical surgery forms the only modality of treatment. A combination of radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy has been used for the management of this tumor. A case report of osteosarcoma of the posterior maxilla in an adolescent with a 1-year disease-free follow-up is presented in this report.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma in the mandible: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Bogumił; Brodowski, Robert; Pakla, Paweł; Stopyra, Wojciech; Gawron, Iwona

    2016-07-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignancy which very rarely occurs in maxillofacial location, and the course of the disease is not very characteristic.In this case report, we present a 58-year-old female patient with a painless tumor of the left angle of the mandible causing slight asymmetry of the face. She also reported that she observed deterioration in fitting of the lower denture in the oral cavity for several months, which she had used successfully for 5 years.On the basis of clinical tests, histopatological examination, and imaging (CT, MRI, ultrasound, pantomography), the patient was diagnosed with primary malignant leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the mandibular corpus and ramus on the left side. The patient received combined surgical and oncological treatment. The first stage was a surgery, and then adjuvant radiotherapy was applied on the site of the resected tumor-a total dose of 60 Gy in 35 fractions. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. She also underwent adjuvant therapy well. In the period of 3-year follow-up, no signs of recurrence were observed.The findings may extend our knowledge and experiences in the treatment of leiomvosarcoma in the craniofacial area.

  18. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Capote-Moreno, Ana; Acero, Julio; García-Recuero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Julián; Serrano, Rosario; de Paz, Víctor

    2009-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue, infrequent in craneofacial skeleton with regard to other structures like long bones or the spine. They are composed of sinusoidal and vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. We present a case of a 29-year-old Caucasian male with a big swelling in the left mandible associated to pain and rapid growth. He referred previous extraction of the left inferior third molar. On the X-ray study, an expansive multilocular and high vascularized bony lesion within the mandibular angle was observed. It produced expansion and destruction of lingual and buccal cortex. An incisional biopsy was performed showing a fibrous tissue with blood-filled spaces lesion suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst. After selective embolization of the tumour, surgical resection was done with curettage and immediate reconstruction of the defect with an anterior iliac crest graft. Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-neoplastic but locally aggressive tumours with occasional rapid growth that may be differentiated from other multilocular process like ameloblastoma, ossifying fibroma, epithelial cyst, giant cell granuloma and sarcomas. Treatment of choice consists on conservative surgical excision of the mass with curettage or enucleation. When resection creates a big defect, primary surgical reconstruction is recommended.

  19. Mandible, maxilla and cervical spine--a functional unit?

    PubMed

    Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Thieme, K M; Weber, S; Fanghanel, J; Dumont, C; Spassov, A; Hahn, W; Ihlow, D; Nagerl, H

    2008-11-01

    The motion patterns of mandibular points were recorded in vivo in closed, free movements of the mandible parallel to the sagittal-vertical plane. The points ran along loops which were valued by their area and length. All points whose loops included the same area under regarding the sense of circulation formed a straight line. Lines belonging to different areas were parallel. When the absolute areas of the oops were plotted for particular points a hollow depression with two minima resulted. The point that showed the lowest minimum in the depression corresponded to the position of the neuromuscular mandibular axis of rotation. The points running along equal loop lengths formed elliptical lines with a minimum below the condyle. The lines of constant loop area and loop length were overlaid with lateral radiographs, to match the patterns of motion with anatomical structures. The mandibular axis of rotation lay mostly cranial anterior of the condyle whereas the point with the shortest path lay mainly below this axis point, inside the bony structures. The row of teeth in the maxilla was found to be located below the line of minimal loop lengths. The cervical spine was arranged along the depression of the minimal absolute areas. PMID:19075327

  20. A strong association between thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and HLA-DR8 and HLA-DQB1 0302 in Koreans

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Bo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang-Soon; Lee, Jung-Bin ); Shong, Young Kee ); Han, Hoon ); Chang, Youn Bok )

    1993-09-01

    The authors investigated whether the associations between HLA alleles of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism varied according to the presence or absence of TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TRBab). They analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR antigens by serotyping and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes using both enzymatic DNA amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations. The patient population consisted of 47 Korean patients with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and 62 patients with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. The antigen frequency of HLA-DR8 was significantly increased in 23 atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis patients that were positive for TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) compared to 136 controls [52% vs. 16%; x[sup 2] = 13.1; Pc (corrected P value) = 0.003]. This relative risk was 5.7; the etiological fraction was 0.43. HLA-DQB1*0302 was also increased in patients with TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (24% vs. 7%; x[sup 2] = 11.2; Pc = 0.012; relative risk = 4.4; etiological fraction = 0.19). No specific DR antigens or DQB1 alleles were increased in either TBII-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroidities or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. A significant decrease in the frequency of HLA-DR6 antigen was observed in both TBII-positive atrophic antoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 8.4; Pc = 0.03) and goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 23.2; Pc < 0.001) patients. The frequency of the HLC-Cwl antigen was significantly increased in all patient groups. The authors conclude that TRBab-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis is immunogenetically different from both goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis and TRBab-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is possible that HLA-DR8 and/or DQB1*0302 may be related to the susceptibility genes involved in the production of TRBab in Koreans. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2 O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection with Atrophic Gastritis Is an Independent Risk Factor for Advanced Colonic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hye Won; Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Soo; Koo, Ja Eun; Chung, Eun Ju; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for atrophic gastritis (AG) and gastric cancer. The correlation between H. pylori, AG and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) has only been examined in a limited number of studies, and findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection status, AG and advanced CRN. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, AG, and advanced CRN in 6,351 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who underwent a screening colonoscopy. Results A total of 316 participants (5.0%) had advanced CRN. H. pylori seropositivity was 61.3%. In a univariate analysis, the presence of H. pylori infection was associated with advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.91; p=0.001). H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of advanced CRN after adjusting for clinically relevant confounders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.72; p=0.023). H. pylori-related AG was significantly associated with the risk of advanced CRN (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; p=0.030), whereas H. pylori infection without AG was not. Conclusions H. pylori infection increased the risk of advanced CRN, especially when it was combined with AG. Strict colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be warranted in those with H. pylori-positive AG. PMID:27458180

  3. Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

  4. Evidence of Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Gastric Cancer and Non-Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Juan L.E.; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. PMID:24448220

  5. MAFbx/Atrogin-1 is required for atrophic remodeling of the unloaded heart

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Kedryn K.; Rodriguez, Meredith R.; Kansara, Seema; Chen, Wenhao; Carranza, Sylvia; Frazier, O. Howard; Glass, David J.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical unloading of the failing human heart induces profound cardiac changes resulting in the reversal of a distorted structure and function. In this process, cardiomyocytes break down unneeded proteins and replace those with new ones. The specificity of protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system is regulated by ubiquitin ligases. Over-expressing the ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 in the heart inhibits the development of cardiac hypertrophy, but the role of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 in the unloaded heart is not known. Methods and Results Mechanical unloading, by heterotopic transplantation, decreased heart weight and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in wild type mouse hearts. Unexpectedly, MAFbx/Atrogin-1−/− hearts hypertrophied after transplantation (n=8–10). Proteasome activity and markers of autophagy were increased to the same extent in WT and MAFbx/Atrogin-1−/− hearts after transplantation (unloading). Calcineurin, a regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, was only upregulated in MAFbx/Atrogin-1−/− transplanted hearts, while the mTOR pathway was similarly activated in unloaded WT and MAFbx/Atrogin-1−/− hearts. MAFbx/Atrogin-1−/− cardiomyocytes exhibited increased calcineurin protein expression, NFAT transcriptional activity, and protein synthesis rates, while inhibition of calcineurin normalized NFAT activity and protein synthesis. Lastly, mechanical unloading of failing human hearts with a left ventricular assist device (n=18) also increased MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein levels and expression of NFAT regulated genes. Conclusions MAFbx/Atrogin-1 is required for atrophic remodeling of the heart. During unloading, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 represses calcineurin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 not only regulates protein degradation, but also reduces protein synthesis, exerting a dual role in regulating cardiac mass. PMID:24650875

  6. Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis: Recognizing Precursor Lesions for Appropriate Patient Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Meredith E; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Robertson, Scott A; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG) is a significant risk factor for pernicious anemia and gastric neoplasia. Still, the histologic features of AMAG are frequently overlooked, especially in the early stages of the disease. The purpose of our study, therefore, was to catalogue the progression of histologic changes that precede the development of AMAG in affected individuals. Over a 2-year period (2012 to 2014), the diagnosis of AMAG was rendered on material from 113 patients seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (∼1.8% of "in house" gastric biopsies). Prior gastric body biopsies had been performed on 54 (48%) patients in the cohort, and the majority of these specimens had also shown AMAG. Eighteen of the previous biopsies, however, carried a diagnosis other than AMAG: 13 inactive chronic gastritis, 2 acute Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and 1 each of eosinophilic gastritis, iron pill gastritis, and proton-pump inhibitor-like effect. Upon review of these 18 biopsies, the most common histologic findings were heavy full-thickness or deep lamina propria chronic inflammation (12), inflammatory destruction of oxyntic glands (12), metaplasia (intestinal, pyloric, or pancreatic acinar) (10), prominent lamina propria eosinophils (8), and parietal cell pseudohypertrophy (4). At least 2 of these features were present in the majority (13, 72%) of the biopsies. In addition, 7 (58%) of these patients were also found to have another autoimmune or inflammatory disorder before the diagnosis of AMAG. Although subtle, histologic features of developing AMAG are identifiable in routine gastric body biopsies. When metaplasia, full-thickness chronic inflammation, and/or oxyntic destruction are seen, a note suggesting laboratory testing and/or close clinical follow-up in this subset of patients may be warranted.

  7. Evidence of Epstein-Barr virus association with gastric cancer and non-atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Juan L E; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2014-01-20

    Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger.

  8. Accuracy of GastroPanel for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Forné, Montserrat; Barrio, Jesus; De la Coba, Cristobal; González, Begoña; Rivera, Robin; Esteve, Maria; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Madrigal, Beatriz; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Perez-Aisa, Angeles; Viver-Pi-Sunyer, Jose M.; Bory, Felipe; Rosinach, Merce; Loras, Carmen; Esteban, Carlos; Santolaria, Santos; Gomollon, Fernando; Valle, Julio; Gisbert, Javier P.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that GastroPanel might be a useful tool for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) measuring four biomarkers in blood: basal gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen I and II (PGI and PGII), and Helicobacter pylori antibodies. Aim To determine the accuracy of GastroPanel for the diagnosis of CAG. Methods This was a prospective, blinded, multicenter study that included dyspeptic patients. G17, PGI, and PGII were determined by enzyme immunoassays. Three antrum and two corpus biopsies were obtained for standard histological analysis and rapid urease test. Biopsies were analyzed by a single blinded expert pathologist. Results Ninety-one patients were included (77% women, mean age 44 years, 51% H. pylori positive, 17% with CAG). G17 was reduced in patients with antrum CAG (5.4 vs. 13.4 pmol/l; P<0.01) and increased in patients with corpus CAG (11 vs. 24 pmol/l; P<0.05), but its accuracy was only acceptable in the case of corpus localization [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 74%]; PGII difference was almost statistically significant only when testing for corpus atrophy (33 vs. 21 μg/l; P=0.05; AUC=72%). The PGI and PGI/PGII ratio showed no significant differences (AUCs were all unacceptably low). Helicobacter pylori antibody levels were higher in H. pylori-infected patients (251 vs. 109 EIU, P=0.01; AUC=70). The accuracy of GastroPanel for the diagnosis of CAG was as follows: sensitivity 50%; specificity 80%; positive 25% and negative 92% predictive values; and positive 2.4 and negative 0.6 likelihood ratios. Conclusion GastroPanel is not accurate enough for the diagnosis of CAG; thus, its systematic use in clinical practice cannot be recommended. PMID:25014624

  9. The effect of mandibular buccal tilting on the accuracy of posterior mandibular spiral tomographic images: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Maleki, Vida

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of the height and buccolingual thickness of available bone has a significant role in dental implantology. The shadow of ramus on the mandibular second molar region disturbs the sharpness of conventional tomographic images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transferring the shadow of ramus from the center of the focal plane, by changing the position of mandible, on the sharpness of the posterior mandibular region. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used 10 dry human mandibles. Three metal balls were mounted on the midline and mandibular second molar regions bilaterally. Standard panoramic and tomographic images were taken. Then, the mandible was tilted buccaly for 8° – compensating the normal lingual inclination of the mandibular ridge and teeth on this region – and tomographic images were taken again. The height and thickness of bone were measured on the images and then compared with the real amounts measured directly on mandibles. Also, the sharpness of mandibular canals was compared between the two tomographic methods. Findings were analyzed with repeated measured ANOVA test (P<0.05). Results: The height of mandibular bone, on the images of the tilted tomography technique was more accurate compared to standard (P<0.001), but standard tomography had more accuracy in estimating the buccolingual thickness at the half-height point. Regarding the sharpness of mandibular canals, we found no significant differences between two tomographic methods. Conclusion: Buccal tilting is recommended when measuring the bone height is more important, but routine standard tomography is preferred when the thickness is requested. PMID:23372586

  10. Combined Posterior and Anterior Ankle Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Peter E.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of combined anterior and posterior ankle pathology usually consists of either combined anterior and posterior arthrotomies or anterior ankle arthroscopy with an additional posterolateral portal. The first technique bears the risk of complications associated with the extensive exposure, the latter technique provides limited access to the posterior ankle joint. A case is described of combined anterior and posterior arthroscopy, with the patient lying prone and then turned supine, addressing both anterior and posterior ankle pathologies in one tempo. This minimally invasive combined approach allows quick recovery and early return to work and sports activities. PMID:23227391

  11. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration in oldest old Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T Q; Guan, H J; Hu, J Y

    2015-12-21

    The aim of this study was to identify disease-associated loci in oldest old Han Chinese with atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This genome-wide association study (GWAS) only included oldest old (≥95 years old) subjects in Rugao County, China. Thirty atrophic AMD patients and 47 age-matched non-AMD controls were enrolled. The study subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scanned by Genome-Wide Human Mapping SNP 6.0 Arrays and GeneChip Scanner 3000 7G. The results were read and analyzed by the Affymetrix Genotyping Console software. We filtered out the SNPs with a no-call rate ≥10%, MAF P < 0.05, and HWE P < 0.001. The remaining 561,277 SNPs were included in the association analysis. We found that the following 2 SNPs had the highest association with atrophic AMD: rs7624556 (located on 3q24) and rs13119914 (located on 4q34.3). In conclusion, we identified two atrophic AMD-associated SNPs (rs7624556 and rs13119914) in an oldest old Han Chinese population. This finding may lead to new strategies for screening of atrophic AMD for Han Chinese.

  12. Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2015-04-01

    In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

  13. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  14. Comparison between all-on-four and all-on-six treatment concepts and framework material on stress distribution in atrophic maxilla: A prototyping guided 3D-FEA study.

    PubMed

    Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Kemmoku, Daniel Takanori; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated two treatment concepts for the rehabilitation of moderate atrophic maxilla with dental implants (all-on-four and all-on-six) and the effect of framework material on the stress distribution of implant-support system. A three-dimensional finite element model based on a prototype was built to simulate an entirely edentulous maxilla with moderate sinus pneumatization that was rehabilitated with a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis. Four standard implants were positioned according to the all-on-four concept and four standard implants and two short implants were placed according to the all-on-six concept. Three framework materials were evaluated: cobalt-chrome (CoCr), titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr), totalizing six groups. A unilateral oblique force of 150N was applied to the posterior teeth. The von Mises (σVM), maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stress and displacements were obtained. All-on-six showed smaller σmin, σVM and σmax values on the cortical bone, implants and trabecular bone, respectively. All-on-four exhibited higher displacement levels. Ti presented the highest stress values on the cortical bone, implants, abutments, prosthetic screws and displacement levels. In conclusion, the all-on-six approach and framework stiffer materials showed the most favorable biomechanical behavior. However, the stress values did not exceed the bone resistance limits for both treatment concepts.

  15. Comparison between all-on-four and all-on-six treatment concepts and framework material on stress distribution in atrophic maxilla: A prototyping guided 3D-FEA study.

    PubMed

    Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Kemmoku, Daniel Takanori; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated two treatment concepts for the rehabilitation of moderate atrophic maxilla with dental implants (all-on-four and all-on-six) and the effect of framework material on the stress distribution of implant-support system. A three-dimensional finite element model based on a prototype was built to simulate an entirely edentulous maxilla with moderate sinus pneumatization that was rehabilitated with a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis. Four standard implants were positioned according to the all-on-four concept and four standard implants and two short implants were placed according to the all-on-six concept. Three framework materials were evaluated: cobalt-chrome (CoCr), titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr), totalizing six groups. A unilateral oblique force of 150N was applied to the posterior teeth. The von Mises (σVM), maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stress and displacements were obtained. All-on-six showed smaller σmin, σVM and σmax values on the cortical bone, implants and trabecular bone, respectively. All-on-four exhibited higher displacement levels. Ti presented the highest stress values on the cortical bone, implants, abutments, prosthetic screws and displacement levels. In conclusion, the all-on-six approach and framework stiffer materials showed the most favorable biomechanical behavior. However, the stress values did not exceed the bone resistance limits for both treatment concepts. PMID:27612765

  16. How does the mandible grow after early high condylectomy?

    PubMed

    Di Blasio, Chiara; Di Blasio, Alberto; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Anghinoni, Marilena; Sesenna, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    The early high condylectomy (HC), removing the overgrowing area of the condyle, may be indicated for condylar hyperplasia. However, in young patients, when the HC removes the pathological overgrowing tissue the contralateral condyle is still growing. May this surgical procedure, in these growing patients, stop the operated side growth creating the conditions for an opposite asymmetry? Authors investigate the way the operated mandible develops after the early HC, both as a symmetry percentage and in an absolute value related to the unaffected side. A sample of 8 consecutive growing patients, 1 male and 7 females, referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Parma University for HC were investigated. Patients were longitudinally studied with 3 orthopantomographies at: T0 (diagnosis: mean age, 13 years; range, 11 years 2 months to 13 years 8 months), T1 (after surgery: mean age, 15; range, 13-18 years) and T2 (follow-up: mean age, 18 years; range, 17-20 years). The x-ray is used to study the condyle, ramus, and total vertical structures length by Mattila tracing method. The data were analyzed by the Student t test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test; P value was set at 0.5. The operated side was overcorrected by HC and; during the investigated period, its growth decreased from T0 to T1 and restarted from T1 to T2. The whole T0-T2 growth of the operated side was not statistically different from the one of the healthy side (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the operated side growth may continue in a more normal way after condylectomy. PMID:25974787

  17. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  18. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  19. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Manuel Filipe Dias; de Santa Barbara, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion. PMID:26484324

  20. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo; Carrera, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Infarctions in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occur in about 5-10% of all ischemic strokes. The PCA can be divided into 'deep' (P1 and P2 segments) and 'superficial' (P3 and P4) segments. Occlusion of paramedian perforating arteries arising from P1 causes rostral midbrain infarction with or without thalamic lesion. The classical clinical triad after thalamomesencephalic infarcts is hypersomnolence, cognitive deficits and vertical oculomotor paresis. Two main arterial groups arise from P2: infarction in the territory of the thalamogeniculate arteries causes severe contralateral hypesthesia and ataxia, whereas infarction in the territory of the posterior choroidal arteries results in sectoranopia with involvement of the lateral geniculate body. After superficial PCA infarcts, visual field defects and somatosensory deficits are the most frequent signs. Additionally, disorders of reading may be seen after unilateral left infarction and disorientation for place and visual neglect after right lesion. After bilateral PCA infarcts, amnesia, cortical blindness (the patient cannot see but pretend he can) may occur. Acute thrombolysis is as useful after PCA infarctions as after anterior circulation strokes. Mortality after PCA strokes is low, but long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits are underestimated.

