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Sample records for att minska transportlogistikens

  1. ATT- A Double Edged Sword?

    PubMed Central

    Gude, D.; Bansal, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Antitubercular therapy (ATT) induced hepatotoxicity, although well known to clinicians, is often over looked and underrated. Given the low threshold of starting ATT, especially empirically, the adverse manifestations can take a considerable toll. A variety of associated risk factors compound the morbidity. We throw light on one such a case where ATT was detrimental to the patient and review the literature and possible preventive strategies. PMID:23112401

  2. 78 FR 69878 - AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of AT&T Corporation, a subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (subject firm...

  3. TV via satellite from AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, J.

    1982-04-01

    AT&T's Satellite Television Service, which relays TV feeds by means of the Comstar domestic communications satellite system, is discussed. Advantages include the ability to provide multiple feeds of program and advertising material simultaneously to affiliates, which can help accommodate the trend toward greater program diversity, and the ability to distribute one signal to many points, making their use economically attractive. A proposed radio service from AT&T is also discussed, which could provide radio broadcasters and programmers with a high-quality, versatile means of transmitting radio programs via satellite.

  4. Teletraining Productivity at AT&T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.; And Others

    This report describes the AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) teletraining program, which includes internal programs, one-hour update programs, and special internal seminars. Topics considered include the number of courses, sessions, and update programs offered; the number of students served; and student acceptance of the programs…

  5. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  6. 76 FR 27666 - AT&T Services, Inc., Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration AT&T Services, Inc., Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Negative... Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of AT&T Services, Inc... AT&T Services, Inc. (and not AT&T) is the appropriate name of the firm, and the heading has...

  7. Identification of key structural determinants of the IntI1 integron integrase that influence attC × attI1 recombination efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Demarre, Gaëlle; Frumerie, Clara; Gopaul, Deshmukh N.; Mazel, Didier

    2007-01-01

    The integron platform codes for an integrase (IntI) from the tyrosine family of recombinases that mediates recombination between a proximal double-strand recombination site, attI and a single-strand target recombination site, attC. The attI site is only recognized by its cognate integrase, while the various tested attCs sites are recombined by several different IntI integrases. We have developed a genetic system to enrich and select mutants of IntI1 that provide a higher yield of recombination in order to identify key protein structural elements important for attC × attI1 recombination. We isolated mutants with higher activity on wild type and mutant attC sites. Interestingly, three out of four characterized IntI1 mutants selected on different substrates are mutants of the conserved aspartic acid in position 161. The IntI1 model we made based on the VchIntIA 3D structure suggests that substitution at this position, which plays a central role in multimer assembly, can increase or decrease the stability of the complex and accordingly influence the rate of attI × attC recombination versus attC × attC. These results suggest that there is a balance between the specificity of the protein and the protein/protein interactions in the recombination synapse. PMID:17884913

  8. Determination of the attP and attB sites of phage CD27 from Clostridium difficile NCTC 12727.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel; Meader, Emma; Mayer, Melinda; Narbad, Arjan; Roberts, Adam P; Mullany, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The attP region of the Clostridium difficile phage CD27 was identified, located immediately downstream of the putative recombinase. The phage could integrate into two specific sites (attB) in the C. difficile genome, one of which was in an open reading frame encoding a putative ATPase of an ABC transporter and the other in an open reading frame encoding a putative ATPase of the flagella protein export apparatus. The prophage was capable of excision and formation of a circular molecule and phages were spontaneously released at a low frequency during growth. Infection and lysogeny of a C. difficile strain previously shown to be sensitive to CD27 were demonstrated, leading to a reduction in toxin production. Finally, a putative repressor was identified which is likely to be involved in maintaining lysogeny in these strains.

  9. QCD Prediction of ATT for Small QT Dimuon Production in pp and pp-bar Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kodaira, Jiro; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2007-06-13

    We present QCD prediction of double-spin asymmetries (ATT) in transversely polarized Drell-Yan process at small transverse momentum QT of dimuon. Resummation of large logarithmic corrections, relevant in small QT region, is performed up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. ATT at RHIC, J-PARC and GSI are studied numerically in the corresponding kinematic regions. We show that the large ATT is obtained for small QT and moderate energies.

  10. Interactions of the excision proteins of CTnDOT in the attR intasome.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Carolyn M; Hopp, Crystal M; Yoneji, Sumiko; Gardner, Jeffrey F

    2013-09-01

    Excision of the conjugative transposon CTnDOT from the chromosome of Bacteroides spp. involves four CTnDOT-encoded proteins: IntDOT, Xis2c, Xis2d, and Exc along with a host factor. These proteins form excisive intasomes on the attR and attL sites which undergo synapsis and recombination to form the attDOT and attB sites. We recently developed an in vitro intramolecular excision reaction where the attL and attR sites are on the same plasmid. This reaction requires IntDOT, Xis2c, Xis2d, and is stimulated by Exc. We used this reaction to identify the binding sites of the IntDOT, Xis2c, and Xis2d. In this paper, we show that three of the six arm-type sites are absolutely required for excision. Furthermore, we also identified two binding sites for Xis2d and two possible binding sites for Xis2c on the attR site. We also showed that IntDOT interacts cooperatively with the Xis2c and Xis2d proteins on the attR site.

  11. Definition of the attI1 site of class 1 integrons.

    PubMed

    Partridge, S R; Recchia, G D; Scaramuzzi, C; Collis, C M; Stokes, H W; Hall, R M

    2000-11-01

    Integron-encoded integrases recognize two distinct types of recombination site: attI sites, found in integrons, and members of the 59-base element (59-be) family, found in the integron-associated gene cassettes. The class 1 integron integrase, IntI1, catalyses recombination between attI1 and a 59-be, two 59-be, or two attI1 sites, but events involving two attI1 sites are less efficient than the reactions in which a 59-be participates. The full attI1 site is required for high-efficiency recombination with a 59-be site. It is 65 bp in length and includes a simple site, consisting of a pair of inversely oriented IntI1-binding domains, together with two further directly oriented IntI1-binding sites designated strong and weak. However, a smaller region that contains only the simple site is sufficient to support a lower level of recombination with a complete attI1 partner and the features that determine the orientation of attI1 reside within this region. An unusual reaction between the attI1 site and a 59-be appears to be responsible for the loss of the central region of a 59-be to create a potential fusion of two adjacent gene cassettes.

  12. 76 FR 5831 - AT&T; Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration AT&T; Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of AT&T, Reynoldsburg, Ohio ]...

  13. 76 FR 5831 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T Division, New Haven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T...., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, Connecticut (subject firm). The... importantly to worker separations in Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division....

  14. Diversity and strength of internal outward-oriented promoters in group IIC-attC introns

    PubMed Central

    Léon, Grégory; Quiroga, Cecilia; Centrón, Daniela; Roy, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Integrons are genetic elements that incorporate mobile gene cassettes by site-specific recombination and express them as an operon from a promoter (Pc) located upstream of the cassette insertion site. Most gene cassettes found in integrons contain only one gene followed by an attC recombination site. We have recently shown that a specific lineage of group IIC introns, named group IIC-attC introns, inserts into the bottom strand sequence of attC sites. Here, we show that S.ma.I2, a group IIC-attC intron inserted in an integron cassette array of Serratia marcescens, impedes transcription from Pc while allowing expression of the following antibiotic resistance cassette using an internal outward-oriented promoter (Pout). Bioinformatic analyses indicate that one or two putative Pout, which have sequence similarities with the Escherichia coli consensus promoters, are conserved in most group IIC-attC intron sequences. We show that Pout with different versions of the −35 and −10 sequences are functionally active in expressing a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene in E. coli. Pout in group IIC-attC introns may therefore play a role in the expression of one or more gene cassettes whose transcription from Pc would otherwise be impeded by insertion of the intron. PMID:20716518

  15. The Total Life Concept Transplanted from AT&T to Sandia National Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Harris, S L; Ewing, J W

    1989-11-01

    Abstract This study illustrates how the Total Life Concept (TLC) program originated by AT&T was successfully transplanted to another work site, Sandia National Laboratories. Demographics of the participants at A T&T and Sandia differ and make comparisons difficult, but it is possible to assess program impact in terms of participation rates for each program. The original AT&T TLC pilot study had three major components: orientation, testing, and risk interpretation; lifestyle-improvement courses; and activities to promote health. Sandia kept the three major components of the AT&T TLC concept and made some modifications to meet Sandia's needs. Sandia's experience of adopting a model program and tailoring it to local needs worked well, demonstrating that an existing model can be successfully altered to meet the needs of different companies in varied settings.

  16. An Overview of Research and Development Projects at the AT&T National Teletraining Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.; Balthazar, Lee B.

    Research and development projects at the AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) National Teletraining Center (NTC) are geared toward increasing understanding of the various psychological, sociological, ergonomic, and environmental factors involved in teletraining, and toward improving the ability to manage the distance learning…

  17. Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (ATtILA) for landscape metrics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATtILA is easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape metrics. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape metrics to a wide audience regardless of their GIS knowledge level.

  18. Specificity of prohormone convertase endoproteolysis of progastrin in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, C J; Sawada, M; Guo, Y J; Finniss, S; Yamada, T

    1995-01-01

    Biologically active peptide hormones are synthesized from larger precursor proteins by a variety of posttranslational processing reactions. Endoproteolytic cleavage at the Lys74-Lys75 dibasic processing site of progastrin is the major determinant for the relative distribution of gastrin heptadecapeptide and tetratriacontapeptide in tissues. Thus, we explored the ability of two prohormone convertases, PC1/PC3 and PC2, to cleave this important site within progastrin. We expressed wild-type human gastrin cDNA and mutant cDNAs in which the Lys74Lys75 site was changed to Lys74Arg75, Arg74Arg75, and Arg74Lys75 residues in AtT-20 cells. Because AtT-20 cells express Pc1/PC3 but not PC2, we also coexpressed a cDNA encoding PC2 in both wild-type and mutant gastrin-producing AtT-20 cells. Wild-type Lys74Lys75 and mutant Arg74Arg75 progastrin processing sites were efficiently cleaved in AtT-20 cells only after coexpression of PC2. Mutant Lys74Arg75 progastrin was readily processed in cells in the presence or absence of PC2 coexpression, but, in contrast, mutant Arg74Lys75 progastrin was inefficiently cleaved regardless of PC2 coexpression. Northern analysis revealed the presence of PC2 but not PC1/ PC3 in canine antral gastrin-producing G cells. These data suggest that PC2 but not PC1/PC3 is responsible for the cleavage of the Lys74Lys75 site in wild-type progastrin. Images PMID:7657815

  19. ATtRACT—a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available at http://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid–F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discovering de novo motifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database. Database URL: http:// attract. cnic. es PMID:27055826

  20. ATtRACT-a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available athttp://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid-F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discoveringde novomotifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database.Database URL:http:// attract. cnic. es.

  1. Site-specific integration of the temperate bacteriophage phi adh into the Lactobacillus gasseri chromosome and molecular characterization of the phage (attP) and bacterial (attB) attachment sites.

    PubMed Central

    Raya, R R; Fremaux, C; De Antoni, G L; Klaenhammer, T R

    1992-01-01

    The temperate bacteriophage phi adh integrates its genome into the chromosomal DNA of Lactobacillus gasseri ADH by a site-specific recombination process. Southern hybridization analysis of BclI-digested genomic DNA from six relysogenized derivatives of the prophage-cured strain NCK102 displayed phage-chromosomal junction fragments identical to those of the lysogenic parent. The phi adh attachment site sequence, attP, was located within a 365-bp EcoRI-HindIII fragment of phage phi adh. This fragment was cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis revealed striking features common to the attachment sites of other site-specific recombination systems: five direct repeats of the sequence TGTCCCTTTT(C/T) and a 14-bp inverted repeat. Oligonucleotides derived from the sequence of the attP-containing fragment enabled us to amplify predicted junction fragment sequences and thus to identify attL, attR, and attB. The core region was defined as the 16-bp sequence TACACTTCTTAGGAGG. Phage-encoded functions essential for site-specific insertion of phage phi adh were located in a 4.5-kb BclI fragment. This fragment was cloned in plasmid pSA34 to generate the insertional vector pTRK182. Plasmid pTRK182 was introduced into L. gasseri NCK102 by electroporation. Hybridization analysis showed that a single copy of pTRK182 had integrated at the attB site of the NCK102 erythromycin-resistant transformants. This is the first site-specific recombination system described in lactobacilli, as well as the first attP-based site-specific integration vector constructed for L. gasseri ADH. Images PMID:1512192

  2. Localization of metallocarboxypeptidase D in AtT-20 cells. Potential role in prohormone processing.

    PubMed

    Varlamov, O; Eng, F J; Novikova, E G; Fricker, L D

    1999-05-21

    Carboxypeptidase D (CPD) is a recently discovered metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly located in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and also cycles between the cell surface and the TGN. In the present study, the intracellular distribution of CPD was examined in AtT-20 cells, a mouse anterior pituitary-derived corticotroph. CPD-containing compartments were isolated using antibodies to the CPD cytosolic tail. The immunopurified vesicles contained TGN proteins (TGN38, furin, syntaxin 6) but not lysosomal or plasma membrane proteins. The CPD-containing vesicles also contained neuropeptide-processing enzymes and adrenocorticotropic hormone, a product of proopiomelanocortin proteolysis. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that CPD is present within the TGN and immature secretory granules but is virtually absent from mature granules, suggesting that CPD is actively removed from the regulated pathway during the process of granule maturation. A second major finding of the present study is that a soluble truncated form of CPD is secreted mainly via the constitutive pathway in AtT-20 cells, indicating that the lumenal domain does not contain signals for the sorting of CPD to mature secretory granules. Taken together, these data are consistent with the proposal that CPD participates in the processing of proteins within the TGN and immature secretory vesicles.

  3. Screening of potential pseudo att sites of Streptomyces phage ΦC31 integrase in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-peng; Chen, Lu-sheng; Jia, Cai-yan; Zhu, Huan-zhang; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    ΦC31 integrase mediates site-specific recombination between two short sequences, attP and attB, in phage and bacterial genomes, which is a promising tool in gene regulation-based therapy since the zinc finger structure is probably the DNA recognizing domain that can further be engineered. The aim of this study was to screen potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase in the human genome, and evaluate the risks of its application in human gene therapy. TFBS (transcription factor binding sites) were found on the basis of reported pseudo att sites using multiple motif-finding tools, including AlignACE, BioProspector, Consensus, MEME, and Weeder. The human genome with the proposed motif was scanned to find the potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase. The possible recognition motif of ΦC31 integrase was identified, which was composed of two co-occurrence conserved elements that were reverse complement to each other flanking the core sequence TTG. In the human genome, a total of 27924 potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase were found, which were distributed in each human chromosome with high-risk specificity values in the chromosomes 16, 17, and 19. When the risks of the sites were evaluate more rigorously, 53 hits were discovered, and some of them were just the vital functional genes or regulatory regions, such as ACYP2, AKR1B1, DUSP4, etc. The results provide clues for more comprehensive evaluation of the risks of using ΦC31 integrase in human gene therapy and for drug discovery.

  4. Measuring attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: the ATT-RECOURSE scale.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV.

  5. 76 FR 44036 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, AT&T Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Salamander, AT&T Portable Generator Storage Facility, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the construction of a portable generator storage facility located at 26120 County Road 6, Dunnigan, CA... for the California tiger salamander into a new storage facility for portable generators within the...

  6. Characterization of the attP site of the integrative element pSAM2 from Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Alain; Friedmann, Annick; Tuphile, Karine; Guerineau, Michel; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    pSAM2 is integrated into the Streptomyces ambofaciens chromosome through site-specific recombination between the element (attP) and the chromosomal (attB) site. The 43 kDa integrase protein encoded by pSAM2 catalyses this recombination event. Tools have been developed to study site-specific recombination in Escherichia coli. In vivo studies showed that a 360 bp fragment of attP is required for efficient site-specific recombination and that int can be provided in trans. pSAM2 integrase was purified and overexpressed in E. coli and Int binding at the attP site was studied. DNaseI footprinting revealed two sites that bind integrase strongly and appear to be symmetrical with regard to the core site. These two P1/P2 arm-type sites both contain a 17 bp motif that is identical except at one position, GTCACGCAG(A/T)TAGACAC. P1 and P2 are essential for site-specific recombination.

  7. Interaction of DAPI with individual strands of trinucleotide repeats. Effects of replication in vitro of the AAT x ATT triplet.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Edoardo; Del Grosso, Nicoletta; Erba, Maura; Melino, Sonia; Cicero, Daniel; Paci, Maurizio

    2003-12-01

    The structural changes produced by the minor-groove binding ligand DAPI (4',6-diamidine-2-phenylindole) on individual strands of trinucleotide repeat sequences were detected by electrophoretic band-shift analysis and related to their effects on DNA replication in vitro. Among the 20 possible single-stranded trinucleotide repeats, only the T-rich strand of the AAT.ATT triplet exhibits an observable fluorescence band and a change in electrophoretic mobility due to the drug binding. This is attributable to the property of DAPI that favours folding of the random coil ATT strand into a fast-migrating hairpin structure by a minor-groove binding mechanism. Electrophoretic characteristics of AAT, ACT, AGT, ATG and ATC are unchanged by DAPI, suggesting the crucial role of T.T with respect to A.A, C.C and G.G mismatch, in favouring the binding properties and the structural features of the ATT-DAPI complexes. Primer extension experiments, using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, demonstrate that such a selective structural change at ATT targets presents a marked property to stall DNA replication in vitro in comparison with the complementary AAT and a random GC-rich sequence. The results suggest a novel molecular mechanism of action of the DNA minor-groove binding ligand DAPI.

  8. 78 FR 24683 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 69 Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To Reform Regulation of Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier Rates for Interstate Special...

  9. The att locus of Rhodococcus fascians strain D188 is essential for full virulence on tobacco through the production of an autoregulatory compound.

    PubMed

    Maes, T; Vereecke, D; Ritsema, T; Cornelis, K; Thu, H N; Van Montagu, M; Holsters, M; Goethals, K

    2001-10-01

    The ability of Rhodococcus fascians strain D188 to provoke leafy gall formation on a variety of plant species is correlated with the linear plasmid pFiD188, on which different pathogenicity loci were identified. The att locus affects the severity of symptom development on tobacco, whereas the fas locus is essential for virulence. To gain insight into the function of the att locus, sequence and expression analyses were performed. The att locus contains nine open reading frames homologous to arginine and beta-lactam biosynthetic genes. att gene expression is transcriptionally induced by leafy gall extracts, but not by extracts of uninfected plants, and depends on the attR gene that encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator. The att locus proves to be essential for the formation of inducing factors (IFs) that are present in gall extracts. Because the induction of the fas locus also requires the presence of IFs in gall extracts, the att locus is proposed to play an important role in regulating the expression of the virulence loci of R. fascians.

  10. Mini-Tn7 Insertion in Bacteria With Multiple glmS-Linked attTn7 Sites: Example Burkholderia Mallei ATCC 23344

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-27

    bacterial gen- omes contain single glmS genes, and therefore most probably only a single attTn7 site. With the possible exception of Burkholderia glumae ...mini-Tn7 insertion in bacteria with multiple glmS-linked attTn7 sites: example Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 Kyoung-Hee Choi1, David DeShazer2...downstream of the essential glmS gene. A few bacteria, including Burkholderia spp., contain multiple glmS genes and therefore several attTn7 sites. Here we

  11. Focus shift impacted by mask 3D and comparison between Att. PSM and OMOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yansong; Su, Xiaojing; Dong, LiSong; Song, Zhiyang; Guo, Moran; Su, Yajuan; Wei, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    The impact of mask three dimensions (M3D) effect on lithography processes is getting more pronounced from 32 nm nodes1-2. In this paper, we report four research progresses on the M3Deffect. Firstly, the impacts of M3D effect on the best focus (BF) offset were studied with though pitch as test pattern. The M3D effect has negative impacts on the BF, generating the BF offset pattern by pattern. The BF offset strongly depends on MoSi film thickness (THK). However the impact of MoSi profile, or side wall angle (SWA) could be ignored. Secondly, M3D OPC is needed to mitigate the shift of dose and focus center. Thirdly, as long as enough shade, the thinner MoSi, the less BF shift, as electromagnetic field (EMF) effect makes space behave smaller, which leads to higher contrast but higher mask error enhancement factor(MEEF); So the trade-off between contrast and MEEF is needed. And MoSi THK 43.7 nm in production supposed to be the optimized value from this study. Finally, compared to attenuating phase shifting mask (att.PSM) mask, opaque MoSi on Glass (OMOG) mask is more robust in terms of MEEF, the normalized image logarithmic slope (NILS) etc., not obviously influenced by mask duty ratio.

  12. Sequence requirements for processing of proinsulin in transfected mouse pituitary AtT20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, N A; Docherty, K

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the sequence requirements for proteolytic processing of prohormones at pairs of basic amino acids, normal and mutant proinsulins were expressed in the mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line AtT20. The extent of processing was determined by h.p.l.c. analysis of insulin-like immunoreactivity secreted into the media of transfected cells. In this model system, normal proinsulin was efficiently processed to insulin. The mutant des-38-62-proinsulin, in which all but six amino acids of the C-peptide were deleted, was also processed to insulin but less efficiently than the wild-type. The mutant Lys64-Arg65 to Thr64-Arg65 was partially processed to insulin, while the mutant Arg31-Arg32 to Arg31-Gly32 was not processed at either site. These results indicate: (i) that a six-amino-acid spacer between the two pairs of basic amino acids in proinsulin is sufficient to permit processing at both sites; (ii) that the endoproteinase responsible for cleavage at the Lys64-Arg65 site will also recognize Thr64-Arg65; (iii) that the endoproteinase responsible for cleavage at the Arg31-Arg32 site will not recognize Arg31-Gly32; and (iv) that the change Arg31-Arg32 to Arg31-Gly32 affects processing at the Lys64-Arg65 site. PMID:1382412

  13. Inhibitory effects of trichostatin A on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuki; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Desaki, Rie; Takayasu, Shinobu; Niioka, Kanako; Murasawa, Shingo; Ishigame, Noriko; Asari, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Daimon, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's disease is primarily caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) expression, a hallmark of pituitary tumors, stimulates pituitary cell proliferation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in regulating gene transcription and HDAC inhibitors induce cellular differentiation and suppress tumor cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors also repress PTTG1 mRNA levels. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent cell-permeable HDAC inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression. In the present study, we determined the effect of TSA on ACTH production and cellular proliferation in mouse AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. TSA decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and reduced ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells. The TSA-induced decreases in POMC mRNA levels were not modulated when TSA and dexamethasone were simultaneously administered. Drug treatment also decreased AtT-20 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and increased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase using flow cytometry. TSA decreased PTTG1 mRNA levels. Furthermore, PTTG1 knockdown inhibited cellular proliferation. Its knockdown also inhibited POMC mRNA and ACTH levels. TSA inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation. TSA may inhibit cellular proliferation, and ACTH synthesis and secretion by decreasing PTTG1 expression.

  14. Pseudo attP sites in favor of transgene integration and expression in cultured porcine cells identified by streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phage PhiC31 integrase integrates attB-containing plasmid into pseudo attP site in eukaryotic genomes in a unidirectional site-specific manner and maintains robust transgene expression. Few studies, however, explore its potential in livestock. This study aims to discover the molecular basis of PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination in pig cells. We show that PhiC31 integrase can mediate site-specific transgene integration into the genome of pig kidney PK15 cells. Intramolecular recombination in pig PK15 cell line occurred at maximum frequency of 82% with transiently transfected attB- and attP-containing plasmids. An optimal molar ratio of pCMV-Int to pEGFP-N1-attB at 5:1 was observed for maximum number of cell clones under drug selection. Four candidate pseudo attP sites were identified by TAIL-PCR from those cell clones with single-copy transgene integration. Two of them gave rise to higher integration frequency occurred at 33%. 5′ and 3′ junction PCR showed that transgene integration mediated by PhiC31 integrase was mono-allelic. Micro- deletion and insertion were observed by sequencing the integration border, indicating that double strand break was induced by the recombination. We then constructed rescue reporter plasmids by ABI-REC cloning of the four pseudo attP sites into pBCPB + plasmid. Transfection of these rescue plasmids and pCMV-Int resulted in expected intramolecular recombination between attB and pseudo attP sites. This proved that the endogenous pseudo attP sites were functional substrates for PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination. Two pseudo attP sites maintained robust extracellular and intracellular EGFP expression. Alamar blue assay showed that transgene integration into these specific sites had little effect on cell proliferation. This is the first report to document the potential use of PhiC31 integrase to mediate site-specific recombination in pig cells. Our work established an ideal model to study the

  15. Transcription of AAT•ATT Triplet Repeats in Escherichia coli Is Silenced by H-NS and IS1E Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuefeng; Liao, Lingni; Yang, Li; Li, Hongquan

    2010-01-01

    Background The trinucleotide repeats AAT•ATT are simple DNA sequences that potentially form different types of non-B DNA secondary structures and cause genomic instabilities in vivo. Methodology and Principal Findings The molecular mechanism underlying the maintenance of a 24-triplet AAT•ATT repeat was examined in E.coli by cloning the repeats into the EcoRI site in plasmid pUC18 and into the attB site on the E.coli genome. Either the AAT or the ATT strand acted as lagging strand template in a replication fork. Propagations of the repeats in either orientation on plasmids did not affect colony morphology when triplet repeat transcription using the lacZ promoter was repressed either by supplementing LacIQ in trans or by adding glucose into the medium. In contrast, transparent colonies were formed by inducing transcription of the repeats, suggesting that transcription of AAT•ATT repeats was toxic to cell growth. Meanwhile, significant IS1E transposition events were observed both into the triplet repeats region proximal to the promoter side, the promoter region of the lacZ gene, and into the AAT•ATT region itself. Transposition reversed the transparent colony phenotype back into healthy, convex colonies. In contrast, transcription of an 8-triplet AAT•ATT repeat in either orientation on plasmids did not produce significant changes in cell morphology and did not promote IS1E transposition events. We further found that a role of IS1E transposition into plasmids was to inhibit transcription through the repeats, which was influenced by the presence of the H-NS protein, but not of its paralogue StpA. Conclusions and Significance Our findings thus suggest that the longer AAT•ATT triplet repeats in E.coli become vulnerable after transcription. H-NS and its facilitated IS1E transposition can silence long triplet repeats transcription and preserve cell growth and survival. PMID:21151567

  16. Measuring Attitudes About Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The ATT-IPV Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Anh, Hoang Tu; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Minh, Tran Hung

    2014-01-01

    In lower-income settings, women more often than men justify intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the role of measurement invariance across gender is unstudied. We developed the ATT-IPV scale to measure attitudes about physical violence against wives in 1,055 married men and women ages 18–50 in My Hao district, Vietnam. Across 10 items about transgressions of the wife, women more often than men agreed that a man had good reason to hit his wife (3 % to 92 %; 0 % to 67 %). In random split-half samples, one-factor exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (N1 = 527) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N2 = 528) models for nine items with sufficient variability had significant loadings (0.575–0.883; 0.502–0.897) and good fit (RMSEA = 0.068, 0.048; CFI = 0.951, 0.978, TLI = 0.935, 0.970). Three items had significant uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender, and adjustment for DIF revealed that measurement noninvariance was partially masking men’s lower propensity than women to justify IPV. A CFA model for the six items without DIF had excellent fit (RMSEA = 0.019, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.991) and an attitudinal gender gap similar to the DIF-adjusted nine-item model, suggesting that the six-item scale reliably measures attitudes about IPV across gender. Researchers should validate the scale in urban Vietnam and elsewhere and decompose DIF-adjusted gender attitudinal gaps. PMID:24846070

  17. ProSAAS-Derived Peptides Are Differentially Processed and Sorted in Mouse Brain and AtT-20 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, Jonathan H.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    ProSAAS is the precursor for some of the most abundant peptides found in mouse brain and other tissues, including peptides named SAAS, PEN, and LEN. Both SAAS and LEN are found in big and little forms due to differential processing. Initial processing of proSAAS is mediated by furin (and/or furin-like enzymes) and carboxypeptidase D, while the smaller forms are generated by secretory granule prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. In mouse hypothalamus, PEN and big LEN colocalize with neuropeptide Y. In the present study, little LEN and SAAS were detected in mouse hypothalamus but not in cell bodies of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons. PEN and big LEN show substantial colocalization in hypothalamus, but big LEN and little LEN do not. An antiserum to SAAS that detects both big and little forms of this peptide did not show substantial colocalization with PEN or big LEN. To further study this, the AtT-20 cells mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line was transfected with rat proSAAS and the distribution of peptides examined. As found in mouse hypothalamus, only some of the proSAAS-derived peptides colocalized with each other in AtT-20 cells. The two sites within proSAAS that are known to be efficiently cleaved by furin were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to convert the P4 Arg into Lys; this change converts the sequences from furin consensus sites into prohormone convertase consensus sites. Upon expression of the mutated form of proSAAS in AtT-20 cells, there was significantly more colocalization of proSAAS-derived peptides PEN and SAAS. Taken together, these results indicate that proSAAS is initially cleaved in the Golgi or trans-Golgi network by furin and/or furin-like enzymes and the resulting fragments are sorted into distinct vesicles and further processed by additional enzymes into the mature peptides. PMID:25148519

  18. Glucocorticoid block of protein kinase C signalling in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT20 D16:16 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lijun; Philp, Janet A C; Shipston, Michael J

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) currents by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) and glucocorticoid signalling pathways was investigated in AtT20 D16:16 clonal mouse anterior pituitary corticotroph cells. Maximal activation of PKC using the phorbol esters, 4β-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (dPPA) elicited a rapid, and sustained, inhibition of the outward steady-state voltage- and calcium- dependent potassium current predominantly carried through BK channels. The effect of PMA was blocked by the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS; 100 nM) and chelerythrine chloride (CHE; 25 μM) and was not mimicked by the inactive phorbol ester analogue 4α-PMA. PMA had no significant effect on the 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current or pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. PMA had no significant effect on steady-state outward current in cells pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μM of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone. Dexamethasone had no significant effect on steady-state outward current amplitude or sensitivity to 1 mM TEA and did not block PMA-induced translocation of the phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoforms, PKCα and PKCε, to membrane fractions. Taken together these data suggest that in AtT20 D16:16 corticotroph cells BK channels are important targets for PKC action and that glucocorticoids inhibit PKC signalling downstream of PKC activation. PMID:10200423

  19. Glucocorticoid block of protein kinase C signalling in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT20 D16:16 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, L; Philp, J A; Shipston, M J

    1999-05-01

    1. The regulation of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) currents by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) and glucocorticoid signalling pathways was investigated in AtT20 D16:16 clonal mouse anterior pituitary corticotroph cells. 2. Maximal activation of PKC using the phorbol esters, 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (dPPA) elicited a rapid, and sustained, inhibition of the outward steady-state voltage- and calcium- dependent potassium current predominantly carried through BK channels. 3. The effect of PMA was blocked by the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS; 100 nM) and chelerythrine chloride (CHE; 25 microM) and was not mimicked by the inactive phorbol ester analogue 4alpha-PMA. 4. PMA had no significant effect on the 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current or pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. PMA had no significant effect on steady-state outward current in cells pre-treated for 2 h with 1 microM of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone. Dexamethasone had no significant effect on steady-state outward current amplitude or sensitivity to 1 mM TEA and did not block PMA-induced translocation of the phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, to membrane fractions. 6. Taken together these data suggest that in AtT20 D16:16 corticotroph cells BK channels are important targets for PKC action and that glucocorticoids inhibit PKC signalling downstream of PKC activation.

  20. P-selectin, a granule membrane protein of platelets and endothelial cells, follows the regulated secretory pathway in AtT-20 cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    P-selectin (PADGEM, GMP-140, CD62) is a transmembrane protein specific to alpha granules of platelets and Weibel-Palade bodies of endotheial cells. Upon stimulation of these cells, P-selectin is translocated to the plasma membrane where it functions as a receptor for monocytes and neutrophils. To investigate whether the mechanism of targeting of P- selectin to granules is specific for megakaryocytes and endothelial cells and/or dependent on von Willebrand factor, a soluble adhesive protein that is stored in the same granules, we have expressed the cDNA for P-selectin in AtT-20 cells. AtT-20 cells are a mouse pituitary cell line that can store proteins in a regulated fashion. By double-label immunofluorescence, P-selectin was visible as a punctate pattern at the tips of cell processes. This pattern closely resembled the localization of ACTH, the endogenous hormone produced and stored by the AtT-20 cells. Fractionation of the transfected cells resulted in the codistribution of P-selectin and ACTH in cellular compartments of the same density. Immunoelectron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-P- selectin antibody demonstrated immunogold localization in dense granules, morphologically indistinguishable from the ACTH granules. Binding experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to P-selectin indicated that there was also surface expression of P-selectin on the AtT-20 cells. After stimulation with the secretagogue 8-Bromo-cAMP the surface expression increased twofold, concomitant with the release of ACTH. In contrast, the surface expression of P-selectin transfected into CHO cells, which do not have a regulated pathway of secretion, did not change with 8-Br-cAMP treatment. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the regulated secretion of a transmembrane protein (P-selectin) in a heterologous cell line, which indicates that P-selectin contains an independent sorting signal directing it to storage granules. PMID:1370497

  1. Efficiency of integron cassette insertion in correct orientation is ensured by the interplay of the three unpaired features of attC recombination sites

    PubMed Central

    Nivina, Aleksandra; Escudero, José Antonio; Vit, Claire; Mazel, Didier; Loot, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The integron is a bacterial recombination system that allows acquisition, stockpiling and expression of cassettes carrying protein-coding sequences, and is responsible for the emergence and rise of multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The functionality of this system depends on the insertion of promoterless cassettes in correct orientation, allowing their expression from the promoter located upstream of the cassette array. Correct orientation is ensured by strand selectivity of integron integrases for the bottom strand of cassette recombination sites (attC), recombined in form of folded single-stranded hairpins. Here, we investigated the basis of such strand selectivity by comparing recombination of wild-type and mutated attC sites with different lengths, sequences and structures. We show that all three unpaired structural features that distinguish the bottom and top strands contribute to strand selectivity. The localization of Extra-Helical Bases (EHBs) directly favors integrase binding to the bottom strand. The Unpaired Central Spacer (UCS) and the Variable Terminal Structure (VTS) influence strand selectivity indirectly, probably through the stabilization of the bottom strand and the resulting synapse due to the nucleotide skew between the two strands. These results underscore the importance of the single-stranded nature of the attC site that allows such tight control over integron cassette orientation. PMID:27496283

  2. In AtT20 and HeLa cells brefeldin A induces the fusion of tubular endosomes and changes their distribution and some of their endocytic properties

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on the tubular endosomes in AtT20 and HeLa cells (Tooze, J., and M. Hollinshead. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 115:635-653) by electron microscopy of cells labeled with three endocytic tracers, HRP, BSA-gold, and transferrin conjugated to HRP, and by immunofluorescence microscopy. For the latter we used antibodies specific for transferrin receptor, and, in the case of AtT20 cells, also antibodies specific for synaptophysin. In HeLa cells BFA at concentrations ranging from 1 micrograms to 10 micrograms/ml causes the dispersed patches of network of preexisting tubular early endosomes to be incorporated within 5 min into tubules approximately 50 nm in diameter but up to 40-50 microns long. These long, straight tubular endosomes are aligned along microtubules; they branch relatively infrequently to form an open network or reticulum extending from the cell periphery to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). As the incubation with BFA is prolonged beyond 5 min, a steady state is reached in which many tubules are located in a dense network enclosing the centrioles, with branches extending in a more open network to the periphery. This effect of BFA, which is fully reversed within 15-30 min of washing out, is inhibited by pre-incubating the cells with sodium azide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In AtT20 cells BFA at 5 micrograms/ml or above causes the same sorts of changes, preexisting tubular endosomes are recruited into a more continuous endosomal network, and there is a massive accumulation of this network around the MTOC. Maintenance of the BFA-induced endosomal reticulum in both cell types is dependent upon the integrity of microtubules. In AtT20 cells BFA at 1 microgram/ml has no detectable effect on the early endosomal system but the Golgi stacks are converted to clusters of tubules and vesicles that remain in the region of the MTOC during prolonged incubations. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus in these cells is more sensitive to BFA

  3. Melatonin receptor activation suppresses adrenocorticotropin production via BMP-4 action by pituitary AtT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Naoko; Otsuka, Fumio; Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Inagaki, Kenichi; Nakamura, Eri; Toma, Kishio; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-08-15

    The role of melatonin, a regulator of circadian rhythm, in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production by corticotrope cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on ACTH production in relation to the biological activity of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 using mouse corticotrope AtT20 cells that express melatonin type-1 (MT1R) but not type-2 (MT2R) receptors. We previously reported that BMP-4 inhibits corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-induced ACTH production and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription by inhibiting MAPK signaling. Both melatonin and an MT1R/MT2R agonist, ramelteon, suppressed CRH-induced ACTH production, POMC transcription and cAMP synthesis. The inhibitory effects of ramelteon on basal and CRH-induced POMC mRNA and ACTH levels were more potent than those of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin or ramelteon in combination with BMP-4 additively suppressed CRH-induced ACTH production. Of note, the level of MT1R expression was upregulated by BMP-4 stimulation. The suppressive effects of melatonin and ramelteon on POMC transcription and cAMP synthesis induced by CRH were not affected by an MT2R antagonist, luzindole. On the other hand, BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and the expression of a BMP target gene, Id-1, were augmented in the presence of melatonin and ramelteon. Considering that the expression levels of BMP receptors, ALK-3/BMPRII, were increased by ramelteon, MT1R action may play an enhancing role in BMP-receptor signaling. Among the MT1R signaling pathways including AKT, ERK and JNK pathways, inhibition of AKT signaling functionally reversed the MT1R effects on both CRH-induced POMC transcription and BMP-4-induced Id-1 transcription. Collectively, MT1R signaling and BMP-4 actions were mutually augmented, leading to fine-tuning of ACTH production by corticotrope cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human proinsulin conversion in the regulated and the constitutive pathways of transfected AtT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Irminger, J C; Vollenweider, F M; Neerman-Arbez, M; Halban, P A

    1994-01-21

    AtT20 (mouse pituitary corticotroph) cells were stably transfected with human proinsulin cDNA. Clone H12 displayed low basal release of insulin-like immunoreactivity (< 1% cell content/30 min) with 17-fold stimulation by isobutylmethylxanthine/forskolin. Clone H23, by contrast, showed higher basal release (2.8% cell content/30 min) and only 6-fold stimulation. To follow the kinetics of conversion and release of only newly synthesized proinsulin, cells were pulse-chased, and labeled proinsulin-related products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. In the cells of both clones, [3H]proinsulin was converted to insulin with des-31,32-split proinsulin as the only detectable intermediate. While basal release of labeled products from H12 cells was low (3%/60 min), it was rapid and elevated from H23 cells (12.5% by 30 min and 24.8% by 60 min of chase) with [3H]des-31,32-split proinsulin the predominant molecular form. Stimulation of [3H] insulin release increased with time, reaching 3.8-fold by 90 min of chase, whereas that of [3H]des-31,32-split proinsulin was approximately 1.5-fold regardless of the chase time. Rapid secretion of newly synthesized products that is insensitive to secretagogues is the hallmark of the constitutive pathway. Thus in H23 cells an unusually large amount of proinsulin is diverted to the constitutive pathway, where it is partially converted to des-31,32-split proinsulin before release.

  5. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  6. Ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) with layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Khatun, Mansura; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur

    2016-06-15

    The four ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) were obtained by reaction of the elements at 600–650 °C. They adopt an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma, Z=4, with cell parameters ranging from a=9.9931(11) Å, b=3.7664(4) Å, c=18.607(2) Å for KGe{sub 3}As{sub 3} to a=10.3211(11) Å, b=4.0917(4) Å, c=19.570(2) Å for RbSn{sub 3}As{sub 3}) containing corrugated [Tt{sub 3}As{sub 3}] layers built from Tt-centred trigonal pyramids and tetrahedra forming five-membered rings decorated with As handles. They can be considered to be Zintl phases with Tt atoms in +4, +3, and +1 oxidation states. Band structure calculations predict that these compounds are semiconductors with narrow band gaps (0.71 eV in KGe{sub 3}As{sub 3}, 0.50 eV in KSn{sub 3}As{sub 3}). - Graphical abstract: Ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) contain corrugated layers with Tt atoms in three different oxidation states and are narrow band gap semiconductors. Display Omitted - Highlights: • ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) contains Tt atoms in three oxidation states. • The structure differs from NaGe{sub 3}P{sub 3} in terms of layer stacking arrangement. • The compounds are predicted to be narrow band gap semiconductors.

  7. Proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin begins in the Golgi complex of pituitary corticotropes and AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, E; Mains, R E; Farquhar, M G

    1989-08-01

    The intracellular sites where proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin or POMC take place have not yet been reliably identified. We have used affinity-purified antisera that recognize only the products of POMC processing and immunoelectron microscopy to identify the compartments of rat pituitary corticotropes and mouse AtT-20 cells in which cleavage occurs. Immunoperoxidase labeling of cryostat sections and immunogold labeling of ultrathin frozen sections were used for localization of the processing sites. By both procedures we detected processed peptides in Golgi cisternae and secretion granules. Within the Golgi, labeling was limited to the last or transmost cisterna and was most concentrated in its dilated rims which contain condensing secretory protein. No labeling of other Golgi cisternae was seen. All Golgi cisternae were labeled, however, when antisera that recognize unprocessed POMC were used for immunolabeling. We conclude that in AtT-20 and rat pituitary cells: 1) processing of POMC through at least two endo- and exoproteolytic cleavage steps and alpha-amidation of joining peptide begin in the trans Golgi subcompartment; 2) no detectable processing takes place before POMC reaches the trans Golgi cisterna; and 3) this Golgi cisterna as well as secretion granules contain the active enzymes necessary for proteolytic processing and alpha-amidation.

