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Sample records for attaining ultra-high energies

  1. Ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, P. R.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Salamon, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays have been observed by means of atmospheric fluorescence with the Fly's Eye since 1981. The differential energy spectrum above 0.1 EeV is well fitted by a power law with slope 2.94 + or - 0.02. Some evidence of flattening of the spectrum is observed or energies greater than 10 EeV, however only one event is observed with energy greater than 50 EeV and a spectral cutoff is indicated above 70 EeV.

  2. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Rafael Antonio; Moncada, Roberto; Guerra, Juan; Anchordoqui, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The search for the origin(s) of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CR) remains one of the cornerstones of high energy astrophysics. The previously proposed sources of acceleration for these UHECRs were gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to their energetic activity and powerful jets. However, a problem arises between the acceleration method and the observed CR spectrum. The CRs from GRBs or AGN jets are assumed to undergo Fermi acceleration and a source injection spectrum proportional to E^-2 is expected. However, the most recent fits to the spectrum and nuclear composition suggest an injection spectrum proportional to E^-1. It is well known that such a hard spectrum is characteristic of unipolar induction of rotating compact objects. When this method is applied to the AGN cores, they prove to be much too luminous to accelerate CR nuclei without photodisintegrating, thus creating significant energy losses. Instead, here we re-examine the possibility of these particles being accelerated around the much less luminous quasar remnants, or dead quasars. We compare the interaction times of curvature radiation and photodisintegration, the two primary energy loss considerations with the acceleration time scale. We show that the energy losses at the source are not significant enough as to prevent these CRs from reaching the maximum observed energies. Using data from observatories in the northern and southern sky, the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory respectively, two hotspots have been discerned which have some associated quasar remnants that help to motivate our study.

  3. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S.; Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F.; Salamida, F. E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  4. The Telescope Array Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Obsrevatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  5. The energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzayyad, Tareq Ziad

    2000-11-01

    The Energy Spectrum of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays is measured by the first of two High Resolution Fly's Eye detectors in the monocular mode. The data set collected in the period of May 1997 to June 1999 was used for the measurement. A new reconstruction procedure (profile constrained geometry fit) was developed to analyze the data. This procedure gives reasonably good energy resolution, but poor xmax resolution. Resolution and systematics are discussed in the thesis. The spectrum measurement results are consistent with previous measurements in normalization and general shape. The spectrum appears to continue beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min cutoff.

  6. Ultra high energy neutrinos: absorption, thermal effects and signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Sabancilar, Eray; Yang, Lili E-mail: Eray.Sabancilar@asu.edu

    2013-08-01

    We study absorption of ultra high energy neutrinos by the cosmic neutrino background, with full inclusion of the effect of the thermal distribution of the background on the resonant annihilation channel. For a hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum (with at least one neutrino with mass below ∼ 10{sup −2} eV), thermal effects are important for ultra high energy neutrino sources at z∼>16. The neutrino transmission probability shows no more than two separate suppression dips since the two lightest mass eigenstates contribute as a single species when thermal effects are included. Results are applied to a number of models of ultra high energy neutrino emission. Suppression effects are strong for sources that extend beyond z ∼ 10, which can be realized for certain top down scenarios, such as superheavy dark matter decays, cosmic strings and cosmic necklaces. For these, a broad suppression valley should affect the neutrino spectrum at least in the energy interval 10{sup 12}−10{sup 13} GeV — which therefore is disfavored for ultra high energy neutrino searches — with only a mild dependence on the neutrino mass spectrum and hierarchy. The observation of absorption effects would indicate a population of sources beyond z ∼ 10, and favor top-down mechanisms; it would also be an interesting probe of the physics of the relic neutrino background in the unexplored redshift interval z ∼ 10–100.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuempel, Daniel; Sigl, Guenter

    Even more than 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays and various experimental efforts, the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 100 PeV) remains unclear. A key ingredient to interpret data and to draw conclusions on astrophysical parameters is a detailed knowledge on production and propagation effects of these highest energetic particles in the universe. With the advent of advanced simulation engines developed during the last couple of years, and the increase of experimental data, we are now in a unique position to model source and propagation parameters in an unprecedented precision and compare it to measured data from large-scale observatories. In this contribution we revisit the most important propagation effects of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through photon backgrounds and magnetic fields and introduce recent developments of propagation codes. Finally, possible implications on astrophysical parameters are given.