  1. Association of nucleotide excision repair pathway gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwei; Sun, Liping; Xu, Qian; Tu, Huakang; He, Caiyun; Xing, Chengzhong; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Polymorphisms of NER genes could change NER ability, thereby altering individual susceptibility to GC. We systematically analyzed 39 SNPs of 8 key genes of NER pathway in 2686 subjects including 898 gastric cancer (GC), 851 atrophic gastritis (AG) and 937 controls (CON) in northern Chinese. SNP genotyping were performed using Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The results demonstrated that DDB2 rs830083 GG genotype was significantly associated with increased GC risk compared with wild-type CC (OR=2.32, P= 6.62 × 10-9); XPC rs2607775 CG genotype conferred a 1.73 increased odds of GC risk than non-cancer subjects compared with wild-type CC (OR=1.73, P= 3.04 × 10-4). The combined detection of these two polymorphisms demonstrated even higher GC risk (OR=3.05). Haplotype analysis suggested that DDB2 rs2029298-rs326222-rs3781619-rs830083 GTAG haplotype was significantly associated with disease risk in each step of CON→AG→GC development (AG vs. CON: OR=2.88, P= 7.51 × 10-7; GC vs. AG: OR=2.90, P=5.68 × 10-15; GC vs. CON: OR=8.42, P=2.22 × 10-15); DDB2 GTAC haplotype was associated with reduced risk of GC compared with CON (OR=0.63, P= 8.31 × 10-12). XPC rs1870134-rs2228000-rs2228001-rs2470352-rs2607775 GCAAG haplotype conferred increased risk of GC compared with AG (OR=1.88, P= 6.98 × 10-4). XPA rs2808668 and drinking, DDB2 rs326222, rs3781619, rs830083 and smoking demonstrated significant interactions in AG; XPC rs2607775 had significant interaction with smoking in GC. In conclusion, NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors. The detection of NER pathway polymorphisms such as DDB2 and XPC might be applied in the prediction of GC risk and personalized prevention in the future. NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors, which might be applied in the

  2. Atrophic gastritis: Risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Latin-American population

    PubMed Central

    Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahão; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients’ age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression. CONCLUSION: There was an association by univariate

  3. Biomechanical response of the human mandible to impacts of the chin.

    PubMed

    Craig, Matthew; Bir, Cynthia; Viano, David; Tashman, Scott

    2008-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to determine the force-time and force-displacement response of the human mandible under direct loading at the chin. Sub-fracture response of the mandible and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were analyzed from 10 cadavers that were impacted at the chin with a 2.8-kg mass at drop heights of 300, 400 and 500 mm and a 5.2-kg mass at 500 mm. Motion of radio-opaque markers adhered to the surface of the bone was recorded at 1000 Hz by a bi-planar X-ray and converted to three-dimensional coordinates. Peak force ranged from 0.90 to 4.54 kN causing chin displacement of 1.2-4.4 mm. A bi-linear response was observed with stiffness of 475.1+/-199.8 kN/m for chin displacement resulting from loading up to 0.6 kN and 2381.6+/-495.7 kN/m for loads from 0.6 to 3.25 kN. This defines the biomechanical response of the mandible for chin motion under impact loading. The response of different segments of the mandible and TMJ are also documented. Force-time and force-displacement response corridors for the mandible can be used for finite element model and/or the development and validation of a biomechanical surrogate.

  4. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  5. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  6. Mandible-first sequence in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borba, A M; Borges, A H; Cé, P S; Venturi, B A; Naclério-Homem, M G; Miloro, M

    2016-04-01

    The sequencing of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery remains controversial, although the traditional maxilla-first approach is performed routinely. The goal of this study was to present a systematic review of the mandible-first sequence in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, to provide data that may assist in the decision as to which jaw should undergo osteotomy first in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery cases. A literature search was conducted for articles published in the English language, reporting the use of the altered sequence for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (mandible-first), using the following descriptors: 'orthognathic' and 'double-jaw', 'orthognathic' and 'two-jaw', 'orthognathic' and 'mandible-first', 'orthognathic' and 'bimaxillary'. Eight hundred eighty-seven abstracts were initially identified and were evaluated for inclusion according to the proposed inclusion criteria. After evaluation of these abstracts and relevant references, six publications met the criteria for consideration. Performing mandible-first surgery in bimaxillary orthognathic cases dates back to the 1970s; however the decision regarding the jaw to be operated on first seems to rely on accurate preoperative planning based upon the surgeon's experience and preference. While there appear to be significant theoretical advantages to support the use of the altered orthognathic sequence (mandible-first), future prospective studies on its reliability, accuracy, and short- and long-term outcomes are required.

  7. Regional, ontogenetic, and sex-related variations in elastic properties of cortical bone in baboon mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Ashley, Dennis W.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels. PMID:19927280

  8. [Overview of clinical study on traditional Chinese medicine invigorating spleen and stomach, promoting blood circulation and remove blood stasis in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, traditional Chinese medicines invigorating spleen and stomach, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis have made fruitful achievements in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and remarkable curative effects in eliminating clinical signs, enhancing the mucosal barrier, improving submucosal microcirculation, prompting submucosal atrophic glands and atypical hyperplasia reversal. This essay summarizes reports and literatures for clinical studies on CAG in recent years, and discusses its etiology, pathogenesis and clinical administration of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, in order to provide ideas and methods for CAG treatment with traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. Inlay osteotome sinus floor elevation with concentrated growth factor application and simultaneous short implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonghui; Cai, Zhiyu; Zheng, Dingguo; Lin, Pei; Cai, Yahua; Hong, Shuxin; Lai, Yiwei; Wu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla is challenging. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the short-term performance of modified osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application and concurrent placement of a short implant in cases with residual bone height (RBH) of 2-4 mm. Twenty-five short implants were installed in 16 patients with mean RBH of 3.23 mm using modified OSFE with CGFs from January 2012 to April 2014. Postoperatively, the implants were clinically evaluated, and vertical bone gain (VBG) was measured using cone beam computed tomography. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.88 months (12-32 months). All the implants were stable with an overall survival rate of 100%. The mean VBG immediately after surgery was 9.21 mm. Six months later, significant reduction of alveolar bone height (2.90 ± 0.22 mm) was found (P < 0.05). During the second 6-month period, further alveolar bone resorption (0.14 ± 0.11 mm) was noted but without significance (P > 0.05). Within the limits of this study, modified OSFE with CGF application and simultaneous short implant placement could yield predictable clinical results for severely atrophic maxilla with RBH of 2-4 mm. PMID:27250556

  10. Inlay osteotome sinus floor elevation with concentrated growth factor application and simultaneous short implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonghui; Cai, Zhiyu; Zheng, Dingguo; Lin, Pei; Cai, Yahua; Hong, Shuxin; Lai, Yiwei; Wu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement in severely atrophic maxilla is challenging. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the short-term performance of modified osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application and concurrent placement of a short implant in cases with residual bone height (RBH) of 2–4 mm. Twenty-five short implants were installed in 16 patients with mean RBH of 3.23 mm using modified OSFE with CGFs from January 2012 to April 2014. Postoperatively, the implants were clinically evaluated, and vertical bone gain (VBG) was measured using cone beam computed tomography. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.88 months (12–32 months). All the implants were stable with an overall survival rate of 100%. The mean VBG immediately after surgery was 9.21 mm. Six months later, significant reduction of alveolar bone height (2.90 ± 0.22 mm) was found (P < 0.05). During the second 6-month period, further alveolar bone resorption (0.14 ± 0.11 mm) was noted but without significance (P > 0.05). Within the limits of this study, modified OSFE with CGF application and simultaneous short implant placement could yield predictable clinical results for severely atrophic maxilla with RBH of 2–4 mm. PMID:27250556

  11. Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis: a review.

    PubMed

    McClurg, S W; Carrau, R

    2014-02-01

    The paradigm for the management of epistaxis, specifically posterior epistaxis, has undergone significant changes in the recent past. Recent prospective and retrospective data has shown that the endonasal surgical management of posterior epistaxis is superior to posterior nasal packing and angiography/embolization with regards to various factors including pain, cost-effectiveness, risk and overall control of bleeding. Endonasal endoscopic surgical techniques for posterior epistaxis include direct cauterization and transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine/ posterior nasal artery ligation or cauterization with or without control of the anterior ethmoidal artery. Despite the evidence provided by the current literature, a universal treatment protocol has not yet been established. This review article provides an up-to-date assessment of the available literature, and presents a structured paradigm for the management of posterior epistaxis.

  12. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Muscle unloading due to long-term exposure of weightlessness or simulated weightlessness causes atrophy, loss of functional capacity, impaired locomotor coordination, and decreased resistance to fatigue in the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs. Besides reducing astronauts' mobility in space and on returning to a gravity environment, the molecular mechanisms for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to unloading also play an important medical role in conditions such as disuse and paralysis. The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscles and to induce muscle unloading in the rat hindlimb. Our series studies have shown that the maximum of twitch tension and the twitch duration decreased significantly in the atrophic soleus muscles, the maximal tension of high-frequency tetanic contraction was significantly reduced in 2-week unloaded soleus muscles, however, the fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction increased after one week of unloading. The maximal isometric tension of intermittent tetanic contraction at optimal stimulating frequency did not alter in 1- and 2-week unloaded soleus, but significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus. The 1-week unloaded soleus, but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was more susceptible to fatigue during intermittent tetanic contraction than the synchronous controls. The changes in K+ channel characteristics may increase the fatigability during high-frequency tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscles. High fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction may be involved in enhanced activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and switching from slow to fast isoform of myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, troponin I and T subunit in atrophic soleus muscles. Unloaded soleus muscle also showed a decreased protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the reduction in nNOS-derived NO increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated

  13. A Neandertal mandible from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Subirá, M E; Quam, R; Fullola, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    2005-07-01

    A human mandible from the site of Cova del Gegant is described here for the first time and compared with other Middle and Upper Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo from Europe and Southwest Asia. The specimen was recovered from sediments which also yielded Mousterian stone tools and Pleistocene fauna. The preserved morphology of the mandible, particularly in the region of the mental foramen, clearly aligns it with the Neandertals, making the Cova del Gegant the only known site in Catalonia documenting diagnostic human skeletal remains in association with Middle Paleolithic stone tools. This represents an important new addition to the human fossil record from the Iberian Peninsula and joins the Bañolas mandible in documenting the course of human evolution in the northern Mediterranean region of Spain.

  14. Bevacizumab-related osteonecrosis of the mandible is a self-limiting disease process.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Giordana; Blandamura, Stella; Saia, Giorgia; Bedogni, Alberto

    2012-10-22

    A female patient with non-small-cell lung cancer presented with a huge area of exposed bone in the mandible following spontaneous teeth loss. She was receiving multimodal chemotherapy containing bevacizumab. No previous treatment with bisphosphonates or comorbid conditions was reported. Pain medications and infection control were offered to the patient who was closely followed up. Initial imaging and histology of bone and surrounding mucosa (8 weeks after bevacizumab cessation) confirmed the clinical suspicion of avascular osteonecrosis of the mandible. Subsequent imaging and histology of bone and gingiva (12 weeks after bevacizumab cessation) revealed the initial sequestration of the mandible with a marked expansion of the mucosal vascular network. Spontaneous bone sequestration eventually occurred few months later, followed by stable and painless mucosal coverage of the mandibular bone. The patient remained disease-free up to 3 years of follow-up.

  15. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stansfield, Fiona J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  16. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified.

  17. Reconstruction of mandible with free osteocutaneous flap using deep circumflex iliac vessels as the stem

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Tani, T.

    1981-05-01

    One of the 2 patients introduced here had osteoradionecrosis, which has been difficult to reconstruct. The other had a massive adamantinoma that required replacement of the mandible from the midportion of the right ramus to the left angle with the iliac bone using the conventional method. The grafted iliac bone was severely absorbed, however. The mandible in both cases was successfully reconstructed with an osteocutaneous compound flap, using the deep circumflex iliac vessels as the stem. This method is considered a very good procedure for reconstruction of the mandible, which has been difficult by conventional procedures. Because the diameter of the stem is large, vascular anastomosis can be readily performed with an extremely high degree of safety. Pulsation of the stem can be palpated on follow-up even one year after surgery, and there are no signs of bone reabsorption.

  18. Osteopetrosis Complicated by Osteomyelitis of the Maxilla and Mandible: Light and Electron Microscopic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Michel Campos; Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; Bonucci, Ermanno; Nanci, Antonio; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a case of osteopetrosis in a 25-year-old male, which was complicated by the development of osteomyelitis in the maxilla and mandible following traumatic injury and tooth extractions. The osteomyelitis in the mandible was refractory to marginal resection and antibiotic therapy. Partial resection with mandible reconstruction was then carried out. Light and backscattered electron scanning microscopy revealed sclerosis of spongy bone and variations in mineral density of the bone matrix. There was also a prominent periosteal bone formation in regions affected by osteomyelitis. An 18-month follow-up showed absence of active infections in the face and oral structures, with a focal area of bone exposure in the right parasymphysis. However, development of anemia and bone marrow deficiency will likely affect prognosis. The importance of preventive oral health care and dental/periodontal managements in osteopetrosis is emphasized. PMID:20596853

  19. Central cavernous hemangioma of mandible: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar; Jaiswara, Chandresh; Kumar, Naresh; Patne, Shashikant C. U.; Pandey, Arun; Verma, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas are one of the rarest lesion of jaw bones (0.5–1%) occurring most commonly in vertebral column, skull bone, and rarely in mandible. Mainly occurs in the second decade of life with female: male predilection (2:1). Origin of hemangiomas is still debatable. World Health Organization considers it as a true benign neoplasm of vascular origin, and many authors believe it to be a hamartoma. It is very difficult to diagnose due to variable clinical and radiological features. A biopsy is not done on a routine basis due to a higher risk of hemorrhage. Management is very difficult because of massive vascular network in that region. Here, we are presenting a case report of a 14-year-old boy with intraosseous hemangioma of right body of mandible, which was treated with en bloc surgical resection of mandible and followed by reconstruction. PMID:27390499

  20. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  1. [Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Dose constraint for salivary gland and mandible].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Lizée, T; Bensadoun, R-J; Boisselier, P; Racadot, S; Thariat, J; Graff, P

    2016-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the gold standard for head and neck irradiation. It allows better protection to the organs at risk such as salivary glands and mandible, and can reduce the frequency of xerostomia, trismus and osteoradionecrosis. At the time of treatment planning, the mean dose to a single parotid gland should be kept below 26Gy, the mean dose to a single submandibular gland below 39Gy, the mean dose to the mandible below 60 to 65Gy and the D2% to a single temporomandibular joint below 65Gy. These dose constraints could be further improved with data extracted from cohorts of patients receiving IMRT exclusively. The dose administered to the target volumes should not be lessened to spare the salivary glands or mandible.

  2. Placement technique for direct posterior composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, D S

    2001-04-01

    Due to improved materials, instrumentation, and placement techniques, composite resins have overcome the traditional complications associated with wear resistance, microleakage, sensitivity, and tight anatomical contacts. Composite resins have been utilized with increased frequency for direct posterior restorations capable of satisfying the growing aesthetic expectations of contemporary dental patients. When properly placed, posterior composites can provide successful and predictable restorations. This article presents clinical considerations for the aesthetic conservation of posterior restorations with composite resin materials.

  3. Papilliferous Keratoameloblastoma of the Mandible - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Konda, Paremala; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Makarla, Soumya; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-08-01

    Ameloblastomas are common odontogenic tumours that are benign and locally aggressive. Histopathologically, the tumor exhibits significant diversity with common and rare variants. Here, we report an unusual variant of a common odontogenic tumour in the mandibular posterior region on the right side in a 44-year old male patient. This is the sixth case of Papilliferous Keratoameloblastoma (PKA) to be reported in the English literature till date. More case reports are vital to determine the clinical, radiological, histopathological and behavioural aspects of this extremely rare histological type of ameloblastoma. This tumour awaits re-inclusion as a distinct entity in the future classifications of the WHO Classification of head and neck tumours upon further case accrual. PMID:27656576

  4. Papilliferous Keratoameloblastoma of the Mandible - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Makarla, Soumya; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are common odontogenic tumours that are benign and locally aggressive. Histopathologically, the tumor exhibits significant diversity with common and rare variants. Here, we report an unusual variant of a common odontogenic tumour in the mandibular posterior region on the right side in a 44-year old male patient. This is the sixth case of Papilliferous Keratoameloblastoma (PKA) to be reported in the English literature till date. More case reports are vital to determine the clinical, radiological, histopathological and behavioural aspects of this extremely rare histological type of ameloblastoma. This tumour awaits re-inclusion as a distinct entity in the future classifications of the WHO Classification of head and neck tumours upon further case accrual. PMID:27656576

  5. ESR and U-series analyses of enamel and dentine fragments of the Banyoles mandible.

    PubMed

    Grün, Rainer; Maroto, Julià; Eggins, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Robertson, Steve; Taylor, Lois; Mortimer, Graham; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2006-03-01

    The Banyoles mandible presents a puzzle. Its anatomy has been described as pre-Neandertal, but the travertine in which it was found has been dated to 45,000 +/- 4000 years. By this time, any pre-Neandertals had supposedly been absent from the European fossil record for more than 100,000 years. It was therefore proposed that the age of the travertine may represent a minimum age estimate, with the mandible possibly having been reworked from older deposits. We carried out a non-destructive ESR analysis of an enamel fragment removed from a molar and performed a series of in situ laser ablation U-series analyses on dentine fragments adjacent to the enamel piece. The analyses resulted in an apparent combined ESR-U-series age of 66,000 +/- 7000 years. The encasing travertine matrix was also analyzed for U-series isotopes and showed signs of U-mobilization. It cannot be excluded that the travertine matrix is older than the previously determined age. If the mandible was not reworked, then the combined ESR-U-series result on the tooth enamel would give its best age estimate. If, on the other hand, the mandible was reworked from another deposit, the actual ESR-U-series age will depend on the external dose rate from the previous matrix and the depth of its burial, which controls the degree of the attenuation of the cosmic dose rate over time. Considering a range of possible burial histories, the mean age of the mandible would lie somewhere between the combined ESR-U-series age and the previously determined age of the travertine matrix. Regarding the morphology of the mandible, a review of its features in the context of larger Neandertal samples indicates that the anatomy of the specimen is not incompatible with such a young age determination, although it further highlights morphological variation in the late Neandertal sample. PMID:16364406

  6. The geometry of the marmot (rodentia: sciuridae) mandible: phylogeny and patterns of morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea

    2003-04-01

    Marmots have a prominent role in the study of mammalian social evolution, but only recently has their systematics received the attention it deserves if sociobiological studies are to be placed in a phylogenetic context. Sciurid morphology can be used as model to test the congruence between morphological change and phylogeny because sciurid skeletal characters are considered to be inclined to convergence. However, no morphological study involving all marmot species has ever been undertaken. Geometric morphometric techniques were applied in a comparative study of the marmot mandible. The adults of all 14 living marmot species were compared, and mean mandible shape were used to investigate morphological evolution in the genus Marmota. Three major trends were observed. First, the phylogenetic signal in the variation of landmark geometry, which describes mandible morphology, seems to account for the shape differences at intermediate taxonomic levels. The subgenera Marmota and Petromarmota, recently proposed on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence, receive support from mandible morphology. When other sciurid genera were included in the analysis, the monophyly of the genus Marmota and that of the tribe Marmotini (i.e., marmots, prairie dogs, and ground squirrels) was strengthened by the morphological data. Second, the marmotine mandible may have evolved as a mosaic of characters and does not show convergence determined by size similarities. Third, allopatric speciation in peripheral isolates may have acted as a powerful force for modeling shape. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the peculiar mandible of M. vancouverensis and, to a lesser degree, by that of M. olympus, both thought to have originated as isolated populations in Pleistocene ice-free refugia.

  7. Peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Mubeen, Khan; Vijayalakshmi, Konaajji Ramachandra; Abhishek, Pati Ranjan

    2012-05-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon benign neoplasm composed of mature bone. Growth is slow and continuous and located principally in the cranio-maxillo-facial region, and can be central (endosteal) or peripheral (periosteal). Osteomas can be solitary or multiple masses, and they are generally asymptomatic. We discuss a case of ivory osteoma of the mandible in a 35-year-old female, which was present at the left body of the mandible since she was 10 years old, and was gradually increasing in size. The osteoma was removed surgically through an intraoral approach, and no recurrence was observed.

  8. Giant cystic primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of mandible: a rare case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Roshan Kumar; Sunku, Satheesh Kumar; Bal, Amanjeet; Panda, Naresh K

    2014-01-01

    Primary intra-osseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from jaw is an extremely rare condition accounting to less than 2% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In the jaw, it occurs more commonly in mandible than maxilla. They are low-grade cancers and affect jaw as uni- or multi-locular radiographic lesions. Here we discuss a rare case of giant cystic primary intra-cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible which was excised in toto. Here we discuss the clinical features, radiological and histological characteristics of this rare lesion, and review the literature.

  9. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: An unusual case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Mounabati; Banushree, CS; Nagarajan, K; Pati, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The term ossifying fibroma (OF) has recently been included under fibro-osseous lesions. Cemento-OF (COF) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the periodontal membrane which contains multipotential cells that are capable of forming cementum, lamellar bone and fibrous tissue. These tumors occur in the third and fourth decades of life with a predilection for women. The mandible is more commonly involved than the maxilla. This lesion has caused considerable controversy regarding the use of terminology, origin and diagnostic criteria. This article describes an unusual case of COF presenting as unilocular lytic lesion of mandible in a 38-year-old male patient with review of literature. PMID:26980975

  10. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kornafel, Olga; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Pakulski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

  11. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: An unusual case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Mounabati; Banushree, C S; Nagarajan, K; Pati, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The term ossifying fibroma (OF) has recently been included under fibro-osseous lesions. Cemento-OF (COF) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the periodontal membrane which contains multipotential cells that are capable of forming cementum, lamellar bone and fibrous tissue. These tumors occur in the third and fourth decades of life with a predilection for women. The mandible is more commonly involved than the maxilla. This lesion has caused considerable controversy regarding the use of terminology, origin and diagnostic criteria. This article describes an unusual case of COF presenting as unilocular lytic lesion of mandible in a 38-year-old male patient with review of literature. PMID:26980975

  12. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: An unusual case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Mounabati; Banushree, C S; Nagarajan, K; Pati, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The term ossifying fibroma (OF) has recently been included under fibro-osseous lesions. Cemento-OF (COF) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the periodontal membrane which contains multipotential cells that are capable of forming cementum, lamellar bone and fibrous tissue. These tumors occur in the third and fourth decades of life with a predilection for women. The mandible is more commonly involved than the maxilla. This lesion has caused considerable controversy regarding the use of terminology, origin and diagnostic criteria. This article describes an unusual case of COF presenting as unilocular lytic lesion of mandible in a 38-year-old male patient with review of literature.