  8. Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and the U3 att site: unusual phenotype of mutants in the zinc finger-like domain.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, T; Planelles, V; Krogstad, P; Chen, I S

    1995-01-01

    Retroviral integration is the step which leads to establishment of the provirus, cis- and trans-acting regions of the human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus genome, including the attachment site (att) at the ends of the unintegrated viral DNA and the conserved domains within the integrase (IN) protein, have been identified as being important for integration. We investigated the role of each of these regions in the context of an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone through point mutagenesis of the att site and the zinc finger-like and catalytic domains of IN. The effect of each mutation on integration activity was examined by using a single-step infection system with envelope-pseudotype virus. The relative integration efficiency was estimated by monitoring the levels of viral DNA over time in the infected cells. The integration activities of catalytic domain point mutants and att site deletion mutants were estimated to be 0.5 and 5% of wild-type activity, respectively. However, in contrast with previous in vitro cell-free integration studies, alteration of the highly conserved CA dinucleotide resulted in a mutant which still retained 40% of wild-type integration activity. The relative levels of expression of each mutant, as measured by a luciferase reporter gene, correlated with levels of integration. This observation is consistent with those of previous studies indicating that integration is an obligatory step for retroviral gene expression. Interestingly, we found that three different HIV-1 constructs bearing point mutations in the zinc finger-like domain synthesized much lower levels of viral DNA after infection, suggesting impairment of these mutants before or at the initiation of reverse transcription. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis demonstrated wild-type levels of reverse transcriptase within the mutant virions. In vitro endogenous reverse transcription assays indicated that all three mutants in the zinc finger-like domain had wild-type levels of

  9. Partial diversion of a mutant proinsulin (B10 aspartic acid) from the regulated to the constitutive secretory pathway in transfected AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, D J; Halban, P A; Kahn, C R; Weir, G C; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1989-01-01

    A patient with type II diabetes associated with hyperproinsulinemia has been shown to have a point mutation in one insulin gene allele, resulting in replacement of histidine with aspartic acid at position 10 of the B-chain. To investigate the basis of the proinsulin processing defect, we introduced an identical mutation in the rat insulin II gene and expressed both the normal and the mutant genes in the AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cell line. Cells expressing the mutant gene showed increased secretion of proinsulin relative to insulin and rapid release of newly synthesized proinsulin. Moreover, the mutant cell lines did not store the prohormone nor did they release it upon stimulation with secretagogues. These data indicate that a significant fraction of the mutant prohormone is released via the constitutive secretory pathway rather than the regulated pathway, thereby bypassing granule-related processing and regulated release. PMID:2657740

  10. Mutation of the start codon in the FRDA1 gene: linkage analysis of three pedigrees with the ATG to ATT transversion points to a unique common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Zühlke, C; Laccone, F; Cossée, M; Kohlschütter, A; Koenig, M; Schwinger, E

    1998-07-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding frataxin. Most patients with FRDA have trinucleotide repeat expansions in both alleles of the FRDA 1 gene. In patients heterozygous for the expansion the second allele may be inactivated by a point mutation. We identified the ATG-->ATT (M11) mutation of the start codon in three independent families. Individuals with symptoms of FRDA in these families are compound heterozygous for the repeat expansion and the ATG mutation. To look for a common founder of the M11 mutation, a detailed linkage analysis employing six polymorphic chromosome 9 markers was performed. We found complete haplotype identity for two of the three chromosomes with the point mutation. The third case shows partial conformity and may be the result of a single recombination event.

  11. Evidence from studies on co-cultures of TtT/GF and AtT20 cells that Annexin 1 acts as a paracrine or juxtacrine mediator of the early inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids on ACTH release.

    PubMed

    Tierney, T; Christian, H C; Morris, J F; Solito, E; Buckingham, J C

    2003-12-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a key mediator of the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release, which develop within 1-2 h of a steroid challenge. Our previous studies, which showed that (i) ANXA1 is expressed principally by the nonsecretory folliculo-stellate cells in the pituitary gland; (ii) glucocorticoids cause the exportation of ANXA1 from these cells; and (iii) corticotrophs express specific ANXA1 binding sites, led us to propose that ANXA1 serves as a paracrine or juxtacrine mediator of glucocorticoids. To address this hypothesis, we examined ANXA1-dependent glucocorticoid actions in co-cultures of murine corticotroph (AtT20 clone D1) and folliculo-stellate (TtT/GF) cell lines. ANXA1 mRNA and protein were found in abundance in TtT/GF cells but neither was detectable in the AtT20 cells. AtT20 cells (alone and in co-culture with TtT/GF cells) responded to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (0.1-1 micro m) with increased ACTH release. The CRH-stimulated release of ACTH from AtT20 cells cultured alone was unaffected by preincubation with dexamethasone (Dex, 100 nm); by contrast, in co-cultures of AtT20 and TtT/GF cells, the steroid readily inhibited the secretory response to CRH. The effects of Dex on ACTH release were mimicked by N-terminal ANXA1 fragments (ANXA1Ac2-26, 2 micro g/ml and ANXA11-188, 0.1 ng/ml) and reversed by mifepristone (1 micro m) and by an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to ANXA1 (50 nm) but not by control ODNs. The antisense ODN also specifically blocked the Dex-induced externalization of ANXA1 from TtT/GF cells. Immunofluorescence imaging of the co-cultures localized the exported protein to the vicinity of the AtT20 cells and identified ANXA1 binding sites on these cells. These results provide functional and histological evidence to support our premise that the early inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids on ACTH release are dependent upon paracrine/juxtacrine actions of ANXA1 derived from folliculo

  12. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  13. Identification of a cDNA encoding a second putative prohormone convertase related to PC2 in AtT20 cells and islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, S P; Avruch, A S; LaMendola, J; Chan, S J; Steiner, D F

    1991-01-01

    PC2 and furin are two recently identified members of a class of mammalian proteins homologous to the yeast precursor processing protease kex2 and the bacterial subtillisins. We have used the polymerase chain reaction to identify and clone a cDNA (PC3) from the mouse AtT20 anterior pituitary cell line that represents an additional member of this growing family of mammalian proteases. PC3 encodes a 753-residue protein that begins with a signal peptide and contains a 292-residue domain closely related to the catalytic modules of PC2, furin, and kex2. Within this region 58%, 65%, and 50% of the amino acids of PC3 are identical to those of the aligned PC2, furin, and kex2 sequences, respectively, and the catalytically important Asp, His, and Ser residues are all conserved. On Northern blots, PC3 hybridizes to two transcripts of 3 and 5 kilobases. Tissue distribution studies indicate that both PC2 and PC3 are expressed in a variety of neuroendocrine tissues, including pancreatic islets and brain, but are not expressed in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and spleen. The high degree of similarity of PC3, PC2, and furin suggests that they are all members of a superfamily of mammalian proteases that are involved in the processing of prohormones and/or other protein precursors. In contrast to furin, PC3, like PC2, lacks a hydrophobic transmembrane anchor, but it has a potential C-terminal amphipathic helical segment similar to the putative membrane anchor of carboxypeptidase H. These and other differences suggest that these proteins carry out compartmentalized proteolysis within cells, such as processing within regulated versus constitutive secretory pathways. Images PMID:1988934

  14. Carboxypeptidase E and Secretogranin III Coordinately Facilitate Efficient Sorting of Proopiomelanocortin to the Regulated Secretory Pathway in AtT20 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Trushar; Young, Sigrid; Lou, Hong; Birch, Nigel; Loh, Y. Peng

    2016-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a multivalent prohormone that can be processed into at least 7 biologically active peptide hormones. Processing can begin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and continues in the secretory granules of the regulated secretory pathway (RSP). Sorting of POMC into these granules is a complex process. Previously, a membrane-associated form of carboxypeptidase E (CPE) was shown to bind to POMC and facilitate its trafficking into these granules. More recently, secretogranin III (SgIII) was also found to affect POMC trafficking. Here, we show by RNA silencing that CPE and SgIII play a synergistic role in the trafficking of POMC to granules of the RSP in AtT20 cells. Reduction of either protein resulted in increased constitutive secretion of POMC and chromogranin A, which was increased even further when both proteins were reduced together, indicative of missorting at the TGN. In SgIII-reduced cells, POMC accumulated in a compartment that cofractionated and colocalized with syntaxin 6, a marker of the TGN, on sucrose density gradients and in immunocytochemistry, respectively, indicating an accumulation of this protein in the presumed sorting compartment. Regulated secretion of ACTH, as a measure of sorting and processing of POMC in mature granules, was reduced in the SgIII down-regulated cells but was increased in the CPE down-regulated cells. These results suggest that multiple sorting systems exist, providing redundancy to ensure the important task of continuous and accurate trafficking of prohormones to the granules of the RSP for the production of peptide hormones. PMID:26646096

  15. High frequency of occupied attB regions in Norwegian Staphylococcus aureus isolates supports a two-step MRSA screening algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tunsjø, H S; Kalyanasundaram, S; Worren, M M; Leegaard, T M; Moen, A E F

    2017-01-01

    Rapid nucleic acid amplification tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnostics commonly target the mec resistance gene, genes specific for S. aureus, and the integration site for the SCCmec resistance cassette, orfX. Due to poor specificity when these target genes are used individually, additional culture is required to verify positive results. The combination of these targets is useful, but the optimal algorithm may depend on the presence of the genetic markers in S. aureus isolates, as well as the prevalence of MRSA in a population. The aim of the present study was to identify a rapid, low-cost, and functional screening algorithm in order to reduce the response time for MRSA diagnostics. An in-house orfX-SCCmec polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was established and evaluated. The results were compared with an existing mec/nuc PCR assay and traditional culture. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) that tested false-positive in the orfX-SCCmec PCR assay were further investigated with full genome sequencing using the Ion PGM™ System to verify results and causality. Based on these data, a two-step screening algorithm with initial mec/nuc PCR followed by orfX-SCCmec PCR on positive samples was suggested and tested on 1443 patient samples. 22.5 % of MSSA isolates tested false-positive with the orfX-SCCmec PCR. Full genome sequencing of these isolates identified genetic variation in the attB region of S. aureus, including empty cassette variants and non-mec SCC. The suggested two-step MRSA screening algorithm allowed us to report MRSA results for 95.6 % of all samples and 99 % of MRSA-negative samples after one day.

  16. Chemical Composition of the Aerosol Fine Fraction during African Dust Events as part of the Dust ATtACk Experiment in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, Pamela; Formenti, Paola; Desboeufs, Karine; Quiñones, Mariana; Chevaillier, Servanne; Santos, Stephanie; Andrews, Elizabeth; Ogren, John A.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    We present results on the assessment of aerosols' chemical composition at the atmospheric observatory of Cabezas de San Juan in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, where periods in the presence and absence of dust were studied under the framework of the Dust-ATtACk (Dust- Aging and Transport, from Africa to the Caribbean) experiment. Dust events were identified through observation and using air-mass back-trajectories, Saharan Air Layer images, measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), in situ scattering and absorption coefficients, and chemical analyses. Results obtained for intense dust events were characterized by higher concentration of coarse particles, higher scattering and absorption coefficients (up to 100 Mm-1 and 5 Mm-1 at 550 and 530 nm, respectively), higher AOT (from 0.4 to 0.8) values, and higher concentration of elements associated with mineral dust (e.g., Si μ3 g/m3 compared to background concentrations of 0.15 μg/m3, obtained from XRF analysis). Elemental composition of the fine fraction (Dp < 1.8 μm), analyzed by ICP-OES, also yielded higher average concentrations during dust events of, for example, Fe (0.045 μg m-3, vs 0.016 μg m-3 during low or no dust). Detailed results of the submicron fraction composition for the carbonaceous aerosol (total carbon, organic carbon, black carbon), total nitrogen, the water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble ions, and the elemental composition with their possible sources will be presented at the meeting.

  17. The LIM homeobox protein mLIM3/Lhx3 induces expression of the prolactin gene by a Pit-1/GHF-1-independent pathway in corticotroph AtT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Girardin, S E; Benjannet, S; Barale, J C; Chrétien, M; Seidah, N G

    1998-07-24

    mLIM3, a member of the LIM homeobox family, was recently demonstrated to be critical for proliferation and differentiation of the pituitary cell lineage. Using a pool of degenerate oligonucleotides we determined the DNA sequence ANNAGGAAA(T/C)GA(CIG)AA as the set preferentially recognized by mLIM3. A nearly identical sequence is found in the prolactin (PRL) promoter, within a 15-mer stretch from nucleotides (nts) -218 to -204 which is highly conserved between human, rat, and bovine. In order to test the hypothesis of a transcriptional effect of mLIM3 on the prolactin promoter, stable transfectants of mLIM3 cDNA in AtT20 tumor cells revealed that PRL mRNA expression was induced in 3 separate stable clones. Gel retardation experiments performed using nuclear extracts isolated from one of the AtT20/mLIM3 stable transfectants revealed affinity towards the 15-mer element of the PRL promoter. From these results, we propose that the PRL promoter element (nts -218 to -204) could be functional in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that in AtT20 cells prolactin mRNA expression is not induced by the Pit-1/GHF-1 pathway and that growth hormone mRNA is not detected concomitantly with prolactin. We conclude that mLIM3 may play a key role in inducing PRL gene expression in lactotrophs by binding to a conserved motif close to a Pit-1/GHF-1 site within the proximal PRL promoter.

  18. Inadequacy of clinical and/or laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, re-infection cutaneous tuberculosis: fallout/implication of 6 weeks of anti-tubular therapy (ATT) as a precise diagnostic supplement to complete the scheduled regimen.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Sardana, Kabir; Sharma, Sonal

    2008-01-01

    The morphological diagnosis of the plaque form of lupus vulgaris was made on the basis of distinct clinical features. An endeavor to supplement this diagnosis was made through laboratory investigations comprising total differential leukocyte count,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); the results of which were largely ambiguous. Regimented anti-tubular therapy (ATT) was utilized to arrive at the diagnosis. A perceptible regression of the lesions over the course of 6 weeks was remarkably beneficial to completing the treatment subsequently. ATT seems to bea feasible and well-conceived tool in the diagnosis of lupus vulgaris tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and pediatric scleroderma.

  19. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  20. 78 FR 55103 - Notice of Proposed Exemption involving AT&T Inc. (Together With AT&T Inc.'s Affiliates, AT&T or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... granted, would provide exemptive relief from sections 406(a)(1)(A), 406(a)(1)(B), 406(a)(1)(D), 406(a)(1)(E), 406(a)(2), 406(b)(1), 406(b)(2), and 407(a) of the Act and the sanctions resulting from the application of section 4975 of the Code, by reason of section 4975(c)(1)(A), 4975(c)(1)(B), 4975(c)(1)(D)......

  1. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  2. AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) Aftermath of Antitrust. Preserving Positive Command and Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    operation was complicated by (a key) factor-one unique in naval history and, indeed, unparalleled in modem relations between American politica leaders and...vital to success as FOCUS says It Is, then technical standards would implicitly be followed. The FOCUS publica - tion’s chapter on Defense

  3. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  4. RehAtt - scanning training for neglect enhanced by multi-sensory stimulation in Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Fordell, Helena; Bodin, Kenneth; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan

    2016-06-01

    There is a lack of effective treatment for neglect. We have developed a new training method, RehAtt™. The objective of this study was to determine whether RehAtt™ improves spatial attention in chronic neglect after stroke. RehAtt™ consists of a computer with monitor, 3D glasses, and a force feedback interface (Robotic pen) giving sensory motor activation to the contra-lesional arm. The software combines visual scanning training with multi-sensory stimulation in 3D virtual reality (VR) game environment. Fifteen stroke patients with chronic neglect (duration > 6 month) had repeated baseline evaluations to confirm stability of symptoms. There were no test-retest effects for any of the tests. Thereafter, all patients trained 15 h in RehAtt™ (3 × 1 h for 5 weeks). A neglect test battery and Catherine Bergego Scale, CBS, were used to assess behavioral outcome after intervention. CBS was also used at a 6-month follow-up. Using repeated measurement analysis improvements due to the training were found for Star cancellation test (p = 0.006), Baking tray task (p < 0.001), and Extinction test (p = 0.05). In the Posner task improvements were seen fewer missed targets (p = 0.024). CBS showed improvements in activities of daily life immediately after training (p < 0.01). After 6 months the patients still reported improvement in CBS. RehAtt™ is a new concept for rehabilitation of neglect. Training with the VR-method improved spatial attention and showed transfer to improved spatial attention in activities of daily living in chronic neglect. Our results are promising and merit further studies.

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of the AT&T Proposed Pattern Recognition Algorithm for Group 4 Facsimile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-11

    rapport de compression est de .T Tf I 16fs FiG. 3I -fitre suivi d’urie Iigne A retard (LAR) disper- ,, sive ayant in temps de propagation de groupe Ta...Ic rapport de compression _________________________ es de .- z-. -T,&J 5Itaf -filtre suivi d’ume ligne A retard (LAR) diaper- -~d~ Ot1 sive ayant un...des composants It traversant priml Atant dict & JIM1. Ic rapport de compression eat de . -T4/ FPO. 3 I.’ P. -filtre suivi d’une ligne i retard (LAR

  6. Investing in Quality Child Care: A Report for AT&T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen; Friedman, Dana E.

    More than 50 child care experts were asked (1) What aspects of child care are most likely to ensure high quality? (2) What are the current barriers to achieving quality in child care? and (3) What corporate or labor initiative would make the greatest difference in improving the quality of child care services? Recommendations generated from the…

  7. 76 FR 14697 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, CT; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... development, testing, including sanity and regression testing, and production support services related to computer systems. During the reconsideration investigation, the Department received information that... regression testing, and production support services related to computer systems, meet the worker...

  8. Guide to use the data features of the AT&T 7506, 7507, and 8510T ISDN phones

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Service digital Network, ISDN, technology is an integral component of Sandia National Laboratories telecommunications infrastructure. ISDN is a fully digital telephone service that allows simultaneous voice and data communication from the same telephone instrument. Almost all ISDN phones in use at Sandia/New Mexico and most ISDN phones at Sandia/California have a built-in module for data communication. This user guide describes the use and operation of ISDN data module and services as they are installed at Sandia.

  9. 78 FR 67053 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... shapefile mapping data is 1:24,000, which is the standard used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Map.... Mapping Requirements The Special Access Data Collection Order required Competitive Providers to file maps... connected Location. The mapping obligation is already limited by focusing solely on fiber routes and not...

  10. 78 FR 79362 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by AT&T Services, Inc., Regarding the Provision of Muting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ..., the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) corrects a document published at 78 FR 76096... Rights Office, (202) 418-1264, email: Caitlin.vogus@fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction In...

  11. 78 FR 2600 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...In this document, the Commission seeks comment on: A market analysis that the Commission intends to undertake in the coming months to assist in evaluating competition in the market for special access services; possible changes to the Commission's pricing flexibility rules after the Commission conducts its market analysis; and the reasonableness of terms and conditions offered by incumbent LECs in the special access market.

  12. Tumor tracking and motion compensation with an adaptive tumor tracking system (ATTS): system description and prototype testing.

    PubMed

    Wilbert, Jürgen; Meyer, Jürgen; Baier, Kurt; Guckenberger, Matthias; Herrmann, Christian; Hess, Robin; Janka, Christian; Ma, Lei; Mersebach, Torben; Richter, Anne; Roth, Michael; Schilling, Klaus; Flentje, Michael

    2008-09-01

    A novel system for real-time tumor tracking and motion compensation with a robotic HexaPOD treatment couch is described. The approach is based on continuous tracking of the tumor motion in portal images without implanted fiducial markers, using the therapeutic megavoltage beam, and tracking of abdominal breathing motion with optical markers. Based on the two independently acquired data sets the table movements for motion compensation are calculated. The principle of operation of the entire prototype system is detailed first. In the second part the performance of the HexaPOD couch was investigated with a robotic four-dimensional-phantom capable of simulating real patient tumor trajectories in three-dimensional space. The performance and limitations of the HexaPOD table and the control system were characterized in terms of its dynamic behavior. The maximum speed and acceleration of the HexaPOD were 8 mm/s and 34.5 mm/s2 in the lateral direction, and 9.5 mm/s and 29.5 mm/s2 in longitudinal and anterior-posterior direction, respectively. Base line drifts of the mean tumor position of realistic lung tumor trajectories could be fully compensated. For continuous tumor tracking and motion compensation a reduction of tumor motion up to 68% of the original amplitude was achieved. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is technically feasible to compensate breathing induced tumor motion in the lung with the adaptive tumor tracking system.

  13. 77 FR 57504 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... flexibility for special access services in light of significant evidence that these rules, adopted in 1999.... 4. The approach we take is based on our evaluation of our 1999 rules, the predictive judgments upon... below, the Commission decided in 1999 to use an administratively simple proxy for the presence of actual...

  14. 78 FR 2571 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... limited over the course of price cap regulation by the Price Cap Index (PCI) that is adjusted annually... system (CMTS) locations, and facility hubs. We use the terms ``bandwidth'' and ``capacity...-capacity data services targeted at enterprise customers. Some commenters have argued that best...

  15. Effect of Attention Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Subcortical Vascular Changes: The RehAtt Study.

    PubMed

    Pantoni, Leonardo; Poggesi, Anna; Diciotti, Stefano; Valenti, Raffaella; Orsolini, Stefano; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Salvadori, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are at high dementia risk. We tested the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in these patients using the Attention Process Training-II (APT-II) program in a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to APT-II or standard care and evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 months with functional, quality of life, cognitive tests, and resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI). Forty-six patients were enrolled and 43 (mean±SD age 75.1±6.8) completed the study. No change was seen in functionality and quality of life between treated and non-treated patients. However, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test immediate recall showed a significant improvement in treated compared to non-treated group (change score 6 versus 12 months: 1.8±4.9 and -1.4±3.8, p = 0.021; baseline versus 12 months: 3.8±6.1 and 0.2±4.4, p = 0.032). A higher proportion of treated patients had stable/better evaluation compared to non-treated group on Visual search test (6 versus 12 months: 95% versus 71%, p = 0.038) and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy (6 versus 12 months: 95% versus 67%, p = 0.027). RsfMRI, performed in a subsample, showed that the difference between follow-up and baseline in synchronization of activity in cerebellar areas was significantly greater in treated than in non-treated patients. We were unable to show a significant effect in quality of life or functional status in treated patients with MCI and SVD. However, APT-II produces some beneficial effects in focused attention and working memory and seems to increase activity in brain circuits involved in cognitive processes.

  16. 78 FR 76096 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by AT&T Services, Inc., Regarding the Provision of Muting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Provision of Muting for Speech-to-Speech Telephone Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... speech-to-speech (STS) users the option to have their voices muting during an STS call. The Commission...

  17. Att Tolka Barns Signaler: Gravt utvecklingsstorda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation (To Interpret Childrens' Signals: Play and Communication in Profoundly Mentally Retarded and Multiply Handicapped Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    Written in Swedish with an English-language summary, this report describes a study which examined the interaction between mothers or caregivers and their children with profound mental retardation and multiple disabilities, particularly looking at the function of play in communicative interaction. The six children all had five or six handicaps in…

  18. ADA (Trade Name) Validation Summary Report: AT&T UNIX Ada, Release 1.0 3B2/400 with MAU.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-21

    too long if no invalid characters exist. $FTLE NAE ITH WILD CARD CHAR file0123456789012345 An external file name that either contains a wild card character...or is too long if no wild card character exists. $GREATER THAN DURATION i0o 000.0 A universal real value that lies between DURATION’BASE’LAST and

  19. The phiC31 Recombinase Demonstrates Heritable Passage of Site-specific Genomic Excision in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The large serine resolvase phiC31, from the broad host range Streptomyces temperate phage, catalyzes the recombination of two differing recognition sites known as attP and attB. Minimum length sites have been determined to be 39 bp for the attP and 34 bp for the attB. In this research, the phiC31 ...

  20. The formation of cyclo-addition adducts in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide: A model compound study for addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) using metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, M.D., Pater, R.H.; Ritenour, S.L.

    1993-12-31

    A model compound study using an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide has provided evidence that a diruthenium complex Ru{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}[1,2-({mu}-PPh){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}] and a rhodium complex Rh(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl can catalyze a Diels-Alder type cycloaddition in which acetylene-terminated material acts as a diene and the bismaleimide is a dieneophile. The molten state reaction of N-(3-ethynylphenyl) phthalimide and N-(4-phenoxyphenyl) maleimide with Ru{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}[{mu}-(PhP){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}] or Rh(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl heated to 170{degrees}C led to two major products. The spectral data for the first major product is consistent with a 2:1 Diels-Alder adduct formed from two molecules of the acetylene compound and one molecule of the maleimide. The spectral data for the second major product is consistent with a 2:2 Diels-Alder adduct formed from two molecules of each reactant.

  1. Discrimination-pregnancy leave-Pregnancy Discrimination Act not retroactive-bona fide seniority system. AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen, 2009 U.S. LEXIS 3470 (U.S. 5/18/2009).

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    A pension plan whose terms are those of a bona fide seniority system and which treats pregnancy leave, taken before the addition of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) to Title VII, differently than other kinds of medical leave, does not amount to sex and pregnancy discrimination under Title VII because PDA does not apply retroactively.

  2. Knowledge Attıtudes and Behavıors About Organ Donatıon Among Fırst- and Sıxth-class Medıcal Students: A Study From Turkey.

    PubMed

    Naçar, M; Çetinkaya, F; Baykan, Z; Elmalı, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of Erciyes University School of Medicine students regarding organ donation. This descriptive study was conducted in 2014 on Erciyes University School of Medicine first- and sixth-grade students via questionnaire. It was to be conducted on all 490 students; in total, 464 students were enrolled-304 from first grade and 160 from sixth grade. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and binary logistic regression analysis. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.8 years and it was found that 48.9% were male, 65.5% were in first grade; 50.0% of the students who participated in the study were considering donating their organs and this rate is 45.4% in the first grade and 58.8% at sixth grade. Those who donated their organs were 3.4% in the entire group and were 1.6% and 6.9% consequently in first and sixth grades. Those who are; at the sixth grade, female gender, those who feel themselves responsible for the donation of society, who think organ donation is appropriate in terms of religion and conversations within family about organ donations significantly want organ donation more statistically. However, grade and gender had no effect on wishing donating organs according to binary logistic regression analysis. The rate of feeling themselves responsible from the donation in society was 73.9% and finding organ donation appropriate in terms of religion was 75.6% and there wasn't significant difference between first and sixth grades. Although there are increases in many variables about this issue at sixth grade, students are unable to gain sufficient attitude and behavior about organ donation. Training can be planned during medical educations in terms of gaining attitudes and behaviors about the issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 50124 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; China Basin, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... necessary to allow the bridge to be part of the race course for the scheduled AT&T Giant Race event. This... allow running of the AT&T Giant Race event. This temporary deviation has been coordinated with...

  4. 77 FR 47671 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... 11, 2011. Global Customer Care-Service Assurance, AT&T, Off-Site Workers at Mesa, AZ. 81,705A AT&T Services, Inc., Saint Louis, MO June 11, 2011. Global Customer Care-Service Assurance, AT&T, Off-Site Workers at St. Louis. 81,705B AT&T Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA June 11, 2011. Global Customer...

  5. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  6. A simplified mathematical model of directional DNA site-specific recombination by serine integrases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Stark, W. Marshall; Colloms, Sean D.; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Serine integrases catalyse site-specific recombination to integrate and excise bacteriophage genomes into and out of their host's genome. These enzymes exhibit remarkable directionality; in the presence of the integrase alone, recombination between attP and attB DNA sites is efficient and irreversible, giving attL and attR products which do not recombine further. However, in the presence of the bacteriophage-encoded recombination directionality factor (RDF), integrase efficiently promotes recombination between attL and attR to re-form attP and attB. The DNA substrates and products of both reactions are approximately isoenergetic, and no cofactors (such as adenosine triphosphate) are required for recombination. The thermodynamic driving force for directionality of these reactions is thus enigmatic. Here, we present a minimal mathematical model which can explain the directionality and regulation of both ‘forward’ and ‘reverse’ reactions. In this model, the substrates of the ‘forbidden’ reactions (between attL and attR in the absence of RDF, attP and attB in the presence of RDF) are trapped as inactive protein–DNA complexes, ensuring that these ‘forbidden’ reactions are extremely slow. The model is in good agreement with the observed in vitro kinetics of recombination by ϕC31 integrase, and defines core features of the system necessary and sufficient for directionality. PMID:28077763

  7. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  8. Site-specific recombination system based on actinophage TG1 integrase for gene integration into bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Nobutaka; Muroi, Tetsurou; Kihara, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Hideo; Haruki, Mitsuru

    2011-03-01

    Phage integrases are enzymes that catalyze unidirectional site-specific recombination between the attachment sites of phage and host bacteria, attP and attB, respectively. We recently developed an in vivo intra-molecular site-specific recombination system based on actinophage TG1 serine-type integrase that efficiently acts between attP and attB on a single plasmid DNA in heterologous Escherichia coli cells. Here, we developed an in vivo inter-molecular site-specific recombination system that efficiently acted between the att site on exogenous non-replicative plasmid DNA and the corresponding att site on endogenous plasmid or genomic DNA in E. coli cells, and the recombination efficiencies increased by a factor of ~10(1-3) in cells expressing TG1 integrase over those without. Moreover, integration of attB-containing incoming plasmid DNA into attP-inserted E. coli genome was more efficient than that of the reverse substrate configuration. Together with our previous result that purified TG1 integrase functions efficiently without auxiliary host factors in vitro, these in vivo results indicate that TG1 integrase may be able to introduce attB-containing circular DNAs efficiently into attP-inserted genomes of many bacterial species in a site-specific and unidirectional manner. This system thus may be beneficial to genome engineering for a wide variety of bacterial species.

  9. DNA binding and synapsis by the large C-terminal domain of ϕC31 integrase

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Andrew R.; Rowley, Paul A.; Smith, Margaret C. M.

    2009-01-01

    The integrase (Int) from phage ϕC31 acts on the phage and host-attachment sites, attP and attB, to form an integrated prophage flanked by attL and attR. Excision (attL × attR recombination) is prevented, in the absence of accessory factors, by a putative coiled-coil motif in the C-terminal domain (CTD). Int has a serine recombinase N-terminal domain, required for synapsis of recombination substrates and catalysis. We show here that the coiled-coil motif mediates protein–protein interactions between CTDs, but only when bound to DNA. Although the histidine-tagged CTD (hCTD) was monomeric in solution, hCTD bound cooperatively to three of the recombination substrates (attB, attL and attR). Furthermore, when provided with attP and attB, hCTD brought these substrates together in a synaptic complex. Substitutions in the coiled-coil motif that greatly reduce Int integration activity, L460P and Y475H, prevented CTD–CTD interactions and led to defective DNA binding and no detectable DNA synapsis. A substitution, E449K, in full length Int confers the ability to perform excision in addition to integration as it has gained the ability to synapse attL × attR. hCTDE449K was similar to hCTD in DNA binding but unable to form the CTD synapse suggesting that the CTD synapse is not essential but could be part of the mechanism that controls directionality. PMID:19515935

  10. TG1 integrase-based system for site-specific gene integration into bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Tetsurou; Kokuzawa, Takaaki; Kihara, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Hirano, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Hideo; Haruki, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    Serine-type phage integrases catalyze unidirectional site-specific recombination between the attachment sites, attP and attB, in the phage and host bacterial genomes, respectively; these integrases and DNA target sites function efficiently when transferred into heterologous cells. We previously developed an in vivo site-specific genomic integration system based on actinophage TG1 integrase that introduces ∼2-kbp DNA into an att site inserted into a heterologous Escherichia coli genome. Here, we analyzed the TG1 integrase-mediated integrations of att site-containing ∼10-kbp DNA into the corresponding att site pre-inserted into various genomic locations; moreover, we developed a system that introduces ∼10-kbp DNA into the genome with an efficiency of ∼10(4) transformants/μg DNA. Integrations of attB-containing DNA into an attP-containing genome were more efficient than integrations of attP-containing DNA into an attB-containing genome, and integrations targeting attP inserted near the replication origin, oriC, and the E. coli "centromere" analogue, migS, were more efficient than those targeting attP within other regions of the genome. Because the genomic region proximal to the oriC and migS sites is located at the extreme poles of the cell during chromosomal segregation, the oriC-migS region may be more exposed to the cytosol than are other regions of the E. coli chromosome. Thus, accessibility of pre-inserted attP to attB-containing incoming DNA may be crucial for the integration efficiency by serine-type integrases in heterologous cells. These results may be beneficial to the development of serine-type integrases-based genomic integration systems for various bacterial species.

  11. The Development and Design of Engineering Economic Indicator System for Nanotechnology Industry Product Manufacturing: A Case Study of Latvia / Inženierekonomisko Rādītāju Sistēmas Attīstība Un Izveide Nanotehnoloģiju Industrijas Produktu Ražošanai: Latvijas Pieredze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Geipele, S.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, J.

    2015-10-01

    The current scientific paper is developed to continue the research on further commercialisation of the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia. To create the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies, the scientific indicators and their theoretical justification have been used, the issues from the experts' analysis and survey of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry have been summarised. Zinātniskā publikācija ir sagatavota kā turpinājums nanotehnoloģiju industrijas produktu komercializācijas pētījumam Latvijā. Lai izveidotu inženierekonomisko rādītāju sistēmu daudzfunkcionālajām nano-pārklājumu tehnoloģijām tiek izmantoti zinātniskie indikatori, to teorētiskais pamatojums, kā arī Latvijas inovatīvo daudzfunkcionālo materiālu ražotāju aptaujas un ekspertinterviju rezultāti.

  12. The actinophage RP3 DNA integrates site-specifically into the putative tRNA(Arg)(AGG) gene of Streptomyces rimosus.

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, K; Schmid, H; Schmidt, U; Rausch, H

    1995-01-01

    The temperate actinophage RP3 integrates site-specifically into the chromosome of Streptomyces rimosus R6-554. The phage attachment site attP and the hybrid attachment sites of the integrated prophage--attL and attR--were cloned and sequenced. The 54nt core sequence, common to all RP3 related attachment sites, comprises the 3' terminal end of a putative tRNA(Arg)(AGG) gene. AttB bears the complete tRNA gene which is restored in attL after integration. A 7.5kb HindIII fragment, bearing attP, was used to construct an integrative plasmid to simulate the integration process in vivo and to localize the phage genes necessary for site specific integration. The int and xis genes were sequenced and compared to other recombination genes. PMID:7870591

  13. Efficiency of Recombination Reactions Catalyzed by Class 1 Integron Integrase IntI1

    PubMed Central

    Collis, Christina M.; Recchia, Gavin D.; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Stokes, H. W.; Hall, Ruth M.

    2001-01-01

    The class 1 integron integrase, IntI1, recognizes two distinct types of recombination sites, attI sites, found in integrons, and members of the 59-be family, found in gene cassettes. The efficiencies of the integrative version of the three possible reactions, i.e., between two 59-be, between attI1 and a 59-be, or between two attI1 sites, were compared. Recombination events involving two attI1 sites were significantly less efficient than the reactions in which a 59-be participated, and the attI1 × 59-be reaction was generally preferred over the 59-be × 59-be reaction. Recombination of attI1 with secondary sites was less efficient than the 59-be × secondary site reaction. PMID:11274113

  14. A Prototype Fault Diagnosis System for NASA Space Station Power Management and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    17 1. UNIX ATT Version 5.3 .................................................... 17 2. The C Programming Language...graphics workstation with mouse interface manufactured by Silicon Graphics, Inc. The IRIS runs the ATT system 5.3 version of the UNIX operating system...building block on which the PMAD system can be firmly supported. The following paragraphs give a brief descriptive of each layer. 1. UNIX ATT Version 5.3 The

  15. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  16. A Compendium of Position Papers from the Workshop on Architectures for Free Space Digital Optical Computing Held in Vail, Colorado on 28-30 January 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-24

    Vail, Colorado January 28th-30th 1991 Organizing committee: Alan Craig (AFOSR) Miles Murdocca (Rutgers University) Michael Prise (AT&T Bell Labs ...Murdocca (Rutgers University) and Michael Prise (AT&T Bell Labs ). The purpose to the workshop was to bring together a panel of distinguished...organized with Miles Murdocca (Rutgers University) and Michael Prise (AT&T Bell Labs ). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a panel of

  17. Using Genetic Buffering Relationships Identified in Fission Yeast To Elucidate the Molecular Pathology of Tuberous Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c . THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 1 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...5’-aat tat ttt ata tgg aat gag caa gta tgt ttt atc ata att gac cag ttc att tca agg acc ttc aaa aat ata cct acg aat tcg agc tcg ttt aaa c -3’), or...and oTsc14 (5’-ata aaa aaa att aat taa tga tgg caa ggc aca atc gta atc aat ctt tta att tag gac ttt tta tat gcc ctt atg gcg aat tcg agc tcg ttt aaa c

  18. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Yuming; Sun Yanqing; Fan Kai; Guo Xingxing; Jiang Xiaolei

    2009-08-15

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  19. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery.

  20. Characterization of genetic elements required for site-specific integration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus bacteriophage mv4 and construction of an integration-proficient vector for Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, L; Boizet-Bonhoure, B; Coddeville, M; Auvray, F; Ritzenthaler, P

    1995-01-01

    Temperate phage mv4 integrates its DNA into the chromosome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains via site-specific recombination. Nucleotide sequencing of a 2.2-kb attP-containing phage fragment revealed the presence of four open reading frames. The larger open reading frame, close to the attP site, encoded a 427-amino-acid polypeptide with similarity in its C-terminal domain to site-specific recombinases of the integrase family. Comparison of the sequences of attP, bacterial attachment site attB, and host-phage junctions attL and attR identified a 17-bp common core sequence, where strand exchange occurs during recombination. Analysis of the attB sequence indicated that the core region overlaps the 3' end of a tRNA(Ser) gene. Phage mv4 DNA integration into the tRNA(Ser) gene preserved an intact tRNA(Ser) gene at the attL site. An integration vector based on the mv4 attP site and int gene was constructed. This vector transforms a heterologous host, L. plantarum, through site-specific integration into the tRNA(Ser) gene of the genome and will be useful for development of an efficient integration system for a number of additional bacterial species in which an identical tRNA gene is present. PMID:7836291

  1. Structure of the chromosomal insertion site for pSAM2: functional analysis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Raynal, A; Tuphile, K; Gerbaud, C; Luther, T; Guérineau, M; Pernodet, J L

    1998-04-01

    The element pSAM2 from Streptomyces ambofaciens integrates into the chromosome through site-specific recombination between the element (attP) and the chromosomal (attB) sites. These regions share an identity segment of 58bp extending from the anti-codon loop through the 3' end of a tRNA(Pro) gene. To facilitate the study of the attB site, the int and xis genes, expressed from an inducible promoter, and attP from pSAM2 were cloned on plasmids in Escherichia coil. Compatible plasmids carrying the different attB regions to be tested were introduced in these E. coli strains. Under these conditions, Int alone could promote site-specific integration; Int and Xis were both required for site-specific excision. This experimental system was used to study the sequences required in attB for efficient site-specific recombination. A 26 bp sequence, centred on the anti-codon loop region and not completely included in the identity segment, retained all the functionality of attB; shorter sequences allowed integration with lower efficiencies. By comparing the 26-bp-long attB with attP, according to the Lambda model, we propose that B and B', C and C' core-type Int binding sites consist of 9 bp imperfect inverted repeats separated by a 5 bp overlap region.

  2. Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome: a misunderstood and a misleading entrapment neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Logullo, Francesco; Ganino, Cristiana; Lupidi, Francesca; Perozzi, Cecilia; Di Bella, Paolo; Provinciali, Leandro

    2014-05-01

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome (ATTS) is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum on the top of the ankle. ATTS is often asymptomatic or olygosymptomatic. There are few reports describing the ATTS. We describe the clinical and electrophysiological features of 85 patients with unilateral or bilateral ATTS prospectively collected between January 2000 and December 2010 in our laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology. This entrapment neuropathy remains poorly diagnosed and it might be misleading when performing a diagnostic EMG-ENG examination for suspected polyneuropathy or lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  3. Replicative resolution of integron cassette insertion

    PubMed Central

    Loot, Céline; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Escudero, José Antonio; Bouvier, Marie; Mazel, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases follows a common pathway consisting of two consecutive strand exchanges. The first strand exchange generates a Holliday junction (HJ), which is resolved by a second strand exchange. In integrons, attC sites recombine as folded single-stranded substrates. Only one of the two attC site strands, the bottom one, is efficiently bound and cleaved by the integrase during the insertion of gene cassettes at the double-stranded attI site. Due to the asymmetry of this complex, a second strand exchange on the attC bottom strand (bs) would form linearized abortive recombination products. We had proposed that HJ resolution would rely on an uncharacterized mechanism, probably replication. Using an attC site carried on a plasmid with each strand specifically tagged, we followed the destiny of each strand after recombination. We demonstrated that only one strand, the one carrying the attC bs, is exchanged. Furthermore, we show that the recombination products contain the attC site bs and its entire de novo synthesized complementary strand. Therefore, we demonstrate the replicative resolution of single-strand recombination in integrons and rule out the involvement of a second strand exchange of any kind in the attC × attI reaction. PMID:22740653

  4. EMP Preferred Test Procedures (Selected Electronic Parts). Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    ATTN: DAMA-lAS, Jack T. Bliackwell 12 it ATT]’N TC Progratm Mranager Cotmma~nrder ItINg) Program Officie Itifvnsi lcrrncsuplk Center ATTiN: Jorhn Shiea...Merchanics isr-h. Ctr. 1’. S. Ar-my S-curit\\ Agr’nv AAlN: lRXMR-iIIi, - Jorhn F. Dignarn ATT"IN: IACI)A-EW AllIN ech. LO)r. ATT’JN: ’Tech. LibI. ATT-IN

  5. Construction of transgenic Drosophila by using the site-specific integrase from phage phiC31.

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Amy C; Fish, Matthew; Nusse, Roel; Calos, Michele P

    2004-01-01

    The phiC31 integrase functions efficiently in vitro and in Escherichia coli, yeast, and mammalian cells, mediating unidirectional site-specific recombination between its attB and attP recognition sites. Here we show that this site-specific integration system also functions efficiently in Drosophila melanogaster in cultured cells and in embryos. Intramolecular recombination in S2 cells on transfected plasmid DNA carrying the attB and attP recognition sites occurred at a frequency of 47%. In addition, several endogenous pseudo attP sites were identified in the fly genome that were recognized by the integrase and used as substrates for integration in S2 cells. Two lines of Drosophila were created by integrating an attP site into the genome with a P element. phiC31 integrase injected into embryos as mRNA functioned to promote integration of an attB-containing plasmid into the attP site, resulting in up to 55% of fertile adults producing transgenic offspring. A total of 100% of these progeny carried a precise integration event at the genomic attP site. These experiments demonstrate the potential for precise genetic engineering of the Drosophila genome with the phiC31 integrase system and will likely benefit research in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:15126397

  6. An oral versus intranasal prime/boost regimen using attenuated human rotavirus or VP2 and VP6 virus-like particles with immunostimulating complexes influences protection and antibody-secreting cell responses to rotavirus in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marli S P; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Yuan, Lijuan; Jeong, Kwang-Il; Iosef, Cristiana; Van Nguyen, Trang; Lovgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Morein, Bror; Saif, Linda J

    2010-03-01

    We determined the impact of mucosal prime/boost regimens and vaccine type (attenuated Wa human rotavirus [AttHRV] or nonreplicating Wa 2/6 rotavirus-like particles [VLP]) on protection and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses to HRV in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model. Comparisons of delivery routes for AttHRV and evaluation of nonreplicating VLP vaccines are important as alternative vaccine approaches to overcome risks associated with live oral vaccines. Groups of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs were vaccinated using combinations of oral (PO) and intranasal (IN) inoculation routes as follows: (i) 3 oral doses of AttHRV (AttHRV3xPO); (ii) AttHRV3xIN; (iii) AttHRVPO, then 2/6VLP2xIN; (iv) AttHRVIN, then 2/6VLP2xIN; and (v) mock-inoculated controls. Subsets of pigs from each group were challenged with virulent Wa HRV [P1A(8) G1] (4 weeks post-primary inoculation) to assess protection. The AttHRVPO+2/6VLP2xIN pigs had the highest protection rates against virus shedding and diarrhea (71% each); however, these rates did not differ statistically among the vaccine groups, except for the AttHRVIN+2/6VLPIN group, which had a significantly lower protection rate (17%) against diarrhea. The isotype, magnitude, and tissue distribution of ASCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The highest mean numbers of virus-specific IgG and IgA ASCs were observed pre- and postchallenge in both intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of the AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN group. Thus, the AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN vaccine regimen using immunostimulating complexes (ISCOM) and multiple mucosal inductive sites, followed by AttHRV3xPO or IN regimens, were the most effective vaccine regimens, suggesting that either AttHRVPO+2/6VLPIN or AttHRV3xIN may be an alternative approach to AttHRV3xPO for inducing protective immunity against rotavirus diarrhea.