  8. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Setting the stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolsky, P.

    2013-06-01

    The history of ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics is reviewed from the post-war era of arrays such as Volcano Ranch, Haverah Park and Akeno to the development of air-fluorescence and current hybrid arrays. The aim of this paper is to present the background information needed for a better understanding of the current issues in this field that are discussed in much greater depth in the rest of this conference.

  9. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: the highest energy frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Neto, João R. T.

    2016-04-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy messengers of the present universe, with energies up to 1020 eV. Studies of astrophysical particles (nuclei, electrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. The primary particles interact in the atmosphere and generate extensive air showers. Analysis of those showers enables one not only to estimate the energy, direction and most probable mass of the primary cosmic particles, but also to obtain information about the properties of their hadronic interactions at an energy more than one order of magnitude above that accessible with the current highest energy human-made accelerator. In this contribution we will review the state-of-the-art in UHECRs detection. We will present the leading experiments Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and discuss the cosmic ray energy spectrum, searches for directional anisotropy, studies of mass composition, the determination of the number of shower muons (which is sensitive to the shower hadronic interactions) and the proton-air cross section.

  10. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  11. Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, Abigail G.

    2015-07-15

    Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino astronomy constitutes a new window of observation onto the UHE universe. The detection and characterization of astrophysical neutrinos at the highest energies (E> 10{sup 18} eV) would reveal the sources of high-energy cosmic rays, the highest energy particles ever seen, and would constrain the evolution of such sources over time. UHE neutrino astrophysics also allows us to probe weak interaction couplings at energies much greater than those available at particle colliders. One promising way of detecting the highest energy neutrinos is through the radio emission created when they interact in a large volume of dielectric, such as ice. Here I discuss current results and future efforts to instrument large volumes of detector material with radio antennas to detect, point back, and characterize the energy of UHE astrophysical neutrinos.

  12. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiali; Tiedt, Douglas

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  13. Anomalous Diffraction at Ultra-High Energy for Protein Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Jakoncic,J.; Di Michiel, M.; Zhong, Z.; Honkimaki, V.; Jouanneau, Y.; Stojanoff, V.

    2006-01-01

    Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing at ultra-high X-ray energy, 55 keV, are used successfully to determine a high-quality and high-resolution experimental electronic density map of hen egg-white lysozyme, a model protein. Several combinations, between single- and three-wavelength, with native data were exploited to demonstrate that standard phasing procedures with standard equipment and software can successfully be applied to three-dimensional crystal structure determination of a macromolecule, even at these very short wavelengths. For the first time, a high-quality three-dimensional molecular structure is reported from SAD phasing with ultra-high-energy X-rays. The quality of the crystallographic data and the experimental electron density maps meet current standards. The 2.7% anomalous signal from three Ho atoms, at the Ho K edge, was sufficient to obtain a remarkable electron density and build the first lanthanide structure for HEWL in its entirety.

  14. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e(±)) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  15. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e(±)) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons. PMID:23405276

  16. Ultra High Energy Electrons Powered by Pulsar Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-02-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e+/-) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  17. Simulations of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashev, O. E.; Kido, E.

    2015-05-15

    We compare two techniques for simulation of the propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in intergalactic space: the Monte Carlo approach and a method based on solving transport equations in one dimension. For the former, we adopt the publicly available tool CRPropa and for the latter, we use the code TransportCR, which has been developed by the first author and used in a number of applications, and is made available online with publishing this paper. While the CRPropa code is more universal, the transport equation solver has the advantage of a roughly 100 times higher calculation speed. We conclude that the methods give practically identical results for proton or neutron primaries if some accuracy improvements are introduced to the CRPropa code.