  13. Mandibular fracture after endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a patient treatment report.

    PubMed

    Kan, J Y; Lozada, J L; Boyne, P J; Goodacre, C J; Rungcharassaeng, K

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a severely atrophic right posterior mandible had three endosseous implants placed in conjunction with transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve. Three weeks following implant placement surgery, the patient experienced a spontaneous fracture of the mandible involving the two anterior implants. The two implants were removed, and the fracture was treated with open reduction and fixation with titanium mesh. The fracture healed, and the posterior implant integrated. This report suggests that the buccolingual and superior-inferior position of the mandibular canal can increase the possibility of mandibular fracture by increasing the size of the buccal cortical plate that is removed to expose the nerve during surgery. PMID:9337027

  14. Reverse engineering of mandible and prosthetic framework: Effect of titanium implants in conjunction with titanium milled full arch bridge prostheses on the biomechanics of the mandible.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Roberto; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Varriale, Angelo; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Mollica, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-12-18

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of titanium implants and different configurations of full-arch prostheses on the biomechanics of edentulous mandibles. Reverse engineered, composite, anisotropic, edentulous mandibles made of a poly(methylmethacrylate) core and a glass fibre reinforced outer shell were rapid prototyped and instrumented with strain gauges. Brånemark implants RP platforms in conjunction with titanium Procera one-piece or two-piece bridges were used to simulate oral rehabilitations. A lateral load through the gonion regions was used to test the biomechanical effects of the rehabilitations. In addition, strains due to misfit of the one-piece titanium bridge were compared to those produced by one-piece cast gold bridges. Milled titanium bridges had a better fit than cast gold bridges. The stress distribution in mandibular bone rehabilitated with a one-piece bridge was more perturbed than that observed with a two-piece bridge. In particular the former induced a stress concentration and stress shielding in the molar and symphysis regions, while for the latter design these stresses were strongly reduced. In conclusion, prosthetic frameworks changed the biomechanics of the mandible as a result of both their design and manufacturing technology. PMID:25468297

  15. Reverse engineering of mandible and prosthetic framework: Effect of titanium implants in conjunction with titanium milled full arch bridge prostheses on the biomechanics of the mandible.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Roberto; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Varriale, Angelo; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Mollica, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-12-18

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of titanium implants and different configurations of full-arch prostheses on the biomechanics of edentulous mandibles. Reverse engineered, composite, anisotropic, edentulous mandibles made of a poly(methylmethacrylate) core and a glass fibre reinforced outer shell were rapid prototyped and instrumented with strain gauges. Brånemark implants RP platforms in conjunction with titanium Procera one-piece or two-piece bridges were used to simulate oral rehabilitations. A lateral load through the gonion regions was used to test the biomechanical effects of the rehabilitations. In addition, strains due to misfit of the one-piece titanium bridge were compared to those produced by one-piece cast gold bridges. Milled titanium bridges had a better fit than cast gold bridges. The stress distribution in mandibular bone rehabilitated with a one-piece bridge was more perturbed than that observed with a two-piece bridge. In particular the former induced a stress concentration and stress shielding in the molar and symphysis regions, while for the latter design these stresses were strongly reduced. In conclusion, prosthetic frameworks changed the biomechanics of the mandible as a result of both their design and manufacturing technology.

  16. Pseudoaneurysm of the Posterior Tibial Artery After Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Elabdi, Monsef; Roukhsi, Redouane; Tijani, Youssef; Chtata, Hassan; Jaafar, Abdeloihab

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery is an uncommon condition that, left untreated, can lead to hemorrhage, thrombosis, or emboli. We present the case of a 54-year-old male who developed pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery 4 months after undergoing tibialis posterior tendon transfer for management of peroneal nerve palsy, which had developed as a complication of hip arthroplasty. PMID:26972754

  17. Consistently inconsistent, the posterior vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee

    2016-03-01

    Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse.

  18. Postoperative rehabilitation of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Edson, Craig J; Fanelli, Gregory C; Beck, John D

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis and management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries has evolved, and now the treatment often includes surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to define the current approach to postsurgical management after the posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, review conservative management, and discuss surgical outcomes using a specified program.

  19. Neurolinguistic Aspects of Finnish Posterior Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi

    Examination of the lexical errors (phonological paraphasias and neologisms) of two posterior aphasic patients who are speakers of Finnish, a highly synthetic language, revealed that the lexical difficulties generally typical of posterior aphasics were found in these patients as well. The typical lexical difficulties clustered around open class…

  20. Does acid suppression by antacids and H2 receptor antagonists increase the incidence of atrophic gastritis in patients with or without H. pylori gastritis?

    PubMed

    Carter, M; Katz, D L; Haque, S; DeLuca, V A

    1999-09-01

    Currently there is controversial evidence that suggests that the accepted incidence of atrophic gastritis of 1.2 to 3.3% in patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis may be increased by the long-term suppression of acid by a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The purpose of this study is to show whether lesser forms of acid suppression by antacids or H2 receptor antagonists may have an influence on the development of atrophic gastritis. The authors recently reported a study in which a cohort of 36 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia were followed clinically for a period of 7 to 19 years. In that report all subjects underwent upper endoscopy with two biopsy specimens each from the antrum and fundus, on at least two occasions, 7 to 19 years apart. A diagnosis of atrophic gastritis was based on the interpretation of these biopsies by two gastrointestinal pathologists. The presence of H. pylori colonization was determined by tissue sampling and by a campylobacter-like organisms test of the antrum. Of the 36 patients in the authors' previous report, 33 had adequate baseline and follow-up data on medications consumed throughout the period of the study. In their current report they now present the findings of a retrospective review in which they correlate the presence of atrophic gastritis with the sole use of antacids and H2 receptor antagonists throughout the period of the study. In the cohort of 33 patients evaluated from the previous report, the authors found that atrophic gastritis had developed in all 28 patients positive for H. pylori, and in none of the 5 patients negative for H. pylori (p < 0.0001). A retrospective analysis of this previously studied cohort of 33 patients revealed that the use of antacids and H2 receptor antagonists did not predict the development of atrophic gastritis in either H. pylori-negative or -positive subjects. In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 33 patients followed for an average of 11.7 years, atrophic gastritis developed in

  1. Continence after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty.

    PubMed

    Langemeijer, R A; Molenaar, J C

    1991-05-01

    Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) was introduced in 1982 by Peña and De Vries as a new operation for patients with a high anorectal malformation. The degree of postoperative continence is reported to be high. During the past decade, too, new insights have been gained into the embryology of anorectal malformations. Evaluation of PSARP in relation to current understanding of the development and anatomy of the anorectum and the pelvic floor has led us to conclude that optimal continence cannot be expected. Fifty patients with a high anorectal malformation underwent PSARP between June 1983 and May 1990. Postoperative follow-up consisted of anamnesis (subjective) and electrostimulation, defecography, and anorectal manometry (objective). All patients are alive, and all but one are being evaluated regularly. Subjectively, the majority of patients were more or less incontinent, with soiling of pants at least once a day. On the basis of objective criteria, virtually all patients appeared to be incontinent, and in only one patient was the mechanism of defecation almost unimpaired after PSARP. From this study, we conclude that although PSARP provides a good aesthetic result, patients will never acquire normal continence.

  2. Postoperative posterior spinal wound infections.

    PubMed

    Massie, J B; Heller, J G; Abitbol, J J; McPherson, D; Garfin, S R

    1992-11-01

    The incidence of postoperative spinal infections increases with the complexity of the procedure. Diskectomy is associated with less than a 1% risk of infection; spinal fusion without instrumentation is associated with a 1%-5% risk; and fusion with instrumentation may be associated with a risk of 6% or more. Twenty-two postoperative posterior spinal infections that occurred during a three-year period were reviewed for this report. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism cultured (more than 50% of the cases). Other recurring organisms were Staphylococcus epidermis, Peptococcus, Enterobacter cloacae, and Bacteroides. Many patients had multiple organisms. Risk factors appeared to include advanced age, prolonged hospital bed rest, obesity, diabetes, immunosuppression, and infection at remote sites. Operative factors included prolonged surgery (greater than five hours), high volume of personnel moving through the operating room, and instrumentation. Postoperative contamination may occur and may be related to prolonged postoperative bed rest, skin maceration (thoracolumbosacral orthoses), and drainage tubes exiting distally from lumbar wounds (toward the rectum). Effective treatment includes early diagnosis, surgical debridement and irrigation, and parenteral antibiotics. Superficial infections were treated successfully with wound closure over outflow tubes, and deep infections with inflow-outflow systems. Maintaining the instrumentation in place was possible in most cases. Parenteral antibiotics were maintained for six weeks in every case. PMID:1395319

  3. The influence of simvastatin in rats mandible and femur bone mass under Freund's adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Seferos, Nikos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Kotsiou, Antonia; Rallis, Georgios; Tesseromatis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats has been used widely as a model of rodent arthropathy and polyarthritis followed by osteoporosis, decreased bone formation and increased bone formation. Osteoporosis is characterized by rapid reduce of bone mass affecting more than 100 million people worldwide. Periodontitis a chronic inflammatory, of multifactorian origin disease has been associated with general osteoporosis. Protective bone-specific anabolic and antiresorptive effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have also been evaluated in normal and osteoporotic bone. AIM. The aim of the study was to investigate mandible and femur bone density in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis rats under the influence of simvastatin. METHODS. Three groups (A, B, C) of 7 Wistar male rats each aged 3 months, (292±48.38 g) were used. A control. Group B and C subjected experimental arthritis via complete Freund's adjuvant injected in right paw. Group C was treated with simvastatin 0.5 mg/kg/daily po 14 days. Femur, mandible were isolated and sizes parameters, biochemical serum findings and BMD were estimated. RESULTS. CFA established by paw diameter, adrenals and spleen weight increase and thymus weight decrease, while biochemical serum findings were also affected. Reduced femur, mandible weight and general bone mass parameters BMD evaluated via DEXA occurred and restored under simvastatin treatment. CONCLUSIONS. CFA induced mandible and femur injuries are repaired by ssimvatatin treatment that could be therapeutically useful.

  4. Fracture of mandible during yawning in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Ram, Hari; Shadab, Mohammad; Vardaan, Ajay; Aga, Pallavi

    2014-08-07

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder characterised by fragility and multiple fractures of bones. Clinical signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of disease. Fractures of facial bones are rare compared with load-bearing long bones. We report a case of fracture of the mandible during yawning which was managed by open reduction and internal fixation.

  5. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea).

    PubMed

    Ashelby, Christopher W; De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  6. Two dentigerous cysts in the mandible of one patient. Case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, G

    1996-10-01

    This paper reports a case of two separate dentigerous cysts in the mandible of one patient. An unusual feature was the relationship of one of the cysts to an unerupted lateral incisor. The prudence of accounting for any missing teeth in patients and the value of panoramic radiographic screening is illustrated.

  7. Predicting compliance for mandible advancement splint therapy in 96 obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Tuula; Arte, Sirpa; Bachour, Adel; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of choice in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Mandible advancement splint (MAS) offers an option for patients with mild or moderate OSA, who refuse or are unable to tolerate CPAP. The aim of the study was to find predictive factors in OSA for MAS therapy. The study group comprised 96 consecutive OSA patients who were sent for MAS therapy during 2008. Data were collected on the patients' general and dental condition, diagnosis, and treatment for OSA. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were analysed. The treatment compliance rate and problems with the use of the MAS were recorded. This rate was 57% and the significant affecting factors were protrusion of the mandible with MAS during the adaptation to the appliance as well as shorter maxillary and mandible lengths. The compliance of the MAS therapy was best in patients with short maxilla and mandible, which should be taken into consideration when planning MAS therapy for OSA patients. Finally, a sleep study should be part of the follow-up in this patient population. PMID:23159421

  8. Modularity as a source of new morphological variation in the mandible of hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybridization is often seen as a process dampening phenotypic differences accumulated between diverging evolutionary units. For a complex trait comprising several relatively independent modules, hybridization may however simply generate new phenotypes, by combining into a new mosaic modules inherited from each parental groups and parts intermediate with respect to the parental groups. We tested this hypothesis by studying mandible size and shape in a set of first and second generation hybrids resulting from inbred wild-derived laboratory strains documenting two subspecies of house mice, Musmusculus domesticus and Musmusculus musculus. Phenotypic variation of the mandible was divided into nested partitions of developmental, evolutionary and functional modules. Results The size and shape of the modules were differently influenced by hybridization. Some modules seemed to be the result of typical additive effects with hybrids intermediate between parents, some displayed a pattern expected in the case of monogenic dominance, whereas in other modules, hybrids were transgressive. The result is interpreted as the production of novel mandible morphologies. Beyond this modularity, modules in functional interaction tended to display significant covariations. Conclusions Modularity emerges as a source of novel morphological variation by its simple potential to combine different parts of the parental phenotypes into a novel offspring mosaic of modules. This effect is partly counterbalanced by bone remodeling insuring an integration of the mosaic mandible into a functional ensemble, adding a non-genetic component to the production of transgressive phenotypes in hybrids. PMID:22873779

  9. Cineradiographic Examination of Articulatory Movement of Pseudo-Tongue, Hyoid, and Mandible in Congenital Aglossia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty; Vento-Wilson, Margaret; Von Berg, Shelley; Rogers, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This research examined cineradiographic films (CRF) of articulatory movements in a person with congenital aglossia (PWCA) during speech production of four phrases. Pearson correlations and a multiple regression model investigated co-variation of independent variables, positions of mandible and hyoid; and pseudo-tongue-dependent variables,…

  10. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  11. Mesodermal Tbx1 is required for patterning the proximal mandible in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Carpenter, Courtney; Freyer, Laina; Liao, Jun; Petti, Marilena; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2010-01-01

    Defects in the lower jaw, or mandible, occur commonly either as isolated malformations or in association with genetic syndromes. Understanding its formation and genetic pathways required for shaping its structure in mammalian model organisms will shed light into the pathogenesis of malformations in humans. The lower jaw is derived from the mandibular process of the first pharyngeal arch (MdPA1) during embryogenesis. Integral to the development of the mandible, is the signaling interplay between Fgf8 and Bmp4 in the rostral ectoderm and their downstream effector genes in the underlying neural crest derived mesenchyme. The non-neural crest MdPA1 core mesoderm is needed to form muscles of mastication, but its role in patterning the mandible is unknown. Here, we show that mesoderm specific deletion of Tbx1, a T- box transcription factor and gene for velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, results in defects in formation of the proximal mandible by shifting expression of Fgf8, Bmp4 and their downstream effector genes in mouse embryos at E10.5. This occurs without significant changes in cell proliferation or apoptosis at the same stage. Our results elucidate a new function for the non-neural crest core mesoderm and specifically, mesodermal Tbx1, in shaping the lower jaw. PMID:20501333

  12. An analysis of secular change in the human mandible over the last century.

    PubMed

    Martin, D C; Danforth, Marie Elaine

    2009-01-01

    In light of several recent investigations that have identified notable secular change in cranial size and morphology over the last century, the present study addresses its possible effects in the mandible in U.S. populations. Standard measurements of 407 mandibles from the Terry (Smithsonian) and Hamann-Todd (Cleveland Museum of Natural History) Collections, which are primarily composed of individuals living in the early 20th century, were compared with those of 595 mandibles from the Forensic Anthropology Database (Tennessee), which is primarily composed of individuals living from the later part of the century. The t-tests between the two temporally-different samples by sex and race showed statistically significant decreases in mandibular body width and bigonial breadth as well as significant increases in mandibular body length in nearly all subgroups. White males showed the greatest amount of change, and Black females, the least. Overall, these findings support the conclusion that the mandible is transforming into a longer, narrower, more gracile bone, paralleling many of the morphological shifts seen in the cranium. Factors involved likely include changes in diet, medical care, and dental practices. PMID:19603489

  13. Does 3D Phenotyping Yield Substantial Insights in the Genetics of the Mouse Mandible Shape?

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Nicolas; Maga, A. Murat

    2016-01-01

    We describe the application of high-resolution 3D microcomputed tomography, together with 3D landmarks and geometric morphometrics, to validate and further improve previous quantitative genetic studies that reported QTL responsible for variation in the mandible shape of laboratory mice using a new backcross between C57BL/6J and A/J inbred strains. Despite the increasing availability of 3D imaging techniques, artificial flattening of the mandible by 2D imaging techniques seems at first an acceptable compromise for large-scale phenotyping protocols, thanks to an abundance of low-cost digital imaging systems such as microscopes or digital cameras. We evaluated the gain of information from considering explicitly this additional third dimension, and also from capturing variation on the bone surface where no precise anatomical landmark can be marked. Multivariate QTL mapping conducted with different landmark configurations (2D vs. 3D; manual vs. semilandmarks) broadly agreed with the findings of previous studies. Significantly more QTL (23) were identified and more precisely mapped when the mandible shape was captured with a large set of semilandmarks coupled with manual landmarks. It appears that finer phenotypic characterization of the mandibular shape with 3D landmarks, along with higher density genotyping, yields better insights into the genetic architecture of mandibular development. Most of the main variation is, nonetheless, preferentially embedded in the natural 2D plane of the hemi-mandible, reinforcing the results of earlier influential investigations. PMID:26921296

  14. Ovariectomy Stimulates and Bisphosphonates Inhibit Intracortical Remodeling in the Mouse Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Allen, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is thought to be linked to suppression of intracortical remodeling. Aim of this study was to determine whether mice, which normally do not undergo appreciable amounts of intracortical remodeling, could be stimulated by ovariectomy to remodel within the cortex of the mandible and if bisphosphonates (BPs) would suppress this intracortical remodeling. Material and Methods Skeletally mature female C3H mice were either ovariectomized (OVX) or SHAM operated and treated with two intravenous doses of zoledronic acid (ZOL, 0.06 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (VEH). This ZOL dose corresponds to the dose given to cancer patients on a mg/kg basis, adjusted for body weight. Calcein was administered prior to sacrifice to label active formation sites. Dynamic histomorphometry of the mandible and femur were performed. Results Vehicle-treated OVX animals had significantly higher (8-fold) intracortical remodeling of the alveolar portion of the mandible compared to sham – this was significantly suppressed by ZOL treatment. At all skeletal sites, overall bone formation rate (BFR) was lower with ZOL treatment compared to the corresponding VEH group. Conclusions Under normal conditions the level of intracortical remodeling in the mouse mandible is minimal but in C3H mice can be stimulated to appreciable levels with ovariectomy. Based on this, if the suppression of intracortical remodeling is found to be part of the pathophysiology of ONJ, the ovariectomized C3H mouse could serve as a useful tool for studying this condition. PMID:21040464

  15. Radiological trace of mandibular primary growth center in postnatal human mandibles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Sang Shin; Park, Byoung Geol; Woo, Sang Doo; Kim, Eun Cheol; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun; Chi, Je Geun

    2006-12-01

    The mandibular primary growth center (MdPGC) of human fetus was conspicuously defined in the soft X-ray view of fetal mandibles. As the peripheral adaptive growth of mandible advances during the postnatal period, the MdPGC image became overshadowed by condensed cortical bones in soft X-ray view. In this study, we traced a sclerotic sequela of MdPGC during the postnatal period. Panoramic radiograms of 200 adults and soft X-ray views of 30 dried adult mandibles were analyzed by statistical methods. The former clearly showed an MdPGC below the middle portion of apices of canine and first premolar, which was distinguishable from mental foramen, and the latter also showed the MdPGC at the same area as a radiating and condensed radiopaque image, measuring 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter. This MdPGC position was seldom changed in the elderly people, even in the edentulous mandibles. Additionally, in the radiological examination, the benign tumors including odontogenic cysts hardly involved the MdPGC, while the malignant tumors of both primary and metastatic cancer frequently destroyed the MdPGC.

  16. Predicting compliance for mandible advancement splint therapy in 96 obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Tuula; Arte, Sirpa; Bachour, Adel; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of choice in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Mandible advancement splint (MAS) offers an option for patients with mild or moderate OSA, who refuse or are unable to tolerate CPAP. The aim of the study was to find predictive factors in OSA for MAS therapy. The study group comprised 96 consecutive OSA patients who were sent for MAS therapy during 2008. Data were collected on the patients' general and dental condition, diagnosis, and treatment for OSA. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were analysed. The treatment compliance rate and problems with the use of the MAS were recorded. This rate was 57% and the significant affecting factors were protrusion of the mandible with MAS during the adaptation to the appliance as well as shorter maxillary and mandible lengths. The compliance of the MAS therapy was best in patients with short maxilla and mandible, which should be taken into consideration when planning MAS therapy for OSA patients. Finally, a sleep study should be part of the follow-up in this patient population.