  7. Structural analysis of loci involved in pSAM2 site-specific integration in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Boccard, F; Smokvina, T; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1989-01-01

    pSAM2 is an 11-kb plasmid integrated in the Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 and ATCC15154 genomes and found additionally as a free replicon in an uv derivative. After transfer into S. ambofaciens DSM40697 (devoid of pSAM2) or into Streptomyces lividans, specific integration of pSAM2 occurred very efficiently. A 58-bp sequence (att) present in both pSAM2 (attP) and S. ambofaciens strain DSM40697 (attB) attachment regions is found at the boundaries (attL and attR) of integrated pSAM2 in S. ambofaciens strain ATCC23877. The S. lividans chromosomal integration zone contained an imperfectly conserved att sequence (attB), and the integration event of pSAM2 was located within a 49-bp sequence of attB. Only one primary functional attB sequence was present in the S. lividans or S. ambofaciens DSM40697 total DNA. The integration zone of S. lividans hybridized with the integration zone of S. ambofaciens DSM40697. The two integration zones were homologous only to the right side of the att sequence. The conserved region contained an open reading frame (ORF A) with a stop codon located 99 bp from the attB sequence in both strains. S. ambofaciens DSM40697 contained DNA sequences related to pSAM2 on the left side of the att site. The att sequence was included in a region conserved in Streptomyces antibioticus, Streptomyces actuosus, Streptomyces bikiniensis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces glaucescens, and Streptomyces parvulus. Site-specific integration of a pSAM2 derivative was characterized in another unrelated strain, Streptomyces griseofuscus. This strain contained an imperfectly conserved 58-bp attB sequence, and the integration event took place within a 45-bp sequence of attB. Site-specific integration of pSAM2 in three nonrelated Streptomyces strains suggests the wide host range of pSAM2 integration in Streptomyces.

  8. ED's Oasis: Teacher Support for Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Terrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes ED's Oasis, a multifunction Web site funded by the AT&T Foundation, through the AT&T Learning Network program, and developed by a team of educators to help teachers use the Internet with their students. Examples are given of various possible uses, including designing interdisciplinary units. (LRW)

  9. Roles of Exc protein and DNA homology in the CTnDOT excision reaction.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Carolyn M; Gardner, Jeffrey F

    2012-07-01

    Excision from the chromosome is the first step during the transfer of conjugative transposons (CTns) to a recipient. We previously showed that the excision of CTnDOT is more complex than the excision of lambdoid phages and CTns such as Tn916. The excision in vivo of CTnDOT utilizes four CTnDOT-encoded proteins, IntDOT, Xis2c, Xis2d, and Exc, and a host factor. We previously developed an in vitro excision reaction where the recombination sites attL and attR were located on different plasmids. The reaction was inefficient and did not require Exc, suggesting that the reaction conditions did not mimic in vivo conditions. Here, we report the development of an intramolecular excision reaction where the attL and attR sites are located on the same DNA molecule. We found that Exc stimulates the reaction 3- to 5-fold. The efficiency of the excision reaction was also dependent on the distance between the attL and attR sites and on the sequences of the overlap regions between the sites of the strand exchanges. Substrates with identical overlap sequences recombined more efficiently than ones with heterologous overlap sequences. This was surprising, because the integration reaction is not sensitive to heterology in the overlap regions of the attDOT and attB sites.

  10. Precise excision of plastid DNA by the large serine recombinase Bxb1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To elucidate the precise excision of transgene, tobacco plastid genome was transformed with a vector (pTCH-BxbPB) that contains a stuffer DNA fragment flanked by directly oriented attB and attP recognition sites for the Bxb1 recombinase. The transformed plastid genomes containing the recognition si...

  11. The RightPages Service: An Image-Based Electronic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Melia M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes The RightPages Service developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories library and computer researchers to enable AT&T employees to access the library from their workstations. The service incorporates ASCII text, bitmap images, and an alerting service. Copyright issues, user interface, image and text processing procedures, results, and…

  12. Embedding Fonts in MetaPost Output

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    Technical Report 164, AT&T Bell Laborato- ries, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1992. Also avail- able at http://www.tug.org/docs/metapost/ mpgraph.pdf. [2] J. D...D. Hobby. A user’s manual for MetaPost. Technical Report 162, AT&T Bell Laborato- ries, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1992. Also avail- able at http

  13. The Evolution of Access. ONA Technical and Regulatory Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Charles L.

    In June 1986, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released its "Report and Order" and its "Third Computer Inquiry," which proposed to remove the then-current requirement that AT&T and the Bell Operating Companies (BOCs) provide enhanced services only through separate subsidiaries. Instead, AT&T and the BOCs…

  14. Final Report O.N.R. Contract Number N00014-76-C-0288, 1 September 1975 - 15 January 1986,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-14

    Daniel Andrews 1 Attns NISC 20 Dr. Dean Hama I Mr. Henry Aurand 1 Director Dr. Harry A. Schenck 1 Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013...92093 Or. Poter Hirsch I Att.s Dr. W. Munk I bolt, 8oroak, nd , In. N. . Spiesberger - 50 oeulton Street Jaycor Incorporated Cambridge, Massachusetts

  15. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Group Exercise and Animal-Assisted Therapy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Brandon; Artese, Ashley; Schmitt, Karla; Cormier, Eileen; Panton, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of incorporating animal-assisted therapy teams (ATT) into a 6-week group exercise program for older adults (77 ± 6 years). Fifteen participants were randomly assigned to an exercise with ATT (E+ATT; n = 8) or exercise only (E; n = 7) group. Groups exercised 3x/week for 45 min. Feasibility was assessed by three objectives: (1) ATT will not need extensive preparation beyond their original therapy training; (2) the study will require minimal cost; and (3) ATT must not impair the effectiveness of the exercise program. By the study conclusion, all objectives were met. Time and cost were minimal for ATT, and adherence was 93% and 90% for E+ATT and E, respectively. There were significant improvements in both groups (p ≤ .05) for arm curls, get-up and go, and 6-min walk. The results of this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to incorporate ATT into group exercise programming for older adults.

  16. The integrated conjugative plasmid pSAM2 of Streptomyces ambofaciens is related to temperate bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Boccard, F; Smokvina, T; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1989-03-01

    Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 and derivatives contain the 11-kb element pSAM2 present in an integrated state or as a free and integrated plasmid. This element, able to integrate site-specifically in the genome of different Streptomyces species, is conjugative and mobilizes chromosomal markers. Besides these plasmid functions, we have shown that the site-specific recombination system of pSAM2 presents strong similarities with that of several temperate phages. The integration event is promoted by a site-specific recombinase of the integrase family. The int gene encoding this integrase is closely linked to the plasmid attachment site (attP). A small open reading frame (ORF) overlaps the int gene and the predicted protein exhibits similarities with Xis proteins involved in phages excision. The integrated copy of pSAM2 in strain ATCC23877 is flanked by att sequences (attL and attR). Another att sequence (attX) is present in this strain and attX and attL are the boundaries of a 42-kb fragment (xSAM1) absent, as well as pSAM2, from S.ambofaciens DSM40697. Sequences partially similar to pSAM2 int gene are found near the chromosomal integration zone in both S.ambofaciens strains. The possible origin of pSAM2, an element carrying plasmid as well as phage features, is discussed.

  17. A phage integrase directs efficient site-specific integration in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Amy C.; Olivares, Eric C.; Thyagarajan, Bhaskar; Calos, Michele P.

    2000-01-01

    The integrase from the Streptomyces phage φC31 carries out efficient recombination between the attP site in the phage genome and the attB site in the host bacterial chromosome. In this paper, we show that the enzyme also functions in human cells. A plasmid assay system was constructed that measured intramolecular integration of attP into attB. This assay was used to demonstrate that in the presence of the φC31 integrase, precise unidirectional integration occurs with an efficiency of 100% in Escherichia coli and >50% in human cells. This assay system was also used to define the minimal sizes of attB and attP at 34 bp and 39 bp, respectively. Furthermore, precise and efficient intermolecular integration of an incoming plasmid bearing attP into an established Epstein–Barr virus plasmid bearing attB was documented in human cells. This work is a demonstration of efficient, site-specific, unidirectional integration in mammalian cells. These observations form the basis for site-specific integration strategies potentially useful in a broad range of genetic engineering applications. PMID:10801973

  18. OCDMA Add/Drop Multiplexer of Self-Healing Rings/Ultrafast Multidimentional Optical CDMA Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    encoderAdd data EDFA TDL ATT PC DSF Fig. 3. Schematic of the optical CDMA add/drop multiplexer. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; TDL: tunable optical...delay line; ATT: attenuator; PC: polarization controller; DSF : dispersion shifted fiber. Distribution Statement: Approved for public release

  19. A Review of Data for Electron Mobility, Energy, and Attachment Relevant to EMP Air Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    ATTN: C. Senton Control Data Corp ATTN: 1% 670, i. Hopkins A- ’J: T. Frye ATTrj: B. ’ioel Cutler-’amor, Inc Sandia Nation,.’ Lab ATTS: E. a rpen ATTS...Technical Library Singer Co Northrop Corp ATTN: Technical Information enter ATTN: Rad Effects Grp ATTN: V. Gemartino Sperry Rand Corp ATTN: Lew Smitr

  20. Arterial Transit Time Effects in Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling CBF Mapping: Insight From a PET and MR Study in Normal Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Maolin; Maguire, R. Paul; Arora, Jagriti; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Weinzimmer, David; Wang, Jinghua; Wang, Yuenan; Kim, Hyeonjin; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Constable, R. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT), a key parameter required to calculate absolute cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling (ASL), is subject to much uncertainty. In this study, ASL ATTs were estimated on a per-voxel basis using data measured by both ASL and positron emission tomography in the same subjects. The mean ATT increased by 260 ± 20 (standard error of the mean) ms when the imaging slab shifted downwards by 54 mm, and increased from 630 ± 30 to 1220 ± 30 ms for the first slice, with an increase of 610 ± 20 ms over a four-slice slab when the gap between the imaging and labeling slab increased from 20 to 74 mm. When the per-slice ATTs were employed in ASL cerebral blood flow quantification and the in-slice ATT variations ignored, regional cerebral blood flow could be significantly different from the positron emission tomography measures. ATT also decreased with focal activation by the same amount for both visual and motor tasks (~80 ms). These results provide a quantitative relationship between ATT and the ASL imaging geometry and yield an assessment of the assumptions commonly used in ASL imaging. These findings should be considered in the interpretation of, and comparisons between, different ASL-based cerebral blood flow studies. The results also provide spatially specific ATT data that may aid in optimizing the ASL imaging parameters. PMID:19953506

  1. The Bxb1 recombination system demonstrates heritable transmission of site-specific excision in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The mycobacteriophage large serine recombinase Bxb1 catalyzes site-specific recombination between its corresponding attP and attB recognition sites. Previously, we and others have shown that Bxb1 has catalytic activity in various eukaryotic species including Nicotiana tabacum, Schizosacc...

  2. Construction of a stepwise gene integration system by transient expression of actinophage R4 integrase in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takamasa; Nishizawa, Akito; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Asayama, Munehiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Shirai, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The integrase of actinophage R4, which belongs to the large serine-recombinase family, catalyzes site-specific recombination between two distinct attachment site sequences of the phage (attP) and actinomycete Streptomyces parvulus 2297 chromosome (attB). We previously reported that R4 integrase (Sre) catalyzed site-specific recombination both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, a Sre-based system was developed for the stepwise site-specific integration of multiple genes into the chromosome of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter PCC 6803). A transgene-integrated plasmid with two attP sites and a non-replicative sre-containing plasmid were co-introduced into attB-inserted PCC 6803 cells. The transiently expressed Sre catalyzed highly efficient site-specific integration between one of the two attP sites on the integration plasmid and the attB site on the chromosome of PCC 6803. A second transgene-integrated plasmid with an attB site was integrated into the residual attP site on the chromosome by repeating site-specific recombination. The transformation frequencies (%) of the first and second integrations were approximately 5.1 × 10(-5) and 8.2 × 10(-5), respectively. Furthermore, the expression of two transgenes was detected. This study is the first to apply the multiple gene site-specific integration system based on R4 integrase to cyanobacteria.

  3. The Evolution of Access. ONA Technical and Regulatory Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Charles L.

    In June 1986, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released its "Report and Order" and its "Third Computer Inquiry," which proposed to remove the then-current requirement that AT&T and the Bell Operating Companies (BOCs) provide enhanced services only through separate subsidiaries. Instead, AT&T and the BOCs…

  4. Posterior tibial slope influences static anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a minimum 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hong, Lei; Feng, Hua; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Jin; Song, Guanyang; Chen, Xingzuo; Zhuo, Hongwu

    2014-04-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has recently been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries because of an associated increase in anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL loading. However, few studies concerning the correlation between PTS and postoperative ATT have been published. To analyze the relationship between PTS and postoperative ATT in ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this retrospective study were 40 consecutive patients who underwent ACLR (28 male, 12 female; median age, 22 years; range, 14-44 years) from October 2010 to June 2011. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on medial and lateral PTS values as measured on MRI. Demographic data and results of the manual maximum side-to-side difference with a KT-1000 arthrometer at 30° of knee flexion before ACLR and at final follow-up were collected; results were divided into ATT ≤2 mm, 2 mm < ATT < 5 mm, and ATT ≥5 mm. First, the distribution of ATT in the 3 groups was compared, and then correlation analysis and logistic regression were conducted to determine the correlation between PTS and ATT. Finally, the thresholds of medial and lateral PTS were calculated. Results of the ATT measurements were collected at a mean of 27.5 months (range, 24.0-37.0 months) after ACLR. The group with a PTS ≥5° had significantly more cases of ATT ≥5 mm than the group with a PTS <3° (medial PTS: P = .005; lateral PTS: P = .016). There were statistically significant correlations with ATT for both medial (r = 0.43, P = .005) and lateral (r = 0.36, P = .02) PTS. Medial or lateral PTS resulted in the increased probability of ATT ≥5 mm, with an odds ratio of 1.76 (P = .011) and 1.68 (P = .008), respectively. The threshold of an increased risk of ATT ≥5 mm was a medial PTS >5.6° (P = .003) or a lateral PTS >3.8° (P = .002). There was a significant correlation between PTS and postoperative anterior knee static stability in this study

  5. A comparison of the effect of attention training and relaxation on responses to pain.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, L; Nicholson Perry, K; Rogers, P; Dear, B F; Nicholas, M K; Refshauge, K

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an attention training technique (ATT) on pain ratings, threshold and tolerance during the cold pressor task. One hundred and three undergraduate students were randomly assigned to receive either threat-alleviating or threat-inducing information about the task. Participants were then re-randomized to receive either ATT or progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Hence, the present study had a 2 (threat expectancy: high vs. low)x2 (training: ATT vs. PMR) design. Analyses confirmed that the threat manipulation was effective in increasing the harm associated with the task. ATT resulted in a relative reduction in hypervigilance to sensory pain words compared to PMR. ATT was also associated with a lower degree of focus on internal sensations, but not mindfulness or difficulty disengaging from pain words. Results showed that, relative to relaxation training, those receiving ATT reported pain less quickly than those receiving relaxation, although there were no differences between the training groups for tolerance or pain ratings. These results show that ATT changes the cognitive processes of internal/external focus and hypervigilance towards sensory pain words, but not difficulty disengaging or mindfulness. Although ATT changed threshold, the fact that neither pain ratings nor tolerance was affected suggests that a single, brief session of ATT may not be sufficient to affect broader change. Nonetheless, this study shows that ATT can change cognitive processes thought to be associated with heightened perception of pain and that this changes how quickly pain is registered and is therefore worthy of further investigation. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of genomic islands by deletion and tandem accretion by site-specific recombination: ICESt1-related elements from Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Guillaume; Burrus, Vincent; Gintz, Brigitte; Decaris, Bernard; Guédon, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    The 34 734-bp integrative and potentially conjugative element (putative ICE) ICESt1 has been previously found to be site-specifically integrated in the 3' end of the fda locus of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ368. Four types of genomic islands related to ICESt1 are integrated in the same position in seven other strains of S. thermophilus. One of these elements, ICESt3, harbours conjugation and recombination modules closely related to those of ICESt1 and excises by site-specific recombination. Two other types of elements, CIME19258 and CIME302, are flanked by site-specific attachment sites closely related to attL and attR of ICESt1 and ICESt3, whereas Delta CIME308 only possesses a putative attR site; none of these three elements carry complete conjugation and recombination modules. ICESt1 contains a functional internal recombination site, attL', that is almost identical to attL of CIME19258. The recombination between attL' and attR of ICESt1 leads to the excision of the expected circular molecule (putative ICE); a cis-mobilizable element (CIME) flanked by an attL site and an attB' site remains integrated into the 3' end of fda. Furthermore, sequences that could be truncated att sites were found within ICESt1, ICESt3 and CIME302. All together, these data suggest that these genomic islands evolved by deletion and tandem accretion of ICEs and CIMEs resulting from site-specific recombination. A model for this evolution is proposed and its application to other genomic islands is discussed.

  7. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  8. The Retrovirus pol Gene Encodes a Product Required for DNA Integration: Identification of a Retrovirus int Locus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panganiban, Antonito T.; Temin, Howard M.

    1984-12-01

    We mutagenized cloned spleen necrosis virus DNA to identify a region of the retrovirus genome encoding a polypeptide required for integration of viral DNA. Five plasmids bearing different lesions in the 3' end of the pol gene were examined for the ability to integrate or replicate following transfection of chicken embryo fibroblasts. Transfection with one of these DNAs resulted in the generation of mutant virus incapable of integrating but able to replicate at low levels; this phenotype is identical to that of mutants bearing alterations in the cis-acting region, att. To determine whether the 3' end of the pol gene encodes a protein that interacts with att, we did a complementation experiment. Cells were first infected with an att- virus and then superinfected with the integration-deficient virus containing a lesion in the pol gene and a wild-type att site. The results showed that the att- virus provided a trans-acting function allowing integration of viral DNA derived from the mutant bearing a wild-type att site. Thus, the 3' end of the pol gene serves as an ``int'' locus and encodes a protein mediating integration of retrovirus DNA through interaction with att.

  9. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Thi, A M; Shewade, H D; Kyaw, N T T; Oo, M M; Aung, T K; Aung, S T; Oo, H N; Win, T; Harries, A D

    2016-06-21

    Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Retrospective cohort study. Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm(3) had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV.

  10. Deformation of DNA during site-specific recombination of bacteriophage lambda: replacement of IHF protein by HU protein or sequence-directed bends.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, S D; Nicholson, S C; Nash, H A

    1992-01-01

    Escherichia coli IHF protein is a prominent component of bacteriophage lambda integration and excision that binds specifically to DNA. We find that the homologous protein HU, a nonspecific DNA binding protein, can substitute for IHF during excisive recombination of a plasmid containing the prophage attachment sites attL and attR but not during integrative recombination between attP and attB. We have examined whether IHF and HU function in excisive recombination is mediated through DNA bending. Our strategy has been to construct chimeric attachment sites in which IHF binding sites are replaced by an alternative source of DNA deformation. Previously, we demonstrated that properly phased bends can substitute for the binding of IHF at one site in attP. Although this result is highly suggestive of a critical role of IHF-promoted bending in lambda integration, its interpretation is obscured by the continued need for IHF binding to the remaining IHF sites of these constructs. In the present work, we engineered a population of sequence-directed bends in the vicinity of the two essential IHF sites found in attR and attL. Even in the absence of IHF or HU, pairs of these attachment sites with properly phased bends are active for both in vitro and in vivo excision. This success, although tempered by the limited efficiency of these systems, reinforces our interpretation that IHF functions primarily as an architectural element. Images PMID:1465417

  11. Cloning of Frankia species putative tRNA(Pro) genes and their efficacy for pSAM2 site-specific integration in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Alegre, M T; Cournoyer, B; Mesas, J M; Guérineau, M; Normand, P; Pernodet, J L

    1994-12-01

    pSAM2 is a conjugative Streptomyces ambofaciens mobile genetic element that can transfer and integrate site specifically in the genome. The chromosomal attachment site (attB) for pSAM2 site-specific recombination for two Frankia species was analyzed. It overlaps putative proline tRNA genes having a 3'-terminal CCA sequence, an uncommon feature among actinomycetes. pSAM2 is able to integrate into a cloned Frankia attB site harbored in Streptomyces lividans. The integration event removes the 3'-terminal CCA sequence and introduces a single nucleotide difference in the T psi C loop of the putative Frankia tRNA(Pro) gene. Major differences between the attP sequence from pSAM2 and the Frankia attB sequence restrict the identity segment to a 43-bp-long region. Only one mismatch is found between these well-conserved att segments. This nucleotide substitution makes a BstBI recognition site in Frankia attB and was used to localize the recombination site in a 25-bp region going from the anticodon to the T psi C loop of the tRNA(Pro) sequence. Integration of pSAM2 into the Frankia attB site is the first step toward introduction of pSAM2 derivatives into Frankia spp.

  12. Cloning of Frankia species putative tRNA(Pro) genes and their efficacy for pSAM2 site-specific integration in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, M T; Cournoyer, B; Mesas, J M; Guérineau, M; Normand, P; Pernodet, J L

    1994-01-01

    pSAM2 is a conjugative Streptomyces ambofaciens mobile genetic element that can transfer and integrate site specifically in the genome. The chromosomal attachment site (attB) for pSAM2 site-specific recombination for two Frankia species was analyzed. It overlaps putative proline tRNA genes having a 3'-terminal CCA sequence, an uncommon feature among actinomycetes. pSAM2 is able to integrate into a cloned Frankia attB site harbored in Streptomyces lividans. The integration event removes the 3'-terminal CCA sequence and introduces a single nucleotide difference in the T psi C loop of the putative Frankia tRNA(Pro) gene. Major differences between the attP sequence from pSAM2 and the Frankia attB sequence restrict the identity segment to a 43-bp-long region. Only one mismatch is found between these well-conserved att segments. This nucleotide substitution makes a BstBI recognition site in Frankia attB and was used to localize the recombination site in a 25-bp region going from the anticodon to the T psi C loop of the tRNA(Pro) sequence. Integration of pSAM2 into the Frankia attB site is the first step toward introduction of pSAM2 derivatives into Frankia spp. PMID:7811067

  13. In vivo and in vitro characterization of site-specific recombination of actinophage R4 integrase.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takamasa; Hosaka, Yayoi; Yan-Zhuo, Yang; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Asayama, Munehiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Shirai, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The site-specific integrase of actinophage R4 belongs to the serine recombinase family. During the lysogenization process, it catalyzes site-specific recombination between the phage genome and the chromosome of Streptomyces parvulus 2297. An in vivo assay using Escherichia coli cells revealed that the minimum lengths of the recombination sites attB and attP are 50-bp and 49-bp, respectively, for efficient intramolecular recombination. The in vitro assay using overproduced R4 integrases as a hexahistidine (His(6))-glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-R4 integrase fusion protein, showed that the purified protein preparation retains the site-specific recombination activity which catalyzes the site-specific recombination between attP and attB in the intermolecular reaction. It also revealed that the inverted repeat within attP is essential for efficient in vitro intermolecular recombination. In addition, a gel shift assay showed that His(6)-GST-R4 integrase bound to the 50-bp attB and 49-bp attP specifically. Moreover, based on a detailed comparison analysis of amino acid sequences of serine integrases, we found the DNA binding region that is conserved in the serine recombinase containing the large C-terminal domain. Based on the results presented on this report, attachment sites needed in vitro and in vivo for site-specific recombination by the R4 integrase have been defined more precisely. This knowledge is useful for developing new genetic manipulation tools in the future.

  14. The spatial coefficient of variation in arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow images.

    PubMed

    Mutsaerts, Henri Jmm; Petr, Jan; Václavů, Lena; van Dalen, Jan W; Robertson, Andrew D; Caan, Matthan W; Masellis, Mario; Nederveen, Aart J; Richard, Edo; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2017-09-01

    Macro-vascular artifacts are a common arterial spin labeling (ASL) finding in populations with prolonged arterial transit time (ATT) and result in vascular regions with spuriously increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue regions with spuriously decreased CBF. This study investigates whether there is an association between the spatial signal distribution of a single post-label delay ASL CBF image and ATT. In 186 elderly with hypertension (46% male, 77.4 ± 2.5 years), we evaluated associations between the spatial coefficient of variation (CoV) of a CBF image and ATT. The spatial CoV and ATT metrics were subsequently evaluated with respect to their associations with age and sex - two demographics known to influence perfusion. Bland-Altman plots showed that spatial CoV predicted ATT with a maximum relative error of 7.6%. Spatial CoV was associated with age (β = 0.163, p = 0.028) and sex (β = -0.204, p = 0.004). The spatial distribution of the ASL signal on a standard CBF image can be used to infer between-participant ATT differences. In the absence of ATT mapping, the spatial CoV may be useful for the clinical interpretation of ASL in patients with cerebrovascular pathology that leads to prolonged transit of the ASL signal to tissue.

  15. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  16. Virus-specific intestinal IFN-gamma producing T cell responses induced by human rotavirus infection and vaccines are correlated with protection against rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijuan; Wen, Ke; Azevedo, Marli S P; Gonzalez, Ana M; Zhang, Wei; Saif, Linda J

    2008-06-19

    We examined rotavirus-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with a virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) or vaccinated with an attenuated (Att) HRV vaccine (AttHRV3x or AttHRV2x) or an AttHRV oral priming and 2/6-virus-like particle (VLP) intranasal boosting (AttHRV-2/6VLP) regimen. In VirHRV infected pigs, HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing T cells reside primarily in ileum. AttHRV-2/6VLP induced similar frequencies of intestinal IFN-gamma producing T cells as the VirHRV, whereas AttHRV3x or 2x vaccines were less effective. Protection rates against rotavirus diarrhea upon VirHRV challenge significantly correlated (r=0.97-1.0, p<0.005) with frequencies of intestinal IFN-gamma producing T cells, suggesting their role in protective immunity.

  17. Differences in Vector Genome Processing and Illegitimate Integration of Non-Integrating Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Aaron M.; Joseph, Guiandre L.; Jasti, Aparna C.; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Witting, Scott; Cornetta, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mutations in lentiviral vector expression systems have been shown to generate a non-integrating phenotype. We studied a novel 12 base-pair U3-LTR integrase attachment site deletion (U3-LTR att site) mutant and found similar physical titers to the previously reported integrase catalytic core mutant IN/D116N. Both mutations led to a greater than two log reduction in vector integration; with IN/D116N providing lower illegitimate integration frequency, while the U3-LTR att site mutant provided a higher level of transgene expression. The improved expression of the U3-LTR att site mutant could not be explained solely based on an observed modest increase in integration frequency. In evaluating processing, we noted significant differences in unintegrated vector forms, with the U3-LTR att site mutant leading to a predominance of 1-LTR circles. The mutations also differed in the manner of illegitimate integration. The U3-LTR att site mutant vector demonstrated integrase-mediated integration at the intact U5-LTR att site and non-integrase mediated integration at the mutated U3-LTR att site. Finally, we combined a variety of mutations and modifications and assessed transgene expression and integration frequency to show that combining modifications can improve the potential clinical utility of non-integrating lentiviral vectors. PMID:27682478

  18. Arabidopsis CYP86A2 represses Pseudomonas syringae type III genes and is required for cuticle development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fangming; Mark Goodwin, S; Xiao, Yanmei; Sun, Zhaoyu; Baker, Douglas; Tang, Xiaoyan; Jenks, Matthew A; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae relies on type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell for parasitism. Type III genes are induced in planta, but host factors affecting the induction are poorly understood. Here we report on the identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, att1 (for aberrant induction of type three genes), that greatly enhances the expression of bacterial type III genes avrPto and hrpL. att1 plants display enhanced disease severity to a virulent strain of P. syringae, suggesting a role of ATT1 in disease resistance. ATT1 encodes CYP86A2, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing fatty acid oxidation. The cutin content is reduced to 30% in att1, indicating that CYP86A2 plays a major role in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. att1 has a loose cuticle membrane ultrastructure and shows increased permeability to water vapor, demonstrating the importance of the cuticle membrane in controlling water loss. The enhanced avrPto-luc expression is specific to att1, but not another cuticle mutant, wax2. The results suggest that certain cutin-related fatty acids synthesized by CYP86A2 may repress bacterial type III gene expression in the intercellular spaces. PMID:15241470

  19. Treatment Results in Serpiginous Choroiditis and Multifocal Serpiginoid Choroiditis Associated with Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oray, Merih; Zakiev, Zaur; Çağatay, Tülin; Tuğal-Tutkun, İlknur

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the results of systemic antitubercular therapy (ATT) and immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) in patients with serpiginous choroiditis (SC) or multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). Materials and Methods: The clinical records of 28 patients with SC and MSC were reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the treatment applied. Group 1 included 12 patients with MSC and 5 with SC treated with ATT and corticosteroid (CS); group 2 included 9 patients with MSC and 2 with SC treated with conventional IMT, interferon alpha-2a, and/or CS monotherapy. Results: In group 1, clinical remission was achieved in 12/12 MSC and 3/5 SC (total 15/17) patients with administration of ATT for 1 year. Two patients (1 SC, 1 MSC) had reactivation 2 and 7 months after cessation of ATT. Two patients with recurrence after completion of ATT and 2 patients resistant to ATT received IMT ± CS therapy. In group 2, clinical remission was achieved in 7/9 MSC and 2/2 SC (total 9/11) patients after 1 year of treatment. Recurrent inflammation was observed in 2 MSC patients 2 and 112 months after initiation of therapy, but responded well to local/systemic CS or IMT modification, and clinical remission was achieved in 7.8±4.3 months. Cumulative dose of CS was higher in group 2 (p=0.057). Nine of 12 MSC patients treated with ATT and 4/9 MSC patients treated with IMT achieved remission (p=0.203). One of 5 SC patients treated with ATT and 2/2 SC patients treated with IMT achieved remission (p=0.142). Conclusion: Although a statistically significant result could not be achieved in this small case series, our results suggest that ATT may be an appropriate first choice in the treatment of MSC associated with latent tuberculosis, and may be administered in patients with SC who are unresponsive to IMT. PMID:28405483

  20. Perceiving numbers does not cause automatic shifts of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Enrico; Pinto, Mario; Rotondaro, Francesca; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2015-12-01

    It is frequently assumed that the brain codes number magnitudes according to an inherent left-to-right spatial organization. In support of this hypothesis it has been reported that in humans, perceiving small numbers induces automatic shifts of attention toward the left side of space whereas perceiving large numbers automatically shifts attention to the right side of space (i.e., Attentional SNARC: Att-SNARC; Fischer, Castel, Dodd, & Pratt, 2003). Nonetheless, the Att-SNARC has been often not replicated and its reliability never tested. To ascertain whether the mere perception of numbers causes shifts of spatial attention or whether number-space interaction takes place at a different stage of cognitive processing, we re-assessed the consistency and reliability of the Att-SNARC and investigated its role in the production of SNARC effects in Parity Judgement (PJ) and Magnitude Comparison (MC) tasks. In a first study in 60 participants, we found no Att-SNARC, despite finding strong PJ- and MC-SNARC effects. No correlation was present between the Att-SNARC and the SNARC. Split-half tests showed no reliability of the Att-SNARC and high reliability of the PJ- and MC-SNARC. In a second study, we re-assessed the Att-SNARC and tested its direct influence on a MC-SNARC task with laterally presented targets. No Att-SNARC and no influence of the Att-SNARC on the MC-SNARC were found. Also in this case, the SNARC was reliable whereas the Att-SNARC task was not. Finally, in a third study we observed a significant Att-SNARC when participants were asked to recall the position occupied on a ruler by the numbers presented in each trial: however the Att-SNARC task was not reliable. These results show that perceiving numbers does not cause automatic shifts of spatial attention and that whenever present, these shifts do not modulate the SNARC. The same results suggest that numbers have no inherent mental left-to-right organization and that, whenever present, this organization can have

  1. A Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-Based Non-fullerene Electron Acceptor for High-Performance Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhou, Zichun; Zhang, Cheng; Vergote, Thomas; Fan, Haijun; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaozhang

    2016-12-07

    A thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-based electron acceptor, ATT-1, is designed and synthesized. ATT-1 exhibits a planar conjugated framework, broad absorption with a large absorption coefficient, and a slightly high LUMO energy level. Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on PTB7-Th electron donor and ATT-1 electron acceptor delivered power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.07%, which is among the best performances reported for non-fullerene BHJ solar cells using PTB7-Th as the electron donor.

  2. Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary to missed talus fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkal, Ahmet; Topuz, Kivanc; Kaya, Serdar; Colak, Ahmet; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

    2011-01-01

    The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome (ATTS) has first been described by Kopell and Thompson in 1963. The anterior tarsal tunnel is formed by the fascia lining the inferior extensor retinaculum and talus as well as the navicular bone. Many ATTS cases with various etiologies have been reported since the first description. We report here an ATSS case resulting from a fibro-osseous structure that occurred after a missed talus fracture. The ATTS diagnosis can be made with a comprehensive clinical neurological examination and electrophysiological study. The treatment is based on the underlying etiology, while surgery is the most common treatment providing successful outcomes in the long term.

  3. Paradoxical appearance of intracranial tuberculoma in a child with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ira, Shah

    2005-06-01

    Intracranial tuberculomas are known to develop during treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, they usually develop within weeks or a couple of months after the start of antituberculous therapy (ATT). We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who developed tuberculomas after 9 months of ATT, which subsequently responded to the reintroduction of steroids. Thus, one must keep a watch for neurological deterioration in a child of TBM and if it is due to tuberculomas, one may have to continue steroids and ATT for a long time.

  4. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  5. 78 FR 766 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ..., 2011. Information Technology Operations, Global Systems Hosting Application & Service Management. 82.... Information Technology Operations, Global Systems Hosting Application & Service Management. 82,064O AT&T.... Information Technology Operations, Global Systems Hosting Application & Service Management. 82,068 Stanadyne...

  6. 76 FR 39121 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... devices, and products containing same. The complaint names as respondents Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America Inc. of Ridgefield, New Jersey; AT&T Inc. of Dallas, TX; Best Buy Co...

  7. The life cycles of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage phiLC3 monitored by a quantitative PCR method.

    PubMed

    Lunde, M; Blatny, J M; Kaper, F; Nes, I F; Lillehaug, D

    2000-11-01

    We present here a new and general approach for monitoring the life cycles of temperate bacteriophages which establish lysogeny by inserting their genomes site-specifically into the bacterial host chromosome. The method is based on quantitative amplification of specific DNA sites involved in various cut-and-join events during the life cycles of the phages (i.e. the cos, attP, attB, attL and attR sites) with the use of sequence-specific primers. By comparing the amounts of these specific DNA sites at different intervals, we were able to follow the development of the lytic and lysogenic life cycles of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage phiLC3 after infection of its bacterial host Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IMN-C18.

  8. NASA Now: The Sun: The Impact of Solar Activity on Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Meet Mitzi Adams, an astrophysicist studying the sun. Adams has been working as a solar scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., since 1988. She analyzes data in an att...

  9. 75 FR 9210 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Seeks Comment on Petition for Rulemaking Regarding 700 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... ``joint venture'' consisting of Cellular South Licenses, Inc.; Cavalier Wireless, LLC; Continuum 700, LLC..., 2010). AT&T and Verizon Wireless have indicated that they are pursuing 700 MHz Long Term Evolution (LTE...

  10. Libraries in Florida: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/florida.html Libraries in Florida To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Atlantis JFK Medical Center MEDICAL LIBRARY 5301 S. Congress Ave. Att: Karin H. Pancake Atlantis, ...

  11. Effect of Advanced Component Technology on Helicopter Transmissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    same basic configuration, by a flight hardware air-oil cooler mounted on the the same number of teeth on the gears, and the same transmission (with... torque were then adjusted 3 (40 ’>C nearly all the accelerometers (Fig. 8(a)). Thus, the ATT peak stresses were about three times higher than number of...ratio planetary gears. torque and speed conditions. Vibration and efficiency experiments were performed on the ATT and compared to INTRODUCTION the OH

  12. Assembly and transfer of tripartite integrative and conjugative genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Haskett, Timothy L.; Terpolilli, Jason J.; Bekuma, Amanuel; O’Hara, Graham W.; Sullivan, John T.; Wang, Penghao; Ronson, Clive W.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as “genomic islands” within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts of legumes. Here we report the discovery of symbiosis ICEs that exist as three separate chromosomal regions when integrated in their hosts, but through recombination assemble as a single circular ICE for conjugative transfer. Whole-genome comparisons revealed exconjugants derived from nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia received three separate chromosomal regions from the donor Mesorhizobium ciceri WSM1271. The three regions were each bordered by two nonhomologous integrase attachment (att) sites, which together comprised three homologous pairs of attL and attR sites. Sequential recombination between each attL and attR pair produced corresponding attP and attB sites and joined the three fragments to produce a single circular ICE, ICEMcSym1271. A plasmid carrying the three attP sites was used to recreate the process of tripartite ICE integration and to confirm the role of integrase genes intS, intM, and intG in this process. Nine additional tripartite ICEs were identified in diverse mesorhizobia and transfer was demonstrated for three of them. The transfer of tripartite ICEs to nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia explains the evolution of competitive but suboptimal N2-fixing strains found in Western Australian soils. The unheralded existence of tripartite ICEs raises the possibility that multipartite elements reside in other organisms, but have been overlooked because of their unusual biology. These discoveries reveal mechanisms by which integrases dramatically manipulate bacterial genomes to allow cotransfer of disparate chromosomal regions. PMID:27733511

  13. Incidence of NBC Head Protections on the Efficiency of the Auditive Guards and the Helmets of Communication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-06

    10 3.3 Serre -t~te 6tudi~s ........................................................................................... 10 4. R6sultats...Influence de la protection de tate TLD sur I’att~nuation ..................................... 11 4.4 Effet des protections NBC sur I’att6nuation...personnel est oblig6 dle revgtir des protections dle Wae NBC et doit souvent porter simultan6ment des dispositifs de protection dle type serre -t~te pour

  14. Training in Methods in Computational Neuroscience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-29

    and synaptic transmission. 5 Bruce McNaughton Long Term Potentiation (LTP) - experimental facts and mathematical and computer models. John Lisman...connected to the MBL ethernet. Faculty Affiliations 1993 Course Directors DAVID KLEINFELD, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ DAVID W . TANK, AT&T Bell...University of Rochester, Rochester, NY DAVID A. McCORMICH, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT BRUCE L. McNAUGHTON, University of Arizona

  15. BEMRP: Beyond the bitterroot

    Treesearch

    Greg Jones

    2008-01-01

    Sometimes a name says it all, and sometimes a name is just a name. Joe's Income Tax and Bookkeeping Service probably does just what it says. On the other hand, there's AT&T. Until 2005, the initials stood for American Telephone & Telegraph, but in the last couple of decades when you saw "AT&T," you didn't think of the telegraph. You...

  16. Integrated Photonic Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing and Demultiplexing on Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-31

    experiment. (ECL: external cavity laser , PC: polorization controller, I/Q Mod: I/Q modulator, eAWG: electrical arbitrary waveform generator, ATT...OAM free space coherent communication link testbed. ECL: external cavity laser . EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PC: polarization controller. ATT...multichannel OAM polarization-diversified free-space communication link testbed. FPR: free-propagation region; ECL: external cavity laser ; OFC: optical

  17. Requirement for genes with homology to ABC transport systems for attachment and virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Matthysse, A G; Yarnall, H A; Young, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which were avirulent and unable to attach to plant cells were isolated and described previously. A clone from a library of Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA which was able to complement these chromosomal att mutants was identified. Tn3HoHo1 insertions in this clone were made and used to replace the wild-type genes in the bacterial chromosome by marker exchange. The resulting mutants were avirulent and showed either no or very much reduced attachment to carrot suspension culture cells. We sequenced a 10-kb region of this clone and found a putative operon containing nine open reading frames (ORFs) (attA1A2BCDEFGH). The second and third ORFs (attA2 and attB) showed homology to genes encoding the membrane-spanning proteins (potB and potH; potC and potI) of periplasmic binding protein-dependent (ABC) transport systems from gram-negative bacteria. The homology was strongest to proteins involved in the transport of spermidine and putrescine. The first and fifth ORFs (attA1 and attE) showed homology to the genes encoding ATP-binding proteins of these systems including potA, potG, and cysT from Escherichia coli; occP from A. tumefaciens; cysA from Synechococcus spp.; and ORF-C from an operon involved in the attachment of Campylobacte jejuni. The ability of mutants in these att genes to bind to host cells was restored by addition of conditioned medium during incubation of the bacteria with host cells. PMID:8752352

  18. Requirement for genes with homology to ABC transport systems for attachment and virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Matthysse, A G; Yarnall, H A; Young, N

    1996-09-01

    Transposon mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which were avirulent and unable to attach to plant cells were isolated and described previously. A clone from a library of Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA which was able to complement these chromosomal att mutants was identified. Tn3HoHo1 insertions in this clone were made and used to replace the wild-type genes in the bacterial chromosome by marker exchange. The resulting mutants were avirulent and showed either no or very much reduced attachment to carrot suspension culture cells. We sequenced a 10-kb region of this clone and found a putative operon containing nine open reading frames (ORFs) (attA1A2BCDEFGH). The second and third ORFs (attA2 and attB) showed homology to genes encoding the membrane-spanning proteins (potB and potH; potC and potI) of periplasmic binding protein-dependent (ABC) transport systems from gram-negative bacteria. The homology was strongest to proteins involved in the transport of spermidine and putrescine. The first and fifth ORFs (attA1 and attE) showed homology to the genes encoding ATP-binding proteins of these systems including potA, potG, and cysT from Escherichia coli; occP from A. tumefaciens; cysA from Synechococcus spp.; and ORF-C from an operon involved in the attachment of Campylobacte jejuni. The ability of mutants in these att genes to bind to host cells was restored by addition of conditioned medium during incubation of the bacteria with host cells.

  19. Pancreatic tuberculosis: Evaluation of therapeutic response using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Srinivasan, Radhika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-10-01

    F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is a functional imaging technique that monitors glucose metabolism in tissues. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been reported to show intense uptake of FDG, with a decrease in metabolism of the tuberculous lesions after successful anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). The authors present a patient with pancreatic TB and demonstrate the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in monitoring the response to ATT.