  18. On the acceleration of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Fraschetti, Federico

    2008-12-13

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) hit the Earth's atmosphere with energies exceeding 10(18)eV. This is the same energy as carried by a tennis ball moving at 100 km h-1, but concentrated on a subatomic particle. UHECRs are so rare (the flux of particles with E>10(20)eV is 0.5 km -2 per century) that only a few such particles have been detected over the past 50 years. Recently, the HiRes and Auger experiments have reported the discovery of a high-energy cut-off in the UHECR spectrum, and Auger has found an apparent clustering of the highest energy events towards nearby active galactic nuclei. Consensus is building that the highest energy particles are accelerated within the radio-bright lobes of these objects, but it remains unclear how this actually happens, and whether the cut-off is due to propagation effects or reflects an intrinsically physical limitation of the acceleration process. The low event statistics presently allows for many different plausible models; nevertheless observations are beginning to impose strong constraints on them. These observations have also motivated suggestions that new physics may be implicated. We present a review of the key theoretical and observational issues related to the processes of propagation and acceleration of UHECRs and proposed solutions.

  19. Causality, renormalizability and ultra-high energy gravitational scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Shore, Graham M.

    2016-05-01

    The amplitude { A }(s,t) for ultra-high energy scattering can be found in the leading eikonal approximation by considering propagation in an Aichelburg–Sexl gravitational shockwave background. Loop corrections in the QFT describing the scattered particles are encoded for energies below the Planck scale in an effective action which in general exhibits causality violation and Shapiro time advances. In this paper, we use Penrose limit techniques to calculate the full energy dependence of the scattering phase shift {{{\\Theta }}}{{scat}}(\\hat{s}), where the single variable \\hat{s}={Gs}/{m}2{b}d-2 contains both the CM energy s and impact parameter b, for a range of scalar QFTs in d dimensions with different renormalizability properties. We evaluate the high-energy limit of {{{\\Theta }}}{{scat}}(\\hat{s}) and show in detail how causality is related to the existence of a well-defined UV completion. Similarities with graviton scattering and the corresponding resolution of causality violation in the effective action by string theory are briefly discussed.

  20. "Espresso" Acceleration of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    We propose that ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) above 1018 eV are produced in relativistic jets of powerful active galactic nuclei via an original mechanism, which we dub “espresso” acceleration: “seed” galactic CRs with energies ≲1017 eV that penetrate the jet sideways receive a “one-shot” boost of a factor of ∼Γ2 in energy, where Γ is the Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. For typical jet parameters, a few percent of the CRs in the host galaxy can undergo this process, and powerful blazars with Γ ≳ 30 may accelerate UHECRs up to more than 1020 eV. The chemical composition of espresso-accelerated UHECRs is determined by that at the Galactic CR knee and is expected to be proton-dominated at 1018 eV and increasingly heavy at higher energies, in agreement with recent observations made at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos with JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos are carriers of very important astrophysical information. They may be produced at the sites of cosmic ray acceleration or during the propagation of the cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium. In contrast to charged cosmic rays, photon and neutrino arrival directions point to the production site because they are not deflected by the magnetic fields of the Galaxy or the intergalactic medium. In this work we study the characteristics of the longitudinal development of showers initiated by photons and neutrinos at the highest energies. These studies are relevant for development of techniques for neutrino and photon identification by the JEM-EUSO telescope. In particular, we study the possibility of observing the multi-peak structure of very deep horizontal neutrino showers with JEM-EUSO. We also discuss the possibility to determine the flavor content of the incident neutrino flux by taking advantage of the different characteristics of the longitudinal profiles generated by different type of neutrinos. This is of grate importance for the study of the fundamental properties of neutrinos at the highest energies. Regarding photons, we discuss the detectability of the cosmogenic component by JEM-EUSO and also estimate the expected upper limits on the photon fraction which can be obtained from the future JEM-EUSO data for the case in which there are no photons in the samples.