  17. Ant mandibles as staples in the era of Greek patriot Ioannis Makriyannis (1797-1864).

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Papakiritsis, Matthaios; Karamanou, Marianna; Ntziora, Foteini; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    The use of ant mandibles as surgical clips was documented by the ancient Indian physicians Susruta and Charaka as early as 1000 BC and continued in some world areas into the early 1900s. According to the memoirs of the Greek revolutionary general Ioannis Makriyannis, this technique was also applied in the battlefields of the Greek Revolution for Independence between 1821 and 1832.

  18. Effect of mouthguards on head responses and mandible forces in football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The potential for mouthguards to change the risk of concussion was studied in football helmet impacts. The Hybrid III head was modified with an articulating mandible, dentition, and compliant temporomandibular joints (TMJ). It was instrumented for triaxial head acceleration and triaxial force at the TMJs and upper dentition. Mandible force and displacement were validated against cadaver impacts to the chin. In phase 1, one of five mouthguards significantly lowered HIC in 6.7 m/s impacts (p = 0.025) from the no mouthguard condition but not in 9.5 m/s tests. In phase 2, eight mouthguards increased HIC from +1 to +17% in facemask impacts that loaded the chinstraps and mandible; one was statistically higher (p = 0.018). Peak head acceleration was +1 to +15% higher with six mouthguards and 2-3% lower with two others. The differences were not statistically significant. Five of eight mouthguards significantly reduced forces on the upper dentition by 40.8-63.9%. Mouthguards tested in this study with the Hybrid III articulating mandible lowered forces on the dentition and TMJ, but generally did not influence HIC or concussion risks.

  19. Phylogenetic and environmental components of morphological variation: skull, mandible, and molar shape in marmots (Marmota, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Caumul, Radhekshmi; Polly, P David

    2005-11-01

    The phenotype is a product of its phylogenetic history and its recent adaptation to local environments, but the relative importance of the two factors is controversial. We assessed the effects of diet, habitat, elevation, temperature, precipitation, body size, and mtDNA genetic divergence on shape variation in skulls, mandibles, and molars, structures that differ in their genetic and functional control. We asked whether these structures have adapted to environment to the same extent and whether they retain the same amount of phylogenetic signal. We studied these traits in intra- and interspecific populations of Eurasian marmots whose last common ancestor lived 2-5 million years ago. Path Analysis revealed that body size explained 10% of variation in skulls, 7% in mandibles, and 15% in molars. Local vegetation explained 7% of variation in skulls, 11% in mandibles, and 12% in molars. Dietary category explained 25% of variation in skulls, 11% in mandibles, and 9% in molars. Cyt b mtDNA divergence (phylogeny) explained 15% of variation in skulls, 7% in mandibles, and 5% in molars. Despite the percentages of phylogenetic variance, maximum-likelihood trees based on molar and skull shape recovered most phylogenetic groupings correctly, but mandible shape did not. The good performance of molars and skulls was probably due to different factors. Skulls are genetically and functionally more complicated than teeth, and they had more mathematically independent components of variation (5-6-in skulls compared to 3-in molars). The high proportion of diet-related variance was not enough to mask the phylogenetic signal. Molars had fewer independent components, but they also have less ecophenotypic variation and evolve more slowly, giving each component a proportionally stronger phylogenetic signal. Molars require larger samples for each operational taxonomic unit than the other structures because the proportion of within-taxon to between-taxon variation was higher. Good phylogenetic

  20. Work flow for the prosthetic rehabilitation of atrophic patients with a minimal-intervention CAD/CAM approach.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Ragazzini, Sara; Fantini, Massimiliano; Corinaldesi, Giuseppe; Scotti, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    The implant-supported fixed rehabilitation of patients with an atrophic edentulous crest remains a challenge if bone augmentation is not planned. A minimal intervention approach for bone regeneration is necessary to minimize the flap overextension needed to close the defect over the augmented bone. Prosthetically guided bone regeneration can determine the amount of bone augmentation necessary for definitive prosthetic fixed rehabilitation. The positions of the implants and prosthetic restoration were planned; a 0.3 mm thick titanium mesh was customized for bone augmentation by using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing and rapid prototyped by laser sintering, and the definitive prosthetic rehabilitation was carried out according to the initial treatment plan. This resulted in minimal bone augmentation relative to the functional needs of the definitive prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:25862269

  1. Decreased pool of mesenchymal stem cells is associated with altered chemokines serum levels in atrophic nonunion fractures.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Myrielle; Rigutto, Sabrina; Ingels, Aude; Spruyt, Delphine; Stricwant, Nadia; Kharroubi, Ilham; Albarani, Valentina; Jayankura, Marc; Rasschaert, Joanne; Bastianelli, Enrico; Gangji, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    Nonunion fractures can cause severe dysfunction and are often difficult to treat mainly due to a poor understanding of their physiopathology. Although many aspects of impaired fracture healing have been extensively studied, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to atrophic nonunion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the pools and biological functions of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in atrophic nonunion patients compared to healthy subjects, and the systemic levels of growth factors involved in the recruitment, proliferation and differentiation of these cells. In nonunions, the pool of hMSCs was decreased and their proliferation delayed. However, once committed, hMSCs from nonunions were able to proliferate, differentiate into osteoblastic cells and mineralize in vitro as efficiently as hMSCs from healthy subjects. In parallel, we found altered serum levels of chemokines and growth factors involved in the chemotaxis and proliferation of hMSCs such as leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), stem cell factor (SCF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Moreover, we showed that the number of EPCs and their regulating growth factors were not affected in nonunion patients. If nonunion is generally attributed to a vascular defect, our results also support a role for a systemic mesenchymal and osteogenic cell pool defect that might be related to alterations in systemic levels of factors implicated in their chemotaxis and proliferation. PMID:23318974

  2. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  3. Vitamin C supplementation in relation to inflammation in individuals with atrophic gastritis: a randomised controlled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Shunji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-03-28

    Evidence has shown that both C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid component A (SAA) are increased in individuals with gastritis and stomach cancer. Controlling the level of these biomarkers by inhibiting the gastric infection with high doses of ascorbic acid may reduce the risk of carcinogenesis. A population-based double-blind randomised controlled trial in a Japanese population with atrophic gastritis in an area of high stomach cancer incidence was conducted between 1995 and 2000. Daily doses of 50 or 500 mg vitamin C were given, and 120 and 124 participants completed the 5-year study, respectively. Although serum ascorbic acid was higher in the high-dosage group (1.73 (SD 0.46) μg/l) than in the low-dosage group (1.49 (SD 0.29) μg/l, P< 0.001), at the end of the study, no significant difference was observed for CRP between the low- and high-dosage groups (0.39 (95 % CI 0.04, 4.19) mg/l and 0.38 (95 % CI 0.03, 4.31) mg/l, respectively; P= 0.63) or for SAA between the low- and high-dosage groups (3.94 (95 % CI 1.04, 14.84) μg/ml and 3.85 (95 % CI 0.99, 14.92) μg/ml, respectively; P= 0.61). Vitamin C supplementation may not have a strong effect on reducing infections in individuals with atrophic gastritis.

  4. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques.

  5. Bone micro-architectural analysis of mandible and tibia in ovariectomised rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Li, W.; Liu, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate if micro-CT can work as a method for the 3D assessment and analysis of cancellous bone by comparing micro-CT with undecalcified histological sections in OVX rats. Methods The mandible and tibia of sham, ovariectomised (OVX) and zoledronate-injected ovariectomised (OVX-ZOL) rats were assessed morphometrically. Specimens were scanned by micro-CT. Undecalcified histological sections were manufactured from the specimen scanned by micro-CT and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Bivariate linear regressions and one-way analysis of variance were undertaken for statistics using SPSS 16.0.1 software. Results There were highly significant correlations between undecalcified histological sections and micro-CT for all parameters (bone volume density (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp))in the mandible and tibia. Bone histomorphometric parameters analysed by both methods exhibited significant differences among sham, OVX, and OVX-ZOL groups. There were significant correlations between mandible and tibia in BV/TV, BS/BV, and Tb.Sp. Conclusions Micro-CT is a complementary tool to histological sections in basic research that could improve our understanding of bone histomorphometry. The mandible can be used as an effective site to assess bone morphometry of OVX or metabolic bone disease rat models. Cite this article: H. Liu, W. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. S. Zhou. Bone micro-architectural analysis of mandible and tibia in ovariectomised rats: A quantitative structural comparison between undecalcified histological sections and micro-CT. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:253–262. PMID:27354715

  6. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling. PMID:26933279

  7. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

    PubMed

    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  8. Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

  9. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. PMID:25590398

  11. [Pathogenesis of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakia].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2009-01-01

    The lens epithelial cells of A and E type are involved in pathogenesis of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). They undergo metaplasia into microfibroblasts, then migrate towards posterior capsule where they proliferate and form opacification. These processes are stimulated by cytokines and interleukines. The extracellular matrix which constitutes a scaffold for migration and attachment of epithelial cells plays an important role in PCO formation. Integrines intercede in this process.

  12. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  13. Vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung

    2013-07-01

    Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.

  14. Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.

  15. Experiment K-310: The effect of spaceflight on osteogenesis and dentinogenesis in the mandibles of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Russell, J. E.; Winter, F.; Rosenberg, G. D.; Walker, W. V.

    1981-01-01

    Normal rates of dentinogenesis and osteogenesis in the body of the mandible were observed. The total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and hydroxyproline levels in the jaws and incisors of the flight rats were normal. Gravity density fractionation studies suggested, however, that spaceflight caused a delay in the normal maturation of bone mineral and matrix; normal values were reestablished by 6 days postflight. The teeth were spared. The circadian and ultradian patterns of dentin calcification were normal during spaceflight and recovery periods, but the enamel rhythms displayed a greater amplitude of sulfur concentrations and this abnormal calcium to sulfur ratios only during exposure to zero gravity. The rat mandible and teeth do not suffer the deficits of bone formation common to weight bearing parts of the skeleton during spaceflight. The only derangements detected were in the quality of the matrix and mineral moieties.

  16. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases. PMID:19288073

  17. Chondroblastic Variant of Osteosarcoma of Mandible: Report of a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kusuma; Priyanka, Tushar; Rukmini, Niveditha Shankaran; Bisanna, Jagannath

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), a common malignant tumour of the long bones, is rarely seen in the craniofacial region (5-8%). Though it's aetiology is unknown, previous radiotherapy, Pagets disease, Retinoblastoma and benign bone lesions such as fibrous dysplasia are considered as predisposing factors. It is seen commonly in adults between the third and fourth decades of life, in the Gnathic location mandible. We report a rare case of chondroblastic variant of OS of the right mandible, in a 35-year-old male, who underwent right segmental mandibulectomy with fibular graft reconstruction and is having disease free survival one and half years post surgery. Craniofacial OSs, are considered a separate category in view of their low histologic grade, less frequent metastases and better prognosis. Hence the diagnosis of this variant is important. This case is reported because of its rarity and typical histopathological features.

  18. Validating of the pre-clinical mouse model for metastatic breast cancer to the mandible.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Sun; Han, Sang-Sun; Kim, Ki-Rim; Ye-Jin, Lee; Sun-Kyung, Lee; Kwang-Kyun, Park; Won-Yoon, Chung

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma has a great tendency to spread to the mandible. It is concomitantly associated with bone destruction, food intake disorder, and a poorer prognosis. Appropriate animal models need to be developed for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process of breast cancer cells to mandible and to test the effects of potential lead compounds. Here, we assessed the metastasis model of intracardiac injection using luciferase-transfected metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231Luc+) by determining the incidences of metastasis, mCT images, and histopathological results. A high bioluminescence signal mainly detected mandibular lesions with less frequent distal femora and proximal tibiae lesions. Extensive mandibular bone destruction occurred in nude mice grafted with metastatic breast cancer cells. This type of animal model might be a useful tool in assessing therapeutic implications and the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs for osteolytic cancers.

  19. An X-ray analytical study of mandibles from calanus pacificus, an herbivorous copepod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. C.; Grime, G. W.; Watt, F.

    1988-03-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) coupled to the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) has been used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mandibles from the marine copepod calanus pacificus. X-ray spectra, elemental maps and point analytical data were collected. The mandible cutting edge is heavily silicified and has associated with it low levels of zinc. Chlorine, bromine and iodine are found in the lower half of the teeth and in the gum region. The mandibular blade is chitinous and low levels of phosphorous, sulphur, calcium, iron and copper are present throughout. The incorporation of zinc and halogens into the cutting edge is discussed in relation to feeding habit.

  20. Peripheral osteoma bilateral of the mandible without association with Gardner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Karis Barbosa; Cavalcante, Josuel Raimundo; Ferraro-Bezerra, Marcelo; Silva, Daniela Nascimento; de Holanda Vasconcellos, Ricardo José; do Egito Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti

    2012-03-01

    Periosteal osteoma is a rare benign pathologic lesion in the jaws and the mandible is the anatomic region most frequently involved. Elective treatment consists of surgical excision. The aim of this report was to report a rare case of bilateral periosteal osteoma involving the mandible--a painless, firm, and well-circumscribed lesion, with more bony prominence on the left than on the right side. The patient had no history of facial trauma or systemic changes that could intervene with the progression of the lesion. It was diagnosed as a periosteal osteoma, and surgical excision was performed. No recurrence after 4 years of follow-up was demonstrated. Surgical excision of the periosteal osteoma was demonstrated to be a useful technical strategy that simplifies and accelerates the surgical procedures and probably contributes to establish harmony of the jaws. Periodical clinical and radiographic follow-ups after surgery are advised.

  1. Chondroblastic Variant of Osteosarcoma of Mandible: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Kusuma; Rukmini, Niveditha Shankaran; Bisanna, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), a common malignant tumour of the long bones, is rarely seen in the craniofacial region (5-8%). Though it’s aetiology is unknown, previous radiotherapy, Pagets disease, Retinoblastoma and benign bone lesions such as fibrous dysplasia are considered as predisposing factors. It is seen commonly in adults between the third and fourth decades of life, in the Gnathic location mandible. We report a rare case of chondroblastic variant of OS of the right mandible, in a 35-year-old male, who underwent right segmental mandibulectomy with fibular graft reconstruction and is having disease free survival one and half years post surgery. Craniofacial OSs, are considered a separate category in view of their low histologic grade, less frequent metastases and better prognosis. Hence the diagnosis of this variant is important. This case is reported because of its rarity and typical histopathological features. PMID:27656455

  2. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  3. Functional results of dental restoration with osseointegrated implants after mandible reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gürlek, A; Miller, M J; Jacob, R F; Lively, J A; Schusterman, M A

    1998-03-01

    We reviewed the cases of 20 cancer patients (mean age 47.4 years) in whom osseointegrated implants were used for dental restoration after mandibular reconstruction between January of 1988 and December of 1994. Seventy-one implants were placed into bone flaps (n = 60) or native mandible (n = 11), an average of 3.55 per patient (range, 2 to 5). Successful integration occurred in 91.5 percent (65 of 71); there were five early failures and one late failure, with no significant difference between the number lost in microvascular flaps (5 of 60) and native mandible (1 of 11) (as determined by Fisher's exact test). Functional evaluation included assessments of diet, speech, and cosmesis. Based on our review, we concluded that (1) implants enhance dental restoration in selected patients, and (2) microvascular bone flaps, including the fibula and iliac crest, are well suited for dental implant restoration.

  4. Metastatic clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma of the mandible: Review and case report.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajaz; Jahan, Shahi; Najar, Latief; Hassan, Shahid; Mohammad, Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the mandible is reported. A 22-year-old man consulted us for hypoesthesia of the right lower lip. Panorama X-ray film showed a radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular body. A diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the mandible from the right kidney was made after evaluation by computed tomography and bone scan with Tc99 methyl diphosphonate which also revealed multiple bone metastases. Histologically diagnosis was clear cell variant of RCC. Patient has been put on radiotherapy for symptomatic treatment and a molecularly targeted drug. The therapy effectively stopped the progressive growth of oral and other metastatic lesions. The quality of life is relatively well maintained with tolerable adverse effects. The patient is still on our follow-up with an improved quality of life. PMID:27563625

  5. [Dynamic magnetotherapy use in comprehensive treatment phlegmons of maxillofacial region and mandible fractures].

    PubMed

    Lepilin, A V; Raĭgorodckiĭ, Iu M; Nozdrachev, V G; Erokina, N L

    2007-01-01

    145 patients (60 with phlegmons of submandibular and submental regions, 85--with fractures of mandible) were observed and treated with the use of moving pulse magnetic field (MPMF) produced by special apparatus (AMO-ATOS-E, , Saratov-city), 60 patients with the same pathology were treated by traditional physical methods and served as control. Use of MPMF led to quicker patient recovery: quicker reduction (if compared with traditional physical methods of treatment) of oedema and soft tissue inflammatory infiltration, quicker relief from inflammatory reaction (according to data of cytokinin profile), improvement of tissue blood supply in the region of fractures in patients with mandible fractures. As the result--we had shortening treatment terms of such patients and complication number reduction. PMID:18163065

  6. The effect of a blast on the mandible and teeth: transverse fractures and their management.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2008-10-01

    Transverse mandibular fractures caused by blast waves have given us a better understanding of the physical and pathophysiological effects on this anatomical region. The external contour of the mandible, being rounded in parts (en face) and flat in others (lateral) will experience different effects of the blast. Impact of a spherical blast wave will inflict transverse lines of fractures on the mandibular body, and may be associated with transverse shearing of teeth at the cementoenamel junction. Fractures of the mandible caused by blast are different from those in the same region caused by any type of civilian trauma; these are the vertical to the longitudinal axis unlike comminuted fractures caused by shrapnel or bullet injuries. Fractures of the mandibular body by blasts are single or multiple parallel fractures in the lower border, between the apices of the roots and the mandibular lower border. Fractures are broken off by acceleration or deceleration of the blast wave. PMID:18440677

  7. Concomitant occurrence of cemento-ossifying fibroma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with bilateral impacted permanent canines in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Bavle, Radhika M

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon, benign and slow growing odontogenic tumor, which is usually located in an anterior region of the maxilla without pain. Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a relatively rare benign tumor of the jaw. Here we present 2 lesions presenting in unusual forms, follicular variant of AOT in the mandible and COF associated with impacted canine in the mandible, occurring concomitantly in the same patient. Both lesions presented classic histopathologic features.

  8. Avoiding injury to the inferior alveolar nerve by routine use of intraoperative radiographs during implant placement.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Jeffrey; Mastin, Chris; Le, Bach

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during implant placement in the posterior atrophic mandible is a rare but serious complication. Although a preoperative computerized tomography scan can help determine the distance from the alveolar ridge to the nerve canal, variables such as magnification errors, ridge anatomy, and operator technique can increase the chance for complications. The routine use of intraoperative periapical radiographs during the drilling sequence is an inexpensive and reliable tool, allowing the operator to confidently adjust the direction and depth of the implant during placement. Most important, it helps avoid the risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in cases in which there is limited vertical alveolar bone. Using this technique for 21 implants placed in the posterior atrophic mandible, with less than 10 mm of vertical bone to the inferior alveolar nerve canal, the authors observed no incidents of postoperative paresthesia. PMID:18390241

  9. De novo myeloid sarcoma involving mandible in a child: Report of a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Indranil; Chatterjee, Uttara; Majumdar, Boby

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant disease defined as extramedullary infiltration of immature myeloid cells. We reporte a 2-year-old male of isolated MS who presented with swelling over the left side of the body of the mandible. Proper histological examination and adequate panels of immunohistochemical stain led to the accurate diagnosis. Early intervention with systemic chemotherapy regimens based on cytarabine is the treatment of choice. The role of chromosomal aberrations and genetic abnormality related to prognosis remain uncertain.

  10. Primary Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of the Mandible Mimicking a Parotid Gland Abscess.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Deepak; Shah, Pankil; Pillai, Jeena

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis has become a rare disease in the developed countries but it is still a serious problem in the developing countries. Incidence of tuberculous osteomyelitis of the jaw bones is very low. This rare incidence is the primary reason that the lesion gets misdiagnosed many times. Here we report the diagnosis, treatment and follow up of a case which is not a classical presentation of tuberculous osteomyelitis of mandible. Early diagnosis of tuberculous osteomyelitis will certainly reduce the morbidity of this disease condition.

  11. De novo myeloid sarcoma involving mandible in a child: Report of a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Indranil; Chatterjee, Uttara; Majumdar, Boby

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant disease defined as extramedullary infiltration of immature myeloid cells. We reporte a 2-year-old male of isolated MS who presented with swelling over the left side of the body of the mandible. Proper histological examination and adequate panels of immunohistochemical stain led to the accurate diagnosis. Early intervention with systemic chemotherapy regimens based on cytarabine is the treatment of choice. The role of chromosomal aberrations and genetic abnormality related to prognosis remain uncertain.