  20. Should aggressive thoracic therapy be performed in patients with synchronous oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianhe; Wang, Haofei; Qiu, Min; Li, Na

    2017-01-01

    Background We performed a meta-analysis to compare overall survival (OS) outcomes in patients with synchronous oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent aggressive thoracic therapy (ATT) with those who did not. Methods A systematic review of controlled trials of ATT on survival in synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC was conducted. Hazard ratio (HR) for the main endpoint OS was pooled using a fixed-effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with single organ metastases, or with different numbers of brain metastases, or with different stages of thoracic disease. Pooled survival curves of OS were constructed. Results Seven eligible retrospective observational cohort studies were identified including 668 synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC patients, of whom 227 (34.0%) received ATT. For patients with synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC, ATT was associated with a significant improvement of OS (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.39–0.60; P<0.00001). In subgroup analysis, the association with OS was similar or even strengthened, with a HR of 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31–0.56) in single organ metastases group, 0.49 (95% CI, 0.31–0.75) in solitary brain metastasis group, and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.20–0.73) in thoracic stage I–II group, respectively. The pooled cumulative survival rates for patients received ATT were 74.9% at 1 year, 52.1% at 2 years, 23.0% at 3 years, and 12.6% at 4 years. The corresponding pooled survival for patients who did not receive ATT were 32.3%, 13.7%, 3.7%, and 2.0%, respectively. Conclusions Survival benefit from ATT is common in synchronous oligometastatic patients. Selected patients with synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC could also achieve long-term survival with ATT. PMID:28275479

  1. Synthesis of opiate peptides by a clonal pituitary tumor cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Giagnoni, G; Sabol, S L; Nirenberg, M

    1977-01-01

    Clonal mouse pituitary tumor cells, AtT-20, synthesize at least four species of peptides with opiate activity. The endorphin concentration of AtT-20 cells was estimated to be 300-600 pmol/mg of protein. The two most abundant endorphins with apparent molecular weights of 1800 and 2400 were purified 300- and 24-fold, respectively; additional minor components were found with apparent molecular weights of greater than 3000 and less than 750. Images PMID:267923

  2. Identification and analysis of integrons and cassette arrays in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jean; Jové, Thomas; Touchon, Marie; Néron, Bertrand; Rocha, Eduardo PC

    2016-01-01

    Integrons recombine gene arrays and favor the spread of antibiotic resistance. Their broader roles in bacterial adaptation remain mysterious, partly due to lack of computational tools. We made a program – IntegronFinder – to identify integrons with high accuracy and sensitivity. IntegronFinder is available as a standalone program and as a web application. It searches for attC sites using covariance models, for integron-integrases using HMM profiles, and for other features (promoters, attI site) using pattern matching. We searched for integrons, integron-integrases lacking attC sites, and clusters of attC sites lacking a neighboring integron-integrase in bacterial genomes. All these elements are especially frequent in genomes of intermediate size. They are missing in some key phyla, such as α-Proteobacteria, which might reflect selection against cell lineages that acquire integrons. The similarity between attC sites is proportional to the number of cassettes in the integron, and is particularly low in clusters of attC sites lacking integron-integrases. The latter are unexpectedly abundant in genomes lacking integron-integrases or their remains, and have a large novel pool of cassettes lacking homologs in the databases. They might represent an evolutionary step between the acquisition of genes within integrons and their stabilization in the new genome. PMID:27130947

  3. Treatment Paradox in Musculo-Skeletal Tuberculosis in An Immunocompetent Adult Male; A Case Report from A Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Geetika; Anuradha; Duggal, Nandini; Arora, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Paradoxical reactions like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) as seen with patients on retroviral treatment in HIV infection, have also been identified in HIV sero-negative patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis especially lymph-node tuberculosis. Musculo-skeletal tuberculosis presenting as a cold abscess of the anterior chest wall is a rare entity which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 35-year-old immunocompetent male came with complains of painless lump on right side of his chest over 9th and 10th intercostal space which gradually increased and extended upto 11th rib area. Clinically, diagnosis of cold abscess was made and anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was started. Despite of being on ATT for 3 weeks, patient developed pain and signs of inflammation. Fluid was aspirated and sent for biochemical and microbiological investigations. The aspirated fluid was positive for acid fast bacilli by ZN stain and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, sensitive to first line ATT. Pyogenic and fungal culture was negative. This case presented as an anterior chest wall cold abscess which deteriorated on initiation of first line ATT, thus creating a suspicion of resistance to ATT which was cleared on ATT susceptibility testing. Hence, this case underlines the possibility of treatment paradoxes seen in immunocompetent musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. PMID:26046019

  4. Treatment paradox in musculo-skeletal tuberculosis in an immunocompetent adult male; a case report from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chaskar, Priyanka; Rana, Geetika; Anuradha; Duggal, Nandini; Arora, Jyoti

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxical reactions like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) as seen with patients on retroviral treatment in HIV infection, have also been identified in HIV sero-negative patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis especially lymph-node tuberculosis. Musculo-skeletal tuberculosis presenting as a cold abscess of the anterior chest wall is a rare entity which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 35-year-old immunocompetent male came with complains of painless lump on right side of his chest over 9th and 10th intercostal space which gradually increased and extended upto 11th rib area. Clinically, diagnosis of cold abscess was made and anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was started. Despite of being on ATT for 3 weeks, patient developed pain and signs of inflammation. Fluid was aspirated and sent for biochemical and microbiological investigations. The aspirated fluid was positive for acid fast bacilli by ZN stain and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, sensitive to first line ATT. Pyogenic and fungal culture was negative. This case presented as an anterior chest wall cold abscess which deteriorated on initiation of first line ATT, thus creating a suspicion of resistance to ATT which was cleared on ATT susceptibility testing. Hence, this case underlines the possibility of treatment paradoxes seen in immunocompetent musculo-skeletal tuberculosis.

  5. Genetic characterization of site-specific integration functions of phi AAU2 infecting "Arthrobacter aureus" C70.

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec, C; Moreau, S; Loury, S; Blanco, C; Trautwetter, A

    1996-01-01

    All the essential genetic determinants for site-specific integration of corynephage phi AAU2 are contained within a 1,756-bp DNA fragment, carried on the integrative plasmid p5510, and are shown to be functional in Escherichia coli. One open reading frame, ORF4, encoding a protein of 266 amino acids was shown to represent the phi AAU2 integrase. The nucleotide sequence of the phi AAU2 attachment site, attP, and the attB, attL, and attR sequences in the host "Arthrobacter aureus" C70 were determined. Identical nucleotide sequences were shown to be responsible for the integration of p5510 in the chromosomes of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium divaricatum, and B. lactofermentum, and a sequence almost identical to attB was found to be present in these three strains. In contrast to other phage site-specific recombination systems, a plasmid encompassing only int-attP failed to integrate into the host chromosome. This led to the identification of an 800-bp noncoding region, immediately upstream of int, absolutely required for site-specific integration of p5510. PMID:8606175

  6. [Fine-tuning of antithrombotic therapy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The AFINVA register].

    PubMed

    Dubois Marques, Daniela; Mora Llabata, Vicente; Pacheco Arroyo, Julián; Gasull Insertis, Salvador; Vicente Cañizares, Manuela; Roldán Torres, Ildefonso

    2017-08-31

    To determine whether antithrombotic treatment (ATT) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in a health area complies with the recommendations of current clinical guidelines. Prospective observational study. Primary Health Care Centres and Cardiology Department of a Health Department of the Valencian Community, Spain. A total of 505 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were included in the study. ATT was deemed to be inappropriate in patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1 and who were not under oral anticoagulation, in patients treated with antivitaminK drugs, and poor control of oral anticoagulation, or with antiplatelet therapy inappropriately associated with anticoagulation, and in patients on ATT with a CHA2DS2-VASc score=0. The median age was 77.4±10years. The ATT was considered inadequate in 58% of cases. Factors independently associated with inadequate ATT were age (OR: 1.02 [1-1.04]; P=.029), hypothyroidism (OR: 1.98 [1.14-3.43]; P=.015), ischaemic heart disease (OR: 1.3 [1.15-2.59]; P=.008) and paroxysmal non-valvular AF (OR: 2.11 [1.41-3.17]; P<.0001). These data underline the high prevalence of inadequate ATT in daily practice, as well its different causes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Phage integrases: biology and applications.

    PubMed

    Groth, Amy C; Calos, Michele P

    2004-01-16

    Phage integrases are enzymes that mediate unidirectional site-specific recombination between two DNA recognition sequences, the phage attachment site, attP, and the bacterial attachment site, attB. Integrases may be grouped into two major families, the tyrosine recombinases and the serine recombinases, based on their mode of catalysis. Tyrosine family integrases, such as lambda integrase, utilize a catalytic tyrosine to mediate strand cleavage, tend to recognize longer attP sequences, and require other proteins encoded by the phage or the host bacteria. Phage integrases from the serine family are larger, use a catalytic serine for strand cleavage, recognize shorter attP sequences, and do not require host cofactors. Phage integrases mediate efficient site-specific recombination between two different sequences that are relatively short, yet long enough to be specific on a genomic scale. These properties give phage integrases growing importance for the genetic manipulation of living eukaryotic cells, especially those with large genomes such as mammals and most plants, for which there are few tools for precise manipulation of the genome. Integrases of the serine family have been shown to work efficiently in mammalian cells, mediating efficient integration at introduced att sites or native sequences that have partial identity to att sites. This reaction has applications in areas such as gene therapy, construction of transgenic organisms, and manipulation of cell lines. Directed evolution can be used to increase further the affinity of an integrase for a particular native sequence, opening up additional applications for genomic modification.

  8. PhiC31 recombination system demonstrates heritable germinal transmission of site-specific excision from the Arabidopsis genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The large serine recombinase phiC31 from broad host range Streptomyces temperate phage, catalyzes the site-specific recombination of two recognition sites that differ in sequence, typically known as attachment sites attB and attP. Previously, we characterized the phiC31 catalytic activity and modes of action in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Results In this work, the phiC31 recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis harboring a chromosomally integrated attB and attP-flanked target sequence. The phiC31 recombinase excised the attB and attP-flanked DNA, and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of the phiC31 gene, indicating germinal transmission was possible. We further verified that the genomic excision was conservative and that introduction of a functional recombinase can be achieved through secondary transformation as well as manual crossing. Conclusion The phiC31 system performs site-specific recombination in germinal tissue, a prerequisite for generating stable lines with unwanted DNA removed. The precise site-specific deletion by phiC31 in planta demonstrates that the recombinase can be used to remove selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired and therefore can be a useful tool for genome engineering in plants. PMID:20178628

  9. Genetic characterization of site-specific integration functions of phi AAU2 infecting "Arthrobacter aureus" C70.

    PubMed

    Le Marrec, C; Moreau, S; Loury, S; Blanco, C; Trautwetter, A

    1996-04-01

    All the essential genetic determinants for site-specific integration of corynephage phi AAU2 are contained within a 1,756-bp DNA fragment, carried on the integrative plasmid p5510, and are shown to be functional in Escherichia coli. One open reading frame, ORF4, encoding a protein of 266 amino acids was shown to represent the phi AAU2 integrase. The nucleotide sequence of the phi AAU2 attachment site, attP, and the attB, attL, and attR sequences in the host "Arthrobacter aureus" C70 were determined. Identical nucleotide sequences were shown to be responsible for the integration of p5510 in the chromosomes of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium divaricatum, and B. lactofermentum, and a sequence almost identical to attB was found to be present in these three strains. In contrast to other phage site-specific recombination systems, a plasmid encompassing only int-attP failed to integrate into the host chromosome. This led to the identification of an 800-bp noncoding region, immediately upstream of int, absolutely required for site-specific integration of p5510.

  10. Identification and analysis of integrons and cassette arrays in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jean; Jové, Thomas; Touchon, Marie; Néron, Bertrand; Rocha, Eduardo Pc

    2016-06-02

    Integrons recombine gene arrays and favor the spread of antibiotic resistance. Their broader roles in bacterial adaptation remain mysterious, partly due to lack of computational tools. We made a program - IntegronFinder - to identify integrons with high accuracy and sensitivity. IntegronFinder is available as a standalone program and as a web application. It searches for attC sites using covariance models, for integron-integrases using HMM profiles, and for other features (promoters, attI site) using pattern matching. We searched for integrons, integron-integrases lacking attC sites, and clusters of attC sites lacking a neighboring integron-integrase in bacterial genomes. All these elements are especially frequent in genomes of intermediate size. They are missing in some key phyla, such as α-Proteobacteria, which might reflect selection against cell lineages that acquire integrons. The similarity between attC sites is proportional to the number of cassettes in the integron, and is particularly low in clusters of attC sites lacking integron-integrases. The latter are unexpectedly abundant in genomes lacking integron-integrases or their remains, and have a large novel pool of cassettes lacking homologs in the databases. They might represent an evolutionary step between the acquisition of genes within integrons and their stabilization in the new genome.

  11. Advanced Technology Training System on Motor-Operated Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Widjaja, T. Kiki; Yasutake, Joseph Y.; Isoda, Hachiro

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes how features from the field of Intelligent Tutoring Systems are applied to the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Advanced Technology Training System (ATTS). The MOV ATTS is a training system developed at Galaxy Scientific Corporation for the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. The MOV ATTS combines traditional computer-based training approaches with system simulation, integrated expert systems, and student and expert modeling. The primary goal of the MOV ATTS is to reduce human errors that occur during MOV overhaul and repair. The MOV ATTS addresses this goal by providing basic operational information of the MOV, simulating MOV operation, providing troubleshooting practice of MOV failures, and tailoring this training to the needs of each individual student. The MOV ATTS integrates multiple expert models (functional and procedural) to provide advice and feedback to students. The integration also provides expert model validation support to developers. Student modeling is supported by two separate student models: one model registers and updates the student's current knowledge of basic MOV information, while another model logs the student's actions and errors during troubleshooting exercises. These two models are used to provide tailored feedback to the student during the MOV course.

  12. Molecular properties of the two-component cell lysis system encoded by prophage phigaY of Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Ken-ji; Shinohara, Masayuki; Kawahigashi, Nobutaka; Nakagawa, Kazuaki; Kawasaki, Ken-Ichi; Nakamura, Shogo; Taketo, Akira; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi

    2005-04-01

    Shotgun cloning of the Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T whole DNA yielded two recombinant plasmids, p118gaY1 and p118gaY2, which directed cell lysis activity. Sequencing analysis revealed that the two plasmids carried almost identical inserted genes in following orders (truncated genes, in parentheses): in p118gaY1, (orf149)-orf92-holgaY-lysgaY-orf35-attL-(mnaAgaY1); in p118gaY2, (orfXgaY1)-orf169-orf149-orf92-holgaY-lysgaY-orf35-attP-(intgaY). The lysgaY-encoded protein (designated as LysgaY, 33.7 kDa) showed significant homology with putative muramidases (peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme) of the Lactobacillus phage phiadh, Lj965, Lj928, LL-H, mv4, and mv1. By zymogram analysis, LysgaY overproduced in Escherichia coli exhibited lytic activity towards 17 Gram-positive bacterial strains, including lactobacilli, lactococci, and staphylococci. The holgaY-encoded protein (15.7 kDa) contained three potential transmembrane helices, resembling putative holins (cytoplasmic membrane-disrupting protein) of Lj928 and Lj965. On the other hand, another clone p118gaYR obtained by EcoRI-shotgun cloning carried the (ptsCgaY1)-attR-(intgaY) genes. Three sequences, attL, attP, and attR, had a 47-bp common (core) sequence, and the core of attR was located in 3' region of a potential tRNA(Arg) gene. These results suggested that (i) attL and attR are phage-host junctions, left- and right-arms, respectively, (ii) attP is a phage attachment site, and (iii) intgaY is an integrase gene for phage integration and/or excision. After mitomycin C-induction, phage particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy. The prophage (phigaY) is somewhat leaky in the host, and has the two-component lysis system (HolgaY-LysgaY), closely resembling that of Lj928 as well as Lj965.

  13. Does telecare prolong community living in dementia? A study protocol for a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistive technology and telecare (ATT) are relatively new ways of delivering care and support to people with social care needs. It is claimed that ATT reduces the need for community care, prevents unnecessary hospital admission, and delays or prevents admission into residential or nursing care. The current economic situation in England has renewed interest in ATT instead of community care packages. However, at present, the evidence base to support claims about the impact and effectiveness of ATT is limited, despite its potential to mitigate the high financial cost of caring for people with dementia and the social and psychological cost to unpaid carers. Method/design ATTILA (Assistive Technology and Telecare to maintain Independent Living At Home for People with Dementia) is a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial over 104 weeks that compares outcomes for people with dementia who receive ATT and those who receive equivalent community services but not ATT. The study hypothesis is that fewer people in the ATT group will go into institutional care over the 4-year period for which the study is funded. The study aims to recruit 500 participants, living in community settings, with dementia or significant cognitive impairment, who have recently been referred to social services. Primary outcome measures are time in days from randomisation to institutionalisation and cost effectiveness. Secondary outcomes are caregiver burden, health-related quality of life in carers, number and severity of serious adverse events, and data on acceptability, applicability and reliability of ATT intervention packages. Assessments will be undertaken in weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 52 and 104 or until institutionalisation or withdrawal of the participant from the trial. Discussion In a time of financial austerity, CASSRs in England are increasingly turning to ATT in the belief that it will deliver good outcomes for less money. There is an absence of robust evidence for

  14. Measurement of arterial transit time and renal blood flow using pseudocontinuous ASL MRI with multiple post-labeling delays: Feasibility, reproducibility, and variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Shim, Woo Hyun; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Oh, Jong Yeong; Kim, Jeong Kon; Jung, Hoesu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Dongeun

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and variation of renal perfusion and arterial transit time (ATT) using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (PCASL MRI) in healthy volunteers. PCASL MRI at 3T was performed in 25 healthy volunteers on two different occasions. The ATT and ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATT-cRBF) were calculated at four different post-labeling delay points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) and evaluated for each kidney and subject. The intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the reproducibility of the PCASL MRI technique. The within-subject coefficient of variance was determined. Results were obtained for 46 kidneys of 23 subjects with a mean age of 38.6 ± 9.8 years and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 89.1 ± 21.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) . Two subjects failed in the ASL MRI examination. The mean cortical and medullary ATT-cRBF for the subjects were 215 ± 65 and 81 ± 21 ml/min/100 g, respectively, and the mean cortical and medullary ATT were 1141 ± 262 and 1123 ± 245 msec, correspondingly. The ICC for the cortical ATT-cRBF was 0.927 and the within-subject coefficient of variance was 14.4%. The ICCs for the medullary ATT-cRBF and the cortical and medullary ATT were poor. The Bland-Altman plot for cortical RBF showed good agreement between the two measurements. PCASL MRI is a feasible and reproducible method for measuring renal cortical perfusion. In contrast, ATT for the renal cortex and medulla has poor reproducibility and high variation. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:813-819. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. SU-D-18C-05: Variable Bolus Arterial Spin Labeling MRI for Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow and Arterial Transit Time Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M; Jung, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI perfusion imaging method from which quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps can be calculated. Acquisition with variable post-labeling delays (PLD) and variable TRs allows for arterial transit time (ATT) mapping and leads to more accurate CBF quantification with a scan time saving of 48%. In addition, T1 and M0 maps can be obtained without a separate scan. In order to accurately estimate ATT and T1 of brain tissue from the ASL data, variable labeling durations were invented, entitled variable-bolus ASL. Methods: All images were collected on a healthy subject with a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner. Variable-bolus Psuedo-continuous ASL (PCASL) images were collected with 7 TI times ranging 100-4300ms in increments of 700ms with TR ranging 1000-5200ms. All boluses were 1600ms when the TI allowed, otherwise the bolus duration was 100ms shorter than the TI. All TI times were interleaved to reduce sensitivity to motion. Voxel-wise T1 and M0 maps were estimated using a linear least squares fitting routine from the average singal from each TI time. Then pairwise subtraction of each label/control pair and averaging for each TI time was performed. CBF and ATT maps were created using the standard model by Buxton et al. with a nonlinear fitting routine using the T1 tissue map. Results: CBF maps insensitive to ATT were produced along with ATT maps. Both maps show patterns and averages consistent with literature. The T1 map also shows typical T1 contrast. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that variablebolus ASL produces CBF maps free from the errors due to ATT and tissue T1 variations and provides M0, T1, and ATT maps which have potential utility. This is accomplished with a single scan in a feasible scan time (under 6 minutes) with low sensivity to motion.

  16. Characterization of IntA, a Bidirectional Site-Specific Recombinase Required for Conjugative Transfer of the Symbiotic Plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Tamayo, Rogelio; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Puente, José Luis; Brom, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recombination occurs at short specific sequences, mediated by the cognate recombinases. IntA is a recombinase from Rhizobium etli CFN42 and belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. It allows cointegration of plasmid p42a and the symbiotic plasmid via site-specific recombination between attachment regions (attA and attD) located in each replicon. Cointegration is needed for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. To characterize this system, two plasmids harboring the corresponding attachment sites and intA were constructed. Introduction of these plasmids into R. etli revealed IntA-dependent recombination events occurring at high frequency. Interestingly, IntA promotes not only integration, but also excision events, albeit at a lower frequency. Thus, R. etli IntA appears to be a bidirectional recombinase. IntA was purified and used to set up electrophoretic mobility shift assays with linear fragments containing attA and attD. IntA-dependent retarded complexes were observed only with fragments containing either attA or attD. Specific retarded complexes, as well as normal in vivo recombination abilities, were seen even in derivatives harboring only a minimal attachment region (comprising the 5-bp central region flanked by 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats). DNase I-footprinting assays with IntA revealed specific protection of these zones. Mutations that disrupt the integrity of the 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats abolish both specific binding and recombination ability, while mutations in the 5-bp central region severely reduce both binding and recombination. These results show that IntA is a bidirectional recombinase that binds to att regions without requiring neighboring sequences as enhancers of recombination. PMID:23935046

  17. Gilded and gelded. Hard-won lessons from the PR wars.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dick

    2003-10-01

    A golden statue of a winged youth once perched on the roof of AT&T's old headquarters. But when AT&T lowered the 24-foot-high statue for regilding so that it could be placed in the company's new headquarters, the chairman was shocked to discover that the figure was anatomically correct. So he decreed that it also be gelded. The altered "Golden Boy" thus became a metaphor for AT&T's recent embattled history, and it serves as a cautionary symbol for all companies operating in today's brutal business environment, where perception can be as important as reality. While image consultants and executives work to gild a company's image, special interest groups and the media can geld a company with countless little cuts. The author, a former executive vice president of public relations for AT&T, provides an insider's view of some of the company's most painful public-relations scrapes. They include the collapse of two apparent CEO succession plans, AT&T's inability to meet heightened expectations after Mike Armstrong was appointed CEO, and the racially charged furor over a cartoon in an employee publication. The author offers four lessons: Don't become hypnotized by your own buzz; understand the way the business media think; address the needs of all your stakeholders; and be sensitive to the possible emotional resonance of what appear to be straightforward facts. To illustrate the final point, the author mentions AT&T's elimination of 40,000 jobs in 1996. Wall Street was impressed, but NBC's Tom Brokaw said the workforce reduction might signal "another long, anxious year for the American middle class." No rational argument from AT&T could overcome the layoffs' symbolic impact. Wounded but wiser after numerous public-relations battles, the company eventually learned to stop aggregating job-reduction information for the media.

  18. Assessing patient-rated vs. clinician-rated adherence to the therapy in treatment resistant schizophrenia, schizophrenia responders, and non-schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Iasevoli, Felice; Fagiolini, Andrea; Formato, Maria Vittoria; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; Giordano, Sara; Balletta, Raffaele; De Luca, Vincenzo; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluated consistency, reliability, and determinants of two real-world measures of adherence to prescription in 57 schizophrenia and 61 non-schizophrenia patients. Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was additionally diagnosed in 28 of the schizophrenia patients. Patients were screened for clinical severity, cognitive functioning, and adherence by 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) or Adherence-to-Therapy (AtT), a clinician-rated tool developed by our group. DAI-10 and AtT scores showed a significant correlation (p=0.039; ρ=0.21; df=103). Compared to the DAI-10 scale, a higher number of variables were associated with AtT. In schizophrenia and TRS patients, substance abuse was the only significant predictor of lower DAI-10 score (p=0.027, F=5.2, R(2)=0.07, and p=0.06, F=8.9, R(2)=0.23, respectively). Lower AtT score was significantly associated with first-generation antipsychotic use (p=0.001, RR: 2.00 [1.40-2.87]), positive symptoms (p=0.02, RR: 1.63 [1.05-2.53]), impaired verbal fluency (p=0.01, RR: 1.88 [0.81-4.32]) or problem solving (p=0.01, RR: 2.14 [0.92-4.98]). AtT, but not DAI-10, score correlated with the score on the Personal and Social Performance scale (p=0.02, F=5.86, R(2)=0.08). Overall, AtT score was predicted by pharmacological, psychopathological, and cognitive factors, and predictive of psychosocial functioning. Therefore, AtT measure may represent a convenient and practical tool to evaluate schizophrenia patients' adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Group IIC Intron with an Unusual Target of Integration in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel; Poirel, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    A potential role of group IIC-attC introns in integron gene cassette formation, that is, the way in which they could provide the attC sequence essential for recombination, has been proposed. Group IIC introns usually target the attC site of gene cassettes and more specifically their inverse core. Here we characterized a novel group IIC intron targeting the core site of the aadA1 gene cassette attC site (aadA1-qacEΔ1 gene cassette junction) from enterobacterial isolates. Intron mobility (retrohoming) was analyzed using a two-plasmid assay performed in Escherichia coli. Intron mobility assays confirmed the mobilization-integration of the group II intron into the core site of the aadA2, blaVIM-2, blaCARB-2, aac(6′)-Ib, dfrXVb, arr2, cmlA4, and aadB gene cassettes but not into the attI site. This mobility was dependent on maturase activity. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that this intron was transcriptionally active, and an intermediate circular form was detected by inverse PCR. This element was linked to the blaVEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene in a high number of enterobacterial isolates. A phylogenetic tree showed that the identified element was located in a branch separate from group IIC-attC introns, being an IIC intron possessing the ability to integrate using the core site of the attC sites as target. PMID:22020643

  20. Characterization of IntA, a bidirectional site-specific recombinase required for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Tamayo, Rogelio; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Puente, José Luis; Brom, Susana; Romero, David

    2013-10-01

    Site-specific recombination occurs at short specific sequences, mediated by the cognate recombinases. IntA is a recombinase from Rhizobium etli CFN42 and belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. It allows cointegration of plasmid p42a and the symbiotic plasmid via site-specific recombination between attachment regions (attA and attD) located in each replicon. Cointegration is needed for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. To characterize this system, two plasmids harboring the corresponding attachment sites and intA were constructed. Introduction of these plasmids into R. etli revealed IntA-dependent recombination events occurring at high frequency. Interestingly, IntA promotes not only integration, but also excision events, albeit at a lower frequency. Thus, R. etli IntA appears to be a bidirectional recombinase. IntA was purified and used to set up electrophoretic mobility shift assays with linear fragments containing attA and attD. IntA-dependent retarded complexes were observed only with fragments containing either attA or attD. Specific retarded complexes, as well as normal in vivo recombination abilities, were seen even in derivatives harboring only a minimal attachment region (comprising the 5-bp central region flanked by 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats). DNase I-footprinting assays with IntA revealed specific protection of these zones. Mutations that disrupt the integrity of the 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats abolish both specific binding and recombination ability, while mutations in the 5-bp central region severely reduce both binding and recombination. These results show that IntA is a bidirectional recombinase that binds to att regions without requiring neighboring sequences as enhancers of recombination.

  1. Succinic Semialdehyde Promotes Prosurvival Capability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Tang, Desong; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Succinic semialdehyde (SSA), an important metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a ligand of the repressor AttJ regulating the expression of the attJ-attKLM gene cluster in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. While the response of A. tumefaciens to GABA and the function of attKLM have been extensively studied, genetic and physiological responses of A. tumefaciens to SSA remain unknown. In combination with microarray and genetic approaches, this study sets out to explore new roles of the SSA-AttJKLM regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. The results showed that SSA plays a key role in regulation of several bacterial activities, including C4-dicarboxylate utilization, nitrate assimilation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, while the SSA relies heavily on the functional AttKLM in mediating nitrate assimilation and oxidative stress resistance, the compound could regulate utilization of C4-dicarboxylates independent of AttJKLM. We further provide evidence that SSA controls C4-dicarboxylate utilization through induction of an SSA importer and that disruption of attKLM attenuates the tumorigenicity of A. tumefaciens. Taken together, these findings indicate that SSA could be a potent plant signal which, together with AttKLM, plays a vital role in promoting the bacterial prosurvival abilities during infection. IMPORTANCE Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen causing crown gall diseases and has been well known as a powerful tool for plant genetic engineering. During the long history of microbe-host interaction, A. tumefaciens has evolved the capabilities of recognition and response to plant-derived chemical metabolites. Succinic semialdehyde (SSA) is one such metabolite. Previous results have demonstrated that SSA functions to activate a quorum-quenching mechanism and thus to decrease the level of quorum-sensing signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of a plant defense. Here, we studied the effect of SSA on gene

  2. High Knee Valgus in Female Subjects Does Not Yield Higher Knee Translations During Drop Landings: A Biplane Fluoroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Torry, Michael R.; Shelburne, Kevin B.; Myers, Casey; Giphart, J. Erik; Pennington, W. Wesley; Krong, Jacob P.; Peterson, Daniel S.; Steadman, J. Richard; Woo, Savio L-Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of peak knee valgus angle and peak knee abductor moment on the anterior, medial, and lateral tibial translations (ATT, MTT, LTT) in the ‘at risk’ female knee during drop landing. Fifteen female subjects performed drop landings from 40 cm. 3D knee motion was simultaneously recorded using a high speed, biplane fluoroscopy system and a video-based motion analysis system. Valgus knee angles and knee abduction moments were stratified into low, intermediate and high groups and peak ATT, MTT and LTT were compared between these groups with ANOVA (α = .05). Significant differences were observed between stratified groups in peak knee valgus angle (p < .0001) and peak knee abduction moment (p < .0001). However, no corresponding differences in peak ATT, LTT and MTT between groups exhibiting low to high peak knee valgus angles (ATT: p = .80; LTT: p = .25; MTT: p = .72); or, in peak ATT (p = .61), LTT (p = .26) and MTT (p = .96) translations when stratified according to low to high knee abduction moments, were found. We conclude that the healthy female knee is tightly regulated with regard to translations even when motion analysis derived knee valgus angles and abduction moments are high. PMID:22968826

  3. Exploring professionals' understanding, interpretation and implementation of the 'appropriate medical treatment test' in the 2007 amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983.

    PubMed

    Perry, Benjamin I; Champaneri, Nina; Griffiths, Frances; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Burns, Tom; Tyrer, Peter; Crawford, Michael; Deb, Shoumitro; Singh, Swaran P

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate medical treatment test (ATT), included in the Mental Health Act (MHA) (1983, as amended 2007), aims to ensure that detention only occurs when treatment with the purpose of alleviating a mental disorder is available. As part of the Assessing the Impact of the Mental Health Act (AMEND) project, this qualitative study aimed to assess professionals' understanding of the ATT, and its impact on clinical practice. Forty-one professionals from a variety of mental health subspecialties were interviewed. Interviews were coded related to project aims, and themes were generated in an inductive process. We found that clinicians are often wholly relied upon for the ATT. Considered treatment varied depending on the patient's age rather than diagnosis. The ATT has had little impact on clinical practice. Our findings suggest the need to review training and support for professionals involved in MHA assessments, with better-defined roles. This may enable professionals to implement the ATT as its designers intended. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  4. Exploring professionals’ understanding, interpretation and implementation of the ‘appropriate medical treatment test’ in the 2007 amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983

    PubMed Central

    Champaneri, Nina; Griffiths, Frances; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Burns, Tom; Tyrer, Peter; Crawford, Michael; Deb, Shoumitro; Singh, Swaran P.

    2017-01-01

    Background The appropriate medical treatment test (ATT), included in the Mental Health Act (MHA) (1983, as amended 2007), aims to ensure that detention only occurs when treatment with the purpose of alleviating a mental disorder is available. Aims As part of the Assessing the Impact of the Mental Health Act (AMEND) project, this qualitative study aimed to assess professionals’ understanding of the ATT, and its impact on clinical practice. Method Forty-one professionals from a variety of mental health subspecialties were interviewed. Interviews were coded related to project aims, and themes were generated in an inductive process. Results We found that clinicians are often wholly relied upon for the ATT. Considered treatment varied depending on the patient’s age rather than diagnosis. The ATT has had little impact on clinical practice. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need to review training and support for professionals involved in MHA assessments, with better-defined roles. This may enable professionals to implement the ATT as its designers intended. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28316797

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-06-10

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy.

  6. Evaluation of vehicular trauma in dogs: 239 cases (January-December 2001).

    PubMed

    Streeter, Elizabeth M; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Laforcade-Buress, Armelle de; Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E

    2009-08-15

    To describe a population of dogs with vehicular trauma and to determine whether age, type and severity of injury, or preexisting disease were associated with outcome. Retrospective case series. 239 dogs evaluated at a university referral hospital after vehicular trauma over a 12-month period. Patient characteristics, including age, outcome, animal trauma triage (ATT) score, treatments performed, hospital stay, cost, and preexisting disease, were recorded from medical records of dogs that had vehicular trauma. Dogs were assigned to a young, middle-aged, or geriatric age group. Categoric and continuous variables were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors to identify possible associations. 239 dogs (126 males and 113 females) were evaluated following vehicular trauma during 2001: young (n = 149), middle-aged (68), and geriatric (22). The median ATT score was 3 (range, 0 to 15). Sixteen dogs had preexisting disease. Hospital stay ranged from < 1 to 28 days (median, 3 days). Cost ranged from $77 to $10,636 (median, $853). Two hundred six dogs were discharged. Twenty-six dogs were euthanatized, and 7 died. Dogs that died or were euthanatized had significantly higher ATT scores. The ATT score also was associated with a significantly higher cost of care. Dogs with multiple injuries had significantly higher ATT scores, had increased cost of care, and were significantly more likely to die or be euthanatized. Increased injury severity in dogs was associated with increased mortality rates and higher cost of treatment.

  7. Can the attention training technique turn one marshmallow into two? Improving children's ability to delay gratification.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanne; Theakston, Anna; Wells, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes.

  8. In vitro and in vivo antimammary tumor activities and mechanisms of the apple total triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangjiu; Wang, Yihai; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Zhenxue

    2012-09-19

    Consumption of apples has been linked to the prevention of various chronic diseases, including tumors and cardiovascular diseases. The apple total triterpenoid content (ATT) was extracted and concentrated from apple peels. The in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities, related antitumor mechanisms, were investigated. In vitro, ATT showed potent antiproliferative activities against human breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), human colon cancer (Caco-2), and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. In vivo antitumor experiments showed that ATT could substantially reduce the occurrence and growth of mammary tumor with a good dose-dependent manner in a rat model. During the apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells induced by ATT, the caspase-independent pathway was involved in the process of apoptosis, and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was markedly reduced. Also the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway was activated. These results indicated that ATT-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells may involve a mitochondrial-related pathway.

  9. High knee valgus in female subjects does not yield higher knee translations during drop landings: a biplane fluoroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Torry, Michael R; Shelburne, Kevin B; Myers, Casey; Giphart, J Erik; Pennington, W Wesley; Krong, Jacob P; Peterson, Daniel S; Steadman, J Richard; Woo, Savio L-Y

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of peak knee valgus angle and peak knee abductor moment on the anterior, medial, and lateral tibial translations (ATT, MTT, LTT) in the "at risk" female knee during drop landing. Fifteen female subjects performed drop landings from 40 cm. Three-dimension knee motion was simultaneously recorded using a high speed, biplane fluoroscopy system, and a video-based motion analysis system. Valgus knee angles and knee abduction moments were stratified into low, intermediate, and high groups and peak ATT, MTT, and LTT were compared between these groups with ANOVA (α = 0.05). Significant differences were observed between stratified groups in peak knee valgus angle (p < 0.0001) and peak knee abduction moment (p < 0.0001). However, no corresponding differences in peak ATT, LTT, and MTT between groups exhibiting low to high-peak knee valgus angles (ATT: p = 0.80; LTT: p = 0.25; MTT: p = 0.72); or, in peak ATT (p = 0.61), LTT (p = 0.26) and MTT (p = 0.96) translations when stratified according to low to high knee abduction moments, were found. We conclude that the healthy female knee is tightly regulated with regard to translations even when motion analysis derived knee valgus angles and abduction moments are high.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of anterior tibial translation during isokinetic motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using either patellar or hamstring tendon grafts

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N.; Terauchi, M.; Kimura, M.; Takagishi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied 79 patients with unilateral injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patients were randomly allocated to reconstruction with autologous patellar bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts (49 knees) or hamstring tendon (ST) grafts (30 knees). We measured anterior tibial translation (ATT) during isokinetic concentric contraction exercise 18–20 months after surgery using a computerized electrogoniometer. In both groups the highest ATT during exercise was observed at a knee flexion of about 20° and was 13.5±3.0 mm in the BTB group and 13.9±3.4 mm in the ST group. There was no difference in the ATT between the reconstructed and healthy knees. For a range of knee flexion between 30 and 50° the ATT in the ST group was significantly higher on the reconstructed side than on the healthy side. In the BTB group, the mean ATT in the reconstructed group was similar to that on the healthy side at a knee flexion angle between 0 and 90°. PMID:16075231

  11. Inactivation of a GAL4-like transcription factor improves cell fitness and product yield in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris strains.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Argyros, Rebecca; Bukowski, John; Nelson, Stephanie; Sharkey, Nathan; Kim, Sehoon; Copeland, Victoria; Davidson, Robert C; Chen, Ronghua; Zhuang, Jun; Sethuraman, Natarajan; Stadheim, Terrance A

    2015-01-01

    With a completely reengineered and humanized glycosylation pathway, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris has emerged as a promising production host for the manufacture of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, the extensive genetic modifications have also negatively affected the overall fitness levels of the glycoengineered host cells. To make glycoengineered Pichia strains more compatible with a scalable industrial fermentation process, we sought to identify genetic solutions to broadly improve cell robustness during fermentation. In this study, we report that mutations within the Pichia pastoris ATT1 (PpATT1) gene (a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL4 [ScGAL4] transcriptional activator) dramatically increased the cellular fitness levels of glycoengineered Pichia strains. We demonstrate that deletion of the PpATT1 gene enabled glycoengineered Pichia strains to improve their thermal tolerance levels, reduce their cell lysis defects, and greatly improve fermentation robustness. The extension of the duration of fermentation enabled the PpATT1-modified glycoengineered Pichia strains to increase their product yields significantly without any sacrifice in product quality. Because the ATT1 gene could be deleted from any Pichia strains, including empty hosts and protein-expressing production strains alike, we suggest that the findings described in this study are broadly applicable to any Pichia strains used for the production of therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, Fc fusions, peptides, hormones, and growth factors.

  12. Effect of advanced component technology on helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the NASA/Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) 500 hp advanced technology transmission (ATT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The ATT was a retrofit of the OH-58C helicopter 236 kW (317 hp) main rotor transmission, upgraded to 373 kW (500 hp), with a design goal of retaining long life with a minimum increase in cost, weight, and size. Vibration, strain, efficiency, deflection, and temperature experiments were performed and the results were compared to previous experiments on the OH-58A, OH-58C, and UH-60A transmissions. The high-contact-ratio gears and the cantilevered-mounted, flexible ring gear of the ATT reduced vibration compared to that of the OH-58C. The ATT flexible ring gear improved planetary load sharing compared to that of the rigid ring gear of the UH-60A transmission. The ATT mechanical efficiency was lower than that of the OH-58A transmission, probably due to the high-contact-ratio planetary gears.

  13. Inactivation of a GAL4-Like Transcription Factor Improves Cell Fitness and Product Yield in Glycoengineered Pichia pastoris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Argyros, Rebecca; Bukowski, John; Nelson, Stephanie; Sharkey, Nathan; Kim, Sehoon; Copeland, Victoria; Davidson, Robert C.; Chen, Ronghua; Zhuang, Jun; Sethuraman, Natarajan; Stadheim, Terrance A.

    2014-01-01

    With a completely reengineered and humanized glycosylation pathway, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris has emerged as a promising production host for the manufacture of therapeutic glycoproteins. However, the extensive genetic modifications have also negatively affected the overall fitness levels of the glycoengineered host cells. To make glycoengineered Pichia strains more compatible with a scalable industrial fermentation process, we sought to identify genetic solutions to broadly improve cell robustness during fermentation. In this study, we report that mutations within the Pichia pastoris ATT1 (PpATT1) gene (a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL4 [ScGAL4] transcriptional activator) dramatically increased the cellular fitness levels of glycoengineered Pichia strains. We demonstrate that deletion of the PpATT1 gene enabled glycoengineered Pichia strains to improve their thermal tolerance levels, reduce their cell lysis defects, and greatly improve fermentation robustness. The extension of the duration of fermentation enabled the PpATT1-modified glycoengineered Pichia strains to increase their product yields significantly without any sacrifice in product quality. Because the ATT1 gene could be deleted from any Pichia strains, including empty hosts and protein-expressing production strains alike, we suggest that the findings described in this study are broadly applicable to any Pichia strains used for the production of therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, Fc fusions, peptides, hormones, and growth factors. PMID:25344235

  14. Single-molecule analysis of ϕC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination by tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Hsieh, Tao-shih; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2016-01-01

    Serine and tyrosine site-specific recombinases (SRs and YRs, respectively) provide templates for understanding the chemical mechanisms and conformational dynamics of strand cleavage/exchange between DNA partners. Current evidence suggests a rather intriguing mechanism for serine recombination, in which one half of the cleaved synaptic complex undergoes a 180° rotation relative to the other. The ‘small’ and ‘large’ SRs contain a compact amino-terminal catalytic domain, but differ conspicuously in their carboxyl-terminal domains. So far, only one serine recombinase has been analyzed using single substrate molecules. We now utilized single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) to follow step-by-step recombination catalyzed by a large SR, phage ϕC31 integrase. The integrase promotes unidirectional DNA exchange between attB and attP sites to integrate the phage genome into the host chromosome. The recombination directionality factor (RDF; ϕC31 gp3) activates the excision reaction (attL × attR). From integrase-induced changes in TPM in the presence or absence of gp3, we delineated the individual steps of recombination and their kinetic features. The gp3 protein appears to regulate recombination directionality by selectively promoting or excluding active conformations of the synapse formed by specific att site partners. Our results support a ‘gated rotation’ of the synaptic complex between DNA cleavage and joining. PMID:27986956

  15. The Bxb1 recombination system demonstrates heritable transmission of site-specific excision in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mycobacteriophage large serine recombinase Bxb1 catalyzes site-specific recombination between its corresponding attP and attB recognition sites. Previously, we and others have shown that Bxb1 has catalytic activity in various eukaryotic species including Nicotiana tabacum, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, insects and mammalian cells. Results In this work, the Bxb1 recombinase gene was transformed and constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring a chromosomally integrated attP and attB-flanked target sequence. The Bxb1 recombinase successfully excised the target sequence in a conservative manner and the resulting recombination event was heritably transmitted to subsequent generations in the absence of the recombinase transgene. In addition, we also show that Bxb1 recombinase expressing plants can be manually crossed with att-flanked target transgenic plants to generate excised progeny. Conclusion The Bxb1 large serine recombinase performs site-specific recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana germinal tissue, producing stable lines free of unwanted DNA. The precise site-specific deletion produced by Bxb1 in planta demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for the genetic engineering of plants without selectable marker transgenes or other undesirable exogenous sequences. PMID:22436504

  16. Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, T S; Ambarkhane, S V; Joshi, A S; Samant, B D; Rege, N N

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of two Indian medicinal plants Tinospora cordifolia (Tc), Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), and their combination, in a rat model of isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide induced hepatic damage. Hepatic damage was assessed using a composite score assigned to histopathological findings of degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis. The antituberculosis treatment (ATT), when given for 90 days, induced significant degeneration and necrosis (score: 7.5; p < 0.01 vs vehicle) associated with morphological changes. However, no change was found in the serum bilirubin and liver enzymes. Co-administration of silymarin (positive control, 50 mg/kg) with ATT protected against necrosis (score: 1.5; p < 0.001 vs ATT). Tc (100 mg/kg) showed a reduction in liver damage (score: 6.5), which was not statistically significant. On the other hand, Pe (300 mg/kg) prevented the necrotic changes to a significant extent (grade 1.0; p < 0.05; score [corrected] 5.5). Combination of Tc and Pe in their therapeutic doses (1:3) significantly prevented the necrosis (score: 3.5; p < 0.001 vs ATT). Similar effects were seen even when the doses were halved and were comparable to the silymarin group. Thus, this study proves the synergistic protective effects exerted by the combination of Tc and Pe when co-administered with ATT.