  2. Nuclear isomers as ultra-high-energy-density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, C. H.; Weiss, M. S.; Anderson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    Nuclear isomers are metastable states of atomic nuclei which release their energy in a prompt burst of electromagnetic radiation. Two kinds of nuclear isomers are known to exist: spin isomers and shape isomers. There is evidence for at least 27 different fissionless shape isomers in isotopes of mercury, lead, and thallium, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Three potential mechanisms for releasing the stored isomeric energy are neutron catalysis, laser-electron-nuclear coupling, and Stark-shift-induced mixing. While shape isomers are believed to hold the most promise for radioactivity-free, ultra-high-energy-density materials, spin isomers can be used as surrogates for developing the release mechanisms. It is proposed to undertake shell-model calculations for the nuclear levels in vicinity of the (sup 178)Hf spin isomer, in order to estimate the efficacy of neutron catalysis. It is also proposed to use the toroidal electron spectrometer to measure the conversion electrons from laser-induced transitions in (sup 229)Th. The final mechanism, Stark-shift-induced mixing of atomic and nuclear levels, would also be studied theoretically. Finally, isomer production is considered briefly, including the possibility of shape isomers in fission products from radwaste or nuclear explosions.

  3. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  4. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  5. Anisotropy vs chemical composition at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, Martin; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes and discusses a test of the chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays that relies on the anisotropy patterns measured as a function of energy. In particular, we show that if one records an anisotropy signal produced by heavy nuclei of charge Z above an energy E{sub thr}, one should record an even stronger (possibly much stronger) anisotropy at energies >E{sub thr}/Z due to the proton component that is expected to be associated with the sources of the heavy nuclei. This conclusion remains robust with respect to the parameters characterizing the sources and it does not depend at all on the modelling of astrophysical magnetic fields. As a concrete example, we apply this test to the most recent data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Assuming that the anisotropy reported above 55 EeV is not a statistical accident, and that no significant anisotropy has been observed at energies ∼<10 EeV, we show that the apparent clustering toward Cen A cannot be attributed to heavy nuclei. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding the apparent excess correlation with nearby active galactic nuclei. We then discuss a robust lower bound to the magnetic luminosity that a source must possess in order to be able to accelerate particles of charge Z up to 100 EeV, L{sub B} ∼> 10{sup 45} Z{sup −2} erg/s. Using this bound in conjunction with the above conclusions, we argue that the current PAO data does not support the model of cosmic ray origin in active radio-quiet or even radio-loud galaxies. Finally, we demonstrate that the apparent clustering in the direction of Cen A can be explained by the contribution of the last few gamma-ray bursts or magnetars in the host galaxy thanks to the scattering of the cosmic rays on the magnetized lobes.

  6. GZK photons as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, G. B.; Kalashev, O. E. Semikoz, D. V.

    2008-06-15

    We calculate the flux of 'GZK photons,' namely, the flux of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) consisting of photons produced by extragalactic nucleons through the resonant photoproduction of pions, the so-called GZK effect. We show that for primary nucleons, the GZK-photon fraction of the total UHECR flux is between 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -2} above 10{sup 19} eV and up to the order of 0.1 above 10{sup 20} eV. The GZK-photon flux depends on the assumed UHECR spectrum, the slope of the nucleon flux at the source, and the distribution of sources and intervening backgrounds. Detection of this photon flux would open the way for UHECR gamma-ray astronomy. Detection of a larger photon flux would imply the emission of photons at the source or new physics. We compare the photon fractions expected for GZK photons and the minimal fractions predicted by top-down models. We find that the photon fraction above 10{sup 19} eV is a crucial test for top-down models.