  12. Large complex odontoma of mandible in a young boy: a rare and unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Siva Prasad; Reddy, G V; Sidhartha, B; Sriharsha, K; Koshy, John; Sultana, Rehana

    2014-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumors. They are broadly classified in to Compound Odontoma and Complex Odontoma. Among them complex odontoma is a rare tumor. Occasionally this tumor becomes large, causing expansion of bone followed by facial asymmetry. Otherwise these tumors are asymptomatic and are generally diagnosed on radiographic examination. We report a rare case of complex odontoma of mandible in a young boy. The tumor was treated by surgical excision under general anesthesia.

  13. Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the mandible: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shamindra; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka

    2010-01-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising as a de novo lesion is a unique and rare carcinoma affecting the jaws, especially at younger ages. Two case reports, a 26-year-old Indian female with primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma and a 16-year-old Indian male with intraosseous carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst, both within the body of the mandible, are presented here. PMID:21731266

  14. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in the angle region of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Birkan Taha; Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan; Cigerim, Levent; Gunhan, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE), also called epithelioid hemangioma, is a rare benign vascular lesion usually affecting the muscular arteries of the head and neck in female patients. Here, we report a 30-year-old male patient who presented with painless swelling in the angle region of the mandible. The diagnosis of the specimen, which was surgically removed under local anesthesia, was made as ALHE. The patient has remained uneventful for 3 years. PMID:26097322

  15. Rare Case of a Chondrosarcoma of the Mandible in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Deichen, Jan Thiess; Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer; Talanow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the mandible is rare, especially in children. The available literature consists mostly of a few case reports which are partly integrated in small studies. Growing this small pool of literature is helpful in solidifying knowledge about this disease and facilitating appropriate treatment for children. Therefore, we present such a case in a 12-year-old boy, exhibit comprehensive and relevant information concerning this entity, and discuss our findings in the context of other publications. PMID:24349816

  16. Horizontal Resorption of Fresh-Frozen Corticocancellous Bone Blocks in the Reconstruction of the Atrophic Maxilla at 5 Months

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eugénio; Messias, Ana; Dias, Ricardo; Judas, Fernando; Salvoni, Alexander; Guerra, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Reliable implant-supported rehabilitation of an alveolar ridge needs sufficient volume of bone. In order to achieve a prosthetic-driven positioning, bone graft techniques may be required. Purpose This prospective cohort study aims to clinically evaluate the amount of resorption of corticocancellous fresh-frozen allografts bone blocks used in the reconstruction of the severe atrophic maxilla. Materials and Methods Twenty-two partial and totally edentulous patients underwent bone augmentation procedures with fresh-frozen allogenous blocks from the iliac crest under local anesthesia. Implants were inserted into the grafted sites after a healing period of 5 months. Final fixed prosthesis was delivered ± 4 months later. Ridge width analysis and measurements were performed with a caliper before and after grafting and at implant insertion. Bone biopsies were performed in 16 patients. Results A total of 98 onlay block allografts were used in 22 patients with an initial mean alveolar ridge width of 3.41 ± 1.36 mm. Early exposure of blocks was observed in four situations and one of these completely resorbed. Mean horizontal bone gain was 3.63 ± 1.28 mm (p < .01). Mean buccal bone resorption between allograph placement and the reopening stage was 0.49 ± 0.54 mm, meaning approximately 7.1% (95% confidence interval: [5.6%, 8.6%]) of total ridge width loss during the integration period. One hundred thirty dental implants were placed with good primary stability (≥ 30 Ncm). Four implants presented early failure before the prosthetic delivery (96.7% implant survival). All patients were successfully rehabilitated. Histomorphometric analysis revealed 20.9 ± 5.8% of vital bone in close contact to the remaining grafted bone. A positive strong correlation (adjusted R2 = 0.44, p = .003) was found between healing time and vital bone percentage. Conclusions Augmentation procedures performed using fresh-frozen allografts from the

  17. [Mining analysis and experience summary for chronic atrophic gastritis cases treated by Professor LIU Feng-bin].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai

    2015-06-01

    To summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), the study group designed a retrospective study on his case series and expert interview. First of all, the data of CAG patients treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between 2009 and 2013, e. g. herbs, diseases, syndrome type, prescription amount and number of herbs, was collected and processed. The statistical description and binary logistic regression were used to determined the syndrome type, initial basic remedy and modification. During the statistics, a complete and sub-group analysis was performed simultaneously. After the expert interview, the syndrome type and medication were finalized. As a result, a total of 228 CAG patients aged at (50.30 ± 10.18) were collected, including 151 males (66.23%). Of them, the TCM diagnosis and syndrome type were extracted from the information of 157 patients, including 115 cases with gastric stuffiness, 23 cases with gastric pain, 19 missing cases, 2 cases with spleen-stomach weakness syndrome, 57 cases with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome, 18 cases with spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome, 23 cases with syndrome of liver depression syndrome, 21 cases with liver qi invading stomach syndrome and 26 qi and yin deficiency syndrome, respectively. All of the 228 patients used totally 104 herbs, while the subgroups with 157 patients used 94 herbs. The most frequently used 15 herbs used in each groups were analyzed to determine the initial basic remedy and modification. Subsequently, based on the information of the sub-groups with 157 patients, with the syndrome type as the dependent variable, the logistic regression analysis was made on the most frequently used 32 herbs, in order to determined the modification in herbs for different syndrome types. After experts reviewed and modified, they believed the main causes of CAG were dietary irregularities

  18. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  19. An Early Pleistocene hominin mandible from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, E.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Allue, E.; Bastir, M.; Benito, A.; Cáceres, I.; Canals, T.; Díez, J. C.; van der Made, J.; Mosquera, M.; Ollé, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rodríguez, X. P.; Rosas, A.; Rosell, J.; Sala, R.; Vallverdú, J.; Vergés, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a mandible recovered in 2003 from the Aurora Stratum of the TD6 level of the Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain). The specimen, catalogued as ATD6-96, adds to the hominin sample recovered from this site in 1994–1996, and assigned to Homo antecessor. ATD6-96 is the left half of a gracile mandible belonging to a probably female adult individual with premolars and molars in place. This mandible shows a primitive structural pattern shared with all African and Asian Homo species. However, it is small and exhibits a remarkable gracility, a trait shared only with the Early and Middle Pleistocene Chinese hominins. Furthermore, none of the mandibular features considered apomorphic in the European Middle and Early Upper Pleistocene hominin lineage are present in ATD6-96. This evidence reinforces the taxonomic identity of H. antecessor and is consistent with the hypothesis of a close relationship between this species and Homo sapiens. PMID:15824320

  20. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions. PMID:26053991

  1. Cephalometric Angular Measurements of the Mandible Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Scans in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Kang, Seok Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this study to analyze the values of the key cephalometric angular measurements of the mandible using 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography scans. Methods In the 106 enrolled patients, a 3D cephalometric analysis was performed to measure the angular variables of the mandible. These values were compared between the two sides and between the two sexes. Results The frontal measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the left (Lt) side (right [Rt], 141.24±7.54; Lt, 142.68±6.94; P=0.002) and the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P<0.001). The sagittal measurements showed that the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P>0.05). Further, the transverse measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 140.28±7.05; Lt, 137.56±6.23; P<0.001). Conclusions These results provide an average of the mandibular angular measurements for the Korean population, establishing a standard for determining surgical patient groups and outcome evaluations in the field of mandible contour surgery. PMID:26848443

  2. Recently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its implications for great ape and human origins.

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, M L; Benefit, B R

    1993-01-01

    We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a markedly proclined symphyseal axis, massive inferior transverse torus, mesiodistally narrow, high-crowned, and strongly procumbent lateral incisor, and molars with cingula restricted to the median buccal cleft. Although the presence of some of these conditions in Kenyapithecus was suggested earlier, the fragmentary and ill-preserved nature of previously known specimens led certain authorities to doubt their validity. Our assessment of mandibular and dental morphology indicates that K. africanus diverged after Proconsul and Griphopithecus but prior to the last common ancestor of Sivapithecus, extant great apes, and humans. The robustly constructed mandibular symphysis and anterior dentition suggest that incisal biting played as important a role as thick molar enamel in the dietary adaptations of K. africanus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8446615

  3. A comparison of external and internal maxilla and mandible morphology of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha).

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, and the internal structures of the mouthparts in sixty representatives of the nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), using scanning electron microscopy. Eight morphologically distinct types of files are identified on the mandibular tip, as well as six distinct types of the maxillary endings, and three distinct types of rupturing devices of the maxillae. The features of the internal maxillary and mandibular structures share a common connection model, differing only by virtue of specific appendages in different subfamilies. The water bugs morphological ground plan is represented by a mandibular file identically serrated, asymmetrical apices of maxillae (left maxilla tapers with lobe + right maxilla tapers and straight), rupturing device evidently exposed ventrally and inner structures: the maxillae are extended dorso-laterally, forming a wide lobe; symmetrical processes connect with the mandibles. The main patterns (belostomatid and nepid) together with two more specialized patterns (gelastocorids, corixids, micronectids, and diaprepocorids) and (ochterid, aphelocheirid, naucorid, notonectid, pleid and helotrephid) are reported. Diversity of the elements (maxillae and mandibles) are analyzed from a phylogenetic signals and nutrition perspective. Finally, further lines of study are suggested for future work on the phylogeny of the group based on the studied characters.

  4. A Rare Case of an Artery Passing through the Median Perforating Canal of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Tabira, Yoko; Yamaki, Koh-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Along with the popularization of dental implant surgery, there has been considerable research on the lingual foramen using cone-beam computed tomography. Anatomical research has also revealed that the arteries entering the lingual foramina are branches of the submental and sublingual arteries. There have been no reports, however, of the submental or sublingual artery entering the mandible from the lingual foramen, perforating it, and then distributing to the inferior labial region. A 69-year-old man who donated his body to our department in 2015 was dissected. The mandible with overlying soft tissue of the mental region was resected and examined with microcomputed tomography, which showed that the canal perforated from the lingual foramen to the midline of the labial cortical plate. The canal was thus named the median perforating canal. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no other reports of a perforating artery of the mandible, so this case is thought to be rare. Hence, the existence of perforating arteries, such as in the present case, should be taken into consideration in preoperative diagnoses such as for dental implant surgery. Thus, the fusion of anatomical and radiological study is useful and necessary to understand surgical anatomy. PMID:27213060

  5. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    PubMed

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group.

  6. A comparison of external and internal maxilla and mandible morphology of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha).

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, and the internal structures of the mouthparts in sixty representatives of the nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), using scanning electron microscopy. Eight morphologically distinct types of files are identified on the mandibular tip, as well as six distinct types of the maxillary endings, and three distinct types of rupturing devices of the maxillae. The features of the internal maxillary and mandibular structures share a common connection model, differing only by virtue of specific appendages in different subfamilies. The water bugs morphological ground plan is represented by a mandibular file identically serrated, asymmetrical apices of maxillae (left maxilla tapers with lobe + right maxilla tapers and straight), rupturing device evidently exposed ventrally and inner structures: the maxillae are extended dorso-laterally, forming a wide lobe; symmetrical processes connect with the mandibles. The main patterns (belostomatid and nepid) together with two more specialized patterns (gelastocorids, corixids, micronectids, and diaprepocorids) and (ochterid, aphelocheirid, naucorid, notonectid, pleid and helotrephid) are reported. Diversity of the elements (maxillae and mandibles) are analyzed from a phylogenetic signals and nutrition perspective. Finally, further lines of study are suggested for future work on the phylogeny of the group based on the studied characters. PMID:26097953

  7. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    PubMed

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group. PMID:26095445

  8. Experimental evaluation of bone quality using speed of sound measurement in cadaver mandibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Haffar, Iyad; Padilla, Frederic; Laugier, Pascal; Nefussi, Raphael; Kolta, Sami; Foucart, Jean-Michel

    2004-10-01

    This study is the first attempt to use speed of sound (SOS) as a new ultrasonic diagnostic tool for bone quality assessment before oral implant treatment. The objective is to demonstrate the in vitro feasibility of local SOS measurement at the mandible, and to investigate the relationships between mandibular SOS and local bone mineral density (BMD) and the ratio between the trabecular and cortical thickness (Tb.Th/Cort.Th). Fourteen excised human mandible were measured in transmission with a pair of flat 1.6-MHz central frequency transducers. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were selected in the specimens: incisor, premolar and molar regions. Ten measurements with repositioning were performed on each ROI to determine the short-term precision. Dual x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed on the samples for local BMD measurements. Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine mandibular cross-sectional morphological measurements. SOS measurements at different sites were significantly different, reflecting the heterogeneity between the different sites. A strong linear relationship was found between SOS and BMD (r2=0.68, p<0,0001) while a nonlinear relationship was found between SOS and Tb.Th/Cort.Th (r2=0.48, p<0,0001). This study demonstrates in vitro the feasibility of SOS measurement at the mandible. In vitro mandibular SOS reflects local BMD and Tb.Th/Cort.Th before implant.

  9. Effect of ERCC8 tagSNPs and their association with H. pylori infection, smoking, and alcohol consumption on gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li-Ping; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) plays a critical role in DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC8 may contribute to the risk of cancer development. We selected tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in Chinese patients from the HapMap database to investigate associations with gastric cancer and its precursors. Genomic DNA was extracted from 394 controls, 394 atrophic gastritis, and 394 gastric cancer cases in northern Chinese patients, and genotypes were identified using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. We found that the ERCC8 rs158572 GG+GA genotype showed a 1.651-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.109-2.457, P = 0.013) increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the AA genotype, especially in diffuse type. Stratified analysis comparing the common genotype revealed significantly increased gastric cancer risk in males and individuals older than 50 years with rs158572 GA/GG/GG+GA genotypes, while individuals older than 50 years with rs158916 CT/CC+CT genotypes were less susceptible to atrophic gastritis. Haplotype analysis showed that the G-T haplotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Statistically significant interactions between the two ERCC8 tagSNPs and Helicobacter pylori infection were observed for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk (P < 0.05). Smokers and drinkers with ERCC8 rs158572 GG+GA genotype were more susceptible to gastric cancer compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers homozygous for AA. Our findings suggested that ERCC8 rs158572 and rs158916, alone or together with environmental factors, might be associated with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis susceptibility. Further validation of our results in larger populations along with additional studies evaluating the underlying molecular function is required.

  10. Differences in estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in endometrial polyps and atrophic endometrium of postmenopausal women with and without exposure to tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    LEÃO, ROGERIO BARROS FERREIRA; ANDRADE, LILIANA; VASSALO, JOSE; ANTUNES, ARMANDO; PINTO-NETO, AARÃO; COSTA-PAIVA, LUCIA

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women who use tamoxifen present with an increased incidence of endometrial alterations, such as polyps and hyperplasia, in addition to a higher risk of malignant endometrial neoplasms. Among these endometrial changes, polyps are the most common, with a pathogenesis associated with hormonal influence. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial polyps from tamoxifen users with that in endometrial polyps and the atrophic endometrium of postmenopausal tamoxifen non-users. Among women undergoing surgical hysteroscopy, 84 tamoxifen users with benign endometrial polyps were selected. This group was compared to 84 samples of atrophic endometrium and to 252 benign polyps from postmenopausal women who were not treated with tamoxifen. The expression of ER/PR was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, according to the percentage of stained cells, intensity of nuclear staining and final score. The polyps from tamoxifen users exhibited a higher expression of ER and PR in the glandular epithelium and stroma compared to the atrophic endometrium (P<0.0001). Compared to the polyps from women not treated with tamoxifen, tamoxifen users exhibited a higher PR expression in the epithelium (P=0.0014) and stroma (P=0.0056), with no difference in the expression of ER. In conclusion, endometrial polyps frequently exhibit an increase in ER expression, regardless of tamoxifen use. High levels of PR expression appear to be consistent with the estrogen agonist effects of tamoxifen. PMID:24649292

  11. Posterior Predictive Bayesian Phylogenetic Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand–Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] PMID:24193892

  12. [Relation between Helicobacter pylori and pathogenesis of chronic atrophic gastritis and the research of its prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Yang, L W; Yang, L J

    1992-09-01

    The total detectable rate of Helicobacter pylori (HP) of 485 patients suffering from gastric diseases was 59.6%. The HP in gastric mucosa of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients was separated from the cell culture in vitro and transferred successively. The mice were perfused with exciccate alum, and the rabbits with aspirin to injure their gastric mucosa, then HP was perfused. Result showed that the change of experimental animals was identical with that of CAG patients by means of bacteriological and pathological examination. It revealed that HP was in agreement with Robert Koch's three principles about pathogenic bacteria. According to the bacterial infectious hypothesis of CAG, 53 Chinese medicinal herbs and prescriptions were investigated with bacteriostatic test. Panax notogenseng and Magnolia officinalis were discovered to be sensitive, Prunus mume and Corydalis yanhusuo were moderate sensitive, and Coptis chinensis and Rheum palmatum highly sensitive to HP. Decoction of Clearing up the Heat and Relieving the Blood Stasis and No.2 recipe of Huowei were used to treat 70 CAG patients with Stomach Heat Syndrome. The effective rate of gastroscopic examination was 85.7%, that of pathological study was 80%. In comparing with the group of Shanjiu Weitai, there was significant difference between the traditional Chinese medicine treated group and Shanjiu Weitai control group, the former being markedly better. PMID:1298465

  13. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. PMID:25533077

  14. Use of 4 immediately loaded zygomatic fixtures for retreatment of atrophic edentulous maxilla after complications of maxillary reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuabara, Marcos Rikio; Ferreira, Edilson José; Gulinelli, Jéssica Lemos; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2010-05-01

    This article reports the 20-month clinical outcome of the use of 4 zygomatic implants with immediate occlusal loading and reverse planning for the retreatment of atrophic edentulous maxilla after failed rehabilitation with autogenous bone graft reconstruction and maxillary implants. The intraoral clinical examination revealed mispositioned and loosened implants underneath a maxillary complete denture. The panoramic radiograph showed 6 maxillary implants. One implant was displaced into the right maxillary sinus, and the implant anchored in the region of tooth 21 was fractured. The other implants presented peri-implant bone loss. The implants anchored in the regions of teeth 21 to 23 and 11 to 13 were first removed. After 2 months, the reverse planning started with placement of 4 zygomatic fixtures, removal of the implants migrated into the sinus cavity and anchored in the region of tooth 17, and installation of a fixed denture. After 20 months of follow-up, no painful symptoms, peri-implant inflammation or infection, implant instability, or bone resorption was observed. The outcomes of this case confirm that the zygoma can offer a predictable anchorage and support function for a fixed denture in severely resorbed maxillae.

  15. Atrophic thyroid follicles and inner ear defects reminiscent of cochlear hypothyroidism in Slc26a4-related deafness.

    PubMed

    Dror, Amiel A; Lenz, Danielle R; Shivatzki, Shaked; Cohen, Keren; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for inner ear development and is required for auditory system maturation. Human mutations in SLC26A4 lead to a syndromic form of deafness with enlargement of the thyroid gland (Pendred syndrome) and non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). We describe mice with an Slc26a4 mutation, Slc26a4 (loop/loop) , which are profoundly deaf but show a normal sized thyroid gland, mimicking non-syndromic clinical signs. Histological analysis of the thyroid gland revealed defective morphology, with a majority of atrophic microfollicles, while measurable thyroid hormone in blood serum was within the normal range. Characterization of the inner ear showed a spectrum of morphological and molecular defects consistent with inner ear pathology, as seen in hypothyroidism or disrupted thyroid hormone action. The pathological inner ear hallmarks included thicker tectorial membrane with reduced β-tectorin protein expression, the absence of BK channel expression of inner hair cells, and reduced inner ear bone calcification. Our study demonstrates that deafness in Slc26a4 (loop/loop) mice correlates with thyroid pathology, postulating that sub-clinical thyroid morphological defects may be present in some DFNB4 individuals with a normal sized thyroid gland. We propose that insufficient availability of thyroid hormone during inner ear development plays an important role in the mechanism underlying deafness as a result of SLC26A4 mutations.

  16. Immunogenicity and efficacy of three recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Cheng-I; Winton, James R.; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Three short fragments of recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (rsPMT) were constructed for evaluation as candidate vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine. PMT-specific antibody secreting cells and evidence of cellular immunity were detected in rsPMT-immunized pigs following authentic PMT challenge or homologous antigen booster. Piglets immunized with rsPMT fragments containing either the N-terminal or the C-terminal portions of PMT developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Pregnant sows immunized with rsPMT had higher levels of maternal antibodies in their colostrum than did those immunized with a conventional PAR-toxoid vaccine. Offspring from rsPMT vaccinated sows had better survival after challenge with a five-fold lethal dose of authentic PMT and had better growth performance after challenge with a sublethal dose of toxin. Our findings indicate these non-toxic rsPMT proteins are attractive candidates for development of a subunit vaccine against PAR in pigs.