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell impact on endogenous and adoptively transferred T cells.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    Novel models of autochthonous tumorigenesis and adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) are providing new clues regarding the pro-tumorigenic and immunosuppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and their interaction with T cells. New findings are shifting the perception of the main level at which MDSC act, from direct cell-to-cell suppression to others, such as limiting T cell infiltration. Adoptively transferred, high-avidity T cells recognizing peptides with high-affinity for MHC-I eliminated large tumors. However, low-avidity T cells or low-affinity peptides resulted in failure to eradicate tumors. Manipulation of intratumoral myeloid cells improved the outcome of otherwise unsuccessful ATT. Therefore, therapeutic intervention directed at the tumor stroma might be required when using suboptimal T cells for ATT.

  18. Tissue-specific activity of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jeannotte, L.; Trifiro, M.A.; Plante, R.K.; Chamberland, M.; Drouin, J.

    1987-11-01

    The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is specifically expressed in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. To define the POMC promoter sequences responsible for tissue-specific expression, we assessed POMC promoter activity by gene transfer into POMC-expressing pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20) and fibroblast L cells. The rat POMC promoter was only efficiently utilized and correctly transcribed in AtT-20 cells. 5'-End deletion analysis revealed two promoter regions for activity in AtT-20 cells. When tested by fusion to a heterologuous promoter, DNA fragments corresponding to both regions exhibited tissue-specific activity, suggesting the presence of at least two tissue-specific DNA sequence elements within the promoter. In summary, POMC promoter sequences from -480 to -34 base pairs appear sufficient to mimic the specificity of anterior pituitary expression.

  19. Insertional inactivation of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-toxin by bacteriophage phi 13 occurs by site- and orientation-specific integration of the phi 13 genome.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D; Knights, J; Russell, R; Shanley, D; Birkbeck, T H; Dougan, G; Charles, I

    1991-04-01

    Lysogenization of Staphylococcus aureus by the serotype F converting bacteriophage phi 13 results in loss of beta-toxin expression. Sequence analysis of the S. aureus beta-toxin gene (hlb), the attachment site (attP)-containing region of phi 13 DNA and the chromosome/bacteriophage DNA junctions of a phi 13 lysogen, revealed that the molecular mechanism of loss of beta-toxin expression was due to insertion of the phi 13 genome into the 5' end of hlb. The insertion site (attB) within hlb contained a 14 base pair core sequence in common with attP and both ends of the integrated linear prophage genome of a phi 13 lysogen. These findings indicate that integration of the phi 13 genome into hlb is site- and orientation-specific.

  20. Effects of intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation plus adult thymus transplantation on survival of mice bearing leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Hosaka, Naoki; Cui, Yunze; Shi, Ming; Li, Ming; Li, Qing; Ikehara, Susumu

    2012-06-10

    We recently found that allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) plus adult thymus transplantation (ATT) from the same donor is effective in mice bearing solid tumors. In the current study, we examined the effects of this strategy on the survival of mice with leukemia. One week after intravenous injection of 1×10(6) leukemic cells (EL-4, H-2(b)) into 8-week-old B6 (H-2(b)) mice, the mice were 8 Gy irradiated and transplanted with 1×10(7) bone marrow cells (BMCs) from 8-week-old BALB/c mice (H-2(d)) by IBM-BMT with or without donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or ATT. All the mice without treatment died within 70 days after injection of EL-4. About 40% of those treated with IBM-BMT alone died within 100 days due to tumor relapse. In contrast, those treated with IBM-BMT+DLI or ATT showed the longest survival rate without relapse of leukemia. In addition, the former showed less graft versus host disease (GVHD) than the latter. The mice treated with IBM-BMT+ATT also showed an intermediate percentage of effector memory (EM) and central memory (CM) cells between those treated with BMT alone and those treated with IBM-BMT+DLI. The numbers and functions of T cells increased in those treated with IBM-BMT+ATT with interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production. These results suggest that IBM-BMT+ATT is effective in the treatment of leukemia with strong graft versus leukemia without increased risk of GVHD.

  1. Comparison of lithographic performance between MoSi binary mask and MoSi attenuated PSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, Mitsuharu; Lamantia, Matthew; Philipsen, Vicky; Wada, Shingo; Nagatomo, Tatsuya; Tonooka, Yoji

    2009-04-01

    The mask error budget continues to shrink with shrinking DRAM half pitch and MPU gate size year by year. The ITRS roadmap calls for mask CDU to be cut in half by 2014[1]. Both mask maker and mask user must take advantage of various mask properties, OPC strategies and resolution enhancement techniques to drive improvements. Mask material selection impacts both lithographic performance and mask manufacturability. In turn mask material properties and manufacturing techniques impact our ability to meet the technology roadmap. Studies have shown the advantages of polarized light[2,3] as well as the impact of various mask materials on high NA lithography[4]. In this paper we select the recently introduced binary mask material made from a MoSi absorber called Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) for comparison with the conventional 6% att. PSM and 20% att. MoSi PSM. Through simulation and wafer prints, we optimized mask feature from viewpoint of MEEF and maximum exposure latitude (EL). The MoSi att. PSMs suffer from higher MEEF, which is attributed to the negative effect of TE polarization for mask duty cycle of 50% for 50 nm half pitch and below. Therefore a lower mask duty cycle is required for att. PSM to bring the MEEF performance back to acceptable levels. Experimental results confirm simulation results. As a result of the lower mask duty cycle, the att. MoSi PSMs exhibit poor Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) printability. On the contrary, the MoSi binary mask delivers both acceptable MEEF and acceptable SRAF printing performance. Moreover, we found that the mask structure impact of OMOG to wafer CD is smallest among three masks. OMOG gives the best combination of lithographic performance and delivery compared to the MoSi att. PSMs.

  2. A new generation of modified live-attenuated avian influenza viruses using a two-strategy combination as potential vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry.

  3. Effects of geometry and chemistry on hydrophobic solvation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert C; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2014-10-14

    Inserting an uncharged van der Waals (vdw) cavity into water disrupts the distribution of water and creates attractive dispersion interactions between the solvent and solute. This free-energy change is the hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔG(vdw)). Frequently, it is assumed to be linear in the solvent-accessible surface area, with a positive surface tension (γ) that is independent of the properties of the molecule. However, we found that γ for a set of alkanes differed from that for four configurations of decaalanine, and γ = -5 was negative for the decaalanines. These findings conflict with the notion that ΔG(vdw) favors smaller A. We broke ΔG(vdw) into the free energy required to exclude water from the vdw cavity (ΔG(rep)) and the free energy of forming the attractive interactions between the solute and solvent (ΔG(att)) and found that γ < 0 for the decaalanines because -γ(att) > γ(rep) and γ(att) < 0. Additionally, γ(att) and γ(rep) for the alkanes differed from those for the decaalanines, implying that none of ΔG(att), ΔG(rep), and ΔG(vdw) can be computed with a constant surface tension. We also showed that ΔG(att) could not be computed from either the initial or final water distributions, implying that this quantity is more difficult to compute than is sometimes assumed. Finally, we showed that each atom's contribution to γ(rep) depended on multibody interactions with its surrounding atoms, implying that these contributions are not additive. These findings call into question some hydrophobic models.

  4. Protective effect of curcumin, silymarin and N-acetylcysteine on antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity assessed in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Sasi, P; Gupta, V H; Rai, G; Amarapurkar, D N; Wangikar, P P

    2012-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic in India. The first-line anti-TB therapy (ATT) involving isoniazid (INH), rifampicin and pyrazinamide causes hepatotoxicity in approximately 11.5% of Indian patients. Studies have shown that ATT-induced hepatotoxicity is primarily due to oxidative stress caused by the drugs and metabolites. Herbal drugs with antioxidative properties have been tested in animal studies and clinical trials for the management of hepatotoxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of curcumin (CUR), silymarin (SILY) and N-acetylcysteine (N-ACET) on hepatotoxicity by ATT drugs using an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). HepG2 cells were treated with ATT drugs alone or along with CUR, SILY or N-ACET for a 48-h duration. The cells were monitored for viability, morphology, respiring mitochondria and cell cycle. Our results suggest that the presence of hepatoprotective drugs during treatment of HepG2 cells with ATT drugs lowers the hepatotoxic effect of the latter. This is observed in terms of (a) increased cell viability, (b) healthy-looking cell morphology as revealed by phase contrast microscopy, (c) active respiring cells as observed with confocal microscopy upon staining with a mitochondrial membrane-specific dye, MitoTracker(®) Red, and reduction in the sub-G(1) peak in cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Our results suggest that these hepatoprotective drugs need to be further explored as potential adjuvant therapy along with ATT drugs.

  5. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  6. EEG oscillatory activity associated to monetary gain and loss signals in a learning task: effects of attentional impulsivity and learning ability.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Rotonda, Marco

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in attentional impulsivity (Att-Imp), learning ability, and learning practice on oscillatory activity and phase synchrony responses to monetary gain and loss signals during an instrumental-learning task in healthy women. We used a trial-by-trial wavelet-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal to provide amplitude and inter-site phase synchrony measures from 30 electrodes in theta (4-8 Hz, 350-500 ms), alpha (8-12 Hz, 100-200 ms), beta (13-25 Hz, 100-200 ms), and gamma (30-40 Hz, 350-450 ms) time-frequency ranges. Oscillatory amplitude and inter-site phase synchrony were both greater following loss signals as compared to gain signals in theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Low Att-Imp subjects had higher theta activity within a 350-500 ms time window over frontocentral, and centroparietal sites than high Att-Imp subjects. Monetary gain signals elicited higher theta and gamma activities in high Att-Imp individuals and loss signals elicited higher activities to loss signals in low Att-Imp individuals. Good learners showed enhanced intrahemispheric theta synchrony between frontoparietal, and fronto-occipital sites to monetary loss compared to gain signals. In good learners, monetary loss produced an increase of gamma synchrony that enhanced in the second stage of learning. In low Att-Imp individuals, there was a reduction of theta synchrony during the second stage, as compared with the first stage of learning, between temporal, parietal and fronto-parietal brain regions. These findings may offer valuable clues to understand outcome processing, attentional impulsivity, and learning ability. We propose that the punishment-related theta and gamma waves play a leading role in learning process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Propensity scores based methods for estimating average treatment effect and average treatment effect among treated: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Abdia, Younathan; Kulasekera, K B; Datta, Somnath; Boakye, Maxwell; Kong, Maiying

    2017-09-01

    Propensity score based statistical methods, such as matching, regression, stratification, inverse probability weighting (IPW), and doubly robust (DR) estimating equations, have become popular in estimating average treatment effect (ATE) and average treatment effect among treated (ATT) in observational studies. Propensity score is the conditional probability receiving a treatment assignment with given covariates, and propensity score is usually estimated by logistic regression. However, a misspecification of the propensity score model may result in biased estimates for ATT and ATE. As an alternative, the generalized boosting method (GBM) has been proposed to estimate the propensity score. GBM uses regression trees as weak predictors and captures nonlinear and interactive effects of the covariate. For GBM-based propensity score, only IPW methods have been investigated in the literature. In this article, we provide a comparative study of the commonly used propensity score based methods for estimating ATT and ATE, and examine their performances when propensity score is estimated by logistic regression and GBM, respectively. Extensive simulation results indicate that the estimators for ATE and ATT may vary greatly due to different methods. We concluded that (i) regression may not be suitable for estimating ATE and ATT regardless of the estimation method of propensity score; (ii) IPW and stratification usually provide reliable estimates of ATT when propensity score model is correctly specified; (iii) the estimators of ATE based on stratification, IPW, and DR are close to the underlying true value of ATE when propensity score is correctly specified by logistic regression or estimated using GBM. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Improvement of the matching speed of AIMS for development of an automatic totally tuning system for hyperthermia treatment using a resonant cavity applicator.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Y; Kato, K; Tsuchiya, K; Hirashima, T; Suzuki, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the improvement of the speed of AIMS (Automatic Impedance Matching System) to automatically make impedance matching for a re-entrant resonant cavity applicator for non-invasive deep brain tumors hyperthermia treatments. We have already discussed the effectiveness of the heating method using the AIMS, with experiments of heating agar phantoms. However, the operating time of AIMS was about 30 minutes. To develop the ATT System (Automatic Totally Tuning System) including the automatic frequency tuning system, we must improve this problem. Because, when using the ATTS, the AIMS is used repeatedly to find the resonant frequency. In order to improve the speed of impedance matching, we developed the new automatic impedance matching system program (AIMS2). In AIMS, the stepping motors were connected to the impedance matching unit's dials. These dials were turned to reduce the reflected power. AIMS consists of two phases: all range searching and detailed searching. We focused on the three factors affecting the operating speed and improved them. The first factor is the interval put between the turning of the motors and AD converter. The second factor is how the steps of the motor when operating all range searching. The third factor is the starting position of the motor when detail searching. We developed the simple ATT System (ATT-beta) based on the AIMS2. To evaluate the developed AIMS2 and ATT- beta, experiments with an agar phantom were performed. From these results, we found that the operating time of the AIMS2 is about 4 minutes, which was approximately 12% of AIMS. From ATT-beta results, it was shown that it is possible to tune frequency and automatically match impedance with the program based on the AIMS2.

  9. In vivo and in vitro characterization of site-specific recombination of a novel serine integrase from the temperate phage EFC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Bohyun; Kim, Inki; Nam, Ja-Ae; Chang, Hyo-Ihl; Ha, Chang Hoon

    2016-04-22

    EFC-1 integrase is a site-specific recombinase that belongs to the large family of serine recombinase. In previously study, we isolated the temperate phage EFC-1, and characterized its genomic sequence. Within its genome, Orf28 was predicted encode a 464 amino acid of a putative integrase gene. In this study, EFC-1 integrase was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assay was performed using purified His-tag fusion integrase. Also, to identify which serine is involved in the catalytic domain, we used site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed by a recombination assay in vitro. In vivo assay involved PCR and confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells, and determined the minimal lengths of attP and attB sites. According to our results, the EFC-1 integrase-mediated recombination was site-specific and unidirectional system in vitro and in vivo. Serine 21 of EFC-1 integrase plays a major role in the catalytic domain, and minimal sizes of attB and attP was defined 48 and 54 bp. Our finding may help develop a useful tool for gene therapy and gene delivery system. - Highlights: • EFC-1 integrase-mediated recombination was site-specific and unidirectional system. • Serine 21 of EFC-1 integrase plays a major role in the catalytic domain. • The functional minimal sizes of attB and attP was defined 48 and 54 bp.

  10. Estimated Prevalence of Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Hirotoshi; Fukushima, Yoshifumi; Mizuno, Atsushi; Niwa, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Ebina, Toshiaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Ishibashi, Shun; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-07

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) represents a strong risk for development of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the majority of patients with FH are undiagnosed and the prevalence likely represents an underestimate in most countries. In Japan, the possible contribution of FH to the development of CAD may be higher because of the low incidence of CAD among the general population. We estimated the prevalence of heterozygous FH by measuring Achilles tendon thickness (ATT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).A total of 359 patients suffering from ACS were enrolled in this multicenter registration study. Heterozygous FH was defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Japan Atherosclerosis Society. After excluding 63 patients because of missing ATT data or plasma triglyceride levels that were 4.5 mmol/L or more, 296 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. The number of patients with ATT of 9 mm or more was 53 (17.9%). They were significantly younger and had significantly higher LDL cholesterol levels than patients with an ATT less than 9 mm. The prevalence of heterozygous FH was 5.7% (1/17.5) and more prominent in younger patients who were less than 60 years old (7.8%). In patients with ATT of 9 mm or more, approximately 1 in 3.5 fulfilled the criteria for heterozygous FH.We demonstrated the usefulness of measuring ATT by radiography and the high prevalence of heterozygous FH in patients with ACS in Japan, especially in younger patients who were less than 60 years old.

  11. Bacteriophage φC31 Integrase Mediated Transgenesis in Xenopus laevis for Protein Expression at Endogenous Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Bryan G.; Weeks, Daniel L.

    Bacteriophage φC31 inserts its genome into that of its host bacterium via the integrase enzyme which catalyzes recombination between a phage attachment site (attP) and a bacterial attachment site (attB). Integrase requires no accessory factors, has a high efficiency of recombination, and does not need perfect sequence fidelity for recognition and recombination between these attachment sites. These imperfect attachment sites, or pseudo-attachment sites, are present in many organisms and have been used to insert transgenes in a variety of species. Here we describe the φC31 integrase approach to make transgenic Xenopus laevis embryos.

  12. Establishment of a Continuous Wave Laser Welding Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    calorimeter as a reference it was deter- mined that the power values reported by the CRL meter reliably respond to changes in beam power resulting...steps were implemented in proces- sing the material from this welded panel form to finished test specimens: : V-49 ^i^M^^!^^ ,.. .. N e g a t i v...34 Transverse Welded ATT-4 ATT-5 5.0 U.O 4.0 8.0 190.600 199.300 173.400 | 169.000 ILONMTIONlX) « CID SIHHtTION iWCIMCN tlOWG-WlD tlWUKTIO

  13. A Software Architecture for Network Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-30

    valuable critical readings of this paper. I 20] REFERENCES I 1. D. P. Anderson, D. Ferrari, P. V. Rangan and S . Tzou, "The DASH Project: Issues in...Productivity Engineering in the UNIXt Environment 1j A Software Architecture for Network Communication Qp 0Technical Report 0) S . L. Graham...N00039-84- C -0089 August 7, 1984 - August 6, 1987 D T IC EECTE Arpa Order No. 4871 JU 1988 fUNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories E i UTION AtT

  14. The Practical Impact of Recent Computer Advances on the Analysis and Design of Large Scale Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    NETWORKING The late öO’s and the 70’s have seen the proposal and development of an incredible array of digital services . The field is, of course...still dominated by the giants of the common carriers, AT&T and Western Union. 2.1 Common Carriers AT&T offers a wide array of digital services , many...intended for digital services , does have a bandwidth of 6.312 Mbps and could be a vehicle for the transmission and visual display of data. Western

  15. A Case of Mycobacterium riyadhense in an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Patient with a Suspected Paradoxical Response to Antituberculosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Badreddine, Samar Assem

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old male patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented with clinical picture suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was commenced on antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with signs of improvement. Then he developed cervical lymph node abscess which was drained. Steroid was started for presumed paradoxical response to ATT which results in clinical regression. The culture result revealed Mycobacterium riyadhense. This report addresses the rarity of this bacteria in medical literature. It reviews clinical presentations and medical treatment particularly in the setting of coinfections. PMID:27703819

  16. A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Atypical Multiple Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Hu, Z; Li, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This case describes a rare case of tuberculous meningitis. A 50-year old female presented with seven days of numbness on the left side, fatigue and a three-day headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple lesions in the dorsal medulla and upper cervical spine. After admission, she developed a long-term fever, cranial nerves palsy and showed little response to corticosteroid, antibacterial and antiviral therapy. She received a diagnostic anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT); despite that, all examinations for tuberculosis were negative. After ATT lasting 16 days, she recovered and was discharged from hospital with slight asthenia and hypoesthesia. PMID:25867567

  17. Trends in the Global Balance of Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    and are not included in the fighter category-. Alpha let. AMX. Arao-2, ATIT-33, AT/T-37, AT/T-38, BAC-167 Strikemaster, Cheetah , CM-170 Fouga Magister...Defense and Disarmament Studies’ esti- mates of production rates of 135 aircraft per year (with 60 of those scheduled for export). Estimates for Chinese...revealed that the USAF had secretly fitted some ALCMs as well with conventional warheads and mately 3,000 V-2 ballistic missiles against targets in the

  18. A rare case of isoniazid-induced erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Garg, Yashika; Gore, Rajeshwari; Jain, Sourabh; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease in developing countries. Isoniazid is established the first-line antitubercular drug and an essential component of all antitubercular regimens. Erythroderma caused by isoniazid is an uncommon but serious adverse drug reaction. We report here a case of a 63-year-old female patient who presented with generalized redness and scaling with itching after 8 weeks of antitubercular treatment (ATT). ATT was stopped immediately, and antihistaminics were started. The patient improved over a period of 2 weeks. On sequential rechallenge, she developed similar lesions all over the body with isoniazid, hence confirming the diagnosis of isoniazid-induced erythroderma.

  19. Bot, Cyborg and Automated Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jeff

    The Automated Turing test (ATT) is almost a standard security technique for addressing the threat of undesirable or malicious bot programs. In this paper, we motivate an interesting adversary model, cyborgs, which are either humans assisted by bots or bots assisted by humans. Since there is always a human behind these bots, or a human can always be available on demand, ATT fails to differentiate such cyborgs from humans. The notion of “telling humans and cyborgs apart” is novel, and it can be of practical relevance in network security. Although it is a challenging task, we have had some success in telling cyborgs and humans apart automatically.

  20. Pituitary tumor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, B.; Binney, S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes research on the following: the structure of {sup 10}B{sub 10}-ovine corticotropin releasing hormone and {sup 10}B{sub 10}-growth hormone releasing hormone; the BNCT effect on AtT-20 cell {sup 10}B{sub 10}-CRH incubations in vitro; BNCT effects on GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} cell {sup 10}B{sub 10} growth hormone releasing factor incubation in vitro; and competitive inhibition of AtT-20 cell BNCT effect.

  1. Studies on attitude toward teaching science and anxiety about teaching science in preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerback, Mary E.

    These studies examined attitude toward teaching science (ATTS) using an adaptation of the Bratt Attitude Test (M-BAT); anxiety about teaching science (ANX-TS), as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI A-State); and selected demographic variables in preservice elementary teachers for the 1977-1978 and 1978-1979 academic years and a follow-up of those students who completed their student teaching in May 1979. The M-BAT and STAI were administered in September at the beginning of Science 6 (earth science and biology course), in December on the next to last day of Science 6, in May on the next to the last day of Science 5 (physical science), and in May 1979 after student teaching. In the two academic years, both ATTS and ANX-TS became more positive during the sequence Science 6-5. Both changes in ATTS and ANX-TS continued to change in a positive direction after completion of Science 6-5, after student teaching. There were differences in the times that the greatest changes in ATTS and ANX-TS occurred. In both studies, the greatest change in ATTS took place between September and December, during Science 6. The greatest change in ANX-TS, however, took place during Science 5 between December and May in the 1977-1978 study. In the 1978-1979 study, the greatest changes in ANX-TS occurred in Science 6, between September and December. The delayed reduction of ANX-TS in the 1977-1978 study may be explained by differences in teaching patterns. In 1977-1978, two teachers taught only their academic specialty, biology or earth science, to students who switched teachers midsemester. In 1978-1979, the same two instructors taught both biology and earth science to the same students. Correlation coefficients for successive and corresponding administrations of both the M-BAT and STAI suggest these variables are related. Students with more positive ATTS tended to have reduced ANX-TS. Neither the number of high school or college science and math courses completed nor the level

  2. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  3. No Crazy Gods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Terrie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of classroom technology and suggests a method for evaluating a Web site by determining its incorporation of communication, information, timeliness, and interactivity. Highlights Ed's Oasis, a Web site funded by the AT&T Foundation, contains teacher evaluation guidelines and checklist of online resources and provides…

  4. Building Models for the Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Based on Data from General Population Surveys in Sweden, Norway, and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…

  5. An International Research Conference on Reliability and Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-13

    PANEL DISCUSSION P.M. 3: 30-5:00 Nancy Mann (Chair) University of California-Los Angeles R. Hannula General Electric Larry Crow AT&T Bell Laboratories...charts and in Taguchi designs. p ’ ACCELERATED LIFE TESTS WITH MULTIPLE STRESSES* Anthony A. Salvia The Pennsylvania State University The Behrend

  6. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  7. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

  8. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  9. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  10. Liver transplantation is associated with good clinical outcome in patients with active tuberculosis and acute liver failure due to anti-tubercular treatment.

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, Michele; Martelli, Giulia; Tedeschi, Sara; Morelli, Mariacristina; Bertuzzo, Valentine; Tadolini, Marina; Pianta, Paolo; Cristini, Francesco; Giannella, Maddalena; Lewis, Russell E; Pinna, Antonio D; Viale, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Active tuberculosis (TB) is commonly considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT). However, in patients with TB who develop acute liver failure (ALF) due to toxicity induced by anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), LT could be the only opportunity for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of LT in this scenario. We described 2 cases and comprehensively reviewed the literature finding 26 cases of LT performed in patients having a concomitant active TB and liver failure secondary to ATT toxicity. TB was classified as pulmonary in 18/26 (69%), nodal in 3/26 (11%) TB cases, while the remaining 5/26 cases included disseminated, pleural, renal, ovarian, and vertebral TB localization (1 case each). ATT following LT consisted mainly of isoniazid or rifampin (RIF)-sparing regimens and included primarily fluoroquinolones and ethambutol. Rejection episodes and liver toxicity were reported in 19% and 8% of patients respectively. Graft rejection was more frequent among patients treated with RIF-containing regimens (P<.001). Mortality rate was 15% after a median follow up of 12 months. In only one case was death attributed to uncontrolled TB infection. Our findings suggest that LT is an effective therapeutic option for patients with active TB developing ALF following ATT and should be considered for patients failing medical treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Credit. 1991-92 NCCE/AT&T Projects. Consumer Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    Summaries are provided of 37 projects that address the credit education and information needs of consumers. The projects are supported by AT&T Universal Card Services Corp. through a fund managed by the National Coalition for Consumer Education. Each summary provides a project description, grant recipient, and address/telephone number. The…

  12. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. B Attachment B...

  13. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. B Attachment B...

  14. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. B Attachment B...

  15. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. B Attachment B...

  16. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. B Attachment B...

  17. Virtual Communities for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Margaret

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities for elementary and secondary students who participate in AT&T's Learning Network. Topics include learning circles as virtual communities; forming learning circles; planning projects with teachers and students; exchanging work on the projects; creating a final publication as a group; and evaluating the process. (LRW)

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  19. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  20. Installing the Future. Fiber Optics Program Readies Students for Lucrative Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optics program at Somerset County Technical Institute (SCTI) prepares college students and trades workers for telecommunication's new wave of installation. The program was born of a partnership among an electricians' union, AT&T, and SCTI to meet the expected need for fiber optic technicians. (JOW)

  1. Lupus vulgaris of external nose with septal perforation--a rarity in antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ajay; Wadhera, Raman; Gulati, S P; Singh, Jagjit

    2010-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the commonest morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. Case of LV of external nose extending to internal nose causing septal perforation is documented here. Histopathology of biopsy taken confirmed the diagnosis of LV. Patient responded well to Anti-tubercular therapy (ATT).

  2. Operational Research in Northwest Europe, the Work of No. 2 Operational Research Section with 21 Army Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-07-01

    Ii .. . . . quite early too, the value of the bombing. The report .(ioaI 7),I still however, lacked mny oa- roboative evidence from...for thU cov Z lich Ocl taty be dropped within a 200 :otre squcre. elc att i I ~the S ina red In, f .’ . "t 11 CHAPTER g," ARILEY N H ASALTO HEBAHE

  3. 76 FR 40154 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions-Spring 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Governing Amendments to FM Table of Allotments and Changes of Community of License in the Radio Broadcast... No. 07-91). ] 376 Broadcast Localism (MB 3060-AJ04 Docket No. 04-233). 377 Creating a Low Power 3060... separate petition filed by AT&T, Sprint, and MCI. The petitions asked the Commission to address problems...

  4. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more att...

  5. Synthesis of formyl esters of vegetable oils: Milkweed, Pennycress and Soy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus, from the polyhydroxyl starting material, att...

  6. 76 FR 13234 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    .... One-Stop). 75288 AT&T (Workers) Old Bridge, NJ........ 02/15/11 02/11/11. 75289 American Food and... 02/15/11 02/14/11. (Workers). 75294 Marathon Oil (State/One- Anchorage, AK......... 02/15/11 02/14/11...

  7. ANALYTICAL TOOLS INTERFACE FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENTS (ATTILA) USER MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATtlLA is an ArcView extension that allows users to easily calculate many common landscape metrics. GIS expertise is not required, but some experience with ArcView is recommended. Four metric groups are currently included in ATtILA: landscape characteristics, riparian characteris...

  8. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 855 - Glossary of References, Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 1... 10-10, Civil Aircraft Use of United States Air Force Airfields AFI 10-1001, Civil Aircraft Landing...-1, vol 1, part 1, Basic Air Force Supply Procedures AFM 67-1, vol 1, part 3, Air Force Stock Fund...

  9. 76 FR 63657 - Certain Flat Panel Display Devices, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...''); and BrandsMart USA, Inc. of Hollywood, Florida (``BrandsMart''). On August 31, 2011, AU Optronics... Corporation of America of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, d/b/a BrandsMart U.S.A. (collectively, ``New Respondents''), and to terminate the investigation as to AT&T, Best Buy, and BrandsMart. On September 15, 2011, the...

  10. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. 5: Acoustic final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Q2S(quiet two-stage) fan is a 0.836m (32.9 in.) diameter model of the STF 433 engine fan, selected in a 1972 study for an Advanced Technology Transport (ATT) airplane. Noise-control features include: low tip speed, moderate stage pressure rise, large blade-vane spacings, no inlet guide vanes, and optimum blade and vane numbers. Tests were run on the baseline Q2S fan with standard inlet and discharge ducts. Further tests were made of a translating centerbody sonic inlet device and treated discharge ducts. Results were scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan size for comparison with current two-stage fans, and were also scaled to STF 433 fan size to compare calculated ATT flyover noise with FAR 36 limits. Baseline Q2S results scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan sizes showed substantial noise reductions. Calculated unsuppressed baseline ATT flyovers averaged about 2.5 EPNdB below FAR 36 limits. Using measured sonic inlet results, scaled baseline Q2S fan results, and calculated attenuations for a 1975 technology duct liner, projected flyover noise calculations for the ATT averaged about FAR 36 limits minus 10 EPNdB. Advances in suppression technology required to meet the 1985 goal of FAR 36 limits minus 20 EPNdB are discussed.

  11. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Christmas Mountains, Texas Detail Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume IIA contains the following: geology of Christmas Mountain; radioactive mineral occurrences in Texas; geophysical data interpretation; references; and appendices for stacked profiles, geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data. (ATT)

  12. Changes Come as Old Hiring Practices Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Assembles a number of short takes that describe how some human resource professionals have changed their operations to upgrade their bottom line. Includes: Deloitte & Touche, Andersen Consulting, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Brown & Root, AT&T, Ford Motor Company, and The Monsanto Company. Provides advice and tips. (JBJ)

  13. Concussion induces gait inter-joint coordination variability under conditions of divided attention and obstacle crossing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shiu-Ling; Osternig, Louis; Chou, Li-Shan

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of concussion on the pattern and variability of inter-joint coordination during level walking (Level), obstacle crossing (OB), and walking with a concurrent cognitive test (ATT). Gait analyses of 23 concussed and 23 matched healthy adults were performed. Continuous relative phase (CRP), derived from phase angles of two adjacent joints, was used to assess inter-joint coordination. Cross-correlation measures and root-mean-square (RMS) differences were used to compare CRP patterns of the Level condition to those of OB and ATT conditions, respectively. Deviation phase (DP) was used to evaluate variability of inter-joint coordination for each task. For hip-knee and knee-ankle CRP patterns, RMS differences between OB and Level and between ATT and Level in concussed subjects were significantly greater than those of healthy adults. No significant group differences were detected for the cross-correlation measures of hip-knee and knee-ankle CRP patterns. In stance phase, a significant task effect on DP values was detected in hip-knee inter-joint coordination. For knee-ankle inter-joint coordination, concussed subjects showed significantly greater DP values than healthy controls during OB and ATT. In swing phase, concussed individuals showed greater DP values in hip-knee and knee-ankle inter-joint coordination compared to healthy controls. The findings suggest that the ability to modulate inter-joint coordination patterns when accommodating to gait perturbations is affected by concussion.

  14. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of U.S. infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) these strains were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define relevant genomic changes associated with att...

  15. Heating poultry houses with an attic ventilation system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fuel use constitutes a large percentage of the energy costs incurred by growers during winter flocks and increasing fuel costs have illustrated the need for alternative methods to reduce energy usage in broiler production. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the att...

  16. Analysis of a Proposed Third Generation (3G) Mobile Communication Standard, Time Division - Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    provider for cellular communications, dominating 62% of the market with currently over 600 million subscribers. By being backward compatible with this...network, TD-SCDMA will have a great marketing advantage over non-GSM based technology. Currently in the U.S., the cellular service providers AT&T and

  17. ARC-2008-ACD08-0196-015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-07

    NASA Day at AT&T Park: NASA and the San Francisco Giants share a day to celebrate the 50 year anniversaries. Ames New Ventures and Communication staff (L-R) Dolores Beasley, Lori and Kim Newton enjoy the sun and fun at the game.

  18. Combinatorial Problems of Applied Discrete Mathematics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Attenuated Spaces, Utilitas Mathematica, 15(1979) , 3—29. 6. Characterization of Projective Incidence Structures, Geometria Dedicata, 5 (1976), 361—376. 7...Pj rtia l geometries, generalized quadrang les and strong/v regular graf t/ us , • Att i dcl Convegno di Geometria Combinatoria e sue app

  19. Characterizing the molecular basis of attenuation of Marek’s disease virus via in vitro serial passage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by the oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus 2, commonly known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD vaccines, the primary control method, are often generated by repeated in vitro serial passage of this highly cell-associated virus to atte...

  20. 32 CFR Attachment 4 to Part 855 - Sample Joint-Use Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Joint-Use Agreement 4 Attachment 4 to... AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 4 Attachment 4 to Part 855—Sample Joint-Use Agreement Joint-Use Agreement Between an Airport Sponsor and the United States Air Force This Joint...

  1. 32 CFR Attachment 4 to Part 855 - Sample Joint-Use Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Joint-Use Agreement 4 Attachment 4 to... AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 4 Attachment 4 to Part 855—Sample Joint-Use Agreement Joint-Use Agreement Between an Airport Sponsor and the United States Air Force This Joint...

  2. Research on Teletraining: Student Acceptance, Learning Effectiveness and Cost Benefits in the Corporate Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    The Sales and Marketing Education organization of AT&T Communications conducts ongoing research to monitor the impact of their National Teletraining Network (NTN) programs for professional sales personnel on: (1) learning, (2) student acceptance of courses and instructors, and (3) student willingness to take additional teletrained programs.…

  3. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-08

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways.

  4. The Impact of the AT&T-EEO Consent Decree. Labor Relations and Public Rolicy Series No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Larson, John A.

    The consent decree agreed to in January 1973 by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Department of Justice, and the Department of Labor was a milestone of EEOC enforcement. Large amounts of back pay were paid to women and minorities, and goals were set which,…

  5. Changes Come as Old Hiring Practices Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Assembles a number of short takes that describe how some human resource professionals have changed their operations to upgrade their bottom line. Includes: Deloitte & Touche, Andersen Consulting, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Brown & Root, AT&T, Ford Motor Company, and The Monsanto Company. Provides advice and tips. (JBJ)

  6. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in pyrazinamide-induced hyperuricemic tubercular patients.

    PubMed

    Pichholiya, Meenu; Yadav, Arvind Kumar; Luhadia, S K; Tahashildar, Jameela; Aseri, M L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in pyrazinamide (PZA)-induced hyperuricemia in patients taking antitubercular therapy (ATT). This randomized controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute of Rajasthan in all the sputum-positive tubercular patients aged between 18 and 65 years of either sex. Serum uric acid level was monitored at 0(th), 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), and 8(th) week of ATT. Patients whose uric acid level was found to be increased at 2(nd) week were finally recruited in the study. Ninety patients who developed hyperuricemia due to ATT were divided randomly into three groups (Group A - febuxostat, Group B - allopurinol, and Group C - control) of thirty patients each. Mean serum uric acid levels were calculated at all the weeks in all the groups, and serum uric acid levels were compared by applying student's t-test and ANOVA. Mean serum uric acid level decreased from 10.698 mg/dl (at 2(nd) week) to 7.846 mg/dl (at 8(th) week) in Group A and from 11.34 mg/dl (at 2(nd) week) to 7.280 mg/dl (at 8(th) week) in Group B. Numbers of adverse events encountered across both the treatment groups were same with both the drugs. Allopurinol and febuxostat were equally efficacious in lowering PZA induced raised serum uric acid level in tubercular patients, and it was possible to continue ATT without withdrawing PZA.

  7. Using Technology in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercik, Janet T.; Blair-Larsen, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that few college faculty use technology in their teaching despite rapid growth in technology-based instruction in K-12 education. Describes two projects using AT&T's PersonaLink Service and Sony's Magic Link PIC 1000 in field experience supervision. (SG)

  8. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC) A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense..., Subpt. B, Att. A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147—Standard A—National Agency Check With...

  9. Investigation of Materials for Waterproofing Leaky Corrugated Galvanized Steel-Arch Magazines from the Inside.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Epoxidized Dymeric t 2 , 3-Component Tremco Polyurethane Terpolymer 12Use with 200 Cleaner and Primer No. 6. Table 3 Results of Adhesion-Peel Test Sample No...Library ATTM: Chief. SAlEN Ohio River 45201 Nashville 37202 ATT: Laboratory Comander (Code 2636) 93555 AIN: Chief. ORNED-F ATTN: Chief, Engr Div Naval

  10. Root assays to study pattern-triggered immunity in plant-nematode interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants employ extracellular immune receptors to perceive conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), triggering the first layer of defense known as pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). The understanding of PTI is mainly based on the studies focusing on leaves. Plants are vulnerable to att...

  11. Global Incident Notification (GIN) Secondary Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    boating community will operate vessels not normally equipped with marine band VHF radios (e.g. canoes, kayaks , sailboard, etc.). In marine incidents...i.e., AT&T, Sprint ) – Telecommunications Company that can cross LATA and state boundaries. JJMA John J. McMullen Associates, Inc. JJMA is a leader

  12. Technology and the Research Environment of the Future. The Impact of the Information Science Revolution on the Research Environment of the Future. Proceedings of Three Seminars (Albany, New York, September 15, 1987, February 2, 1988, and May 6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    In a series of three half-day seminars, scientists from AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM (International Business Machines), and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives described current research in materials science, computing, and networking with implications for scholarly communication in the future. The audience for the seminars included…

  13. Orbit attitude processor. STS-1 bench program verification test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A plan for the static verification of the STS-1 ATT PROC ORBIT software requirements is presented. The orbit version of the SAPIENS bench program is used to generate the verification data. A brief discussion of the simulation software and flight software modules is presented along with a description of the test cases.

  14. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MASTER BRAND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... dl><11 rflrt·,gn (",1:1" '1"''1 i,'; n'j',,:: 1"d :!~ l·.~~. I)att l:~ (~f~'i,~" (dl'! l~, lii!l .. r~d ILl ..... 1':P;' '.' STEVENS [~C'" D<1 \\ .... srJn, • - ~t' .... I' '. :1\\ I,r;':- ...

  15. Electronic Baby Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Ann D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the participation of a small Catholic school near Philadelphia in the AT&T Learning Circles Project, which involved networking with schools in several states. The integration of the telecommunications project with the language arts curriculum is discussed, including creative writing about local food and historic places to share with…

  16. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  17. Distributed Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-25

    measures found for the network in Figure 111-2. Note that none of the nodes can hear all of the reference nodes, so no node is performing triangulation ...environment. A newly purchased laser graphics printer was added to support higher resolution graphics hard-copy output. An enhanced version of AT&T’s

  18. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptide/Protein in Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhou, Fan; Chu, Yuan; Zhao, Zhangwu; An, Chunju

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are a group of immune proteins that exhibit strong antibiotic properties against numerous infectious bacterial strains. They are evolutionarily conserved and present in every kingdom and phylum, ranging from prokaryotes to humans. We analyzed the transciptome from the larvae of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and identified several putative AMP transcripts, OfgLys5, OfgLys6, OfgLys10, OfgAtt, and OfgIID. OfgLys5, OfgLys6, and OfgLys10 are all highly homologous with c-type lysozymes, and OfgAtt shows significant identities with Lepidoptera attacin. The amino acid sequence of OfgLys5 and OfgLys6 possessed all conserved features critical for fundamental structure and function of c-type lysozyme, including the two catalytic sites, Glu32 and Asp50. OfgAtt is a typical glycine-rich protein. The antimicrobial activity of O. furnacalis hemolymph increased significantly after injection with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, or Beauveria bassiana. OfgAtt, IDD, and Lys6 are expressed at low level prior to the challenge, but strongly induced against Gram-positive and negative bacteria, and fungi. Under the same inducement conditions, the transcripts of these three genes elevated most when fifth instar larvae were injected. Therefore, O. furnacalis larvae are induced to produce antimicrobial materials in the hemolymph after the infection, and increase of lysozyme and attacin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24155672

  19. Towards Compliance: How One Global Corporation Complies with Copyright Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaper, Louise Levy; Kawecki, Alicja T.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses copyright issues related to paper and electronic copying and describes how AT&T Bell Laboratories has developed policies to manage copyright compliance. Copyright law is discussed, examples of legal suits are given, the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) is explained, and procedures to encourage compliance by end users and suppliers…

  20. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  1. Computer Modeling of Complete IC Fabrication Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-28

    Packard Richard Gurtler Motorola Joseph Chapley GTE Microcircuits Peter A. Habitz IBM King-Shan Chan Commodore Sameer Haddad Advanced Micro Devk Raymond...Forsythe National Semiconductor Nadim I. Maluf Siliconix Inc. Jorge Garcia-Colevatti AT&T Bell Labs Deborah D. Maracas Motorola Sidney C. Garrison Motorola

  2. 77 FR 30272 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the.... Filed Date: 5/1/12. Accession Number: 20120501-5447. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 5/22/12. Docket Numbers... of the PJM OATT Att K Appx & OA Schedule 1 to be effective 4/1/2012. Filed Date: 5/14/12....