  7. Searching for ultra high energy neutrinos from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, A.

    2006-07-01

    Observations of neutrinos at Ultra High Energies (UHE), from a few 1018 eV to beyond the decade of 1020 eV, are an extraordinary opportunity to explore this still largely unknown Universe and present us a tremendous experimental challenge. It is indeed expected that observations of UHEνs (and cosmic rays) will provide entirely new information on the sources and on the physical mechanisms able to accelerate these extreme messengers to macroscopic energies. However, as extensively debated in the last few years, UHE particles might, also, carry evidence of unknown physics or of exotic particles, relics of the early Universe. To reach these goals, high statistics, high quality observations are required. This implies innovative experiments with larger acceptances and good understanding of systematic uncertainties. The ground-based Pierre Auger Observatory, whose southern site is expected to be completed in Malargue, Argentina by the end of 2006, will surely provide, in the near future, a more solid observational scenario for UHE Cosmic Rays (UHECR). However, only space-based observatories can reach the effective area necessary to systematically explore the UHE universe. Space-based observatories are likely to be essential for neutrino observations at UHE. In fact only a few UHE neutrinos will be detected by the current planned observatories and only if the most promising estimates for fluxes applies. In the present paper, after summarizing the science rationale behind UHEν studies, we review the status of current experimental efforts, with the main emphasis on the actual generation of space-based observatories. We also briefly discuss the scientific goals, the requirements and the R&D of a “next-generation” space-based mission for UHE observations. The opening of the ESA “Cosmic Vision 2015 2025” long term plan provides, in the very near future, an unique opportunity to develop such a challenging and innovative observatory for UHE.

  8. SimProp: a simulation code for ultra high energy cosmic ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, R.; Grillo, A.F.; Boncioli, D.; Petrera, S.; Salamida, F. E-mail: denise.boncioli@roma2.infn.it E-mail: petrera@aquila.infn.it

    2012-10-01

    A new Monte Carlo simulation code for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays is presented. The results of this simulation scheme are tested by comparison with results of another Monte Carlo computation as well as with the results obtained by directly solving the kinetic equation for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. A short comparison with the latest flux published by the Pierre Auger collaboration is also presented.

  9. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray acceleration by relativistic blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Yves A.; Achterberg, Abraham

    1999-05-01

    We consider the acceleration of charged particles at the ultrarelativistic shocks, with Lorentz factors Gamma_s>>1 relative to the upstream medium, arising in relativistic fireball models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We show that for Fermi-type shock acceleration, particles initially isotropic in the upstream medium can gain a factor of order Gamma_s^2 in energy in the first shock-crossing cycle, but that the energy gain factor for subsequent shock-crossing cycles is only of order 2, because for realistic deflection processes particles do not have time to become isotropic upstream before recrossing the shock. We evaluate the maximum energy attainable and the efficiency of this process, and show that for a GRB fireball expanding into a typical interstellar medium, these exclude the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies in the range 10^18.5-10^20.5 eV, by the blast wave. However, we propose that in the context of neutron-star binaries as the progenitors of GRBs, relativistic ions from the pulsar-wind bubbles produced by these systems could be accelerated by the blast wave. We show that if the known binary pulsars are typical, the maximum energy, efficiency, and spectrum in this case can account for the observed population of UHECRs.

  10. Hadron cross sections at ultra high energies and unitarity bounds on diffraction dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yodh, G. B.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that if unitarity bounds on diffractive cross sections are valid at ultra high energies then diffractive dominance models which ascribe the increase in total hadron-hadron cross sections to diffractive processes only are ruled out. Calculations also show that cosmic ray cross sections derived from air shower experiments at ultra high energies clearly rule out models for hadron-hadron cross sections with nat.log ns energy dependence and favor those with nat.log n(2)s variation.

  11. Ultra high energy events in ECHOS series and primary energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Iwai, J.; Ogata, T.

    1985-01-01

    The compilation of ultra high energy jets suggests at present the existence of a bump in primary energy spectrum (with the standard concept of high energy collisions). The pseudo-rapidity distribution exhibits some typical anomalies, more than the (P sub t) behavior, which are (may be) the fingerprints of quark gluon plasma transition. The next results of Emulsion Chamber on Supersonic (ECHOS) will be in both cases determinant to confirm those tendancies, as well as an important effort of the cosmic ray community to develop in that sense a flying emulsion chamber experiment.