  17. Predictability of short implants (< 10 mm) as a treatment option for the rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    García-Sala-Bonmatí, Fernando; Martínez-González, Amparo; García-Dalmau, Carlos; Mañes-Ferrer, José-Félix; Brotons-Oliver, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Short implants (< 10 mm) are one of the treatment options available in cases of limited vertical bone. A purpose of this paper is to evaluate the predictability of short implants as an alternative to technically molthough such implants are now widely used, there is controversy regarding their clinical reliability. There complex treatments in patients with atrophic maxillae, based on a systematic review of the literature and the analysis of the implant survival rates, changes in peri-implant bone level, and associated complications. It is postulated that short implants offer clinical results similar to those of longer implants. Material and Methods A Medline-PubMed search was made covering the period between January 2004 and December 2014 (both included). Studies in English published in indexed journals, involving at least 20 implants and with a follow-up period of at least 12 months were considered. A manual search in four high impact journals was also conducted. Results A total of 37 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this review. 9792 implants placed in over 5000 patients were analyzed. Conclusions Based on the results of this review, short implants are seen to offer clinical results in terms of survival, bone loss and complications similar to those of longer implants. Key words:Survival rate, clinical results, dental implants, oral implants, short implants, short lengt PMID:26946199

  18. Detailed ophthalmologic evaluation of posterior microphthalmos.

    PubMed

    Alkin, Zeynep; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Karakucuk, Yalcin; Demirok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    We performed various ophthalmic investigations in order to confirm the diagnosis and document the various features of posterior microphthalmos in a 21-year-old male. Ophthalmic examination revealed low vision with high hyperopia, papillomacular folds, midperipheral pigmentary changes and crowded optic discs. The optic discs were small and crowded with increased nerve fiber layer thickness. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed reduced diameter of a capillary free zone. Anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography demonstrated near normal anterior chamber depths, but markedly diminished anterior chamber angles. In spite of the increased corneal thickness and steep corneas, lens thickness and endothelial cell counts were normal. Sclerochoroidal thickening and foreshortening of the globes were detected with B-scan ultrasonography. Electroretinographic findings and visual field tests were similar to those in pigmentary retinopathy. Posterior microphthalmos is a complex eye disorder, which affects predominantly the posterior segment but also involves the AS of the eye.

  19. Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alehan, Füsun; Erol, Ilknur; Agildere, A Muhtesem; Ozcay, Figen; Baskin, Esra; Cengiz, Nurcan; Alioglu, Bülent; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-04-01

    Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a recently identified clinical and radiologic entity. The characteristic radiologic findings are bilateral gray and white matter edema in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. This article reports clinical and radiologic findings in 10 consecutive episodes of posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome that were diagnosed in 9 children and adolescents. The causes were immunosuppressive therapy in 7 patients and a combination of renal failure and hypertension in 3. The most common presenting symptoms were seizure and altered consciousness; others included headache, sixth nerve palsy, and cortical blindness. Imaging demonstrated abnormalities in the parietal and occipital lobes in all 10 episodes. The signs and symptoms resolved after immunosuppressive agents were reduced or discontinued, or after uremia and hypertension were corrected. Four patients underwent follow-up cranial imaging, and the images showed nearly complete or complete resolution. The syndrome was clinically reversible in all patients.

  20. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Bankier, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  1. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  2. Arthroscopic Approach to Posterior Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Theodoulou, Michael H; Bohman, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Posterior ankle pain can occur for many reasons. If it is produced by forced plantarflexion of the foot, it is often a result of impingement from an enlarged posterior talar process or an os trigonum. This condition may present in an acute or chronic state. Management is initially nonoperative, but surgical treatments are available. This condition is often seen in athletes, so procedures that limit surgical trauma and allow early return to activity are ideal. An arthroscopic approach for this disorder produces good outcomes with limited complications. Understanding the indications, local anatomy, and surgical technique, allows good, reproducible outcomes.

  3. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization.

    PubMed

    Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W A; Whalen, J P; Kazam, E

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  4. Arthroscopic Approach to Posterior Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Theodoulou, Michael H; Bohman, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Posterior ankle pain can occur for many reasons. If it is produced by forced plantarflexion of the foot, it is often a result of impingement from an enlarged posterior talar process or an os trigonum. This condition may present in an acute or chronic state. Management is initially nonoperative, but surgical treatments are available. This condition is often seen in athletes, so procedures that limit surgical trauma and allow early return to activity are ideal. An arthroscopic approach for this disorder produces good outcomes with limited complications. Understanding the indications, local anatomy, and surgical technique, allows good, reproducible outcomes. PMID:27599438

  5. Jaw growth in the absence of teeth: the developmental morphology of edentulous mandibles using the p63 mouse mutant.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Mitchell R; Raj, Muhammad T; Boughner, Julia C

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian tooth and jaw development must be coordinated well enough that these systems continue to function together properly throughout growth, thus optimizing an animal's survival and fitness, as well as a species' success. The persistent question is how teeth and jaws remain developmentally and functionally viable despite sometimes monumental evolutionary changes to tooth and jaw shape and size. Here we used the p63 mouse mutant to test the effect of tooth development - or the lack thereof - on normal mandible developmental morphology. Using 3D geometric morphometrics, we compared for the first time mandible shape among mice with normal tooth and jaw development against p63 double knock-out mice, with failed tooth development but apparently normal jaw development. Mandible shape differed statistically between toothless (p63(-/-) ) and toothed (p63(+/-) , p63(+/+) ) mice as early as embryonic day (E) 18. As expected, most of the shape difference in the p63(-/-) mandibles was due to underdeveloped alveolar bone related to arrested odontogenesis in these E18-aged mice. Mandible shape did not differ statistically between p63(+/-) and p63(+/+) adult mice, which showed normal tooth development. Our results support the idea of a gene regulatory network that is exclusive to the mandible and independent of the dentition. This study also underscores the biomechanical impact of the teeth on the developing alveolar bone. Importantly, this work shows quantitatively that the p63 mutant is an apt model with which to study mandible morphogenesis in isolation of odontogenesis to clarify developmental relationships between the teeth and jaws.

  6. [Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: case report].

    PubMed

    Tella, Oswaldo Inácio de; Herculano, Marco Antonio; Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Faedo Neto, Atílio; Crosera, João Francisco

    2006-03-01

    Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification of cervical spine is a rare condition among caucasians. A 42 years old japanese patient with progressive walking difficulty was diagnosed with this pathology by CT scan and MRI and treated surgically by an anterior approach with arthrodesis. Pathophysiology, racial prevalence, clinical picture, radiological characteristics and surgical approaches options are revised.

  7. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  8. Posterior predictive Bayesian phylogenetic model selection.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul O; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand-Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. PMID:24193892

  9. A Complication of Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ankit; Charles, Loren; Ritchie, James

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of tibial nerve impingement by an anteroposterior screw inserted for stabilization of a posterior malleolar fracture. This specific complication has not previously been described in published studies, although numerous reports have described various forms of peripheral nerve entrapment. We discuss the merits of fixation of these fractures using a posterolateral approach.

  10. Posterior instability caused by batter's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play.

  11. Posterior instability caused by batter's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play. PMID:24079435

  12. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  13. Cortical Bone Morphological and Trabecular Bone Microarchitectural Changes in the Mandible and Femoral Neck of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Wang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Jay; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on the trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral neck and mandible of female rats. Materials and Methods Twelve female Wister rats were divided into two groups: the control and ovariectomized groups. The rats in the ovariectomized group received ovariectomy at 8 weeks of age; all the rats were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age, and their mandibles and femurs were removed and scanned using micro-CT. Four microstructural trabecular bone parameters were measured for the region below the first mandibular molar and the femoral neck region: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular separation (TbSp), and trabecular number (TbN). In addition, four cortical bone parameters were measured for the femoral neck region: total cross-sectional area (TtAr), cortical area (CtAr), cortical bone area fraction (CtAr/TtAr), and cortical thickness (CtTh). The CtTh at the masseteric ridge was used to assess the cortical bone morphology in the mandible. The trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral necks and mandibles of the control group were compared with those of the ovariectomized group. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation (rs) was conducted to analyze the correlation between the osteoporosis conditions of the mandible and femoral neck. Results Regarding the trabecular bone microarchitectural parameters, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the femoral necks of the control group (61.199±11.288%, median ± interquartile range) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (40.329±5.153%). Similarly, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the mandibles of the control group (51.704±6.253%) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (38.486±9.111%). Furthermore, the TbSp of the femoral necks in the ovariectomized group

  14. Morphology of Thai Edentulous Mandible Using 3D Reverse Engineering: Relevance to Immediate Loading Dental Implant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemsarn, Suthasinee; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai

    The dimension and number of implants as well as the splinting concept of the superstructure are the impact factors of the immediate loading implant-supported prostheses. The purpose of this study is to determine the morphometric data of Thai lower edentulous jaws between two metal foramens for optimizing the design. Sixty-four Thai cadaveric edentulous mandibles were CT scanned and 3D models were reconstructed. Arch forms, dimensions, and the area of the greatest concavity in the body of the mandibles between the metal foramens were defined in geometric terms based on reverse engineering methods. The arch forms, represented by average values of angle and distance of panoramic arc, were 116.4 ±9.5 degrees and 46.7 ±3.9mm respectively. The dimensions of the mandibles, determined by the height and width of the body of the mandibles as well as the angle between the axis of the mandibular body to the mandibular plane, were 25.3 ±0.6mm, 11.6 ±0.6mm and 61.3 ±1.7 degrees respectively. The area of greatest concavity was 8.3 ±1.9mm. Morphology of the Thai edentulous mandible determines the maximum length of an implant placed for immediate loading protocol as 17mm, with a maximum diameter of 3.5-5mm. The maximum number of implants that can be placed in the anterior region is 5.

  15. An Observational Study on Aberrant Methylation of Runx3 With the Prognosis in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunna; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Bei; Xiao, Lili; Guo, Feng; Wei, Yueguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to discuss whether the methylation levels of Runx3 could be used as the early biomarker for predicting the prognosis in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients. A total of 200 subjects including 60 controls without CAG (Group 1), 70 patients with mild CAG (Group 2), and 70 patients with moderate and severe CAG (Group 3) were recruited for this cross-sectional investigation in the Department of Gastroenterology in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from July 2013 to May 2014. The MlALDI-TOF-MS was used to measure the methylation levels of Runx3 in all of the subjects. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were chosen to determine the expression levels of Runx3. The correlations between methylation levels of Runx3 among these CAG patients and their prognosis were shown by logistic regression models. The results demonstrated that the methylation levels of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in Runx3 were higher in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of Runx3 were lower in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05). There were significantly negative correlations between the methylation levels of Runx3 with its expression and the healing prognosis of CAG patients. In brief, this study proved that the hypermethylation modifications of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in the promoter region of Runx3 could result in the down regulation of Runx3 expression to affect the prognosis of CAG. So the methylation levels of these CpG sites in Runx3 in the peripheral blood can be used as the biomarker for predicting the healing prognosis of CAG patients. PMID:27196446

  16. An Observational Study on Aberrant Methylation of Runx3 With the Prognosis in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Bei; Xiao, Lili; Guo, Feng; Wei, Yueguang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss whether the methylation levels of Runx3 could be used as the early biomarker for predicting the prognosis in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients. A total of 200 subjects including 60 controls without CAG (Group 1), 70 patients with mild CAG (Group 2), and 70 patients with moderate and severe CAG (Group 3) were recruited for this cross-sectional investigation in the Department of Gastroenterology in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from July 2013 to May 2014. The MlALDI-TOF-MS was used to measure the methylation levels of Runx3 in all of the subjects. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were chosen to determine the expression levels of Runx3. The correlations between methylation levels of Runx3 among these CAG patients and their prognosis were shown by logistic regression models. The results demonstrated that the methylation levels of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in Runx3 were higher in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of Runx3 were lower in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05). There were significantly negative correlations between the methylation levels of Runx3 with its expression and the healing prognosis of CAG patients. In brief, this study proved that the hypermethylation modifications of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in the promoter region of Runx3 could result in the down regulation of Runx3 expression to affect the prognosis of CAG. So the methylation levels of these CpG sites in Runx3 in the peripheral blood can be used as the biomarker for predicting the healing prognosis of CAG patients. PMID:27196446

  17. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lindberg, Mary E.; Wei Qingyi; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  18. Amifostine Remediates the Degenerative Effects of Radiation on the Mineralization Capacity of the Murine Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Boguslawski, Matt J.; Gallagher, K. Kelly; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Poushanchi, Behdod; Goldstein, Steven A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although radiotherapy is a cornerstone in head and neck cancer treatment it causes substantial morbidity to the normal adjoining bone. Our specific aim is to assess the radioprotective effect of Amifostine (AMF) therapy on the mineralization of the mandible using micro-computed tomography (μCT). We hypothesize that AMF will safeguard the mandible from radiation-induced disruption of the mineralization process and the associated failure of new bone creation. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: Control (n=8), XRT (n=5) and AMF (n=8). XRT and AMF underwent human bioequivalent radiation of 70Gy in 5 fractions to the left hemimandible. 56 days post-radiation, the hemimandibles were harvested for radiomorphometric analyses. Results AMF exhibited less alopecia, mucositis and weight loss as well as increased cortical density in comparison to XRT. Bone and Tissue Mineral Densities showed statistically significant improvement in AMF versus XRT and no difference was observed between AMF versus Control. Detailed μCT analysis further demonstrated significant differences in the mineralization profile when comparing XRT and AMF. AMF maintained regions of lower mineralization consistent with the preservation of normal remodeling. Conclusion We have successfully demonstrated the ability of AMF pre-treatment to protect the natural mineralization profile of bone. This reflects the capacity of AMF prophylaxis to safeguard the normal surrounding mandible from the impediments of collateral damage imposed by radiation. Further study can now be directed at correlating these findings with the potential use of AMF to prevent the devastating associated morbidities of radiotherapy such as pathologic fractures and osteoradionecrosis. PMID:22456378

  19. An Unusual Cause of Posterior Elbow Impingement: Detachment of a Hypertrophied Posterior Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Kosuke; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Suzue, Naoto; Goto, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Wada, Keizo; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed posterior impingement of the elbow due to detachment of a hypertrophied posterior fat pad. She reported acute left elbow pain after leaning back onto a hard object with her hand and subsequently experienced a “catching” sensation. Comparison with the magnetic resonance images of a normal elbow revealed a hypertrophied posterior fat pad interposed between the olecranon and olecranon fossa in both elbows, with the fat pad in the left elbow located more inferiorly than that in the right elbow. Elbow arthroscopy showed the olecranon fossa covered by the fat pad, a portion of which was detached from the rest of the pad. Debridement of the detached portion was performed until no impingement was evident. Postoperatively, full extension of the elbow did not elicit pain. Clinicians should include this pathology among the differential diagnoses for posterior elbow pain. PMID:26613057

  20. Stratigraphic context and direct dating of the Neandertal mandible from Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Pike, A W G; Subirà, M E; Fornós, J J; Fullola, J M; Julià, R; Zilhão, J

    2010-07-01

    Stratigraphic study of the Cova del Gegant's sedimentary fill revealed different cycles of accumulation of typical interior cave and delta facies. A precise chronology for these deposits, the faunal remains and stone tools contained therein was obtained by radiocarbon, U-Th and OSL. Our results indicate that the Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequence dates between 49.3 +/- 1.8 ka BP, the U-Th age of the overlying flowstone, and 60.0 +/- 3.9 ka BP, the OSL age of the basal deposits. We have also directly dated the site's Neandertal mandible to 52.3 +/- 2.3 ka by U-Th.

  1. Osteosarcoma of the Mandible Masquerading as a Dental Abscess: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Sukumaran; Krishnan, Anitha P.; Rajendran, R.

    2012-01-01

    An aggressive and fatal case of osteosarcoma of the mandible in a 19-year-old female is reported. Six weeks after the clinical appearance of the swelling, the patient died. This paper is unique in that the age of occurrence and the biologic behavior of the tumor were not consistent with the reported literature. The case report is followed by a brief review of osteosarcoma of the jaw with a note on its clinical presentation, diverse radiologic appearance, varied histopathologic picture, and prognosis. PMID:23243522

  2. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Singh, Neeraj; Gupta, Amit; Sajjan, Anand K.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue. They are composed of vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. They are considered as pseudo cysts because of lack of epithelial lining. Here, we describe a giant case of ABC in 12-year-old female child having a massive swelling over the right side of the mandible treated with segmental resection and reconstruction with a reconstruction plate. Case is also discussed with the review of literature. PMID:24163565

  3. De novo myeloid sarcoma involving mandible in a child: Report of a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Indranil; Chatterjee, Uttara; Majumdar, Boby

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant disease defined as extramedullary infiltration of immature myeloid cells. We reporte a 2-year-old male of isolated MS who presented with swelling over the left side of the body of the mandible. Proper histological examination and adequate panels of immunohistochemical stain led to the accurate diagnosis. Early intervention with systemic chemotherapy regimens based on cytarabine is the treatment of choice. The role of chromosomal aberrations and genetic abnormality related to prognosis remain uncertain. PMID:27601827

  4. Brown tumor of the mandible as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Antón-Badiola, Iosu María; Costas-López, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Brown tumor is one of the lesions that develop in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Any of the skeletal bones can be affected including the cranio-maxillofacial ones. Most of the times the brown tumor appears after a final diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is made. However brown tumor can be the first clinical sign of the disease. A clinical case in which a brown tumor located in the anterior part of the mandible appears as the first sign of primary hyperparathyroidism is presented. The possible differential clinical diagnosis and the recommended treatments are revised.

  5. Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae).

    PubMed

    Ball, George E; Acorn, John H; Shpeley, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the

  6. A Pathological Fracture of the Mandible due to Osteomyelitis following a Full Dental Clearance.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Preeti; Handley, Thomas; Hammersley, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    Orofacial infections following dental extractions are a common referral to an oral and maxillofacial department as an emergency, especially when combined with swelling and limited mouth opening. The case presented demonstrates a rare complication of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis with bilateral pathological fractures of the mandible, which occurred following a staged dental clearance. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dental extractions are one of the most common treatments carried out by oral surgeons and general dental practitioners. This case highlights a rare but encountered complication of routine oral surgery and demonstrates when it is necessary to make an immediate referral to the local oral and maxillofacial surgery unit. PMID:27188132

  7. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M.; Suma, Gundareddy N.; Garg, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma. PMID:26389063

  8. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B; Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M; Suma, Gundareddy N; Garg, Shruti

    2015-09-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma.

  9. De novo myeloid sarcoma involving mandible in a child: Report of a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Indranil; Chatterjee, Uttara; Majumdar, Boby

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant disease defined as extramedullary infiltration of immature myeloid cells. We reporte a 2-year-old male of isolated MS who presented with swelling over the left side of the body of the mandible. Proper histological examination and adequate panels of immunohistochemical stain led to the accurate diagnosis. Early intervention with systemic chemotherapy regimens based on cytarabine is the treatment of choice. The role of chromosomal aberrations and genetic abnormality related to prognosis remain uncertain. PMID:27601827

  10. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  11. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mandible. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Longo, F; De Maria, G; Esposito, P; Califano, L

    2004-12-01

    A case of a 45-year-old white man admitted for an osteomyelitis and subsequently diagnosed affected by an IE stage, diffuse high grade large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mandible is reported. The patient presented a swelling in the right mandibular region with paraesthesia of the ipsilateral lower lip without nodal involvement of the neck. After an incisional biopsy, which showed a diffuse high grade large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the patient was staged and treated with CEOP protocol for six courses and subsequently external beam radiation therapy with complete remission of the lesion. PMID:15556331

  12. Primary Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumour with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible; A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arun; Parmar, Harshad; Chacko, Rabin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell Tumours (GCT) are neoplasm derived from germ cells. GCT usually occurs inside the gonads. Extragonadal GCT’s are rare. Most common GCT associated with head and neck region are the teratomas. Of the few teratomas found in the head and neck, malignant transformation of a teratomatous element is very uncommon, and primary bone involvement within the head and neck is even rare. We present a case of primary malignant mixed germ cell Tumour involving the mandible, the present case presented malignant transformation of the epithelial component showing foci of squamous cell carcinoma within the GCT. PMID:26266228

  13. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Song, Young-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Bong Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, which was formerly named calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a benign odontogenic tumor containing clusters of ghost cells within ameloblastic epithelium. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors have been associated with other odontogenic tumors, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the anterior mandible that occurred in a 4-year-old Korean girl.

  14. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach.