  3. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table 1...

  4. Drug-induced liver injury from antituberculous treatment: a retrospective study from a large TB centre in the UK.

    PubMed

    Abbara, Aula; Chitty, Sarah; Roe, Jennifer K; Ghani, Rohma; Collin, Simon M; Ritchie, Andrew; Kon, Onn Min; Dzvova, John; Davidson, Harriet; Edwards, Thomas E; Hateley, Charlotte; Routledge, Matthew; Buckley, Jim; Davidson, Robert N; John, Laurence

    2017-03-24

    We describe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) secondary to antituberculous treatment (ATT) in a large tuberculosis (TB) centre in London; we identify the proportion who had risk factors for DILI and the timing and outcome of DILI. We identified consecutive patients who developed DILI whilst on treatment for active TB; patients with active TB without DILI were selected as controls. Comprehensive demographic and clinical data, management and outcome were recorded. There were 105 (6.9%) cases of ATT-associated DILI amongst 1529 patients diagnosed with active TB between April 2010 and May 2014. Risk factors for DILI were: low patient weight, HIV-1 co-infection, higher baseline ALP, and alcohol intake. Only 25.7% of patients had British or American Thoracic Society defined criteria for liver test (LT) monitoring. Half (53%) of the cases occurred within 2 weeks of starting ATT and 87.6% occurred within 8 weeks. Five (4.8%) of seven deaths were attributable to DILI. Only a quarter of patients who developed DILI had British or American Thoracic Society defined criteria for pre-emptive LT monitoring, suggesting that all patients on ATT should be considered for universal liver monitoring particularly during the first 8 weeks of treatment.

  5. A simple polymerase chain reaction-based method for the construction of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange donor vectors.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Jack R; Wu, C-ting

    2008-11-01

    Here we describe a simple method for generating donor vectors suitable for targeted transgenesis via recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) using the PhiC31 integrase. This PCR-based strategy employs small attB "tails" on the primers used to amplify a sequence of interest, permitting the rapid creation of transgenes for in vivo analysis.

  6. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC) A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense..., Subpt. B, Att. A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147—Standard A—National Agency Check With Local...) from the date of, the previous investigation or reinvestigation. (Attachment D to this subpart, Table...

  7. A novel approach to investigate the uptake and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in spinach cultivated in soil and hydroponic media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. A Tn7-based plasmid vector was used to insert the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene into the attTn7 site in the E. coli chromosome. Three gfp-labeled E. coli inocula, O157:H7 strains ...

  8. The Contributing Role of the Regulatory Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    4. Hansell, Kathleen J. and Fran M. Putney. "New Options for TA Digital Services ." Telecommunications June 1989:27-8, 62. Heywood, Peter (Data...Hansell and Fran M. Putney. "New Options for TA Digital Services ." Telecommunications June 1989:27-8, 62. 31 At the end of 1983, AT&T had 41.7% (4664

  9. Campaign Policies, Broadcasters, and the Presidential Election of 1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    The policies initiated by broadcasters for campaign coverage during the 1924 presidential election influenced the treatment of political candidates on the air and helped set the stage for inclusion of the equal opportunities clause in the Radio Act of 1927. AT&T, RCA, and General Electric formed policies to treat candidates fairly in…

  10. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOEpatents

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-09-12

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  11. Plains Speaking: Crow Students Go Online to Meet the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Vicki

    1995-01-01

    Describes a two-year Technology for Teaching Project linking high school students on Montana's Crow Indian Reservation with other students in the United States and abroad through AT&T Learning Network's Learning Circles. Topics include project organization, materials exchanged with other schools, issues covered in online student discussions,…

  12. Proprioception in the ACL-ruptured knee: the contribution of the medial collateral ligament and patellar ligament. An in vivo experimental study in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bonsfills, N; Raygoza, J J; Boemo, E; Garrido, J; Núñez, A; Gómez-Barrena, E

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), secondary restraints such as menisci, ligaments, and tendons restrict anterior knee laxity. Strain detection at these sites could define the contribution of this alternative signalling system to knee proprioception after ACL injury. The hypothesis in this study questions if measurements of anterior tibial translation (ATT) from surface strain gauges on the insertions of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the patellar tendon (PT) are sufficiently sensitive and specific to differentiate normal, stable knees from acutely unstable knees due to ACL section. Twelve cats received miniaturized strain gauges on the surface of MCL and PT distal insertions. A purpose-made receiver transformed into measurements any voltage variation obtained during passive knee flexion-extension and anterior tibial translation manoeuvres. Variables under evaluation included first peak latency, normalized amplitude, and slope of voltage along time. Femorotibial displacements were video recorded, digitized, and used as the ATT reference. The proposed system detected significant changes in the slope of the voltage/time signal, with higher specificity and sensitivity during ATT after experimental ACL section. Changes were not significant during flexion or extension. It was found that a pattern of earlier and more intense strain in MCL and PT distal insertions was found during ATT in the ACL deficient knee. Enhanced pattern recognition learning from these structures could be a future target for proprioceptive training after ACL injury.

  13. BLR1 and FCGR1A transcripts in peripheral blood associate with the extent of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and predict treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Synne; Bakken, Rasmus; Dhanasekaran, S.; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Sarman; Singh, Varinder; Haks, Marielle C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Kabra, S. K.; Doherty, T. Mark; Ritz, Christian; Grewal, Harleen M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers reflecting the extent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced pathology and normalization during anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) would considerably facilitate trials of new treatment regimens and the identification of patients with treatment failure. Therefore, in a cohort of 99 Indian children with intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB), we performed blood transcriptome kinetic analysis during ATT to explore 1) the association between transcriptional biomarkers in whole blood (WB) and the extent of TB disease at diagnosis and treatment outcomes at 2 and 6 months, and 2) the potential of the biomarkers to predict treatment response at 2 and 6 months. We present the first data on the association between transcriptional biomarkers and the extent of TB disease as well as outcome of ATT in children: Expression of three genes down-regulated on ATT (FCGR1A, FPR1 and MMP9) exhibited a positive correlation with the extent of TB disease, whereas expression of eight up-regulated genes (BCL, BLR1, CASP8, CD3E, CD4, CD19, IL7R and TGFBR2) exhibited a negative correlation with the extent of disease. Baseline levels of these transcripts displayed an individual capacity >70% to predict the six-month treatment outcome. In particular, BLR1 and FCGR1A seem to have a potential in monitoring and perhaps tailoring future antituberculosis therapy. PMID:27941850

  14. Installing the Future. Fiber Optics Program Readies Students for Lucrative Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optics program at Somerset County Technical Institute (SCTI) prepares college students and trades workers for telecommunication's new wave of installation. The program was born of a partnership among an electricians' union, AT&T, and SCTI to meet the expected need for fiber optic technicians. (JOW)

  15. Technology and the Research Environment of the Future. The Impact of the Information Science Revolution on the Research Environment of the Future. Proceedings of Three Seminars (Albany, New York, September 15, 1987, February 2, 1988, and May 6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    In a series of three half-day seminars, scientists from AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM (International Business Machines), and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives described current research in materials science, computing, and networking with implications for scholarly communication in the future. The audience for the seminars included…

  16. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  17. NMR solution structure of ATTp, an Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Chae, Young Kee; Markley, John L

    2002-10-15

    The three-dimensional structure of the precursor form of the Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor (ATT(p), GenBank entry Z46816), a 68-residue (approximately 7.5 kDa) rapeseed class proteinase inhibitor, has been determined in solution at pH 5.0 and 25 degrees C by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protein contains one alpha-helix and two strands of antiparallel beta-sheet, with a type IV beta-turn connecting the two strands. The alpha-helix and the inhibitory loop are connected to the beta-sheet through three disulfide bridges; a fourth disulfide bridge connects the N- and C-termini. The overall structural topology of ATT(p) is similar to those of the sweet tasting protein brazzein (rmsd of 3.0 A) and the antifungal protein Rs-Afp1 [a knottin protein from radish (Raphanus sativus), rmsd of 2.7 A]. The precursor segment in ATT(p) is disordered, as visualized by the final 20-conformer ensemble and as confirmed by (15)N heteronuclear NOE analysis. The overall fold of ATT(p) is distinct from those of other classes of serine proteinase inhibitors except in the inhibitor loop; therefore, it represents a new inhibitor fold.

  18. Synthesized Speech Intelligibility and Early Preschool-Age Children: Comparing Accuracy for Single-Word Repetition with Repeated Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkoski-Ball, Carrie L.; Reichle, Joe; Munson, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of repeated exposure to novel and repeated spoken words in typical environments on the intelligibility of 2 synthesized voices and human recorded speech in preschools. Method: Eighteen preschoolers listened to and repeated single words presented in human-recorded speech, DECtalk Paul, and AT&T Voice…

  19. Collision-Induced Energy Transfer in the B State of Diatomic Sulfur.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    aterviet Arsenal Projects Agency ATTN: Code SARWVX’-RD, ATTh: LTC C. Fuck R. Thierry 140(0 1’ilson Eotilevard Watervliet, NY 12189 Arlinpton, VA 22209...University Dept of iechanical Eng Prighar, Young University ATTN: K. Kuo Dept of Chemical Engineering G. Faeth ATT: 1.W. Feckstead University Park, PA 16802

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 04/28/1995

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... __ f..~~._ Sin{ll~ Applicatkir.. Befor~~ or AttBf H,~t'o'C5t ... ___ ._._._._~~~_~~_____ Floe __ tess than 20" .5 6_25 7/!j 9(ealcr th"lrI 20'· 5 7.5 to ...

  1. Universal Camouflage for the Future Warrior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    throughout this program: James G. Fairneny (Material System and Integration Team-MSIT), and Veronica Panciocco (Advanced Technology Team – ATT...Jane Johnson, Allen Wright, Kathy Rock, Ruth Roth (The Product Optimization and Evaluation Team – POET), Dr. Kenneth Parham, Frederick Dupont, Thomas

  2. Proceedings of the Symposium on Training of Nuclear Facility Personnel (8th, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, April 24-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    Education-related titles among the 56 papers are "Panel Discussion: Plant Expectation of Training" (Sellman, Zach, Cross); "Managing Training AT&T" (Solomon); "Training Management Systems" (Waylett); "Managing the Training Function" (Wiggin); "Training Management" (Newton); Three Alternative Simulation Systems for Training Nuclear Power Plant…

  3. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  4. An Antiviral Role for Antimicrobial Peptides during the Arthropod Response to Alphavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhijing; Kingsolver, Megan B.; Avadhanula, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Alphaviruses establish a persistent infection in arthropod vectors which is essential for the effective transmission of the virus to vertebrate hosts. The development of persistence in insects is not well understood, although it is thought to involve the innate immune response. Using a transgenic fly system expressing a self-replicating viral RNA genome analog, we have previously demonstrated antiviral roles of the Drosophila Imd (immune deficiency) and Jak-STAT innate immunity pathways in response to alphavirus replication. In the present study, comparative microarray analysis of flies harboring an alphavirus replicon and control green fluorescent protein flies identified 95 SINrep-sensitive genes. Furthermore, a subset of these genes is regulated by Rel or STAT transcription factors of the Imd and Jak-STAT pathways, respectively. We identified two antimicrobial peptide genes, attC and dptB, which are SINrep sensitive and regulated by STAT and Rel, respectively. SINrep flies heterozygous for attC had an increased viral RNA level, while knocking down dptB in SINrep flies resulted in impaired development. When injected with whole virus, the double-stranded RNA knockdowns of either attC or dptB showed a significant increase in virus titers. Our data demonstrate an antiviral response involving the Imd and Jak-STAT mediated expression of dptB and attC. PMID:23365449

  5. Software Size Measurement: A Framework for Counting Source Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Development Center John Musa AT&T Bell Laboratories Alfred Peschel TRW Marshall Potter Department of the Navy Samuel Redwine Software Productivity...lower limit of table */ /* upper limit */ /* step size 7 main() /* print a Fahrenheit-Celsius conversion table 7 { int fahr ; for( fahr ...LOWER; fahr <=UPPER; fahr = fahr +STEP) printf("%4d %6.1f\

  6. Synchronized Videotape Teletraining: Efficient, Effective and Timely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickler, Nancy G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a training program developed by AT&T that videotaped a training program originally delivered by satellite broadcast and then synchronized the video course delivery at various locations. Interaction with the instructor via a conference call, including explaining the use of the accompanying printed materials, is discussed. (LRW)

  7. NATO Advanced Workshop on Supercomputing Held in Trondheim, Norway on 19-23 June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-27

    graphics The principal vendors of true graphics superworksta- languages tions are Apollo, Ardent, Silicon Graphics, and Stellar. AT&T and Pixar have...windows, 3- D); RENDERMAN ( PIXAR ), a proposed standard Issues In Scientific Visualization that separates rendering from geometry, and DORE B. McCormick

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, FULEX APHID-SMOKE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    " j i I. I ! I 1 FUMICATOB I, ' • . ' NOil 2M hmi.!!,;l.or \\~ ill (umi!~att· 2,(HW tlL ! ' I", II ,. ill gl""'ldlllll-t", Oll!,\\ • • I I' ( , : \\ I'·, ; J " " • t I\\.. (~ I, I f I, I, I I, I" ...

  9. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  10. Centennial Calendar- 100 Years of the American Phytopathological Society

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    I edited a 40-page publication (calendar) that covered 18 chapters written by members of our society. This covered pioneering researchers, departments, and epidemics of the last 100 years of plant pathology in the U. S. This was given to all members of the American Phytopathological Society who att...

  11. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  12. Attention training in socially anxious children: a multiple baseline design analysis.

    PubMed

    Cowart, Maria J W; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Current evidence has established an association between anxiety and attentional threat biases. Emerging research suggests these attentional biases may play a causal role in anxiety development. Clinical researchers have begun to develop treatments specifically designed to address these attentional processes. As such, Attention training (ATT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety in adults. The current study represents an early attempt to implement ATT to treat social anxiety disorder (SOC) in children. Two boys meeting criteria for DSM-IV SOC participated in the study, along with their parents. Both boys received 10, 10-min sessions of ATT. A multiple-baseline design was used. Following treatment, both boys evidenced reductions in social anxiety. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the utility of ATT for treatment of childhood SOC. Future research is needed to further examine the use of this treatment strategy with youth and to explore the mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teachers Learning in Networked Communities. Phase I Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Tom; Fulton, Kathleen; Yoon, Irene

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future convened a design team to launch the Teachers Learning in Networked Communities (TLINC) project. The initial one-year phase, funded by AT&T, involved a TLINC design team partnered with four communities, Pueblo, Colorado; Seattle, Washington; Portland, Maine; and Socorro, Texas. The…

  14. Evolution at protein ends: major contribution of alternative transcription initiation and termination to the transcriptome and proteome diversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS), alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT) create the extraordinary complexity of transcriptomes and make key contributions to the structural and functional diversity of mammalian proteomes. Analysis of mammalian genomic and transcriptomic data shows that contrary to the traditional view, the joint contribution of ATI and ATT to the transcriptome and proteome diversity is quantitatively greater than the contribution of AS. Although the mean numbers of protein-coding constitutive and alternative nucleotides in gene loci are nearly identical, their distribution along the transcripts is highly non-uniform. On average, coding exons in the variable 5′ and 3′ transcript ends that are created by ATI and ATT contain approximately four times more alternative nucleotides than core protein-coding regions that diversify exclusively via AS. Short upstream exons that encompass alternative 5′-untranslated regions and N-termini of proteins evolve under strong nucleotide-level selection whereas in 3′-terminal exons that encode protein C-termini, protein-level selection is significantly stronger. The groups of genes that are subject to ATI and ATT show major differences in biological roles, expression and selection patterns. PMID:24792168

  15. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855—Weather...

  16. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOEpatents

    Myers, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  17. A SEARCH FOR RESIDUAL BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) IN RATS EXPOSED AS YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...

  18. Linking Students in Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenthun, Carole

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of the AT&T Learning Network by eighth graders at St. Matthias School in Somerset, NJ, to communicate with students around the world. The Learning Network enables students/teachers to work together with students in different geographical locations on various educational projects involving telecommunications. (DMM)

  19. Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

    Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and…

  20. Electron Microscope Study of the Microstructure of BIS 812 EMA Submarine Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    molybdenum , and is also microalloyed with titanium , niobium and vanadium . It is used in the quenched att tempered condition, rather than being control-rolled...substitutional hardenability elements nickel, chromium and molybdenum , and is also microalloyed with titanium , niobium and vanadium . It is used in the...microstructure. Emphasis was given to the distribution and form of the titanium , niobium and vanadium microalloying

  1. Making Education and Training Work: Case Studies of Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David. Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Includes 12 case studies of education and training in various settings and countries: AT&T, Microsoft, and IBM; Maytag; Vauxhall; St. John Ambulance; McDonald's; Bayer; Newcastle (England) City Council; corporate universities; European management program; distance learning at Leuven University (Belgium); learning organizations; and technology…

  2. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  3. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 2800 - Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement 1 Attachment 1 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 1 Attachment 1 to...

  4. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  5. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  6. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  7. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 2800 - Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement 1 Attachment 1 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 1 Attachment 1 to...

  8. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  9. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 2800 - Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement 1 Attachment 1 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 1 Attachment 1 to...

  10. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  11. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  12. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 2800 - Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement 1 Attachment 1 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 1 Attachment 1 to...

  13. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  14. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 2800 - Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment Agreement & Indoctrination Statement 1 Attachment 1 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 1 Attachment 1 to...

  15. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  16. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012...

  17. Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

    Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and…

  18. ANALYTICAL TOOLS INTERFACE FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENTS (ATTILA) USER MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATtlLA is an ArcView extension that allows users to easily calculate many common landscape metrics. GIS expertise is not required, but some experience with ArcView is recommended. Four metric groups are currently included in ATtILA: landscape characteristics, riparian characteris...

  19. Tomorrow's Library Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penniman, W. David

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model for predicting and shaping the impact of information technologies on libraries and the library role which is based on the effects of computerization in various business applications. The library network at AT&T Bell Laboratories is described as an example of a successful implementation of the model. (CLB)

  20. Use of Machine-Readable Databases to Support a Large SDI Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1985-01-01

    Current awareness services at AT&T Bell Laboratories are described: bulletins announcing over 80,000 externally published items/year; production of four commercial machine-readable databases and camera-ready bulletin copy by Bell Laboratories Publication, Alerting, and Retrieval System (BELLPAR); photocopy service. Improvements in service are…

  1. TIMS/ORSA (Operations Research Society of America) Special Interest Conference on Applied Probability; Statistical and Computational Problems in Probability Modeling (3rd) Held at Williamsburg, Virginia on 7-9 January 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    LEHOCZKY DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS DR. JOHN A. MORRISON CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY AT&T BELL LABORATORIES PITTSBURGH, PA 15213 29 ASHWOOD ROAD NEW PROVIDENCE...1A4 FAYETTEVILLE, NC 28303 CANADA * PROFESSOR MARGARET SCHAEFER DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PROFESSOR MATTHEW J. SOBEL -- COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY

  2. The effects of QEEG-informed neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Leon Kenemans, J

    2012-09-01

    In ADHD several EEG biomarkers have been described before, with relevance to treatment outcome to stimulant medication. This pilot-study aimed at personalizing neurofeedback treatment to these specific sub-groups to investigate if such an approach leads to improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, pre- and post-treatment EEG and ERP changes were investigated in a sub-group to study the neurophysiological effects of neurofeedback. Twenty-one patients with ADHD were treated with QEEG-informed neurofeedback and post-treatment effects on inattention (ATT), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and comorbid depressive symptoms were investigated. There was a significant improvement for both ATT, HI and comorbid depressive complaints after QEEG-informed neurofeedback. The effect size for ATT was 1.78 and for HI was 1.22. Furthermore, anterior individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF) demonstrated a strong relation to improvement on comorbid depressive complaints. Pre- and post-treatment effects for the SMR neurofeedback sub-group exhibited increased N200 and P300 amplitudes and decreased SMR EEG power post-treatment. This pilot study is the first study demonstrating that it is possible to select neurofeedback protocols based on individual EEG biomarkers and suggests this results in improved treatment outcome specifically for ATT, however these results should be replicated in further controlled studies. A slow anterior iAPF at baseline predicts poor treatment response on comorbid depressive complaints in line with studies in depression. The effects of SMR neurofeedback resulted in specific ERP and EEG changes.

  3. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 06/17/1985

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... uwcr. ln~tct i .. ,(ru.tion. di lute .It • r.att cf 1 Plft CO"centrU. in ," pn, ... ter (8.~ fluid ... f1u. .. I\\d for non-..l' Il'IfeH'ti()(\\! dj lute' p.-rt C-OI'IcentrU. In 2, p .. rt, .. ...

  4. Solid Propellant Combustion Mechanism Research 1975-1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Syn Lab Inc. Center P.O. Box 547 DTIC-DDA-2 Paoli, PA 19301 Cameron Station Attn: Dr. V. J. Keenan * Alexandria, VA 22314 No. Copies No. Copies Army...Mr. R. McCarten White Oak, Silver Spring, MD 20910 Naval Weapons Support Center Att-n: Mr. L. Roslund Ccde 5042 Crane , Indiana 47522 Naval Surface

  5. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analyses of Earth Penetration Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    Army ATTN; f . Lindsey (, Arn y Mobil)it lquli R&D (md AT IN : I’, IMI -X’ 115 Army Armament Material Readiness Command ATI: 1RIDMI. -W(. ATT N: MA...Force ATTN: Code U401, M. Kleinerman ATTN: INT, E. Jacobsen ATTN: Code X211 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Naval Surface Weapons Ctr ATTN: Tech Lib & Info Svcs Br

  6. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol biosynthesis through the inverted aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, Andrey Yu; Skorokhodova, Alexandra Yu; Sukhozhenko, Alexey V; Shakulov, Rustem S; Debabov, Vladimir G

    2012-03-01

    The basic reactions of the clostridial 1-butanol biosynthesis pathway can be regarded to be the inverted reactions of the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. A pathway for the biosynthesis of fuels and chemicals was recently engineered by combining enzymes from both aerobic and anaerobic fatty acid β-oxidation as well as enzymes from other metabolic pathways. In the current study, we demonstrate the inversion of the entire aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation cycle for 1-butanol biosynthesis. The constructed markerless and plasmidless Escherichia coli strain BOX-3 (MG1655 lacI(Q) attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-adhE(Glu568Lys) attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-atoB attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-fadB attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-fadE) synthesises 0.3-1 mg 1-butanol/l in the presence of the specific inducer. No 1-butanol production was detected in the absence of the inducer.

  7. A SEARCH FOR RESIDUAL BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) IN RATS EXPOSED AS YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...

  8. S.C.O.R.E. Sales and Customer Service Occupational Readiness Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Community Coll., Jacksonville.

    The SCORE project developed and delivered workplace literacy training to employees and/or job candidates in the customer service and telephone sales industry at the AT&T Corporation. The work was done in partnership with the Florida Community College (FCC) at Jacksonville. Of 259 adults served, 39 percent became employed as a result of the…

  9. A theoretical analysis in the time-domain of wave reflection on a bone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimal, Quentin; Naïli, Salah

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents an original method for simulating ultrasonic wave reflection on a fluid-loaded plate. Geometrical and material parameters used are relevant to the "axial transmission technique" (ATT) setup. Devices based on the ATT are used for the assessment of cortical bone strength (estimate of a fracture risk). In this work, the cortical bone layer is represented as a plate of infinite extent surrounded by fluid (soft tissues). A line source and a receiver are placed in the fluid. Transient waves generated upon reflection at the plate-fluid interfaces are addressed. Analytic Green's functions are derived with the generalized ray/Cagniard-de Hoop method. The acoustic response is obtained upon convolution of Green's functions with a given source pulse. The method associates each wave amplitude in the time-domain (lateral waves, reflected body waves, etc.) to a specific term of the final solution. The method is ideally suited to a detailed analysis of the ultrasonic signal for various geometrical and mechanical parameters. The results presented highlight the potential of the method for the understanding of wave phenomena involved in the ATT and similar setups. They also bring new elements that reinforce our theoretical knowledge of the ATT.

  10. Readability of Documentation for End User Searchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the readability of documentation designed for physicians searching the Physician's Data Query cancer database, using the readability formulas in AT&T's Writer's Workbench software package. The results of the analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research are made. (20 references) (CLB)

  11. Synthesized Speech Intelligibility and Early Preschool-Age Children: Comparing Accuracy for Single-Word Repetition with Repeated Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkoski-Ball, Carrie L.; Reichle, Joe; Munson, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of repeated exposure to novel and repeated spoken words in typical environments on the intelligibility of 2 synthesized voices and human recorded speech in preschools. Method: Eighteen preschoolers listened to and repeated single words presented in human-recorded speech, DECtalk Paul, and AT&T Voice…

  12. Integrated Communications at America's Leading Total Quality Management Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronstedt, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Examines how to create organizational processes that allow communication professionals with a variety of expertise to support each other through coordination and integration. Studies eight of America's leading total quality management corporations, including AT&T, Federal Express, Saturn, and Xerox. Explores how various total quality…

  13. Antibiotic resistance in the ECOR collection: integrons and identification of a novel aad gene.

    PubMed

    Mazel, D; Dychinco, B; Webb, V A; Davies, J

    2000-06-01

    The 72 Escherichia coli strains of the ECOR collection were examined for resistance to 10 different antimicrobial agents including ampicillin, tetracycline, mercury, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides. Eighteen strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, and nearly 20% (14 of 72) were resistant to two or more. Several of the resistance determinants were shown to be carried on conjugative elements. The collection was screened for the presence of the three classes of integrons and for the sul1 gene, which is generally associated with class 1 integrons. The four strains found to carry a class 1 integron also had Tn21-encoded mercury resistance. One of the integrons encoded a novel streptomycin resistance gene, aadA7, with an attC site (or 59-base element) nearly identical to the attC site associated with the qacF gene cassette found in In40 (M.-C. Ploy, P. Courvalin, and T. Lambert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2557-2563, 1998). The conservation of associated attC sites among unrelated resistance cassettes is similar to arrangements found in the Vibrio cholerae superintegrons (D. Mazel, B. Dychinco, V. A. Webb, and J. Davies, Science 280:605-608, 1998) and supports the hypothesis that resistance cassettes are picked up from superintegron pools and independently assembled from unrelated genes and related attC sites.

  14. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855—Weather...

  15. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855—Weather...

  16. Low level hydrogen peroxide generation from a nonwoven fibrous pectin-cellulose blend

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fibrous pectic-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cell wall pectin at 2 percent by weight of pectin) is product made from naturally occurring plant fibers. FPC is a fibrous mixture of polysaccharides with a low percent by weight of pectin-based primary cell wall and lipid components att...

  17. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates endothelial gene expression and modulates trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mammalian counterpart of the fish calcium-regulating hormone stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1- and stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-mediated chemotaxis and diminishes chemokinesis in macrophage-like RAW264.7 and U937 cells in a manner that may involve atte...

  18. Development of a threshold model to predict germination of Populus tomentosa seeds after harvest and storage under ambient condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range.

  19. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... interpretation of FTA's Buy America rules with respect to the utility relocation performed for the CATS LYNX...

  20. 76 FR 73685 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... 11/01/11 10/24/11 (Company). 81042 Verizon Communications Greenville, SC........ 11/01/11 10/31/11...). 81064 VTech Communications (State/ Beaverton, OR......... 11/08/11 10/21/11 One-Stop). 81065 ITT VEAM... 11/09/11 81072 AT&T Corporate Systems: Morristown, NJ........ 11/10/11 11/09/11 Customer...

  1. Structure-based mutagenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA attachment site: effects on integration and cDNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Brown, H E; Chen, H; Engelman, A

    1999-11-01

    Sequences at the ends of linear retroviral cDNA important for integration define the viral DNA attachment (att) site. Whereas determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase important for replication in T lymphocytes have been extensively characterized, regions of the att site important for viral spread have not been thoroughly examined. Previous transposon-mediated footprinting of preintegration complexes isolated from infected cells revealed enhanced regions of bacteriophage Mu insertion near the ends of HIV-1 cDNA, in the regions of the att sites. Here, we identified the subterminal cDNA sequences cleaved during in vitro footprinting and used this structure-based information together with results of previous work to construct and characterize 24 att site mutant viruses. We found that although subterminal cDNA sequences contributed to HIV-1 replication, the identities of these bases were not critical for integration. In contrast, the phylogenetically conserved CA dinucleotides located at the ends of HIV-1 contributed significantly to virus replication and integration. Mutants containing one intact CA end displayed delays in peak virus growth compared to the wild type. In contrast, double mutant viruses lacking both CAs were replication defective. The A of the CA appeared to be the most critical determinant of integration, because two different U5 mutant viruses containing the substitution of TG for CA partially reverted by changing the G back to A. We also identified a U5 deletion mutant in which the CA played a crucial role in reverse transcription.

  2. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MAX SPOT KILL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    \\\\ twn fUml~al:n~ al ..... a~' \\\\'Irk in p:t::-~ and !;n!l ..:att' frllm nut sid.· !If thl' m~~; :1 a!

  3. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  4. Dyess AFB, Texas, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-21

    8217 ASCH A;TAC SURFACE WINDS A .. _ATT1F SERVICL./"AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1 ttm 2!;,lo loS- UY - 2 S...month. NOTE: Wet.bulb temperature usually wus not reported prior to 1946 , Relative humidity usually wub not reported prior to 1949, nor subsequent Lo

  5. The Impact of the AT&T-EEO Consent Decree. Labor Relations and Public Rolicy Series No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Larson, John A.

    The consent decree agreed to in January 1973 by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Department of Justice, and the Department of Labor was a milestone of EEOC enforcement. Large amounts of back pay were paid to women and minorities, and goals were set which,…

  6. Optimal Orbit Insertion Strategies Using Combined High and Low Thrust Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    hydrazine arcjets ( electrothermal ) on the AT&T Telstar 4, xenon ion thrusters (electrostatic) on the Hughes HS 702 spacecraft, and stationary plasma...as an electric propulsion device. Nearly all electric thrusters can be grouped into three fundamental categories: 1) Electrothermal , 2) Electrostatic

  7. 77 FR 25714 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... LLC. Description: Clarifying information of Sherbino I Wind Farm LLC. Filed Date: 4/3/12. Accession Number: 20120403-5204. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 4/30/12. Take notice that the Commission received the... Colorado. Description: 2012-4-20--Att--O-PSCo Rate Filing to be effective 6/ 20/2012. Filed Date: 4/20/12...

  8. An antiviral role for antimicrobial peptides during the arthropod response to alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhijing; Kingsolver, Megan B; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Hardy, Richard W

    2013-04-01

    Alphaviruses establish a persistent infection in arthropod vectors which is essential for the effective transmission of the virus to vertebrate hosts. The development of persistence in insects is not well understood, although it is thought to involve the innate immune response. Using a transgenic fly system expressing a self-replicating viral RNA genome analog, we have previously demonstrated antiviral roles of the Drosophila Imd (immune deficiency) and Jak-STAT innate immunity pathways in response to alphavirus replication. In the present study, comparative microarray analysis of flies harboring an alphavirus replicon and control green fluorescent protein flies identified 95 SINrep-sensitive genes. Furthermore, a subset of these genes is regulated by Rel or STAT transcription factors of the Imd and Jak-STAT pathways, respectively. We identified two antimicrobial peptide genes, attC and dptB, which are SINrep sensitive and regulated by STAT and Rel, respectively. SINrep flies heterozygous for attC had an increased viral RNA level, while knocking down dptB in SINrep flies resulted in impaired development. When injected with whole virus, the double-stranded RNA knockdowns of either attC or dptB showed a significant increase in virus titers. Our data demonstrate an antiviral response involving the Imd and Jak-STAT mediated expression of dptB and attC.

  9. Integrated Communications at America's Leading Total Quality Management Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronstedt, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Examines how to create organizational processes that allow communication professionals with a variety of expertise to support each other through coordination and integration. Studies eight of America's leading total quality management corporations, including AT&T, Federal Express, Saturn, and Xerox. Explores how various total quality…

  10. Host-seeking height preferences of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-central Florida suburban and sylvatic locales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response of Aedes albopictus to the BG-Sentinel™, Omni-directional-Fay-Prince and Mosquito Magnet-X traps was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential height preference of this species. These traps, which are primarily designed to att...

  11. Inhibition of ACTH Release by Peptide Hormones: Molecular Mechanisms and Possible Role as Anti-Stress Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-27

    applicable ) Office of Naval Research ONR N00014-88-K-0048 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 800 N. Quincv Street PROGRAM...With the photoactivated crosslinking agent HSAB , it was possible to covalently link [1251] CGP 23996 to the SRIF receptor in AtT-20 and GH3 cells as

  12. Hydrologic budgets across the Long-Term Agroecosystems Research network

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantification of the components of the hydrologic budget at a site (precipitation, evaporation, runoff,…) gives important indications about major and minor hydrologic processes controlling field and watershed scale response. Hydrologic budgets are needed prior to assessment of potential changes att...

  13. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P < 0.0005) and after playing soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher

  14. Random walks in weighted networks with a perfect trap: an application of Laplacian spectra.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-06-01

    Trapping processes constitute a primary problem of random walks, which characterize various other dynamical processes taking place on networks. Most previous works focused on the case of binary networks, while there is much less related research about weighted networks. In this paper, we propose a general framework for the trapping problem on a weighted network with a perfect trap fixed at an arbitrary node. By utilizing the spectral graph theory, we provide an exact formula for mean first-passage time (MFPT) from one node to another, based on which we deduce an explicit expression for average trapping time (ATT) in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix associated with the weighted graph, where ATT is the average of MFPTs to the trap over all source nodes. We then further derive a sharp lower bound for the ATT in terms of only the local information of the trap node, which can be obtained in some graphs. Moreover, we deduce the ATT when the trap is distributed uniformly in the whole network. Our results show that network weights play a significant role in the trapping process. To apply our framework, we use the obtained formulas to study random walks on two specific networks: trapping in weighted uncorrelated networks with a deep trap, the weights of which are characterized by a parameter, and Lévy random walks in a connected binary network with a trap distributed uniformly, which can be looked on as random walks on a weighted network. For weighted uncorrelated networks we show that the ATT to any target node depends on the weight parameter, that is, the ATT to any node can change drastically by modifying the parameter, a phenomenon that is in contrast to that for trapping in binary networks. For Lévy random walks in any connected network, by using their equivalence to random walks on a weighted complete network, we obtain the optimal exponent characterizing Lévy random walks, which have the minimal average of ATTs taken over all

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SAHA Is a Promising Treatment of Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Chatain, Grégoire P; Bugarini, Alejandro; Wang, Xiang; Maric, Dragan; Walbridge, Stuart; Zhuang, Zhengping; Chittiboina, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    Remission failure following transsphenoidal surgery in Cushing disease (CD) from pituitary corticotroph tumors (CtTs) remains clinically challenging. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are antitumor drugs approved for clinical use, with the potential to affect adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion by inhibiting pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription. Testing the efficacy of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on human and murine ACTH-secreting tumor (AtT-20) cells. Cell viability, ACTH secretion (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), apoptosis, and gene expression profile were investigated on AtT-20 cells. In vivo efficacy was examined in an athymic nude mouse AtT-20 xenograft model. SAHA efficacy against human-derived corticotroph tumor (hCtT) (n = 8) was tested in vitro. National Institutes of Health. SAHA (0.5 to 8 µM). AtT-20 and hCtT cell survival, in vitro/invivo ACTH measurements. SAHA (1 µM) reduced AtT-20 viability to 75% at 24 hours, 43% at 48 hours (analysis of variance; P = 0.002). Apoptosis was confirmed with elevated BAX/Bcl2 ratio and FACS. Intriguingly, early (3-hour) significant decline (70%; P < 0.0001) of secreted ACTH and diminished POMC transcription was observed with SAHA (1 µM). Microarray analysis revealed a direct association between liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and POMC expression. Accordingly, SAHA reduced LXRα in AtT-20 cells but not in normal murine corticotrophs. Xenografted nude-mice tumor involution (126 ± 33/160 ± 35 vs 337 ± 49 mm3; P = 0.0005) was observed with 5-day intraperitoneal SAHA, with reversal of elevated ACTH (P < 0.0001). SAHA did not affect serum ACTH in nontumor mice. Lastly, we confirmed that SAHA (1 µM/24 h) decreased hCtT survival (78.92%; P = 0.0007) and ACTH secretion (83.64%; P = 0.03). Our findings demonstrate SAHA's efficacy in reducing survival and ACTH secretion in AtT-20 and hCtT cells, providing a potential intervention for recurrent/unremitting CD.

  16. Spectroscopic measurement of adipose tissue thickness and comparison with ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Boeth, Heide; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely applied for applications monitoring skeletal muscle oxygenation. However, this method is obstructed by the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (ATT) which might vary between < 1 mm to more than 12 mm. Though diffuse optical imaging can be applied to measure ATT, the objective here is to get this measure from spectroscopic data of a single source-detector distance. For the measurement of the optical lipid signal we used a broad band spatially resolved system (SRS), which is based on measurements of the wavelength dependence of the attenuation A for source detector distances ρ between 29 mm and 39 mm. Ultrasound images served as an anatomical reference of the lipid layer. The measurements were taken on 5 different muscle groups of 20 healthy volunteers, each for left and right limbs, e.g. vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle on the leg and ventral forearm muscles and biceps brachii muscle on the arm. Different analysis strategies were tested for the best calculation of ATT. There is a good non-linear correlation between optical lipid signal and ultrasound data, with an overall error in ATT prediction of about 0.5 mm. This finding is supported experimentally by additional MRI measurements as well as a multi-layer Monte Carlo (MC) model. Based on this data of the ATT thickness, a newly developed algorithm which exploits the wavelength dependence of the slope in attenuation with respect to source-detector distance and MC simulation for these parameters as a function of absorption and scattering coefficients delivers a considerably better fit of reflectance spectra when fitting haemoglobin concentrations. Implications for the monitoring of muscle oxygen saturation are discussed.

  17. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  18. Site-specific bacterial chromosome engineering mediated by IntA integrase from Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Tamayo, Rogelio; Torres-Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Brom, Susana; Romero, David

    2016-06-29

    The bacterial chromosome may be used to stably maintain foreign DNA in the mega-base range. Integration into the chromosome circumvents issues such as plasmid replication, stability, incompatibility, and copy number variance. The site-specific integrase IntA from Rhizobium etli CFN42 catalyzes a direct recombination between two specific DNA sites: attA and attD (23 bp). This recombination is stable. The aim of this work was to develop a R. etli derivative that may be used as recipient for the integration of foreign DNA in the chromosome, adapting the IntA catalyzed site-specific recombination system. To fulfill our aim, we designed a Rhizobium etli CFN42 derivative, containing a "landing pad" (LP) integrated into the chromosome. The LP sector consists of a green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the lacZ promoter and a spectinomycin resistance gene. Between the lacZ promoter and the GFP gene we inserted an IntA attachment site, which does not affect transcription from the lac promoter. Also, a mobilizable donor vector was generated, containing an attA site and a kanamycin resistance gene; to facilitate insertion of foreign DNA, this vector also contains a multicloning site. There are no promoters flanking the multicloning site. A biparental mating protocol was used to transfer the donor vector into the landing pad strain; insertion of the donor vector into the landing pad sector via IntA-mediated attA X attA recombination thereby interrupted the expression of the green fluorescent protein, generating site-specific cointegrants. Cointegrants were easily recognized by screening for antibiotic sensitivity and lack of GFP expression, and were obtained with an efficiency of 6.18 %. Integration of foreign DNA in Rhizobium, lacking any similarity with the genome, can be easily achieved by IntA-mediated recombination. This protocol contains the mating and selection procedures for creating and isolating integrants.

  19. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria enhance mucosal B cell responses and differentially modulate systemic antibody responses to an oral human rotavirus vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a key role in generation of protective immunity against rotavirus infection, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Current RV vaccines are less effective in developing countries compared to developed countries. Commensals/probiotics influence mucosal immunity, but the role of early gut colonizing bacteria in modulating intestinal B cell responses to RV vaccines is largely unknown. We co-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the only animal model susceptible to HRV diarrhea, with 2 dominant bacterial species present in the gut of breastfed infants, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis Bb12 to evaluate their impact on B cell responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine. Following HRV challenge, probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated piglets had significantly lower fecal scores and reduced HRV shedding titers compared to uncolonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs. The reduction in HRV diarrhea was significantly correlated with higher intestinal IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal HRV-specific IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs. The significantly higher small intestinal HRV IgA antibody responses coincided with higher IL-6, IL-10 and APRIL responses of ileal mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics genomic DNA on TGF-β and IL-10 responses. However, serum RV IgG antibody titers and total IgG titers were significantly lower in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs, both pre- and post-challenge. In summary, LGG and Bb12 beneficially modulated intestinal B cell responses to HRV vaccine. PMID:25483333

  20. Excisable cassettes: new tools for functional analysis of Streptomyces genomes.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Alain; Karray, Fatma; Tuphile, Karine; Darbon-Rongère, Emmanuelle; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2006-07-01

    The functional analysis of microbial genomes often requires gene inactivation. We constructed a set of cassettes consisting of single antibiotic resistance genes flanked by the attL and attR sites resulting from site-specific integration of the Streptomyces pSAM2 element. These cassettes can easily be used to inactivate genes by in-frame deletion in Streptomyces by a three-step strategy. In the first step, in Escherichia coli, the cassette is inserted into a cloned copy of the gene to be inactivated. In the second step, the gene is replaced by homologous recombination in Streptomyces, allowing substitution of the wild-type target gene with its inactivated counterpart. In the third step, the cassette can be removed by expression of the pSAM2 genes xis and int. The resulting strains are marker-free and contain an "attB-like" sequence of 33, 34, or 35 bp with no stop codon if the cassette is correctly chosen. Thus, a gene can be disrupted by creating an in-frame deletion, avoiding polar effects if downstream genes are cotranscribed with the target gene. A set of cassettes was constructed to contain a hygromycin or gentamicin resistance gene flanked by the attL and attR sites. The initial constructions carrying convenient cloning sites allow the insertion of any other marker gene. We tested insertion and excision by inserting a cassette into orf3, the third gene of an operon involved in spiramycin biosynthesis. We verified that the cassette exerted a polar effect on the transcription of downstream genes but that, after excision, complementation with orf3 alone restored spiramycin production.