  12. Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

    1989-01-01

    The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.

  13. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays from blazar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-02-01

    In spite of major observational advances in high-energy astronomy, the problem of UHECR origin has defied solution. Nevertheless, candidate sources can be ruled out on the basis of physical arguments and available data. For example, only a few source classes remain viable after requiring that the sources of UHECRs are extragalactic, that some of the sources are found within the GZK radius, and that they have adequate emissivity to explain the UHECR intensity and adequate power to accelerate the highest energy UHECRs. Features in the γ-ray spectra of blazars observed with Fermi at GeV energies, and with ground-based γ-ray telescopes at very-high energies (VHE; >~ 100 GeV), favor acceleration of UHECRs in blazar black-hole jets.

  14. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, A.; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O.; Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D.

    2009-06-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  15. Double pair production by ultra-high-energy cosmic ray photons

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, S. V. Kalashev, O. E.

    2009-05-15

    Using the CompHEP package, we provide a detailed estimate of the influence of double e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production (DPP) by photons on the propagation of ultra-high-energy electromagnetic cascades. We show that in the models where the cosmic ray photon energy reaches a few 10{sup 3} EeV, a refined DPP analysis may lead to a substantial difference in the predicted photon spectrum compared to the previous rough estimates.

  16. Gravitational radiation from ultra high energy cosmic rays in models with large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Ben; Drescher, Hans-Joachim; Bleicher, Marcus

    2006-06-01

    The effects of classical gravitational radiation in models with large extra dimensions are investigated for ultra high energy cosmic rays (CRs). The cross sections are implemented into a simulation package (SENECA) for high energy hadron induced CR air showers. We predict that gravitational radiation from quasi-elastic scattering could be observed at incident CR energies above 10 9 GeV for a setting with more than two extra dimensions. It is further shown that this gravitational energy loss can alter the energy reconstruction for CR energies ECR ⩾ 5 × 10 9 GeV.

  17. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; White, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th `Blois` Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); White, A.R. . High Energy Physics Div.)

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th Blois' Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Rogovaya, S.I.; Zirakashvili, V.N. E-mail: rogovaya@izmiran.ru

    2015-03-01

    The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method.

  20. Searching for signals of magnetic lensing in ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Golup, Geraldina; Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban E-mail: harari@cab.cnea.gov.ar E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2011-07-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays are mostly charged particles and they are therefore deflected by magnetic fields on their path from their sources to Earth. An interesting phenomenon arising from these deflections is the appearance of multiple images of a source, i.e. cosmic rays with the same energy coming from the same source that can arrive to the Earth from different directions. In this work we present a technique to identify secondary images, produced by the regular component of the galactic magnetic field, benefiting from the fact that near caustics the flux is significantly magnified.

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SOURCE OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS USING ANISOTROPY VERSUS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Taylor, Andrew M.; Lemoine, Martin; Waxman, Eli

    2013-10-20

    The joint analysis of anisotropy signals and chemical composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays offers strong potential for shedding light on the sources of these particles. Following up on an earlier idea, this paper studies the anisotropies produced by protons of energy >E/Z, assuming that anisotropies at energy >E have been produced by nuclei of charge Z, which share the same magnetic rigidity. We calculate the number of secondary protons produced through photodisintegration of the primary heavy nuclei. Making the extreme assumption that the source does not inject any proton, we find that the source(s) responsible for anisotropies such as reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory should lie closer than ∼20-30, 80-100, and 180-200 Mpc if the anisotropy signal is mainly composed of oxygen, silicon, and iron nuclei, respectively. A violation of this constraint would otherwise result in the secondary protons forming a more significant anisotropy signal at lower energies. Even if the source were located closer than this distance, it would require an extraordinary metallicity ∼> 120, 1600, and 1100 times solar metallicity in the acceleration zone of the source, for oxygen, silicon, and iron, respectively, to ensure that the concomitantly injected protons do not produce a more significant low-energy anisotropy. This offers interesting prospects for constraining the nature and the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with the increase in statistics expected from next-generation detectors.