    PubMed

    Peña, A; Hong, A

    2004-01-01

    The posterior sagittal, transphincteric approach to treat different pelvic problems has been known since last century. Although some surgeons have embraced it and have enthusiastically advocated it s use, it has never become an overly popular technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, both from an historical perspective and from the authors experience. The international literature on the subject was reviewed since 1877 up to the present date. A retrospective evaluation of the authors experience was conducted, and the results reviewed. Specific attention was paid to the final result obtained in the treatment of the original condition, surgical complications and the effect of the surgical approach on bowel and urinary control. The experiential review included 114 cases. They were divided into two groups. A included 85 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal transphincteric approach that included 49 cases of Hirschsprung s disease (primary 21, secondary 28), 15 presacral masses; 10 rectaltumors; 7 acquired recto-genito-urinary fistulae; and 4 cases of idiopathic rectal prolapse. Group B included 29 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal trans-anorectal approach, in which the anterior wall of the rectum and the sphincter was divided as well.. This group included 12 cases of urogenital sinuses; 8 acquired urethral stricture or atresia after trauma; and 9 posterior urethral masses. Post-operative bowel control was normal all cases except in those patients whose basic condition had resulted in fecal incontinence, or who had sustained an irreversible injury prior tothe operation. Urinary control was normal except in cases with pre-operative incontinence. Complications included recurrence of recto-genitourinary fistulae in 3 cases, recto-cutaneous fistula in 3 Hirschsprung s patients and 2 partial wound dehisences. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach represents a useful technical alternative

  15. Contralateral De Novo Intraosseous Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child with Arteriovenous Malformation of Mandible Treated by Endovascular Embolotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, C-H; Wu, Y-M; Chen, Y-L; Wong, H-F

    2012-01-01

    Summary We describe our experience of the development of contralateral de novo intraosseous AVMs in a ten-year-old girl with AVMs of the mandible who underwent endovascular embolotherapy. She initially presented with intermittent oral bleeding. Computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated intraosseous AVMs within the right mandible. The AVMs were treated by transosseous direct-puncture and transarterial embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue. However, de novo intraosseous AVMs developed within the previously healthy contralateral mandible and resulted in dangerous oral bleeding. Therefore, we suggest regular follow-up and prompt retreatment of any residual mandibular AVMs in patients undergoing endovascular or surgical treatment to prevent subsequent development of “secondary” AVMs and life-threatening oral bleeding. PMID:23217644

  16. Histologic changes in type A chronic atrophic gastritis indicating increased risk of neuroendocrine tumor development: the predictive role of dysplastic and severely hyperplastic enterochromaffin-like cell lesions.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Alessandro; La Rosa, Stefano; Luinetti, Ombretta; Klersy, Catherine; Manca, Rachele; Alvisi, Costanza; Rossi, Sandro; Trespi, Erminio; Zangrandi, Adriano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo; Solcia, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    The role of putative preneoplastic enterochromaffin-like cell lesions, either hyperplastic or dysplastic, in the genesis of type 1 enterochromaffin-like cell neuroendocrine tumors associated with type A chronic atrophic gastritis, their actual neoplastic risk, and their precise histogenetic mechanism deserve further clarification by specific histopathologic studies coupled with patient follow-up. A total of 100 patients with severe type A chronic atrophic gastritis, enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and antral G-cell hyperplasia were endoscopically and histologically followed up for a median of 90.1 months (total of 9118 person-months). Preneoplastic enterochromaffin-like cell lesions and newly developed neuroendocrine tumors were investigated histologically and histochemically, in parallel with enterochromaffin-like cell lesions found in nontumor mucosa of another 32 well-characterized and previously reported type 1 neuroendocrine tumors. Both neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine mucosa changes were analyzed and statistically evaluated. During follow-up, 7 of 100 patients developed neuroendocrine tumors: 5 were in a group of 20 cases with previous enterochromaffin-like cell dysplasia and 2 were among 80 cases showing only enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia throughout the study (hazard ratio, 20.7; P < .001). The severity of enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia at first biopsy, with special reference to linear hyperplasia with 6 chains or more per linear millimeter, also increased the risk of neuroendocrine tumor development during follow-up (hazard ratio, 13.0; P < .001). Enterochromaffin-like cell microinvasive dysplastic lesions arising at the epithelial renewal zone level, in connection with immature proliferating mucous-neck cells, were found to be linked to early intramucosal neuroendocrine tumor histogenesis. Both enterochromaffin-like cell dysplasia and severe hyperplasia indicate increased risk of neuroendocrine tumor development in type A

  17. Ablative non-fractional lasers for atrophic facial acne scars: a new modality of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kang, Jin Moon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-03-01

    Atrophic facial scars which commonly occur after inflammatory acne vulgaris can be extremely disturbing to patients both physically and psychologically. Treatment with fractional laser devices has become increasingly popular, but there has been disappointment in terms of effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ablative full-face resurfacing on atrophic acne scars in the Korean population. A total of 22 patients, aged 25-44 years, underwent a new modality of resurfacing combining both short-pulsed and dual-mode erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The patients had Fitzpatrick skin types ranging from III to V. Photographs were taken before and up to 6 months after treatment. Results were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement and any adverse events. Degree of improvement was graded using a four-point scale: poor (1) = <25%, fair (2) = 25-50%, good (3) = 51-75%, and excellent (4) = >75%. Based on the blinded photo assessments by two independent reviewers, clinically and statistically significant mean improvement of 3.41 was observed (one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001). Complete wound healing occurred between 6 and 9 days. Erythema occurred in all patients and lasted longer than 3 months in two patients (9.1%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in ten patients (45.5%) and lasted longer than 3 months in one patient (4.5%). One patient experienced mild hypopigmentation (4.5%). Mild to moderate acne flare-up occurred in five patients (22.7%). No other adverse effects were observed. A new modality of Er:YAG laser resurfacing combining short-pulsed and dual-mode Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for atrophic facial acne scars in Asians with darker skin tones.

  18. Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Boeve, Bradley F; Cappa, Stefano F; Dickerson, Bradford C; Dubois, Bruno; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Mendez, Mario F; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Tim; Tang-Wai, David F; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C; Fox, Nick C

    2013-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing skills, relatively intact memory and language in the early stages, and atrophy of posterior brain regions. Misdiagnosis of PCA is common, owing not only to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation, but also because patients frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist, who may note normal eye examinations by their usual tests but may not appreciate cortical brain dysfunction. Seeking to raise awareness of the disease, stimulate research, and promote collaboration, a multidisciplinary group of PCA research clinicians formed an international working party, which had its first face-to-face meeting on July 13, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, prior to the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. PMID:23274153

  19. Fractures of posterior teeth in adults.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Maxwell, E H; Braly, B V

    1986-02-01

    Examined in this study were 191 patients with 206 complete or incomplete fractures of posterior teeth. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 76 years, with 66.5% younger than 40 years. The number of fractures occurring in each arch was almost equal. The mandibular first molar was the most frequently fractured posterior tooth. The lingual cusps of mandibular molars fractured more often than did the buccal cusps of mandibular molars by a ratio of 2 to 1. In maxillary molars, buccal and lingual cusps fractured with almost equal frequency, but, in maxillary premolars, the lingual cusps fractured slightly more often than buccal cusps. Data gathered on the widths of the isthmuses of restorations in 109 teeth showed that fewer fractures occurred in teeth with more conservative restorations, with widths of isthmuses a quarter of the inter-cusp distance, and intact marginal ridges. PMID:3456380

  20. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H. Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  1. Bridging Plate Development for Treatment of Segmental Bone Defects of the Canine Mandible: Mechanical Tests and Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Elisângela Perez; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; El-Warrak, Alexander Oliveira; Melchert, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    With regard to the canine mandible, a mistaken concept of application is to assume that systemic plate-bone resistance is provided by the implant so that biomechanical position could be ignored. Because the alveolar border of the mandible is a tensile zone, the plate would ideally be positioned near this area while avoiding important structures. The aim of this study was to develop 2 bridging plates for the treatment of a segmental bone defect of the canine mandible using monocortical screws to avoid damage to the tooth roots and remaining neurovascular structures. Computed tomography images of the heads of 4 dogs (rottweiler, Doberman, boxer, and miniature poodle breeds) were used as models to develop the project. The images were reconstructed in 3-dimensional (3D) format. For each dog breed, 6 mandible prototypes were produced, each with a segmental bone defect in the right mandible. The mandibular reconstruction was performed with pure titanium bridging plate and locking screws. One plate model was developed for medium- and large-breed dogs and another for small-breed dogs. Mechanical testing showed the platemandible system resists the bite forces in all dog breeds. All safety factors were greater than I in the platemandible system for medium- and large-breed dogs and greater than 10 in the plate-mandible system for small-breed dogs. Thus, bridging plates designed with differentiated geometry and monocortical locking screws showed mechanical resistance to support simulated induced bone model defects and were able to support at least 5 times the value of bite force for each evaluated dog. PMID:27487652

  2. Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Induced by Pazopanib

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a clinical/radiological syndrome characterized by headache, seizures, impaired vision, acute hypertension, and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings. There are several reports in the literature that depict its occurrence in cancer patients. The list of common anticancer and supportive care drugs that predispose to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is expanding and includes not only a large number of chemotherapeutic agents but also an increased number of new targeted drugs, particularly angiogenesis inhibitors such as bevacizumab,sorefenib and sunitinib. Pazopanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit which after a positive phase III randomized clinical trial in patients with advanced renal cell cancer received FDA approval for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Until now no cases of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome induced by pazopanib have been reported. Case report We present the case of a 40 years old female patient with heavily pre-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received pazopanib as salvage treatment. After 21 days of pazopanib therapy the patient referred to the emergency department with epileptic seizure, impaired vision at both eyes and headache. MRI of the brain revealed subcortical oedema at the occipital and parietal lobes bilaterally. She was treated with anticonvulsants, i.v. administration of mannitol and antihypertensives and she recovered completely from her symptoms and was discharged on the tenth hospital day. A brain MRI performed 3 weeks after showed that the subcortical oedema had been subsided. Conclusion In conclusion this is the first case of pazopanib induced reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Although usually reversible, this syndrome is a serious and potentially life threatening adverse

  3. A new matrix in esthetic posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Rovatti, L; Cavalleri, G; Dallari, A

    1998-03-01

    Using composite resins in posterior esthetic restorations has become more acceptable in recent years as a result of improvements in materials. For this reason, innovative products such as Luciwedge and the SuperMat System have gained the attention of many practitioners. SuperMat, an improved translucent matrix, offers a new approach to matrices for use with multimaterial fillings. It makes the procedure easier and offers many other advantages, particularly in composite-compomer restorations.

  4. Posterior triangle pain: the os trigonum.

    PubMed

    Martin, B F

    1989-01-01

    Pain emanating from the region of the posterior triangle may present a difficult diagnostic problem for the practitioner. A case of os trigonum pathology with a logical plan for the diagnostic evaluation and resolution of this problem is presented. The use of bone scan and tomography is shown to be helpful for evaluation and arriving at the appropriate diagnosis. Both conservative and surgical treatments are discussed.

  5. The mechanism of continence after posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981

  6. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  7. [Clinical use of flavonoid enriched biologically active food supplements in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis in combination with chronic cholecystitis or bile ducts dyskinesia].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; Vasil'ev, A V; Kochetkov, A M; Pogozheva, A V; Lysikova, S L; Akol'zina, S E; Vorob'eva, L Sh

    2003-01-01

    60 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and secretory insufficiency allied with chelicobacterial infection in combination with chronic unlithic cholecystitis or diskinesia of choledoch ways were explored with a view to study the efficiency of dietary cure including biologically active food supplements--flavonoids source. Fortification of the patients food intake with flavonoids-containing biologically active food supplements benefits mucous membrane of gastroduodenal zone that is evidenced in decrease of activity of pyloric chelicobacteriosis and resolvent and reparative effect, it also contributes to normalization of hepatobiliaric system condition and antioxidant status.

  8. Promoter polymorphisms in trefoil factor 2 and trefoil factor 3 genes and susceptibility to gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis among Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Mo-Ye; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-10-15

    The polymorphisms in trefoil factor (TFF) gene family that protect gastrointestinal epithelium might influence individual vulnerability to gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY platform to identify the genotypes of TFF2 rs3814896 and TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphisms in 478 GC patients, 652 atrophic gastritis patients, and 724 controls. For the TFF2 rs3814896 polymorphism, in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years, we found that AG+GG genotypes were associated with a 0.746-fold decreased risk of atrophic gastritis [p=0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.580-0.960], a 0.626-fold decreased risk of GC (p=0.005, 95% CI=0.451-0.868), and a 0.663-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC (p=0.034, 95% CI=0.452-0.970) compared with the common AA genotype. For the TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphism, in the male subgroup, individuals with variant AG+AA genotype were associated with a 0.761-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC compared with the common GG genotype (p=0.043, 95% CI=0.584-0.992). Additionally, we found that in subjects aged ≤ 50 years compared with common AA genotype, TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes were associated with increased TFF2 mRNA levels in the total gastric cancer specimens and in the diffuse-type gastric cancer specimens; and in males aged ≤ 50 years compared with common GG genotype, TFF3 rs9981660 AA+AG genotypes were associated with TFF3 mRNA levels in diffuse-type gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between the TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes and decreased risks of GC, diffuse-type GC, and atrophic gastritis in younger people aged ≤ 50 years, and an association between TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotype and decreased risk of diffuse-type GC in men. Moreover, we found that TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes in people aged ≤ 50 years and TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotypes in younger males with diffuse-type GC were associated with higher levels of

  9. Reconstruction of the mandible and the maxilla: the evolution of surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The upper and lower jaws play an essential role in mastication, articulation, and cosmetic form. The mandible provides support for tongue position and elevation of the larynx during swallowing, while the maxilla provides support for the nasal structures as well as an opposing structure to the mandible during mastication. The evolution of mandibular and maxillary reconstruction dates back to the early 19th century. Before the introduction of free tissue transfer, a variety of local flaps, regional flaps, and prosthetics were introduced, yet each was met with eventual failure. Since the introduction of free tissue transfer, mandibular and maxillary reconstruction has become as much of an art as it has a science. Whether the mandibular or the palatomaxillary defects are a result of trauma, congenital deformity, or tumor extirpation, the resultant effect often disrupts both form and function. With these considerations taken together, jaw reconstruction is a unique undertaking in which the artistic reconstruction of the facial skeleton is met with the science of reestablishing the mechanics of mastication. The site, size, and associated soft-tissue defects represent the 3 most important factors in determining the impact of a given defect on function and aesthetics. There is also an inherent difference between defects that are sustained in a controlled fashion, such as during cancer ablation, and those that result from trauma. The consideration of these complexities in jaw reconstruction is reflected in the wide variety of approaches and techniques that have evolved over the past century. PMID:20231587

  10. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: topic review and a unique case of metastasis to the mandible.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Keith M; Martinez, Alan Y; Guglielmi, Marcello

    2015-03-01

    There are few reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) metastasis to the head and neck region, and no cases reporting LCNEC from lung metastasizing to the mandible. LCNEC is not well reported in the literature due to recent changes in the criteria for diagnosis, revised in 2004 by the world health organization, due to its propensity for rapid growth and low 5 year prognosis. We present a 61 year old female diagnosed with LCNEC of the lung in October, 2007 treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Our patient had a PET scan performed in March, 2009 revealing no sign of metastasis. In July, 2009 she was seen for suspected sialadenitis by another department and referred to our oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic. Her signs and symptoms were consistent with metastatic disease to the mandible confirmed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination which revealed an invasive poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma. Palliative care was offered. Our patient died 2 years after initial diagnosis of lung cancer and 3 months after initial finding of metastatic disease. The rapid growth and spread of this cancer was surprising and knowledge of this cancer should be included in a differential diagnosis of expanding mandibular jaw lesions.

  11. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  12. Orthodontic-surgical treatment after posttraumatic bilateral condylectomy of the mandible in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Belli, Evaristo; Matteini, Claudio; Incisivo, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    A posttraumatic open bite associated with a bird face is reported. Condylectomy was indicated in relation to the plurifragmentary fracture of the condyles with limitation of mandibular movement. Condylectomies were mandatory as a result of delayed maxillofacial surgical treatment, which was related to the poor general condition of the patient after trauma. Functional disorder recovery and aesthetic deformity correction were planned by a team approach between orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons with the support of a logopedist for the postural-related muscle problems. The main practical and theoretical problems presented by the clinical case were a result of the need to restore the occlusal relations and to avoid recurrence of open bite in this patient. The patient presented a wide alteration of muscular function and a strength fibrotic retraction with alteration in the relationship between upper and lower jaws and retrusion of the mandible associated to open bite. Orthodontic treatment was carried with no impact on the upper and lower axis, avoiding orthodontic correction of the open bite. Surgery corrected both the open bite and the bird face by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Wiring of the mandibular osteotomies and intermaxillary fixation allowed positioning of the mandibular ramus bilaterally because of the fibrosis and muscular action-related forces without resulting in a similar rotation of the mandible with the risk of recurrence. Myotherapy and logopedic support minimized the risk of recurrence, improved reduction of muscular tension with the resolution of the lip incompetence, and allowed functional recovery of mandibular movements. PMID:12544222

  13. Multiple huge osteomas of the mandible causing disfigurement related with Gardner's syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Baykul, Timuçin; Heybeli, Nurettin; Oyar, Orhan; Doğru, Harun

    2003-12-01

    As osteomas of the bones including the jaws may be the initial symptom or clinical finding in the Gardner's syndrome, this entity should always be included in the differential diagnosis. A 20-year-old boy was referred to our clinic from another medical center. Extra-oral examination of the patient revealed an obvious asymmetry and disfigurement of the left mandibular corpus, angle and ramus. A panoramic radiograph revealed two huge osteomas at the angle, ramus and two smaller osteomas at the inferior border of the mandible. At the same time, there were an impacted canine and premolar. Diffuse sclerosis of the whole mandible was also seen. Upon the suspicion of Gardner's syndrome, barium passage radiographs of the intestine were requested and multiple polyps were observed. All of these findings led us to the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon and the dentist needs to be aware of the components of this entity because manifestations in the head and neck including epidermoid cysts, osteomas, odontomas, exostoses, supernumerary and impacted teeth are common. At the same time, osteomas causing disfigurement on the face related with Gardner's syndrome with increased uptake in scintigraphic examination should be treated by surgical excision of the lesions.

  14. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a case of myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old male patient. A tumour in the buccal gingiva of the lower left premolar region had been identified 2 years earlier. Whole-jaw panoramic radiographs showed a hypodense shadow in the mesiodistal area near the roots of teeth 34 and 35. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a mass in the lower left premolar soft tissue, with a shadow indicating bone destruction, a clear boundary and uniform density. The preliminary diagnosis at the outpatient department was 34–35 epulis. The patient underwent surgery for 34–35 gingival tumour resection, 34 and 35 extraction, and 34 and 35 immediate implantation. The postoperative pathological examination revealed a cellular type extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the lower left mandible. Under general anaesthesia, the patient underwent lower left mandibular block and segmental resection, submandibular triangle dissection and vessel disassociation, and musculocutaneous flap repair in the oral and maxillofacial defect area. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaints of discomfort, and tumour recurrence was not observed on imaging examinations.

  15. The mandible opening response: quantifying aggression elicited by chemical cues in ants.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2008-04-01

    Social insects have evolved efficient recognition systems guaranteeing social cohesion and protection from enemies. To defend their territories and threaten non-nestmate intruders, ants open their mandibles as a first aggressive display. Albeit chemical cues play a major role in discrimination between nestmates and non-nestmates, classical bioassays based on aggressive behaviour were not particularly effective in disentangling chemical perception and behavioural components of nestmate recognition by means of categorical variables. We therefore developed a novel bioassay that accurately isolates chemical perception from other cues. We studied four ant species: Camponotus herculeanus, C. vagus, Formica rufibarbis and F. cunicularia. Chemical analyses of cuticular extracts of workers of these four species showed that they varied in the number and identity of compounds and that species of the same genus have more similar profiles. The antennae of harnessed ants were touched with a glass rod coated with the cuticular extract of (a) nestmates, (b) non-nestmates of the same species, (c) another species of the same genus and (d) a species of a different genus. The mandible opening response (MOR) was recorded as the aggressive response. In all assayed species, MOR significantly differed among stimuli, being weakest towards nestmate odour and strongest towards odours originating from ants of a different genus. We thus introduce here a new procedure suitable for studying the chemical basis of aggression in ants.

  16. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    PubMed Central

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  17. [Skull and mandible. On Joseph Beuys' "ancient sled." Medical art history observation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, H

    1999-05-01

    Few people are aware that Joseph Beuys (1921-1986), one of the most important artists at the end of the twentieth century, studied various aspects of the human skull. Beuys used teeth (especially molars), antlers, and horns as organically differentiated formations of solid substances of the viscerocranium, associating them in a very visual way with the "streaming circulation" principle. In addition, in his early drawings, in particular, Beuys replaced the lower jaw with a sledge. The artist has thus created interesting and strange constructions concerned with the structure of the jaw and the craniovertebral transition. Certain characteristic structural elements of sledges show a remarkable formal analogy to the ramus of mandible. The base of the body of mandible becomes a sliding surface, the iron runners of the sledge. Replacing the lower jaw with a sledge raises questions concerning movement and the effect of energy on the skull and on the earth. The artist's understanding of anatomy goes for beyond than that of normal medicine. It is formed by his thinking, his energy plan, and by his own theory of metamorphosis. With his skull and Urschlitten motif, Beuys makes us aware of the transitory layers of consciousness between life and death. "Head" and "sledge" are early forms of sculptural thinking in the work of Joseph Beuys.