  1. Excisable Cassettes: New Tools for Functional Analysis of Streptomyces Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Raynal, Alain; Karray, Fatma; Tuphile, Karine; Darbon-Rongère, Emmanuelle; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The functional analysis of microbial genomes often requires gene inactivation. We constructed a set of cassettes consisting of single antibiotic resistance genes flanked by the attL and attR sites resulting from site-specific integration of the Streptomyces pSAM2 element. These cassettes can easily be used to inactivate genes by in-frame deletion in Streptomyces by a three-step strategy. In the first step, in Escherichia coli, the cassette is inserted into a cloned copy of the gene to be inactivated. In the second step, the gene is replaced by homologous recombination in Streptomyces, allowing substitution of the wild-type target gene with its inactivated counterpart. In the third step, the cassette can be removed by expression of the pSAM2 genes xis and int. The resulting strains are marker-free and contain an “attB-like” sequence of 33, 34, or 35 bp with no stop codon if the cassette is correctly chosen. Thus, a gene can be disrupted by creating an in-frame deletion, avoiding polar effects if downstream genes are cotranscribed with the target gene. A set of cassettes was constructed to contain a hygromycin or gentamicin resistance gene flanked by the attL and attR sites. The initial constructions carrying convenient cloning sites allow the insertion of any other marker gene. We tested insertion and excision by inserting a cassette into orf3, the third gene of an operon involved in spiramycin biosynthesis. We verified that the cassette exerted a polar effect on the transcription of downstream genes but that, after excision, complementation with orf3 alone restored spiramycin production. PMID:16820478

  2. Estimation of Ligament Loading and Anterior Tibial Translation in Healthy and ACL-Deficient Knees During Gait and the Influence of Increasing Tibial Slope Using EMG-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; MacLeod, Toran D.; Manal, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament loading during stance phase. First, an EMG-driven model was used to calculate forces for the major muscles crossing the knee joint. The calculated muscle forces were used as inputs to a knee model that incorporated a knee–ligament model in order to solve for ATT and ligament forces. The model took advantage of using EMGs as inputs, and could account for the abnormal muscle activation patterns of ACL-deficient gait. We validated our model by comparing the calculated results with previous in vitro, in vivo, and numerical studies of healthy and ACL-deficient knees, and this gave us confidence on the accuracy of our model calculations. Our model predicted that ATT increased throughout stance phase for the ACL-deficient knee compared with the healthy knee. The medial collateral ligament functioned as the main passive restraint to anterior shear force in the ACL-deficient knee. Although strong co-contraction of knee flexors was found to help restrain ATT in the ACL-deficient knee, it did not counteract the effect of ACL rupture. Posterior inclination angle of the tibial plateau was found to be a crucial parameter in determining knee mechanics, and increasing the tibial slope inclination in our model would increase the resulting ATT and ligament forces in both healthy and ACL-deficient knees. PMID:20683675

  3. The Survey of Lines in M31 (SLIM): The Drivers of the [C ii]/TIR Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapala, Maria J.; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Jarrett, Thomas; da Cunha, Elisabete; Croxall, Kevin; Dalcanton, Julianne; Draine, Bruce; Glover, Simon; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-06-01

    The ratio of the [C ii] 158 μ {{m}} emission line over the total infrared emission (TIR) is often used as a proxy for the photoelectric (PE) heating efficiency ({ε }{PE}) of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium. In the nearby galaxy M31, we measure a strong radial variation of [C ii]/TIR that we rule out as being due to an intrinsic variation in {ε }{PE}. [C ii]/TIR fails as a proxy for {ε }{PE}, because the TIR measures all dust heating, not just the contribution from FUV photons capable of ejecting electrons from dust grains. Using extensive multi-wavelength coverage from the FUV to far-infrared, we infer the attenuated FUV emission ({{UV}}{att}), and the total attenuated flux ({{TOT}}{att}). We find [C ii]/TIR to be strongly correlated with {{UV}}{att}/{{TOT}}{att}, indicating that, in M31 at least, one of the dominant drivers for [C ii]/TIR variation is the relative hardness of the absorbed stellar radiation field. We define {ε }{PE}{UV}, [C ii]/{{UV}}{att} which should be more closely related to the actual PE efficiency, which we find to be essentially constant (1.85+/- 0.8 % ) in all explored fields in M31. This suggests that part of the observed variation of [C ii]/TIR in other galaxies is likely due to a change in the relative hardness of the absorbed stellar radiation field, caused by a combination of variations in the stellar population, dust opacity, and galaxy metallicity, though PE efficiency may also vary across a wider range of environments.

  4. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria enhance mucosal B cell responses and differentially modulate systemic antibody responses to an oral human rotavirus vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a key role in generation of protective immunity against rotavirus infection, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Current RV vaccines are less effective in developing countries compared to developed countries. Commensals/probiotics influence mucosal immunity, but the role of early gut colonizing bacteria in modulating intestinal B cell responses to RV vaccines is largely unknown. We co-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the only animal model susceptible to HRV diarrhea, with 2 dominant bacterial species present in the gut of breastfed infants, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis Bb12 to evaluate their impact on B cell responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine. Following HRV challenge, probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated piglets had significantly lower fecal scores and reduced HRV shedding titers compared to uncolonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs. The reduction in HRV diarrhea was significantly correlated with higher intestinal IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal HRV-specific IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs. The significantly higher small intestinal HRV IgA antibody responses coincided with higher IL-6, IL-10 and APRIL responses of ileal mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics genomic DNA on TGF-β and IL-10 responses. However, serum RV IgG antibody titers and total IgG titers were significantly lower in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs, both pre- and post-challenge. In summary, LGG and Bb12 beneficially modulated intestinal B cell responses to HRV vaccine.

  5. Dual functions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ at the intermediate dose in protection against rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with a human rotavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangning; Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Jones, Dorothy; Pelzer, Kevin; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (LA) ™ strain on rotavirus-specific antibody and B cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with an oral attenuated human rotavirus (AttHRV). Methods Pigs were inoculated with AttHRV vaccine in conjunction with high dose LA (14 doses, total 2.2×109 colony forming units [CFU]), intermediate dose LA (9 doses, total 3.2×106 CFU), low dose LA (5 doses, total 2.1×106 CFU) or without LA feeding. Protection against rotavirus shedding and diarrhea was assessed upon challenge with a virulent HRV. Rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and memory B cells in ileum, spleen and blood of the pigs were measured and compared among treatment groups. Results The intermediate dose LA (MidLA), but not high or low dose LA, significantly reduced rotavirus diarrhea (MidLA only group) and significantly improved the protection conferred by AttHRV vaccine (MidLA+AttHRV group). Associated with the increased protection, MidLA significantly enhanced rotavirus-specific antibody, ASC and memory B cell responses to AttHRV vaccine. High or low dose LA did not enhance virus-specific antibody and ASC responses, hence did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of dose selection and indicate that certain specific lactobacilli strains at the appropriate dose have the dual function of reducing rotavirus diarrhea and enhancing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24126832

  6. Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Shingo; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Ishigame, Noriko; Niioka, Kanako; Suda, Toshihiro; Daimon, Makoto

    2014-08-25

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Control of Recombination Directionality by the Listeria Phage A118 Protein Gp44 and the Coiled-Coil Motif of Its Serine Integrase.

    PubMed

    Mandali, Sridhar; Gupta, Kushol; Dawson, Anthony R; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Johnson, Reid C

    2017-06-01

    The serine integrase of phage A118 catalyzes integrative recombination between attP on the phage and a specific attB locus on the chromosome of Listeria monocytogenes, but it is unable to promote excisive recombination between the hybrid attL and attR sites found on the integrated prophage without assistance by a recombination directionality factor (RDF). We have identified and characterized the phage-encoded RDF Gp44, which activates the A118 integrase for excision and inhibits integration. Gp44 binds to the C-terminal DNA binding domain of integrase, and we have localized the primary binding site to be within the mobile coiled-coil (CC) motif but distinct from the distal tip of the CC that is required for recombination. This interaction is sufficient to inhibit integration, but a second interaction involving the N-terminal end of Gp44 is also required to activate excision. We provide evidence that these two contacts modulate the trajectory of the CC motifs as they extend out from the integrase core in a manner dependent upon the identities of the four att sites. Our results support a model whereby Gp44 shapes the Int-bound complexes to control which att sites can synapse and recombine.IMPORTANCE Serine integrases mediate directional recombination between bacteriophage and bacterial chromosomes. These highly regulated site-specific recombination reactions are integral to the life cycle of temperate phage and, in the case of Listeria monocytogenes lysogenized by A118 family phage, are an essential virulence determinant. Serine integrases are also utilized as tools for genetic engineering and synthetic biology because of their exquisite unidirectional control of the DNA exchange reaction. Here, we identify and characterize the recombination directionality factor (RDF) that activates excision and inhibits integration reactions by the phage A118 integrase. We provide evidence that the A118 RDF binds to and modulates the trajectory of the long coiled-coil motif that

  8. Review of gunshot injuries in cats and dogs and utility of a triage scoring system to predict short-term outcome: 37 cases (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lisa E; Streeter, Elizabeth M; DeCook, Rhonda R

    2014-10-15

    To describe the signalment, wound characteristics, and treatment of gunshot injuries in cats and dogs in urban and rural environments, and to evaluate the utility of the animal trauma triage (ATT) score as an early predictor of survival to discharge from the hospital. Retrospective case series. 29 dogs and 8 cats. Medical records of cats and dogs evaluated for gunshot wounds from 2003 and 2008 at a private urban referral practice in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and an urban veterinary teaching hospital in Ames, Iowa, were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, chief reason for evaluation, circumstance of the injury, general physical examination findings, wound characteristics, treatments provided, cost of care, survival to discharge from the hospital (yes vs no), and duration of hospital stay. For each animal, ATT scores were calculated and evaluated as a prognostic tool. 37 animals met study inclusion criteria. Animals with higher ATT scores had a greater likelihood of poor outcome following gunshot injury. Animals with higher ATT scores, classified as low (< 4.5) or high (> 4.5), were found to have a longer duration of stay, classified as zero (0 days), short (1 to 3 days), or long (> 3 days). Young male dogs generally considered working breeds were overrepresented (29/37 [78.4%]). A preference for low-velocity, low-kinetic-energy firearms was identified (19/37 [52%]). The most numerous wounds were those inflicted to the limbs (12/37 [32.4%]), during low-visibility hours or hunting excursions. Calculated ATT scores on admission were higher in animals requiring blood products or surgical procedures and in nonsurvivors. Results of the present study suggested that regional preferences in breed ownership and firearm choice are responsible for variation in gunshot injury characteristics and management in animals sustaining injuries in rural and urban settings in Iowa. In cats and dogs, calculation of an ATT score may provide a useful predictor of the need for

  9. Development of an Alternative Modified Live Influenza B Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Courtney; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe; Aguirre, Isabel; Wan, Zhimin; Lopez, Diego; Geiger, Ginger; Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana Silvia; Ferreri, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major human pathogen, responsible for seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness. Two antigenically distinct IBV hemagglutinin (HA) lineages cocirculate worldwide with little cross-reactivity. Live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines have been shown to provide better cross-protective immune responses than inactivated vaccines by eliciting local mucosal immunity and systemic B cell- and T cell-mediated memory responses. We have shown previously that incorporation of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations into the PB1 and PB2 subunits along with a modified HA epitope tag in the C terminus of PB1 resulted in influenza A viruses (IAV) that are safe and effective as modified live attenuated (att) virus vaccines (IAV att). We explored whether analogous mutations in the IBV polymerase subunits would result in a stable virus with an att phenotype. The PB1 subunit of the influenza B/Brisbane/60/2008 strain was used to incorporate ts mutations and a C-terminal HA tag. Such modifications resulted in a B/Bris att strain with ts characteristics in vitro and an att phenotype in vivo. Vaccination studies in mice showed that a single dose of the B/Bris att candidate stimulated sterilizing immunity against lethal homologous challenge and complete protection against heterologous challenge. These studies show the potential of an alternative LAIV platform for the development of IBV vaccines. IMPORTANCE A number of issues with regard to the effectiveness of the LAIV vaccine licensed in the United States (FluMist) have arisen over the past three seasons (2013–2014, 2014–2015, and 2015–2016). While the reasons for the limited robustness of the vaccine-elicited immune response remain controversial, this problem highlights the critical importance of continued investment in LAIV development and creates an opportunity to improve current strategies so as to develop more efficacious vaccines. Our laboratory has developed an

  10. Swedish use and validation of Valpar work samples for patients with musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Schult, M L; Söderback, I; Jacobs, K

    1995-01-01

    I studien beskrivs vad e bedömning av arbetskapacitet (BAK) innehåller Vid en bedömning av arbetskapacitet jämförs kraven för att utföra ett specifikt arbete, definierat i "The dictionary of Occupational Titles" (DOT), och patientens förmåga att utföra ett arbote vilket definieras med hjälp av sju variabler. Allmän utbildnings nivä. Speciella yrkesförberedelser. Anlag, Intresseområden, Personlig läggning. Fysiska drav och Miljöpåverkan. En bedömning av arbetskapaciteten kan ske antingen genom att observera patienten under arbete påarbetsplatsen eller under simulerat arbete tex genom att använda Valpar systemets arbetsprover.Vid Rehabiliteringsmedicinska kliniken, Karolinska Sjukhuset har tvä av de standardiserade arbetsprovema använts. VCWS 8 "Simulerad moontering" och VCWS 9 "Simulerade rorelser for hela kroppen" for att förbättra bedömningen av patientens arbetskapacitet. VCWS 8 mäter "en persons förmaga att utföra ett monteringsarbete som kräver repetetiva fysiska manipulationer" och VCWS 9 mäter "en persons formåga att röra på bålen, nacken, armarna, händerna och fingrama när de relaterar till funktionellt utförande av ett arbete". Valideringen av arbetsprovema för Svensk anvandning gjordes på en grupp patienter (n = 97) med muskuloskelettal nack- och skulder smärta som deltog i ett rehabiliteringsprogram. VCWS 9 utfördes av åttiofem patienter och VCWS 9 av sextionic patienter.Medelvärdet for patienterna som slutförde VCWS 8 var 83.1% av industriell standard nivå (mätt enligt MTM-Method-Time-Measurement) där den lä gsta gränsen är 87.5% för ett godkännt utförende. Detta innebär att de "inte moter" kraven för detta specifika arbete. I motsats till detta sä nädde patientema som utförde VCWS 9 ett medelvärde pä 108.6% vilket overstiger kravet (87.5%) för industriell standard. Det oväntade resultatet kan kanske förklaras av att patienternas intresseområden vad gäller arbetsfalt endast sammanfoll med

  11. New donor vector for generation of histidine-tagged fusion proteins using the Gateway Cloning System.

    PubMed

    Parr, Rebecca D; Ball, Judith M

    2003-03-01

    An optimized donor/shuttle vector, pENTR-His-ccdB, was generated that readily produces a histidine-tagged recombinant protein in multiple expression systems using Gateway Technology. In the current Gateway System, six histidines and the tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site are encoded upstream of the attR1 recombination site such that the histidine-tagged destination/expression vector adds 15 residues to the amino-terminus of recombinant proteins. Our new vector introduces the histidine tag at the donor level and places the multiple cloning sites within the attL recombination sites producing cleavable histidine-tagged proteins with a short, neutral linker of five residues. Two histidine-tagged clones were produced and fusion proteins expressed using the newly engineered vector.

  12. Self-Assembly and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Tip-Induced Motion of Ferrocene Adamantane Trithiolate Adsorbed on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katano, Satoshi; Kim, Yousoo; Kitagawa, Toshikazu; Kawai, Maki

    2008-07-01

    We have studied the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of adamantane-based trithiolate, which consists of a ferrocene derivative at the head (ferrocene adamantane trithiolate; ferrocene-ATT), on Au(111) using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). It was found that the adsorption behavior of ferrocene-ATT is similar to that of bromine adamantane trithiolate (BATT) adsorbed on Au(111). This indicates that adsorption of adamantane-based trithiol is controlled by three legs (CH2S) connected to bridgehead positions of the adamantane cage. Molecules, which form an ordered structure, are stable under low-bias-voltage scanning, i.e., a sample bias voltage lower than 1 V. STM tip-induced diffusion, however, was observed both for small clustered molecules and for molecules bound around the edge of an ordered molecular island. Furthermore, applying a high bias voltage (5 V) resulted in the destruction of SAMs structures.

  13. Role of TAF12 in the Increased VDR Activity in Paget’s Disease of Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    68°C. The gene-specific primers for mouse CYP24A1 mRNA were 5’-ATT ACC TGA GAA TCA GAG GCC ACG-3’ (sense) and 5’-GCC AAA TGC AGT TTA AGC TCT GCT-3...5’‐ATT ACC TGA GAA TCA GAG GCC ACG‐3’ (sense) and 5’‐GCC AAA TGC AGT TTA AGC TCT GCT‐3’ (antisense). The PCR products were separated on 2% agarose...and 5’‐GCC AAA TGC AGT TTA AGC TCT GCT‐3’ (antisense). The gene‐specific primers for mouse b‐actin were 5’‐GGC CGT ACC ACT GGC ATC GTG ATG‐ 3

  14. Pancreatic Tuberculosis: A Puzzle for Physicians. A Rare Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gursharan; Joseph, John Biku; Swaminathan, S; Venkatakrishnan, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic Tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis that resembles malignancy of pancreas and serve as a diagnostic challenge for physicians. Conservative management with Anti Tuberculosis Therapy (ATT) will suffice for pancreatic tuberculosis whereas a malignancy may require major surgeries which may lead to significant morbidity. Here, we discuss the case of a female patient who presented with abdominal pain and vomiting and is a known case of chronic calcific pancreatitis. Radiological findings were that of malignancy of the pancreas. Enteroscopy showed pus flowing out from the duodenum. Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the pancreas revealed acid fast bacilli. The patient was treated successfully with ATT. Timely diagnosis of this rare form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis can thus help avoid unwanted resections done for presumed malignancy, for which a high index of suspicion is needed. PMID:28050442

  15. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  16. High-throughput recombinant gene expression systems in Pichia pastoris using newly developed plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Takahiro; Matsui, Makoto; Kobayashi, Yuki; Otagiri, Masato; Moriya, Shigeharu; Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Ito, Yukishige; Lee, Charles C; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    We describe here the construction of Gateway-compatible vectors, pBGP1-DEST and pPICZα-DEST, for rapid and convenient preparation of expression plasmids for production of secretory proteins in Pichia pastoris. Both vectors direct the synthesis of fusion proteins consisting of the N-terminal signal and pro-sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor, the recognition sites for Kex2 and Ste13 processing proteases, the mature region of a foreign protein flanked by attB1- and attB2-derived sequences at N- and C-termini, respectively, and myc plus hexahistidine tags added at the extreme C-terminus. To test the usefulness of these vectors, production of endo-glucanases and xylanases from termite symbionts, as well as a fungal glucuronoyl esterase, was performed. Enzyme activities were detected in the culture supernatants, indicating that the chimeric proteins were synthesized and secreted as designed.

  17. Advanced Transport Telematics Positioning Requirements: An Assessment of GPS Performance in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, W. Y.; Shardlow, P. J.; Johnston, Gordon

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the Greater London area to assess and characterise the performance of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for vehicle positioning in urban areas. The performance assessment addresses, in varying levels of detail, the issues of service coverage, positioning accuracy, integrity and availability of service. The project was supported by Racal Survey Limited and is part of the wider research at Imperial College in the area of architectural design and testing of Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT) systems. The results highlight the shortcomings of GPS as the sole means for in-car navigation in urban areas and details the temporal and spatial considerations to be taken into account in the process of designing an integrated positioning system capable of meeting navigation requirements placed on ATT systems.

  18. Virulence genes of the phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians show specific spatial and temporal expression patterns during plant infection.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Karen; Maes, Tania; Jaziri, Mondher; Holsters, Marcelle; Goethals, Koen

    2002-04-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus fascians provokes shoot meristem formation and malformations on aerial plant parts, mainly at the axils. The interaction is accompanied by bacterial colonization of the plant surface and tissues. Upon infection, the two bacterial loci required for full virulence, fas and att, were expressed only at the sites of symptom development, although their expression profiles differed both spatially and temporally. The att locus was expressed principally in bacteria located on the plant surface at early stages of infection. Expression of the fas locus occurred throughout infection, mainly in bacteria that were penetrating, or had penetrated, the plant tissues and coincided with sites of meristem initiation and proliferation. The implications for the regulation of virulence genes of R. fascians during plant infection are discussed.

  19. Permanent genetic memory with >1 byte capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J.; Laub, Michael T.; Lu, Timothy K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  20. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an R-prime plasmid from Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, G B; Dobo, K; Dusha, I; Breznovits, A; Orosz, L; Vincze, E; Kondorosi, A

    1980-01-01

    Using a simple enrichment procedure, we isolated an R-prime derivative of plasmid R68.45 carrying a 17.8-megadalton segment of the Rhizobium meliloti 41 chromosome. The chromosomal segment carried on this plasmid (pGY1) includes the markers cys-24+, cys-46+, and att16-3. Plasmid pGY1 mobilized the chromosome in a polarized way starting from the region of homology, but cannot promote chromosome transfer from other sites. The att16-3 site on pGY1 allowed the integration of phage 16-3 into pGY1, and a composite plasmid of 91.8 megadaltons was formed. This vector (pGY2) is suitable for the introduction of Rhizobium bacteriophage 16-3 into other gram-negative bacteria. PMID:6986354

  2. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  3. Site-specific integration of mycobacteriophage L5: integration-proficient vectors for Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and bacille Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M H; Pascopella, L; Jacobs, W R; Hatfull, G F

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteriophage L5, a temperate phage of mycobacteria, integrates site-specifically into the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome. We have identified the int gene and attP site of L5, characterized the chromosomal attachment site (attB), and constructed plasmid vectors that efficiently transform M. smegmatis through stable site-specific integration of the plasmid into the bacterial genome. These integration-proficient plasmids also efficiently transform slow-growing mycobacteria such as the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the vaccine strain bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The ability to easily generate stable recombinants in these slow-growing mycobacteria without the requirement for continual selection is of particular importance for the construction of recombinant BCG vaccines and for the isolation and characterization of mycobacterial pathogenic determinants in animal model systems. Integration vectors of this type should be of general use in a number of additional bacterial systems where temperate phages have been identified. Images PMID:1901654

  4. Intramolecular integration assay validates integrase phi C31 and R4 potential in a variety of insect cells.

    PubMed

    Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Fraser, Tresa; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2009-11-01

    Phage phi C31 and R4 integrases are site-specific and unidirectional serine recombinases. We have analyzed the ability of these integrases to mediate intramolecular integration between their attB and attP sites in 7 important insect cell lines as a means of predicting their relative mobility in the corresponding insect species. Both integrases exhibit significantly higher frequencies in Drosophila S2 cells than in the other insect cell lines examined, but do work well in all of the species tested. Our results, coupled with previous results of the activity of phi C31 integrase in D. melanogaster and Aedes aegypti, suggest the family of serine catalyzed integrases will be useful site-specific integration tools for functional genome analysis and genetic engineering in a wide range of insect species.

  5. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption. PMID:28179939

  6. An unusual case of refractory wheeze

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Venkat; Acharya, Vishak; Pai, Narasimha; Krishnan, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man presented with a history of episodic wheeze and breathlessness of 3 years’ duration refractory to treatment. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory polyphonic rhonchi while the remainder of the examination including the cardiac examination was reported as normal. Pulmonary function testing revealed mild obstruction with bronchodilator reversibility. The patient was discharged on a 6-month course of antitubercular treatment (ATT) as bronchial brush cytology (obtained via bronchoscopy) was positive for acid-fast bacilli. The patient presented after completing 6 months of ATT with persistent symptoms, a loud S1 and a mid-diastolic murmur at the apex. High-resolution CT of the chest showed bilateral dependent ground glass opacities. An echocardiogram revealed a left atrial myxoma, and normal RV size and pressures. The patient underwent successful surgical removal of the same, and made a complete recovery. Refractory wheeze is a very unusual presentation of a left atrial myxoma. PMID:25733086

  7. Effectiveness of Animal Assisted Therapy after brain injury: A bridge to improved outcomes in CRT.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Mary

    2016-06-18

    Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) has been widely used as a complementary therapy in mental health treatment especially to remediate social skill deficits. The goal of AAT is to improve social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to draw upon the literature on AAT and explore specific applications to cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) and social skills training. This study provides a systematic review of most of the available literature on ATT and assesses that potential uses of ATT for brain injury rehabilitation. Although the efficacy of AAT is not currently well documented by rigorous research, (Kazin, 2010) anecdotal evidence suggests that brain injury survivors may benefit from the combination of AAT and cognitive rehabilitation techniques. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) survivors with cognitive impairments can benefit from AAT as part of a comprehensive and holistic rehabilitation treatment plan.

  8. Hepatic abscess as a paradoxical response to antituberculous chemotherapy for tubercular lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Meena, Manoj; Gupta, Neeraj; Kewlani, Jaiprakash; Kumararesan, Sabarigirivasan Harish Vijayadeepan

    2015-08-20

    Tubercular liver abscess developing as a paradoxical reaction (PR) to antitubercular therapy (ATT) is relatively uncommon in the absence of disseminated disease and immunocompromised status of the host even in countries such as India where the disease is rampant. We report a rare case of hepatic abscess that developed paradoxically during antituberculous therapy for tubercular lymphadenitis in a 30-year-old woman who tested negative for HIV. Diagnosis was performed with the help of ultrasonography (USG)-guided aspiration of the abscess followed by cytopathological examination and PCR confirmation of the disease from the USG-guided aspirate. The patient responded well to oral corticosteroid therapy without any alteration of the ongoing ATT regimen. Details of the case and other relevant literature regarding the pathogenesis of this event are discussed in detail. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Impulse Noise: Measurement Techniques and Hearing Protector Performance. Report on Scientific Exchange at the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    d’oreilles non linéaires Bilsom (modèle 655). Le dispositif Peltor Optime III a produit légèrement plus d’atténuation que le casque de communications...atténuation aux basses fréquences dans le mode non linéaire . Le rendement des bouchons d’oreilles actifs Nacre QuietPro a été mesuré dans du bruit rose...non linéaires Bilsom (modèle 655). Le protecteur d’oreilles Peltor a offert une protection légèrement meilleure que celle du casque de

  10. Comparative fitness assessment of Anopheles stephensi transgenic lines receptive to site-specific integration.

    PubMed

    Amenya, D A; Bonizzoni, M; Isaacs, A T; Jasinskiene, N; Chen, H; Marinotti, O; Yan, G; James, A A

    2010-04-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes that are unable to transmit pathogens offer opportunities for controlling vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue. Site-specific gene recombination technologies are advantageous in the development of these insects because antipathogen effector genes can be inserted at integration sites in the genome that cause the least alteration in mosquito fitness. Here we describe Anopheles stephensi transgenic lines containing phi C31 attP'docking' sites linked to a fluorescent marker gene. Chromosomal insertion sites were determined and life-table parameters were assessed for transgenic mosquitoes of each line. No significant differences in fitness between the transgenic and nontransgenic mosquitoes were detected in this study. These transgenic lines are suitable for future site-specific integrations of antiparasite transgenes into the attP sites.

  11. The Tn7 transposition regulator TnsC interacts with the transposase subunit TnsB and target selector TnsD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Spencer, Jeanelle M.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    The excision of transposon Tn7 from a donor site and its insertion into its preferred target site, attachment site attTn7, is mediated by four Tn7-encoded transposition proteins: TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD. Transposition requires the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex containing all four Tns proteins and the DNA substrates, the donor site containing Tn7, and the preferred target site attTn7. TnsA and TnsB together form the heteromeric Tn7 transposase, and TnsD is a target-selecting protein that binds specifically to attTn7. TnsC is the key regulator of transposition, interacting with both the TnsAB transposase and TnsD-attTn7. We show here that TnsC interacts directly with TnsB, and identify the specific region of TnsC involved in the TnsB–TnsC interaction during transposition. We also show that a TnsC mutant defective in interaction with TnsB is defective for Tn7 transposition both in vitro and in vivo. Tn7 displays cis-acting target immunity, which blocks Tn7 insertion into a target DNA that already contains Tn7. We provide evidence that the direct TnsB–TnsC interaction that we have identified also mediates cis-acting Tn7 target immunity. We also show that TnsC interacts directly with the target selector protein TnsD. PMID:24982178

  12. AT-101 acts as anti-proliferative and hormone suppressive agent in mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yurekli, B S; Karaca, B; Kisim, A; Bozkurt, E; Atmaca, H; Cetinkalp, S; Ozgen, G; Yilmaz, C; Uzunoglu, S; Uslu, R; Saygili, F

    2017-07-20

    Gossypol, a naturally occurring compound in cottonseeds, has anticancer effects against several tumor cell lines. It has been extensively studied in clinical trials and is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. AT-101, a derivative of R (-)-gossypol, binds to Bcl-2 family proteins and induces apoptosis in vitro. Although transsphenoidal surgical excision of the pituitary corticotroph adenoma is the gold standard of care, it is not successful all the time. Medical therapy for Cushing's disease still remains a challenge for the clinicians. We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AT-101 in mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells. Cytotoxic effect of AT-101 was assessed by XTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis was shown by measuring DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3/7 activity. Changes in mRNA expressions of apoptosis-related genes were investigated by qPCR array after treatment with AT-101. ACTH was measured by ACTH-EIA Kit. AT-101 induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in AtT20 cells. mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes such as TNFR-SF-10B, Bid, PYCARD, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, and Caspase-7 were induced by 2.0-, 1.5-, 1.7-, 1.5-, 1.6-, and 2-fold, respectively, in AtT20 cells by AT-101 treatment. Moreover, some of the anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL2L10, NAIP1, and PAK-7 were reduced by 2.1-, 2.3-, 4.0-fold, respectively, in AtT20 cells. AT-101 also decreased ACTH secretion significantly. AT-101 induces apoptosis in mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor cells.

  13. Mobile Data Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-11

    F19628-93-C-0193, the Intel Corporation, the National Science Foundation, AT&T, and Lucent Technologies . The views and conclusions contained herein...in other locations must resort to some alternative wireless technology ; moving between these technologies yields significant variation. There is one...supporting infrastructure, and poor security and robustness, are inherent to mobile systems and will not be ehminated by technological progress. The

  14. Assessing the Economic and National Security Benefits from Publicly Funded Technology Investments: An IDA Round Table.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    computer price indexes, using " hedonics " that is, trying to assess the characteristics of the computer, the number of MIPS, the size of the hard disk...laboratories, such as those at AT&T, General Electric , and DuPont. Almost without exception, such organizations today are much narrower in their investments...affordable—similar to competition in commercial markets among innovating firms competing on the basis of price for market share. Examples of such commercial

  15. A Study of the Department of Defense Configuration Management Policies and Procedures as Applied to the FA-18 Strike/Fighter Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    tempt to lower o, vera II progr am ccost.s. "t It A I Ji rt), .! the t w, air-:r att. t.hat t. he FA Id i I 1- :2,i- I e Lip I k , I F r , v i s a c:ase...Although the decision to compete the [ Alo TPS’s was made in mid CY-81, not a single production :: had been delivered to the fleet by Harris GSSD or : .j

  16. Molecular diversity of class 2 integrons in antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria found in wastewater environments in China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ruirui; Ren, Ye; Guo, Xianhu; Xu, Hai

    2013-03-01

    The molecular architecture of class 2 integrons among gram-negative bacteria from wastewater environments was investigated in Jinan, China. Out of the 391 antibiotic-resistant bacteria found, 38 isolates harboring class 2 integrons encoding potentially transferrable genes that could confer antibiotic resistance were found. These isolates were classified into 19 REP-PCR types. These strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and found to be as follows: Proteus mirabilis (16), Escherichia coli (7), Providencia spp. (7), Proteus spp. (2), P. vulgaris (3), Shigella sp. (1), Citrobacter freundii (1), and Acinetobacter sp. (1). Their class 2 integron cassette arrays were amplified and then either analyzed using PCR-RFLP or sequenced. The typical array dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 was detected in 27 isolates. Six atypical arrays were observed, including three kinds of novel arrangements (linF2(∆attC1)-dfrA1(∆attC2)-aadA1-orf441 or linF2(∆attC1)-dfrA1(∆attC2)-aadA1, dfrA1-catB2-sat2-aadA1, and estX(Vr)-sat2-aadA1) and a hybrid with the 3'CS of class 1 integrons (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1-qacH), and dfrA1-sat1. Twenty-four isolates were also found to carry class 1 integrons with 10 types of gene cassette arrays. Several non-integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes were found, and their transferability was investigated. Results showed that water sources in the Jinan region harbored a diverse community of both typical and atypical class 2 integrons, raising concerns about the overuse of antibiotics and their careless disposal into the environment.

  17. Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    monolithically integrated balanced optical photoreceivers are now being built at AT&T Bell Labs and 5 will be used in the set-up (Dr. Chandrasekhar). The laser...waveguides. Electrical pin-out constraints of packages suggest that monolithic integration of drive electronics with the optical devices may also be...have been monolithically integrated on the same substrate [24J. The process is claimed to be compatible with the integration of a new 57-nm tunable

  18. Fitness Cost Implications of PhiC31-Mediated Site-Specific Integrations in Target-Site Strains of the Mexican Fruit Fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meza, José S.; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M.; Schetelig, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain. PMID:25303238

  19. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Yuji; Nanba, Eiji; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2011-02-24

    The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s) of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector) and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.

  20. Three-Dimensional Scale-Model Tank Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    seafloor roughness, and the geoacoustic properties of the modeled seafloor . Control over these variables allow for precise observation of 3D acoustic...The intensity at a time snapshot of 747 µs is shown in Fig. 6. The non-bottom-interacting cylindrically spreading wavefront is clearly visible at...T. Lin, and J. F. Lynch, “Horizontal refraction of propagating sound due to seafloor scours over a range-dependent layered bottom on the New Jersey

  1. Semiconductors and SEMATECH: Rebirth of a Strategic Industry?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Shintaro. The Japan That Can Say No. Translated by Frank Baldwin. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. 4. Okimoto, Daniel . Between MITI and the Market...p.160. 16. Ibid. p. 161. 17. Dertouzos, Michael L., Lester, Richard K., and Solow , Robert M. Made in America. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989, p.252...34 EDGE: On and About AT&T. Vol, 6, No.178, December 23, 1991. 29. Southerland, Daniel . "Consortium Sees Breakthrough in Chipping Away at the Chip

  2. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Robert C.; Drake, Justin A.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-12-14

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔG{sub vdw}) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔG{sub vdw}, as well as its attractive (ΔG{sub att}) and repulsive (ΔG{sub rep}) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γ{sub rep}, γ{sub att}, and γ{sub vdw}, gotten from ΔG{sub rep}, ΔG{sub att}, and ΔG{sub vdw} against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γ{sub rep}. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γ{sub rep} for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γ{sub att} for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γ{sub vdw} (−74 and −56 cal/mol/Å{sup 2} for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔG{sub vdw} favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔG{sub rep} and ΔG{sub vdw} have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms.

  3. Women Content in Units: Force Development Test (MAX WAC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-03

    accomplish the myriad tasks which collectively make up its stated mission. Forty FORSCOM Category II and III company-sized TOE units participated in...performance for the purpose of identifying specific training needs. They were developed by the branch schools, making use of existing ATTs and their own ...of subjective judgements based on observations of real events and activities. The individu&ls making such judgements bring into play their own personal

  4. Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update (Executive Summary)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    fragments if criteria met (IB):’ Provide cefazolin 2 g IV X J dose Provide IV antimicwhials (Table 3) as soon as possink (within :l h) (lBI Provide...att.:mpt to remove retained deep son tissue fragments if criteria met (18)• Provide cefazolin 2 g IV X I dose Do not obtain cultures unless...sufficient quantities in the combat zone, should also be considered. 20 I 1 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Extremity Wounds 8. Cefazolin , 2 g

  5. Performance of Specular Reflectors Used for Lighting Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    34Energy and Energy Conservation" Work Unit EX-XH3, "Lighting Technology Retrofits." The technical monitors were Samuel Baidoo, CECPW-FU-E and Robert... CEIP .& Wd Rea.d Amwy MOW C* 20 AlTIt. CEWCA b*D m Lo ATM: C~cwo ATTN- APVR4)E NOW #kaid amw BMW. 310 AT~t. CECV ATTN: APVfR-WP.OE 90M0 ATTN NGS.A ATM

  6. Wall correction factors for calibration of plane-parallel ionization chambers with high-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Araki, F; Ikeda, R; Shirakawa, Y; Shimonobou, T; Moribe, N; Takada, T; Takahashi, M; Oura, H; Matoba, M

    2000-09-01

    Most dosimetry protocols recommend that calibration of plane-parallel ionization chambers be performed in an electron beam of sufficiently high energy by comparison with cylindrical chambers. For various plane-parallel chambers, the 1997 IAEA TRS-381 protocol includes an overall perturbation factor pQ for electron beams, a wall correction factor p(wall) for a 60Co beam and the product of two wall corrections k(att)k(m) for 60Co in-air calibration. The recommended values of p(wall) for plane-parallel chambers, however, are limited to certain phantom materials and a 60Co beam, and are not given for other phantom materials and x-ray beams. In this work, the p(wall) values of the commercially available NACP, PTW/Markus and PTW/Roos plane-parallel chambers in a solid water phantom have been determined with 60Co and 4 and 10 MV photon beams. The k(att)k(m) values for the NACP and PTW/Markus chambers have also been obtained. The wall correction factors p(wall) and k(att)k(m) have been determined by intercomparison with a calibrated Farmer chamber. The average value of p(wall) for these plane-parallel chambers was 1.005 +/- 0.1% (1 SD) for 60Co beams and 1.007 +/- 0.2% (1 SD) for both 4 MV and 10 MV photons. The k(att)k(m) values for the NACP and PTW/Markus chambers were about 1.5% lower than other published data.

  7. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, N.; Woolkalis, M.; Thermos, K.; Carlson, K.; Manning, D.; Reisine, T.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog (125I)CGP 23996. (125I)CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity (125I)CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of (125I)CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect (125I)CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with (125I) CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to (125I)CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors.

  8. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in pyrazinamide-induced hyperuricemic tubercular patients

    PubMed Central

    Pichholiya, Meenu; Yadav, Arvind Kumar; Luhadia, S. K.; Tahashildar, Jameela; Aseri, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in pyrazinamide (PZA)-induced hyperuricemia in patients taking antitubercular therapy (ATT). Methods: This randomized controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute of Rajasthan in all the sputum-positive tubercular patients aged between 18 and 65 years of either sex. Serum uric acid level was monitored at 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of ATT. Patients whose uric acid level was found to be increased at 2nd week were finally recruited in the study. Ninety patients who developed hyperuricemia due to ATT were divided randomly into three groups (Group A - febuxostat, Group B - allopurinol, and Group C - control) of thirty patients each. Mean serum uric acid levels were calculated at all the weeks in all the groups, and serum uric acid levels were compared by applying student's t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum uric acid level decreased from 10.698 mg/dl (at 2nd week) to 7.846 mg/dl (at 8th week) in Group A and from 11.34 mg/dl (at 2nd week) to 7.280 mg/dl (at 8th week) in Group B. Numbers of adverse events encountered across both the treatment groups were same with both the drugs. Conclusion: Allopurinol and febuxostat were equally efficacious in lowering PZA induced raised serum uric acid level in tubercular patients, and it was possible to continue ATT without withdrawing PZA. PMID:27721537

  9. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Carbide because of its high thermal the mirror on its backside or edge. Shott Zerodur conductivity. Edge cooling causes a larger exceeded the limit by about...Characterization Angstrom-level noncontact profiling of mirrors for soft x-ray lithography............ 134 Paul Glenn Nonspecular Scattering from X-Ray...structed by patterning a Mo/Si Tropel Division of GCA Corporation. multilayer coated silicon wafer. The mirrors were coated at AT&T Bell The multilayer

  10. Development of a Threshold Model to Predict Germination of Populus tomentosa Seeds after Harvest and Storage under Ambient Condition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range. PMID:23658654

  11. A Swelling over Sternum in a Child: Reminder of an Uncommon Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pradnya; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Save, Sushma U

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness about isolated tubercular osteomyelitis of the sternum resulted in a delay in diagnosing the condition in an eleven-year-old girl who presented with a gradually increasing swelling over the sternum. Radiological, histological, and microbiological investigations helped diagnose the condition and the child responded well to antitubercular therapy (ATT) and surgical debridement. The report provides a brief description about the various management options available.

  12. DCS Operating-Maintenance Electrical Performance Standards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-29

    Quality Assurance Program, 21 January 1974, as amended. c. MIL-STD-188-100, Common Long Haul and Tactical Communication System Technical Standards, 15...quality control, quality assurance , or other programs is covered in other Circulars and is beyond the scope of this document. 7. The DCS Technical...recommended is less stringent than that for Government-owned systems. However, AT&T assures DCA that the Bell System circuit conditioning recommended

  13. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized E. coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio. PMID:26341612

  14. Compaction of Global Data Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD- A225 856 Naval Oceanographic and Technical Note 27 Atmospheric Research Laboratory May 1990 nC II FILF Copy Compaction of Global Data Fields A. H...IU 0 Ij P\\ I -’ as - -O - - YrŘ 5/ ii Ch Cc I 4" IIJ /1 1 att, 14 o c qu 0 in 64 low Ln u Ln U Ln LLJ KA E0 U-j u odd LD x 0 LL- cr - -1 Ap 0 Ln 00

  15. Fitness cost implications of PhiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, José S; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M; Schetelig, Marc F

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain.

  16. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-04-21

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

  17. Interactions of NBU1 IntN1 and Orf2x Proteins with Attachment Site DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Lara; Gardner, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    NBU1 is a mobilizable transposon found in Bacteroides spp. Mobilizable transposons require gene products from coresident conjugative transposons for excision and transfer to recipient cells. The integration of NBU1 requires IntN1, which has been identified as a tyrosine recombinase, as well as Bacteroides host factor BHFa. Excision of NBU1 is a more complicated process, involving five element-encoded proteins (IntN1, Orf2, Orf2x, Orf3, and PrmN1) as well as a Bacteroides host factor and a cis-acting DNA sequence. Little has been known about what role the proteins play in excision, although IntN1 and Orf2x have been shown to be the only proteins absolutely required for detectable excision. To determine where IntN1 and Orf2x bind during the excision of NBU1, both proteins were partially purified and tested in DNase I footprinting experiments with the excisive attachment sites attL and attR. The results demonstrate that IntN1 binds to four core-type sites that flank the region of cleavage and strand exchange, as well as six arm-type sites. A unique feature of the system is the location of DR2a and DR2b arm-type sites immediately downstream of the attL core. The DR1a, DR1b, DR3a, and DR3b arm-type sites were shown to be required for in vitro integration of NBU1. In addition, we have identified one Orf2x binding site (O1) on attL as well as a dA+dT-rich upstream element that is required for Orf2x interactions with O1. PMID:24097948

  18. Rare Offshoot of a Common Malady Anaemia and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb’s positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month. PMID:27656489

  19. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized Escherichia coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio.