  18. Treatment of osteoradionecrosis of mandible with bone marrow concentrate and with dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, K; Sankaranarayanan, S; Ravi, V R; Elangovan, S; Chandramohan, M; Perumal, S Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a noninfectious, necrotic condition of the bone occurring as a complication of radiotherapy. Most cases occur following trauma or surgical manipulation of the irradiated site. Mandible is the most common bone to be affected following head and neck irradiation. The aim was to develop a successful therapeutic approach for ORN. A spectrum of treatment modalities is practiced for ORN with variable success rate that includes simple irrigation of the affected bone to the partial or complete resection of the jaw bone. In this paper, we present two cases which had successful therapeutic approach for ORN of mandible with autologous bone marrow concentrate stem cells and allogeneic dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) with platelet rich plasma (PRP) following failure of conventional methods. Autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) was injected around the socket and into the periosteum for one case, and DPSC were mixed with tricalcium phosphate and inserted at the site of the defect in one case. The patient treated with BMAC remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling was noticed after 1 year. The extraoral sinus was excised, and healing was uneventful without recurrence in the patient treated with allogeneic DPSC and PRP. Periodic panoramic radiographs revealed an appreciable bone formation from the 2(nd) month onward. We have successfully treated two cases of ORN with BMAC and DPSC, respectively.

  19. The use of SPECT to evaluate growth cessation of the mandible in unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pripatnanont, P; Vittayakittipong, P; Markmanee, U; Thongmak, S; Yipintsoi, T

    2005-06-01

    In unilateral condylar hyperplasia, for surgical intervention to be effective, the status of condylar bone growth has to be assessed correctly. Previously this assessment relied on serial clinical observations. This study aimed to evaluate the MDP-SPECT method of assessing condylar growth in unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Twenty-six MDP-SPECT of the mandible had been performed; 21 were diagnosed as condylar hyperplasia and five as non-mandibular disease. Three isotope parameters: isotope counts, pixel counts and counts per pixel were summed for each condyle per subject. The percentage difference in isotope uptake of the three parameters between the two condyles was calculated as the ratio of the combined counts of the two sides. These differences significantly correlated with each other (Pearson r=0.78-0.98) and with the clinical status of bone growth (Spearman rho=0.72-0.86). There was a significant difference for the count per pixel between the 'growing' condyle (transaxial, T: 15.05+/-7.14, coronal, C: 12.29+/-7.88), the 'no further growth' condyle (T: 5.22+/-4.08, C: 5.67+/-3.88) and the 'normal' condyle (T: 0.82+/-0.76, C: 1.34+/-0.66). This method was able to separate 'active growth' from 'growth cessation' of the condyle by a single MDP-SPECT of the mandible. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:16053843

  20. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy).

    PubMed

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-07-08

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study.

  1. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A.; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study. PMID:27389305

  2. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy).

    PubMed

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study. PMID:27389305

  3. Dosimetric study of mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography scanners.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Helen J; Andrade, Marcos E; Araujo, Max Well; Brasileiro, Izabela V; Kramer, Richard; Huda, Amir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the air kerma-area product (PKA) and the skin absorbed dose in the region of the eyes, salivary glands and thyroid of the patient from mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners, i.e. i-CAT classic, Gendex CB-500 and PreXion 3D. For the dosimetric evaluation, an anthropomorphic head phantom (model RS-250) was used to simulate an adult patient. The CBCT examinations were performed using standard and high-resolution protocols for mandible acquisitions for adult patients. During the phantom's exposure, the PKA was measured using an ionising chamber and the absorbed doses to the skin in the region of the eyes, thyroid and salivary glands were estimated using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) positioned on the phantom's surface. The PKA values estimated with the CBCT scanners varied from 26 to 138 µGy m(2). Skin absorbed doses in the region of the eyes varied from 0.07 to 0.34 mGy; at the parotid glands, from 1.31 to 5.93 mGy; at the submandibular glands, from 1.41 to 6.86 mGy; and at the thyroid, from 0.18 to 2.45 mGy. PKA and absorbed doses showed the highest values for the PreXion 3D scanner due to the use of the continuous exposure mode and a high current-time product.

  4. Intraosseous Vascular Access through the Anterior Mandible – A Cadaver Model Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldschalt, Christin; Doll, Sara; Ihle, Brit; Kirsch, Joachim; Mutzbauer, Till Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. Methodology/Principal Findings 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviation)s and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18). Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93). Conclusions/Significance Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies. PMID:25405476

  5. Tooth hardness increases with zinc-content in mandibles of young adult leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Nesson, Michael H; Richardson, Kathleen A

    2002-12-01

    A wide variety of arthropods and members of other phyla have elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, other heavy metals and halogens in their jaws, leg claws, and other "tools" for interacting with the environment. While measured Zn concentrations reach 25% of dry mass in scorpion stings, concentrations are often lower than this and the enriched structures are not heavily biomineralized like vertebrate teeth and the radula of mollusks. For this reason, the degree to which the inorganic components of these structures modify their mechanical properties is in question. Here we address this problem by measuring hardness during the development of Zn accumulations in ant mandibles. We found that Zn is incorporated into the mandibular teeth of leaf-cutter ants during early adult life, reaching concentrations of about 16% of dry mass. We show that the hardness of the mandibular teeth increases nearly three-fold as the adults age and that hardness correlates with Zn content ( r=0.91). We suggest that young adults rarely cut leaves partly because their mandibles are not yet rich in Zn. Zinc enrichment (along with enrichment by other heavy metals and halogens) may play an unrecognized role in the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide variety of invertebrates.

  6. A mandible arresting system in neotropical social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae): structural diversity within homogeneous functionality.

    PubMed

    López-Cubillos, Sofía; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2013-05-01

    Microtrichia are epidermal protuberances that may serve as temporary adhesive devices. Several insects possess these structures; however, they have not previously been reported in social wasps. With scanning electron microscopy, we characterize the shape and abundance of microtrichia in ten species of social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae) and three species of related taxa (Vespidae: Eumeninae, Pompilidae, and Scoliidae). Semi-thin sections of the head of Leipomeles spilogastra and Apoica albimacula were also studied. We found microtrichia on a thin, flexible membrane connected to the mandible in all the Vespidae specimens. The flexible membrane can be divided into three regions: the basal region that covers the mandibular mesial emargination, the medial region located around the height of the mandibular condyles, and the distal region that appears anterior to the apodeme folding. Basal and distal regions of the membrane are extensively covered by microtrichia while the medial region has either less microtrichia or is entirely devoid of them. The shape and density of the microtrichia differed between species, and these traits are unrelated with nest material construction or phylogenetic closeness. We propose that the microtrichial membrane described is a passive mechanism to keep the wasps' mandibles retracted through a mechanical interlocking system. It is possible that this energy-saving mechanism is present in other mandibulate insects.

  7. A mandible arresting system in neotropical social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae): structural diversity within homogeneous functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cubillos, Sofía; Sarmiento, Carlos E.

    2013-05-01

    Microtrichia are epidermal protuberances that may serve as temporary adhesive devices. Several insects possess these structures; however, they have not previously been reported in social wasps. With scanning electron microscopy, we characterize the shape and abundance of microtrichia in ten species of social wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae) and three species of related taxa (Vespidae: Eumeninae, Pompilidae, and Scoliidae). Semi-thin sections of the head of Leipomeles spilogastra and Apoica albimacula were also studied. We found microtrichia on a thin, flexible membrane connected to the mandible in all the Vespidae specimens. The flexible membrane can be divided into three regions: the basal region that covers the mandibular mesial emargination, the medial region located around the height of the mandibular condyles, and the distal region that appears anterior to the apodeme folding. Basal and distal regions of the membrane are extensively covered by microtrichia while the medial region has either less microtrichia or is entirely devoid of them. The shape and density of the microtrichia differed between species, and these traits are unrelated with nest material construction or phylogenetic closeness. We propose that the microtrichial membrane described is a passive mechanism to keep the wasps' mandibles retracted through a mechanical interlocking system. It is possible that this energy-saving mechanism is present in other mandibulate insects.

  8. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a case of myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old male patient. A tumour in the buccal gingiva of the lower left premolar region had been identified 2 years earlier. Whole-jaw panoramic radiographs showed a hypodense shadow in the mesiodistal area near the roots of teeth 34 and 35. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a mass in the lower left premolar soft tissue, with a shadow indicating bone destruction, a clear boundary and uniform density. The preliminary diagnosis at the outpatient department was 34–35 epulis. The patient underwent surgery for 34–35 gingival tumour resection, 34 and 35 extraction, and 34 and 35 immediate implantation. The postoperative pathological examination revealed a cellular type extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the lower left mandible. Under general anaesthesia, the patient underwent lower left mandibular block and segmental resection, submandibular triangle dissection and vessel disassociation, and musculocutaneous flap repair in the oral and maxillofacial defect area. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaints of discomfort, and tumour recurrence was not observed on imaging examinations. PMID:27602220

  9. Left/right asymmetries and open/closed differences of interdental forces in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Jonke, Erwin; Manschiebel, Wolfgang; Freudenthaler, Josef W; Bantleon, Hans-Peter; Prossinger, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the variation in interdental forces between mandibular canines and lateral incisors of 19 volunteers (9 males and 10 females) aged 20-26 years for four configurations (mandible open/closed and left/right side). These forces were derived by pulling a stainless steel matrix strip between these teeth, six times per configuration, and registering the time variation with a high-resolution transducer. The repeated median smoothing algorithm was applied to find the maximum of each curve and a bootstrap method estimated the 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) for all 76 configurations. Seventy-six per cent of all paired force differences were found to be significant. Asymmetry phenomena were observed: the interdental forces differed significantly between the left and right sides and also between the open and closed position of the mandible. The interdental forces (4-21 N) showed a pattern modulated by volunteer-specific features: in 91 per cent of the configurations, the interdental forces were larger when the mouth was open. This observed pattern contributes to the instability observed in clinical practice, thus necessitating permanent fixed lower retainer wear.

  10. Tooth hardness increases with zinc-content in mandibles of young adult leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Nesson, Michael H; Richardson, Kathleen A

    2002-12-01

    A wide variety of arthropods and members of other phyla have elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, other heavy metals and halogens in their jaws, leg claws, and other "tools" for interacting with the environment. While measured Zn concentrations reach 25% of dry mass in scorpion stings, concentrations are often lower than this and the enriched structures are not heavily biomineralized like vertebrate teeth and the radula of mollusks. For this reason, the degree to which the inorganic components of these structures modify their mechanical properties is in question. Here we address this problem by measuring hardness during the development of Zn accumulations in ant mandibles. We found that Zn is incorporated into the mandibular teeth of leaf-cutter ants during early adult life, reaching concentrations of about 16% of dry mass. We show that the hardness of the mandibular teeth increases nearly three-fold as the adults age and that hardness correlates with Zn content ( r=0.91). We suggest that young adults rarely cut leaves partly because their mandibles are not yet rich in Zn. Zinc enrichment (along with enrichment by other heavy metals and halogens) may play an unrecognized role in the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide variety of invertebrates. PMID:12536282

  11. Effect of functional shift of the mandible on lubrication of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Kure-Hattori, Ikuko; Watari, Ippei; Takei, Maki; Ishida, Yuji; Yonemitsu, Ikuo; Ono, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Lubrication of synovial joints reduces the coefficient of friction of the articular cartilage surface. To investigate the effect of malocclusion on the lubrication of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we evaluated lubricin expression in the rat TMJ immunohistochemically, under conditions of functional lateral shift of the mandible, during period of growth. Thirty 5-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into experimental, recovery, and control groups. Each rt in the experimental and recovery groups was fitted with an acrylic-plate guiding appliance. The rats in the experimental and control groups were killed at 14 and 28 days after the appliance was attached. Each rat in the recovery group was detached from the appliance at 14 days, and was killed 14 days after the appliance was removed. In the experimental group, the expression of lubricin staining in TMJ cartilage was significantly decreased during the experimental period. In the recovery group, the expression of lubricin staining in TMJ cartilage was significantly greater than in the experimental group, and there was no significant difference at 28 days between the control and recovery groups. Analysis of these data suggests that a functional lateral shift of the mandible during the growth period influences lubrication of the TMJ.

  12. Central retinal artery occlusion as an iatrogenic complication of treatment of central giant cell granuloma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Gauri; Gupta, Swati; Bhushan, Urvashi; Raina, Usha Kaul

    2015-05-01

    Although intralesional steroid injection as a management option for central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the mandible is considered safe, central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a dreaded and previously unreported complication of this treatment modality. The present report discusses an iatrogenic case of CRAO that occurred during treatment of CGCG of the mandible. This complication occurred because of high injection pressure, which led to the opening of an anastomosis between the external and internal carotid arteries, leading to retrograde migration of steroid particles. This report also highlights the importance of being aware of such communications.

  13. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Valsa; Kattoor, Jayasree; Kusumakumari, P

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon round cell tumor with an aggressive course affecting mainly children and young adults. Only 1% of cases is reported with jaw involvement and have mandibular predilection. Radiographic finding in ES reflect many destructive nature of the lesion, like osteolysis, cortical erosion, periostitis and soft tissue mass. A case of ES of the mandible is reported with special consideration to the radiological appearance. How to cite this article: Krishna KBB, Thomas V, Kattoor J, Kusumakumari P. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):109-114. PMID:25206203

  14. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.

  15. Posterior Ankle and Hind Foot Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gökkuş, Kemal; Aydın, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: While anterior ankle arthroscopy is a widely accepted technique, posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy is still a relatively new procedure. The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and vulnerabilty of the posteromedial neurovascular structures to injury scared orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of this review is to highlight the indications, and to present the long term follow up results of posterior ankle/hind foot arthroscopy. Methods: The study included 21 ankles in 21 patients (12 male and 9 female ).The mean age was 37.7 , the mean duration of preoperative symptoms 12.8 months . Arthroscopy performed with the patient prone , under general and spinal anesthesia with tourniquet hemostasis . Preoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is performed (cefazolin 1g) , sand bag placed under ipsilateral anteresuperior iliac spine to correct natural external rotated posture of the ankle and ankle is left hanging of the table so that it can moved freely during surgery. We applied noninvasive distraction method with simple rope which tied and knotted waist of the surgeon . The posterolateral and posteromedial portals which described by Van Dijk was utilized . The arthroscopic visualisation was often initially limited and careful debritement of some adipose tissue of the kager fat pad (Kager's fat pad, also known as the pre-Achilles fat pad) was necessary to create more space to aid visualization .The most valuable point to stay clear from trouble is to understand , know and aware where the flexor hallucis longus tendon exist .So neurovascular structures located beyond this tendon. Principally the process must advance into lateral to medial manner. The mean follow up period was 55 months. The most common preoperative diagnoses were osteochondral lesions of talus (ten ),painful os trigonum syndrome with (five )or without (three) FHL tenosynovitis (total eight ), posterior talofibular ligament thickenning (two ), Haglund’s deformity (one

  16. Assessment of mandibular posterior regional landmarks using cone-beam computed tomography in dental implant surgery.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lílian Azevedo; Souza Picorelli Assis, Neuza Maria; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida; Pires Carvalho, Antônio Carlos; Devito, Karina Lopes

    2016-05-01

    and planning for safe implant installation in the posterior mandible. Furthermore, comprehensive evaluation of the characteristics of this region is necessary, as the variables - submandibular fossa depth, bone height and thickness, and mandibular canal corticalization - are related and must be considered together when planning.

  17. Accuracy of vertical height measurements on direct digital panoramic radiographs using posterior mandibular implants and metal balls as reference objects

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, L; Nizamaldin, Y; Combescure, C; Nedir, R; Bischof, M; Dohan Ehrenfest, DM; Carrel, J-P; Belser, UC

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Conventional panoramic radiography, a widely used radiographic examination tool in implant treatment planning, allows evaluation of the available bone height before inserting posterior mandibular implants. Image distortion and vertical magnification due to projection geometry is well described for rotational panoramic radiographs. To assess the accuracy of vertical height measurements on direct digital panoramic radiographs, implants and metal balls positioned in the posterior mandible were used as radio-opaque reference objects. The reproducibility of the measuring method was assessed by the inter- and intraobserver agreements. Methods: Direct digital panoramic radiographs, performed using a Kodak 8000C (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY), of 17 partially edentulous patients (10 females, 7 males, mean age 65 years) were selected from an X-ray database gathered during routine clinical evaluation of implant sites. Proprietary software and a mouse-driven calliper were used to measure the radiological length of 25 implants and 18 metal reference balls, positioned in mandibular posterior segments. The distortion ratio (DR) was calculated by dividing the radiological implant length by the implant's real length and the radiological ball height by the ball's real height. Results: Mean vertical DR was 0.99 for implants and 0.97 for balls, and was unrelated to mandibular sites, side, age, gender or observer. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were acceptable for both reference objects. Conclusions: Vertical measurements had acceptable accuracy and reproducibility when a software-based calibrated measurement tool was used, confirming that digital panoramic radiography can be reliably utilized to determine the pre-operative implant length in premolar and molar mandibular segments. PMID:23360688

  18. Correlation Analysis of the Hyoid Bone Position in Relation to the Cranial Base, Mandible and Cervical Part of Vertebra with Particular Reference to Bimaxillary Relations / Teleroentgenogram Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deljo, Emsudina; Filipovic, Mediha; Babacic, Rafeta; Grabus, Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship among the orofacial system and the rest of the body ,both in functional and anatomical terms was the subject of numerous scientific studies. The optimum position of the bone structures of orofacial system provides performance of intact vital functions, such as breathing or swallowing. Hyoid bone represents a link between the head and neck. Although located in the neck, hyoid bone due to its brachial origin belongs to the visceral skeleton. The purpose of the research: a) To determine the position of the hyoid bone, in relation to the cranial base, mandible and cervical part of the vertebra; b) To determine the linear measures of hyoid bone and its constituents and c) to Identify on the profile teleroengen image, whether there are differences in the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship. The examinees and methods: 30 profile teleroengen images of patients aged 17-18 years of both sexes were used for this study. To study the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship respondents were divided into groups based on the ANB-angle values. The first group is ortognat patients with ANBangle values, from 1 to 4°. The second group included patients with distal jaw relationship, that is, whose values of ANB-angle were greater than / or 5°. The third group consists of patients with ANB-angle value of 0 or negative. Results and Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone is not constant, but depends on the maxillo-mandibular anterior posterior relationships. Length of hyoid bones and greater horns of hyoid bone differs with respect to the sagittal malocclusion. In relation to the cranial base and maxillary bones flat position of the hyoid bone is highly correlated. A positive correlation was found with relation to the cervical vertebra, while the dependence is determined in relation to the steep mandibular plane. PMID:23322951

  19. Transcriptional activator TAp63 is upregulated in muscular atrophy during ALS and induces the pro-atrophic ubiquitin ligase Trim63

    PubMed Central

    von Grabowiecki, Yannick; Abreu, Paula; Blanchard, Orphee; Palamiuc, Lavinia; Benosman, Samir; Mériaux, Sophie; Devignot, Véronique; Gross, Isabelle; Mellitzer, Georg; Gonzalez de Aguilar, José L; Gaiddon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of muscle atrophy are complex and their understanding might help finding therapeutic solutions for pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We meta-analyzed transcriptomic experiments of muscles of ALS patients and mouse models, uncovering a p53 deregulation as common denominator. We then characterized the induction of several p53 family members (p53, p63, p73) and a correlation between the levels of p53 family target genes and the severity of muscle atrophy in ALS patients and mice. In particular, we observed increased p63 protein levels in the fibers of atrophic muscles via denervation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. At a functional level, we demonstrated that TAp63 and p53 transactivate the promoter and increased the expression of Trim63 (MuRF1), an effector of muscle atrophy. Altogether, these results suggest a novel function for p63 as a contributor to muscular atrophic processes via the regulation of multiple genes, including the muscle atrophy gene Trim63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10528.001 PMID:26919175

  20. Correlation of changes in the mandible and retina/choroid vasculature of a rat model of BRONJ.

    PubMed

    Borke, James L; McAllister, Bennett; Harris, Tiffenie; Neiberg, Maryke; Guevarra-Toth, Chestine; Fulzele, Sadanand; Stoianovici, Charles; Guerra, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) causes bones of the mandible and maxilla to become necrotic and protrude into the oral cavity. Compromised blood supply to bone is also a feature of BRONJ. The design of this study was first to use our established technique of molar extraction and IV bisphosphonate injection to produce features of BRONJ in rats that mimic the human disease; second to confirm vascular changes in the mandible and eye using micro-CT of vascular casts, and image analysis of retina/choroid images; and third to show parallel bisphosphonate-induced changes in the structure and markers of the vasculature of the bone and eye. The results of this study show structural changes in the eye and mandible as well as biochemical changes including the up-regulation of VEGF in response to the bisphosphonate-associated ischemia. These changes are not associated with angiogenesis in either the eye or mandible as determined by reduced vascular complexity. These results suggest that observations of direct changes to the vasculature in the retina/choroid structures of the eye in patients taking bisphosphonates could serve as a window to the progression of debilitating changes occurring as a result of bisphosphonate therapy.