  20. The Effects of Dual Career Households and Family Responsibilities on Surface Warfare Officer’s Career Intent.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    career/family issues with an aggressive policy of the type proposed by Hall and Hall (1978]. Future research on the effect of dual career households and...TEST CHART Att-BUEUOf STANDAt196 3 -0 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS THE EFFECTS OF DUAL CAREER HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY...RSPONSIBILITIES ON SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER’S CAREER INTENT by Paul Christian Striffler December 1982 Thesis Advisor T. G. Swenson Approved for public release

  1. Rare Offshoot of a Common Malady Anaemia and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Gautham; Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad

    2016-08-01

    Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb's positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month.

  2. Dominant-Negative Mutants Identify a Role for Girk Channels in D3 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Spontaneous Secretory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.; Oxford, Gerry S.

    2000-01-01

    The human D3 dopamine receptor can activate G-protein–coupled inward rectifier potassium channels (GIRKs), inhibit P/Q-type calcium channels, and inhibit spontaneous secretory activity in AtT-20 neuroendocrine cells (Kuzhikandathil, E.V., W. Yu, and G.S. Oxford. 1998. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 12:390–402; Kuzhikandathil, E.V., and G.S. Oxford. 1999. J. Neurosci. 19:1698–1707). In this study, we evaluate the role of GIRKs in the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. The absence of selective blockers for GIRKs has precluded a direct test of the hypothesis that they play an important role in inhibiting secretory activity. However, the tetrameric structure of these channels provides a means of disrupting endogenous GIRK function using a dominant negative approach. To develop a dominant-negative GIRK mutant, the K+ selectivity amino acid sequence -GYG- in the putative pore domain of the human GIRK2 channels was mutated to -AAA-, -GLG-, or -GFG-. While the mutation of -GYG- to -GFG- did not affect channel function, both the -AAA- and -GLG- GIRK2 mutants were nonfunctional. This suggests that the aromatic ring of the tyrosine residue rather than its hydroxyl group is involved in maintaining the pore architecture of human GIRK2 channels. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, the nonfunctional AAA-GIRK2 and GLG-GIRK2 acted as effective dominant-negative mutants and significantly attenuated endogenous GIRK currents. Furthermore, these dominant-negative mutants interfered with the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretion in AtT-20 cells, suggesting they are centrally involved in the signaling pathway of this secretory response. These results indicate that dominant-negative GIRK mutants are effective molecular tools to examine the role of GIRK channels in vivo. PMID:10828244

  3. A Literature Review and Experimental Plan for Research on the Display of Information on Matrix-Addressable Displays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    STATEM- hIiT (of the ;Report) Unlimited Distribution I?. DiST,’tBUTION .TA’-.EIIT (of the att.’:t enterod i, Blc.*. 20, Ii dfloatct r,..i Rep r) I.. t8...acquisition. Snyder (1974) discussed two reasons for this effect. First, video noise masks smaller targets and target details. Noise in the spatial...adaptive contrast stretch + noise filter Deblurring unsharp masking + noise filter + linear stretch Laplacian filter + noise filter + linear stretch Noise

  4. Public Reporting and a More Sustainable Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    these are vehicle and equipment manufacturers (such as Toyota, Honda, Ford, and General Motors ), and logistics organizations such as the United Parcel... Motors Yes ConocoPhillips Yes General Electric Yes Ford Motor Yes Citigroup Yes Bank of America Corp. Yes AT&T No Berkshire Hathaway No J.P...Guidelines? Wal-Mart Stores Brazil and Mexico Only Exxon Mobil Yes Royal Dutch Shell Yes British Petroleum (BP) Yes General Motors Yes Toyota

  5. Molecular and Metallic Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    isothermns (excluding vibrational pressure) calculated using HF, CI, and CI +- ATT poter - tials given by Eqs. (4), (5), and (14), respectively, with...Abrikosov [41] and, more recently, used by Harris et al. [42]. As first suggested by Abrikosov, the Block wave function for the k-th electron is written as...functions of Harris et al. [42]. They obtained correlation energy values approximately three-fourths as large as those calculated from the free-electron

  6. Development of Novel Two-Photon Absorbing Chromophores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    M. Urbas, Paul A. Fleitz, Joy E . Rogers, Jonathan E . Slagle, Daniel G. McLean, Richard L. Sutherland, Mark Brant , Douglas M. Krein, and...A. Fleitz (Exploratory Development, Hardened Materials Branch) Joy E . Rogers (UES) Jonathan E . Slagle (AT&T Government Solutions) Daniel G. McLean...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Invited Paper Development of novel two-photon absorbing chromophores Joy E . ~ o ~ e r s * " ’ ~ , Jonathan E . Slagle

  7. Optical Computing. Organization of the 1993 Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Palm Springs, California on March 16 - 19, 1993. Technical Digest Series, Volume 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-19

    with no optical feedback. None of these systems implement a general purpose programmable optoelectronic computer with optical control. We report on the... COMPUTING TECHNICAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE B. Keith Jenkins, General Chair, University of Southern California H. Scott Hinton, Program Chair, AT&T Bell...p. 50) OTuA2 Iterative design of computer - generated Fresnel OTuAll Volume holographic storage and processing for holograms for free-space optical

  8. Changes in Soldier Nutritional Status and Immune Function During the Ranger Training Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    may attLernuiiLe decrements in physical performance and immune func~tion. A fol low -onl study of the effects of an intervention using the LLRP ratini...hemolytic Streotococcus remained low throughout the course, but Streptococcus Dneumoniae carriage rates increased to 12% of the class by the jungle...refeeding study (1) provide the closest comparison to this study because of the high weight losses resulting from low energy intakes. However, there are some

  9. Stability in Aerospace Systems (La Stabilite dans Les Systemes Aerospatiaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Polynomial-Time Algorithm", AT&T laboratory results. Report. 8. Rosenblatt, F., Principles of Neurodynamics , Spartan Conclusion Books, New York, 1962. 9...tinguish between control functions according to a cognitive /bio- my brother and myself, it has seemed preferable to depend en- logical hierarchy that is... cognitive science and control theory. On the one hand, psy- sance cockpit altogether, allowing a single operator to supervise chologists have looked

  10. Multicenter prospective evaluation of dogs with trauma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelly E; Holowaychuk, Marie K; Sharp, Claire R; Reineke, Erica

    2014-02-01

    To determine hospital admission variables for dogs with trauma including values determined with scoring systems (animal trauma triage [ATT], modified Glasgow coma scale [MGCS], and acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation [APPLE] scores) and the usefulness of such variables for the prediction of outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge). Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. 315 client-owned dogs. By use of a Web-based data capture system, trained personnel prospectively recorded admission ATT, MGCS, and APPLE scores; clinical and laboratory data; and outcome (death vs survival to discharge) for dogs with trauma at 4 veterinary teaching hospitals during an 8-week period. Cause of injury was most commonly blunt trauma (173/315 [54.9%]) followed by penetrating trauma (107/315 [34.0%]), or was unknown (35/315 [11.1%]). Of the 315 dogs, 285 (90.5%) survived to hospital discharge. When 16 dogs euthanized because of cost were excluded, dogs with blunt trauma were more likely to survive, compared with dogs with penetrating trauma (OR, 8.5). The ATT (OR, 2.0) and MGCS (OR, 0.47) scores and blood lactate concentration (OR, 1.5) at the time of hospital admission were predictive of outcome. Surgical procedures were performed for 157 (49.8%) dogs; surgery was associated with survival to discharge (OR, 7.1). Results indicated ATT and MGCS scores were useful for prediction of outcome for dogs evaluated because of trauma. Penetrating trauma, low blood lactate concentration, and performance of surgical procedures were predictive of survival to hospital discharge. The methods enabled collection of data for a large number of dogs in a short time.

  11. Computer-Based Modeling Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    and Kernighan 򒾃>), CAMPS (Lucas and Mitra 򒾁>), GAMS (Bisschop and Meeraus 򒽾>), LINGO (Cunningham and Schrage 򒾄>), LPL (Hurlimann and...times; and Vo 򒾁>, which describes the integration approach used by a UNIX -based analytical modeling environment at AT&T Bell Laboratories called...platform such as UNIX , as ANALYTICOL does (Childs and Meacham 򒾁>). Or one might build a modeling environment around a suitable, and probably relational

  12. Monitoring and management of antituberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Agal, Subhash; Baijal, Rajiv; Pramanik, Snehanshu; Patel, Nikhil; Gupte, Parijat; Kamani, Praful; Amarapurkar, Deepak

    2005-11-01

    Hepatotoxicity to antituberculosis therapy (ATT) poses a major challenge. This often results in inadequate therapy. The risk of fulminant hepatic failure and mortality is high once icteric hepatitis develops. There is no consensus on monitoring protocols and for the reintroduction of ATT. All patients (from the Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Jagjivanram Hospital and the Department of Gastroenterology, Bombay Hospital, Mumbai, India) with a diagnosis of tuberculosis, who were to receive ATT during the study period, were included in the present study for prospective periodic laboratory monitoring for the development of hepatotoxicity. Those patients who developed hepatotoxicity formed Group A (n = 21), whereas those who did not develop hepatotoxicity were included in Group C (n = 179). For the purpose of comparison with Group A, all the patients who presented directly with ATT induced hepatotoxicity during the study period were categorized as Group B (n = 24). Group A and B were further studied after normalization of liver functions for sequential reintroduction with therapeutic doses at a weekly interval. In Group A, 66.6% (14 patients) of the patients were diagnosed in the asymptomatic period. Seven patients had symptomatic hepatitis, but none had icteric illness. There were no mortalities in Group A. In contrast, all the patients in Group B had symptomatic hepatitis (75% icteric hepatitis). There was a mortality rate of 16.6% (four patients). Of the 41 patients from Groups A and B who survived, reintroduction was successful in 38/39 (97.4%). In the remaining two patients who were in Group B, reintroduction was not attempted because of decompensated liver disease. Periodic laboratory monitoring is important in detecting hepatotoxicity at an early stage, thereby preventing mortality. Sequential reintroduction is often successful.

  13. Compliance Testing of Consumat and Fairchild Hiller Silver Reclamation Incinerators, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    MAY 71, WHICH IS OBSO ETE. FEB !14 PRELIMINARY SURVEY DATA SHEET NO. 1 (Stack Geometry) BASE PLANT DATE I SAMPLING TEAM SOURCE TYPE AN. MAKE SOURCE...Personnel or4att, 23 State Regulations 27 InCinerator I Field Data 31 Incinerator 2 Field Data 45 Incinerator 3 Field Data 59 F Incinerator 4 Field Data 73 G...Calibration Data 87 H Acetone Blank Results and Particulate Emissions 105 Calculations I Hydrogen Chloride Emissions Calculations 117 j Example of

  14. Optimum Biasing for 45 nm Node Chromeless and Attenuated Phase Shift Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-Min; An, Ilsin; Shin, Dong-Soo; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2008-09-01

    Resolution enhancement technology (RET) refers to a technique that extends the usable resolution of an imaging system without decreasing the wavelength of light or increasing the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging tool. Off-axis illumination (OAI) and a phase shift mask (PSM) are essentially accompanied by optical proximity correction (OPC) for semiconductor device manufacturing nowadays. A chromeless PSM is compared with an attenuated PSM (att.PSM) to generate a 45 nm dense line and space pattern. To obtain the best possible resolution, a suitable OPC is required with PSM and the most common application of OPC is the use of bias. An optical system with a high NA, a strong OAI, and a proper polarization can decrease k1 to a value well below 0.3. A chromeless PSM has various advantages over alternating PSM such as the lack of necessity for double exposure, small pattern displacement, and the lack of critical dimension (CD) error caused by intensity imbalance. However, a chromeless PSM has some disadvantages. In the case of a 100% transmittance pure chromeless PSM, there is no shading material that is usually deposited on the line pattern for both att.PSM and alternating PSM to control linewidth. Because there is no shading material for such a chromeless PSM, the required resist CD has to be obtained using phase only and it is difficult to control the resist CD through pitch. As expected, a chromeless PSM needs a smaller dose than an att.PSM to generate a desired 45 nm CD with a 1.0 NA. Our simulation results show that a 10 nm bias is optimum for chromeless PSMs. We demonstrate that chromeless PSM and att.PSM technology can be used to achieve a 45 nm node with optimum biased OPC.

  15. Optimum biasing for 45 nm node chromeless and attenuated phase shift mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-Min; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2008-03-01

    Resolution enhancement technology (RET) refers to a technique that extends the usable resolution of an imaging system without decreasing the wavelength of light or increasing the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging tool. Offaxis illumination (OAI) and a phase shift mask (PSM) are essentially accompanied by optical proximity correction (OPC) for semiconductor device manufacturing nowadays. A chromeless PSM (CLM or CPL) is compared to an attenuated PSM (att.PSM) to make 45 nm dense line and space pattern. To obtain the best possible resolution, a proper OPC is required with CPL and the most common application of OPC technique is the use of space bias. The optical system with a high numerical aperture (NA), a strong OAI, and a proper polarization can decrease the k1 value well below 0.3. CPL has various advantages over alternating PSM such as no necessity of double exposure, small pattern displacement, and no CD error caused by the intensity imbalance. But CPL has some disadvantages. In the case of 100 % transmittance pure CPL, there is no shading material that is usually deposited on the line pattern for both att.PSM and alternating PSM to control the line width. Because of no shading material for CPL, the required resist critical dimension (CD) has to be obtained by using phase only and it is difficult to control the resist CD through pitch. As expected, CPL needs smaller dose than att.PSM to make the desired 45 nm CD with 0.94 NA. Our simulation results showed that 10 nm negative bias is optimum for CPL mask. We demonstrated that CPL mask and att.PSM technology can be used to make 45 nm node by the negative space bias.

  16. The Software Maintenance Spectrum: Using More than Just New Toys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Deitel & Deitel , How to Program Java , Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. Bjarne Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, ATT Bell Labs, New...languages such as Ada, Java , and C++ provide the programmer with many more tools for abstraction.8 If the application being modeled is an airplane, for...in the Object- 20 Oriented Paradigm with such languages as Ada, Java , and C++.3 Recently, restructuring tools have been developed to convert modules

  17. Wide Area Recovery & Resiliency Program (WARRP) Transition Manager Series, Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) 2011: SSC Pacific Civilian Message Systems in Trial 2.32

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    They acquired materials and equipment on short notice, and shipped and tracked equipment to the various locations for testing and operations. SSC...displayed sensor readings and maps: an Apple iPad and a Samsung Galaxy Tab. • Mobile Wi-Fi Hotspot: A 3G AT&T MiFi integrated the sensors, laptops and...Sullivan (1) 85300 Archive Stock (1) 53627 Francis Cortez (1) Defense Technical Information Center Fort Belvoir, VA 22060

  18. Efficient Algorithmic Frameworks via Structural Graph Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-08

    social networks to computer networks and transportation networks. Real-world social networks of interest include online services ( Facebook , Google...interest include online services ( Facebook , Google+, Twitter), coauthorship/collaboration among people (arXiv, DBLP, patents), phone calls (AT&T, NSA), in...constant. For example, they measured that, on large samples of the entire network, the Amazon graph has average degree 17.7, the Facebook graph has average

  19. Excision of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis requires the combined actions of its cognate integrase and Hef, a new recombination directionality factor.

    PubMed

    Lesic, Biliana; Bach, Sandrine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker, Jörg; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2004-06-01

    The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI) encodes the siderophore yersiniabactin-mediated iron uptake system. The HPI of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis I has previously been shown to be able to excise precisely from the bacterial chromosome by recombination between the attB-R and attB-L sites flanking the island. However, the nature of the Y. pseudotuberculosis HPI excision machinery remained unknown. We show here that, upon excision, the HPI forms an episomal circular molecule. The island thus has the ability to excise from the chromosome, circularize and reintegrate itself, either in the same location or in another asn tRNA copy. We also demonstrate that the HPI-encoded bacteriophage P4-like integrase (Int) plays a critical role in HPI excision and that, like phage integrases, it acts as a site-specific recombinase that catalyses both excision and integration reactions. However, Int alone cannot efficiently promote recombination between the attB-R and attB-L sites, and we demonstrate that a newly identified HPI-borne factor, designated Hef (for HPI excision factor) is also required for this activity. Hef belongs to a family of recombination directionality factors. Like the other members of this family, Hef probably plays an architectural rather than a catalytic role and promotes HPI excision from the chromosome by driving the function of Int towards an excisionase activity. The fact that the HPI, and probably several other pathogenicity islands, carry a machinery of integration/excision highly similar to those of bacteriophages argues for a phage-mediated acquisition and transfer of these elements.

  20. Soldiers of Destiny: The Fianna Fail Party, The Irish Republican Army and a United Ireland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-07

    onrflict, or even the nature of Irish politics itself. In essence partition is about the vestiges of colonial rule and colonial privileges that the Irish...uncantituticrally, been unable to secure a workable solution to the Ulster dilemma? The focus of this paper will be an an examination of the nature of...subjugation. Inve brutal and exploitive nature of thiis colonial existence led many of these Irisbmen to turn to violene in their attI s to expel the

  1. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TRI-CON 45/55, 02/12/1993

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... 1r-.\\I"U,,,,· leak r •• pir.tor fot' "nttT into .tt.ecH "1"" t. carr.c't the .robla •. A •• roach f" .. \\I''''n~ to .... ... "I: 1' •• ,,1-:. ,~ e: oil, •• att.f.cto"'1 ~or 0;111. ,,,t,e... " ...

  2. An International Survey of Industrial Applications of Formal Methods. Volume 1: Purpose, Approach, Analysis, and Conclusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    failure of the Therac - 25 radiation therapy machine (resulting in at least three deaths) and the failure of the AT&T long distance network in 1991.2 We...not as facetious as it may sound given experiences such as the lawsuits over the Therac 25 microprocessor and VIPER, which was claimed to have been...techniques have been maturing for 25 years while nonmathematical techniques and general concerns for process have driven the practice. In the past five

  3. The 1991 Neural Information Processing Systems-natural & Synthetic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    K ! Williams, and Mich /l D. Retvow Part IX CONTROL AND PLANNING Obstacle Avoidance through Reinforcement Learning .................. 523 TonyJ Prescon...Separation of Sources that are Superimposed and Delayed . . . 730 John C. Plan and Federico Faggin Part XI IMPLEMENTATION CCD Neural Network Processors... Federico Faggin, Synaptics David A. Cohn, Univ. of Washington Hans Peter GraL AT&T Michael Littman, Bellcore Kristina Johnson, Univ. of Colorado David Plaut

  4. A plasmid from the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica capable of site-specific integration.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijbloed, J W; Madoń, J; Dijkhuizen, L

    1994-01-01

    Amycolatopsis methanolica contains a 13.3-kb plasmid (pMEA300) which is present both in the free state and integrated at a unique genomic location. A 2.1-kb pMEA300 DNA fragment was sequenced, revealing the putative attP site and two open reading frames, xis and int, showing similarity to genes encoding excisionases and integrases, respectively. Images PMID:7961475

  5. Finance Near-Term Technical Architecture for the Defense Information Technology Services Organization. Version 1.1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Government agencies. Gateways to Sprint’s Meeting Channel and AT&T’s Accunet Reserved Digital Services allow for meeting, with other national and...weaknesses, and provide varying degrees of video and audio quality. Facilities are connected by either dedicated digital lines and/or switched digital ... services . Standard communication interfaces include ISDN, using both the Sasic Rate Interface (BRI) and the Primary Rate Interface (PRI). Most systems

  6. Simultaneous measurement of forward-backward asymmetry and top polarization in dilepton final states from $$t\\bar t$$ production at the Tevatron

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2015-09-22

    We present a simultaneous measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry and the top-quark polarization in tt¯ production in dilepton final states using 9.7 fb–1 of proton-antiproton collisions at √s=1.96 TeV with the D0 detector. To reconstruct the distributions of kinematic observables we employ a matrix element technique that calculates the likelihood of the possible tt¯ kinematic configurations. After accounting for the presence of background events and for calibration effects, we obtain a forward-backward asymmetry of Att¯=(15.0±6.4(stat)±4.9(syst))% and a top-quark polarization times spin analyzing power in the beam basis of κP=(7.2±10.5(stat)±4.2(syst))%, with a correlation of –56% between the measurements. If we constrainmore » the forward-backward asymmetry to its expected standard model value, we obtain a measurement of the top polarization of κP=(11.3±9.1(stat)±1.9(syst))%. If we constrain the top polarization to its expected standard model value, we measure a forward-backward asymmetry of Att¯=(17.5±5.6(stat)±3.1(syst))%. A combination with the D0 Att¯ measurement in the lepton+jets final state yields an asymmetry of Att¯=(11.8±2.5(stat)±1.3(syst))%. Within their respective uncertainties, all these results are consistent with the standard model expectations.« less

  7. Biological and related chemical research concerning subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste: report of a workshop at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, January 12-16, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, M.M.; Gomez, L.S.

    1981-10-01

    Following the introduction, this report contains: recommendations (research on radionuclide movement processes, research on radionuclide transport processes, administration and policy); abstracts of plenary talks (Large-Scale Distributions of Deep-Sea Benthic Organisms, Transfer Processes Between Water Column and Benthos, Particle Reworking and Biogeochemistry of Sediments, radioecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Waste Disposal of Radionuclides); summaries of subgroup discussions (geochemistry and microbiology, benthic biology, pelagic biology, radioecology); and appendices (model of physical-biological transfers, participants and institutional affiliations). (ATT)

  8. Mechanisms of Change During Attention Training and Mindfulness in High Trait-Anxious Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Peter M; Graville, Rachel; Hayes, Sarra; Kane, Robert T; Foster, Jonathan K

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique; ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures. High trait anxious participants (N = 81, Mage = 23.60, SDage = 7.66, 80% female) were randomized to receive ATT, MB-PMR, or the TWC condition. Measures of cognitive and somatic anxiety, distancing, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility were administered before or after the attention manipulation task. Compared to the TWC group, ATT and MB-PMR were associated with greater changes on cognitive (but not somatic) anxiety, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and uncorrected errors for threat-related words on the Stroop task. The pattern of means was similar for distancing, but this did not reach statistical significance, and Stroop speed increased equally for all conditions. Indirect effects models revealed significant effects of condition on state anxiety via distancing, metacognitive beliefs, and present-focused attention, but not via Stroop errors. ATT and MB-PMR were associated with changes on anxiety and the mechanism measures, suggesting that the mechanisms of change may be more similar than different across these techniques. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. ROMANSE Public Transport Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven

    ROMANSE is multi-million pound pilot project based in Southampton. It aims to use Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT) to develop the city as a model for transport management systems across Europe. ROMANSE achieves this by providing realtime traffic and travel information to influence travel behaviour, increase the use of public transport, maximize the efficiency of the transport system and provide high-quality information for use in strategic policy decisions.

  10. Does lateral versus medial exposure influence total knee tibial component final external rotation? A CT based study.

    PubMed

    Passeron, D; Gaudot, F; Boisrenoult, P; Fallet, L; Beaufils, P

    2009-10-01

    A previous study demonstrated that performing a total knee arthroplasty through a lateral approach including anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT) osteotomy (refixed in its original position) presented numerous advantages: correcting the preoperative patella lateral tilt and improving postoperative patella tracking. We hypothesized that these improvements in patella centering were, at least in part, due to an increased external rotation of the tibial component. Postoperative scannographic studies were, therefore, undertaken to measure tibial component rotation and analyze the results according the medial and lateral exposure used. Rotational positioning of the tibial component is influenced by the lateral or medial approach selected at surgery. Forty-five CAT scans, performed according to the protocol criteria of the French Hip and Knee Society (SFHG), were studied 3 months postoperatively: 15 knees operated through the lateral approach and 30 knees operated through a standard medial approach. The total knee utilized in all these cases was a posteriorly stabilized, fixed-bearing, design. We measured first the angle formed between the perpendicular to the transverse axis of the tibial component and the axis joining the ATT to the center of the knee; second we also measured the coronal distance between the center of the component and the anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT). In the group using the medial approach, the lateral position of the ATT was 7 + or - 3mm with a rotation angle of 18 degrees . In the group using the lateral approach these measurements were respectively 1 + or - 4mm and 2 degrees (p<0.0001). External rotation of the tibial component is substantially increased by the lateral approach compared to the medial approach. Better exposure of the lateral tibial plateau is probably responsible of this difference. This increased external rotation improves postoperative patella tracking. Prospective; comparative; non-randomized study; level 3. 2009 Elsevier Masson

  11. A Review of Communications Satellites and Related Spacecraft for Factors Influencing Mission Success. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-17

    satellite and related spacecraft programs to identify factors influencing mission success. Includes a summary of military and commercial programs to date... commercial Japanese CS. Simi- larly, there is some design commonality evident in Intelsat IV, Intelsat IVA, and the AT&T COMSTAR. (These...generation Intelsat commercial satellites. DSCS II is also known as Program 777. The DSCS II satellite was designed and fabricated by the TRW Systems

  12. Large Grain Data-Flow Graph Restructuring for EMSP Signal Processing Benchmarks on the ECOS Workstation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This thesis documents a procedure for implementing the Revolving Cylinder scheduling algorithm for parallel programs on the ECOS Workstation System...EWS), designed specifically by AT&T for simulation of the Enhanced Modular Signal Processor (EMSP) currently in use by the United States Navy. The...structures. Impact of the algorithm on throughput and latency is discussed, as well as performance determination using the tools provided with the ECOS

  13. Steps Toward an Empirical Evaluation of Robust Regression Applied to Reaction-Time Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Bell Labs); Knoll, Ronald L. (AT&T Bell Labs)1pa .Y P Of R EPO RT r 13~b.TIM E8 S p 0 T 87 ug 1,vEREYD 19 6 o em e eChTMca 1 14. DATEOF REPORT (Year...Visber livereity of soah Carolina Oak aid", TX 37830 U.S. Army Institute for the Colesb1n, IC 29306 .. ebavora). and Soeial sciences o8rto.U. S. Marine

  14. Using the GPS to Collect Trajectory Data for Ejection Seat Design, Validation, and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Performing Organization Report Number AFIT/GE/ENG/02M-27 Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and Address(es) AFRL/HEPA ATT: Mr. John Plaga Q...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. i Acknowledgments I would like to start by thanking Mr. John Plaga from the Air...Human Effectiveness division, especially Mr. John Plaga for his contributions during the hardware acquisition and configuration. In addition the

  15. Paradoxical Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) in HIV Patients with Culture Confirmed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in India and the Potential Role of IL-6 in Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brian O.; Chandrasekhar, Chockalingam; Venkatesan, Perumal; Menon, Pradeep A.; Subramanian, Sudha; Anbalagan, Selvaraj; Bhavani, Kannabiran P.; Sekar, Sathiyavelu; Padmapriyadarshini, Chandrasekaran; Kumar, Satagopan; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Raja, Krishnaraj; Bhanu, Kesavamurthy; Mahilmaran, Ayyamperumal; Sekar, Lakshmanan; Sher, Alan; Sereti, Irini; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence, manifestations, outcome and clinical predictors of paradoxical TB-IRIS in patients with HIV and culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in India have not been studied prospectively. Methods HIV+ patients with culture confirmed PTB started on anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) were followed prospectively after anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Established criteria for IRIS diagnosis were used including decline in plasma HIV RNA at IRIS event. Pre-ART plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between baseline variables and IRIS. Results Of 57 patients enrolled, 48 had complete follow up data. Median ATT-ART interval was 28 days (interquartile range, IQR 14–47). IRIS events occurred in 26 patients (54.2%) at a median of 11 days (IQR: 7–16) after ART initiation. Corticosteroids were required for treatment of most IRIS events that resolved within a median of 13 days (IQR: 9–23). Two patients died due to CNS TB-IRIS. Lower CD4+ T-cell counts, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, lower CD4/CD8 ratio, lower hemoglobin, shorter ATT to ART interval, extra-pulmonary or miliary TB and higher plasma IL-6 and CRP levels at baseline were associated with paradoxical TB-IRIS in the univariate analysis. Shorter ATT to ART interval, lower hemoglobin and higher IL-6 and CRP levels remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Paradoxical TB–IRIS frequently complicates HIV-TB therapy in India. IL-6 and CRP may assist in predicting IRIS events and serve as potential targets for immune interventions. PMID:23691062

  16. Abdominal Lymphonodular Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Child

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Mehjabeen; Qureshi, Sonia; Shakoor, Sadia; Fatima, Saira; Mir, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with an apparently immunocompetent child presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin without focal signs. Investigations revealed lymphadenopathy at lung hila, mesentery, and porta hepatis. The child had received at least two months of empiric antituberculous therapy (ATT) before she came to us. A CT-guided biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation. PAS stain showed yeasts which stained blue with Alcian blue, suggesting C. neoformans. PMID:26649217

  17. UTC Time Transfer for High Frequency Trading Using IS-95 CDMA Base Station Transmissions and IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Referred to as IS-95 CDMA, it competes with technologies such as GSM provided by AT&T. However, worldwide GSM has more coverage, and in Europe, it is...the only option. Most smart phones offered in the market today have a GSM and CDMA version available, with some providing dual CDMA/ GSM hybrid...models for more coverage. Currently, GSM and other technologies do not provide precise timing capabilities. CDMA IS-95 does provide precise timing

  18. Annual Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces (17th) Held in Clearwater Beach, Florida on January 31 - February 2, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-12

    34 R. S. Becker , Y. Kuk, G. IKochansi, H. F. Hess, P. J. Silverman, and R. B. Robinson (AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ) 8:45 Discussions 8:55...NJ 07974 JPL/Caltech (201) 582-2838 4800 Oak Grove Dr. M/S 302-231 Pasadena, CA 91109 Sid I. Ingrey Bell-Northern Research Dr. Hartmut Hochst P.O. Box

  19. 155-MM Shell MK II (HOW), HS-FILLED: Serviceability of War Reserve Shell and Quantities of Ammunition Required to Produce 50% Casualties on Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1935-07-19

    gaa maak oDly. a. Shell. !he ahell uaed waa the KII, 15~ tilled with HSe -! hey were obtained troa -.z- Reaern at lclgnood AraeJJ&l ud. represent...o.e ~· in lise - "loa% O&lualtiea In the testa ooDibloted. no atte.pt wu JUde to clasdty drop shea between 0.6 and 1.0 mg. due to d1tf1oul’t7 in

  20. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development) Guide to Aerospace and Defence Technical Report Series in NATO Countries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Att: Mgr - STOPC-35 ADDRESS : AWIS Project Mamagement Office Fort Belvoir, VA 22060 COUNTRY : United States TELEPHONE : TELEX OR TWX TYPE OF...Government Support NOTES ORAE-PR-[NNN] Project Report 1 RAE EXTRAMURAL REP-[NNNJ Extramural [Contract] Report 1 ORAE-M-[NNN] Memorandum 2 DLA-SN-[YY-NN...XX - department code; XX - generic code; XXX - project or general or research; XXX - subject code; NNNNN - number

  1. An Investigation of Access Area Engineering Methods for AUTOVON.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    LEVUV TN 22-81 DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING CENTER DTIC ELECTE TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 22-81 FEBO 9 W AN INVESTIGATION OF ACCESS AREAENGINEERING...CATALOG NUMBER DCEC TN 22-81 4. TITLE (nd Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN INVESTIGATION OF ACCESS AREA Technical Note ENGINEERING METHODS...itf necee.ar ad Identify by block numiber) In this technical note we compare both qualitatively and quantatively, the two methods (AT&T and DCA’s

  2. On Inference and Transient Response for M/G/1 Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Probability Program Code 411(SP) Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 Dr. Morris DeGroot Statistics Department Carnegie-Mellon University...University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 Dr. R. Gnanadesikan Bell Core 435 South Street Morris Township, NJ 07960 Prof. Bernard Harris Dept. of...07974 Dr. D. Pregibon Bell Telephone Laboratories - AT&T Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Dr. Jon Kettenring Bell Core 435 South Street Morris Township, NJ 07960

  3. Characterization of the Class 3 Integron and the Site-Specific Recombination System It Determines

    PubMed Central

    Collis, Christina M.; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Partridge, Sally R.; Stokes, H. W.; Hall, Ruth M.

    2002-01-01

    Integrons capture gene cassettes by using a site-specific recombination mechanism. As only one class of integron and integron-determined site-specific recombination system has been studied in detail, the properties of a second class, the only known class 3 integron, were examined. The configuration of the three potentially definitive features of integrons, the intI3 gene, the adjacent attI3 recombination site, and the Pc promoter that directs transcription of the cassettes, was similar to that found in the corresponding region (5′ conserved segment) of class 1 integrons. The integron features are flanked by a copy of the terminal inverted repeat, IRi, from class 1 integrons on one side and a resolvase-encoding tniR gene on the other, suggesting that they are part of a transposable element related to Tn402 but with the integron module in the opposite orientation. The IntI3 integrase was active and able to recognize and recombine both known types of IntI-specific recombination sites, the attI3 site in the integron, and different cassette-associated 59-be (59-base element) sites. Both integration of circularized cassettes into the attI3 site and excision of integrated cassettes were also catalyzed by IntI3. The attI3 site was localized to a short region adjacent to the intI3 gene. Recombination between a 59-be and secondary sites was also catalyzed by IntI3, but at frequencies significantly lower than observed with IntI1, the class 1 integron integrase. PMID:12003943

  4. Spectrally Shaped Random-Phase Spreading Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-24

    gain reduction due to reference function windowing. 18 3.3 Excision of narrow band interference. 19 4 4.1 Hardware based adaptive system with...frequency-spread CW interference falling within the data-rate bandwidth. Assuming that fref(t) is at base band, i.e. having a spectrum extending from zero...report describes the baseband hardware demonstrator based upon AT&T DSP32C digital signal processing cards in an IBM personal computer host platform, and

  5. Quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamic parameters by QUASAR arterial spin labeling in Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal Elderly adults at 3-tesla.

    PubMed

    Mak, Henry K F; Chan, Queenie; Zhang, Zhipeng; Petersen, Esben T; Qiu, Deqiang; Zhang, Linda; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chu, Leung-Wing; Golay, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to investigate the role of vascular impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that the hemodynamic parameters monitoring cerebrovascular integrity, i.e., cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial blood volume (aBV), and arterial transit time (aTT), would be affected. 13 AD patients and 15 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning. Two separate blood flow acquisitions were obtained with 1 slice overlap for whole brain coverage. CBF, aBV, and aTT maps were calculated using in-house software. Preprocessing and statistical analyses were performed on SPM5. Region-of-interest (ROI) studies of ten selected cerebral regions were also conducted. There were significant differences in mini mental status exam (MMSE) (AD: 16.3 ± 4.55, HC: 28.5 ± 2.00) and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) scores (AD: 25.25 ± 9.64, HC: 5.51 ± 2.62) between the 2 groups (p < 0.001) but none in age (p = 0.068). CBF decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in AD compared to controls in the right middle cingulate, left cuneus, left inferior and middle frontal, right superior frontal, left inferior parietal, and right supramarginal gyri. ROI studies confirmed significant hemodynamic impairments in AD compared to HC (p < 0.05): CBF in middle and posterior cingulate, aBV in left superior temporal, right inferior parietal, and posterior cingulate, and aTT in left inferior frontal and middle cingulate gyri. CBF correlated positively while aTT correlated negatively to MMSE, and vice versa for ADAS-cog. Using QUASAR ASL, we found patterns of regional hemodynamic impairment typical of moderate AD, suggesting underlying vascular abnormality. As potential biomarkers, these hemodynamic parameters could differentiate patients from volunteers, and possibly indicate the conversion from healthy aging to mild cognitive impairment to AD.

  6. Defense Horizons. Number 29, July 2003. Beyond the Mainland: Chinese Telecommunications Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    world network services providers, reestablishing China as a major player in this market.7 Perhaps even more important, Huawei Corporation is now pro...inantly American, including AT&T, Worldcom, Sprint, and Infonet, initially following the expansion of U.S. multinational corporate development from the...Worldcom’s by its financial and reporting problems; and Sprint’s by its unhappy joint venture with Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom in Global One

  7. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... date NACLC or SSBI Conf, Sec; “L” Top Secret, SCI; “Q” None None SSBI B None; Conf, Sec; “L” Current or... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table...

  8. A Review of New Training Technology at the U.S. Army Signal School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    training applications such as general employee training and health physics. AT&T has a group that has dedicated responsibility to research and...current IVD and CBI. What is the new technology and what steps should the School take to benefit from it? This section will attempt to answer these...must provide instruction that combines the individualized, self-paced benefits of an interactive computer with the knowledge, understanding, and

  9. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95% of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using ΦC31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns. PMID:19465919

  10. Breast tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients at tertiary care center: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Chand, Gyan; Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Rao, Ram Nawal; Agarwal, Shudhi; Babu, Sunil S; Dhole, Tapan N

    2012-01-01

    The breast tuberculosis (TB) is an extremely rare manifestation for the reason that mammary cells offer great resistance to the survival and multiplication of Mycobacterium infection. The diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific clinical and radiological findings. It is usually suspected in a multiparous, reproductive woman. We report three cases of tubercular infection of breast confirmed by either mycobacteriology, pathology or both. We described their diagnostic confirmation and six month follow-up after antitubercular treatment (ATT). PMID:23264799

  11. Statistics and Physical Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    POLLOCK , University of Michigan DARYL PREGIBON, AT&T Bell Laboratories Staff JOHN R. TUCKER, Senior Program Officer nli BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL...Reynolds numbers associated with the onset of turbulence. The Reynolds number is a measure of the relative importance of inertial forces in the fluid as...in energy dissipation on the shape of turbulent characteristics in the inertial interval. Sov. Phys. Dok/l (EngL TransL) 2:26-30. Zakharov, V. E. 1984

  12. Sustainable Contingency Base Camp Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    L , IJU;TAL 6:1 6>::’JI&O.’ID’ C unums - IVA’TU.Al.V.$ - -~ D Tli,Oil!’tJ Mi’(’(n ~p t::il A•ilt’UJI -~· G_jJ "’"n - AJO ?Solti’U.E - AtT""llq

  13. Intravenous Renal Cell Transplantation for Polycystic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    untreated PCK or normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. PCR genotype was performed using primers specified by Charles River: Mut-F: 5-AAG CCA AAT CTT TCT... CTT TTC CT-3’ Mut-R: 5’- CTT GCT GTC CGA ATA CCA C -3’ Wt-F:5’-ACT GCC TTT TAC TGA AGC ATT TAA C-3’ Wt-R: 5’- TGG AAG GAA AAG TTG CCC T -3’ MW

  14. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Treatability of RDX/HMX Site ’X’ Facility Wastewaters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    collapsible rubber tanks were used as feed tanks. The synthetic influent was fed from one tank while the other was being cleaned and refilled. The influent was...34Methods for Detecting Carcinogens and Mutagens with the Salmonella/Mammalian Microsome Mutagenicity Test," Mutation Research, 31, 347-364. ARRADCOM...Chief of Research, Development and Acquisition C’ommannder ATT’N: DAMA- CSM -P ITS Ariny Enovironmental Hygiene Agency Washington, DC 20310 A-ITN: HSE-E

  15. Shemya AFB, Alaska Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    observing schedule* did not eport ertal tree - our perlods far my pertieular eailh dring Lhe available peril of record. Such atteing sheets are listed below...s X) - Nm. Oh. Neem No. of Now wilk Tom pre Rol... 4 . 6.- : 7 11 0 sS 2 2F 07P73 oP 93 P T~ - . . o3lb 4’ 7 f4 31 - . 1 9ac e

  16. [Follow-up with the assistance of TB-info software of 208 tuberculosis patients who were treated in 2004].

    PubMed

    Bourgarit, A; Mallet, H-P; Keshtmand, H; De Castro, N; Rambeloarisoa, J; Fain, O; Antoun, F; Picard, C; Rocher, G; Che, D; Farge, D

    2009-10-01

    The impact of the TB-info software was assessed on the care of patients treated with antituberculosis regimen (ATT). Cohort study of patients with tuberculosis who received an ATT in 2004 in two hospitals and five medical centres in Paris. Follow-up was implemented with the TB-info software. Data were compared to those of the 1999-2003 cohort. Two hundred and nine ATT were initiated in 2004, with a mean duration of 7.2 months. Demographic and clinical data reflected this population precariousness: 79% were foreign-born, 25% lived in institutions and half of them had no or unusual health insurance. Compared to the previous cohort, viral co-infections were tested in more than 80% cases and showed association with HIV, HBV or HCV in 11, 10 and 5% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one patients were lost for follow-up (11%) and 76% of the smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis therapies were declared successful but only 34% were declared cured with the WHO criteria. Analysis of the data obtained with TB-info software showed an improvement of tuberculosis patients care with more co-infection tested and less lost for follow-up. These results confirm the usefulness of this software for patients care and assessment of physicians practice in France.

  17. Transverse double-spin asymmetries for electroweak gauge-boson production in high-energy polarized p-> + p-> collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd; Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude

    2016-09-01

    The collision of high-energy polarized proton beams at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory provides a powerful way to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton such as the study of the helicity distributions of gluons and quarks / antiquarks based on well established high-energy QCD and W boson processes, respectively. Several studies have been suggested in the past to gain a better understanding of the transversity distribution, in particular the measurement of the transverse double-spin asymmetries (ATT) for Drell-Yan production. Prior NLO calculations for Drell-Yan γ / Z exchange have been used to evaluate ATT for Z production using maximal bounds for the transversity distribution. The transverse double-spin asymmetry for W production is expected to be zero. The status of ATT NLO calculations specifically for γ / Z exchange will be discussed using maximal bounds of transversity distributions within the framework by Bourrely and Soffer.

  18. Tuberculosis in HIV patient.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Bidhan Nidhi; Paudel, Punya; Paudel, Luna; Dhungana, Govinda; Amatya, Gyanendra Lal; Aryal, Choodamani; Kandel, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Strict monitoring ofanti tuberculosis therapy and antiretroviral therapyis crucial for proper management of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Between December 2006 and December 2008 a prospective observational study was conducted among 135 TB/HIV co-infected patients visiting antiretroviral therapy in Seti Zonal Hospital, Dhangadi. The diagnosed TB patients were subjected to ATT through directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) and its response was evaluated as per WHO guidelines. Among 135 studied subjects, 97 (71.9%) were males and over 119 (88 %) of the patients were in the age group 21 to 50. Of the total TB cases 92 (68.1%) presented pulmonary TB and 37.20% of the Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis cases were lymph node TB. 72 (53.33%) of them had completed ATT, 11 (8.2%) transfer out and 17 (12.6%) were default. Majority of the patients presented PTB, and lymph node TB was found to be the most common EPTB. Comparatively, high efficacy of ATT was found in HIV patients visiting this resource poor setting.

  19. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  20. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top-quark pair production in the dilepton final state at s=8TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-08-22

    Measurements of the top-antitop quark pair production charge asymmetry in the dilepton channel, characterized by two high-pT leptons (electrons or muons), are presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1 from pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy √s = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Inclusive and differential measurements as a function of the invariant mass, transverse momentum, and longitudinal boost of the tt¯ system are performed both in the full phase space and in a fiducial phase space closely matching the detector acceptance. Two observables are studied: AℓℓCmore » based on the selected leptons and Att¯C based on the reconstructed tt¯ final state. As a result, the inclusive asymmetries are measured in the full phase space to be AℓℓC=0.008±0.006 and Att¯C=0.021±0.016, which are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of AℓℓC=0.0064±0.0003 and Att¯C=0.0111±0.0004.« less