  2. Constraining sources of ultra high energy cosmic rays using high energy observations with the Fermi satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Pe'er, Asaf; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the conditions that enable acceleration of particles to ultra-high energies, ∼ 10{sup 20} eV (UHECRs). We show that broad band photon data recently provided by WMAP, ISOCAM, Swift and Fermi satellites, yield constraints on the ability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to produce UHECRs. The high energy (MeV–GeV) photons are produced by Compton scattering of the emitted low energy photons and the cosmic microwave background or extra-galactic background light. The ratio of the luminosities at high and low photon energies can therefore be used as a probe of the physical conditions in the acceleration site. We find that existing data excludes core regions of nearby radio-loud AGN as possible acceleration sites of UHECR protons. However, we show that giant radio lobes are not excluded. We apply our method to Cen A, and show that acceleration of protons to ∼ 10{sup 20} eV can only occur at distances ∼>100 kpc from the core.

  3. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]14] cm[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1].

  4. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}.

  5. The Galactic Magnetic Field and Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Federico R.

    The Galactic Magnetic Field is a peeving and importune screen between Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and us cosmologists, engaged in the combat to unveil their properties and origin, as it deviates their paths towards the Earth in unpredictable ways. I will, in this order: briefly review the available field models on the market; explain a little trick which allows one to obtain cosmic rays deflection variances without even knowing what the (random) GMF model is; and argue that there is a lack of anisotropy in the large scales cosmic rays signal, which the Galactic field can do nothing about.

  6. ICEMAN - Microwave detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, John P.; McKay, Douglas W.

    1990-01-01

    A muon from an ultra-high energy neutrino interaction produces an electromagnetic shower of considerable length. Coherent Cerenkov emission at microwave frequencies from the electric-charge imbalance developing in such a shower serves as an efficient signal of the event. The detection of upward-going UHE neutrinos is discussed in the Antarctic ice by detecting this microwave signal with comparatively cheap and simple antennas located on the ice surface. A pilot experiment to measure UHE neutrinos from point sources such as Cygnus X-3 is feasible.

  7. Search for continuous and single day emission from ultra-high-energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mei-Li.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been used to search the northern sky for point sources of continuous ultra-high-energy gamma radiation and to examine 51 candidate sources on a daily basis to search for episodic emission. In this paper, we make use of our most recent data to update our previously published results from these searches. The data sample is approximately twice as large as the published data set for continuous emission, and contains an additional year for the daily search. The latest results, up to the time of the conference, will be presented at the meeting.

  8. ORIGIN OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS: THE ISOTROPY PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, Martin; Eichler, David

    2011-12-01

    We study the propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) in the Galaxy, concentrating on the energy range below the ankle in the spectrum at 4 EeV. A Monte Carlo method, based on analytical solutions to the time-dependent diffusion problem, is used to account for intermittency by placing sources at random locations. Assuming a source population that scales with baryon mass density or star formation (e.g., long GRB), we derive constraints arising from intermittency and the observational limits on the composition and anisotropy. It is shown that the composition and anisotropy at 10{sup 18} eV are difficult to reproduce and require that either (1) the particle mean free path is much smaller than a gyroradius, implying the escape time is very long, (2) the composition is heavier than suggested by recent Auger data, (3) the ultra-high-energy sub-ankle component is mostly extragalactic, or (4) we are living in a rare lull in the UHECR production, and the current UHECR intensity is far below the Galactic time average. We therefore recommend a strong observational focus on determining the UHECR composition around 10{sup 18} eV.

  9. Visualizing potential energy curves and conformations on ultra high-resolution display walls.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Karl N; Reith, Dirk; Jato, Oliver; Hinkenjann, André

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine how visualization on an ultra high-resolution display wall can augment force-field research in the field of molecular modeling. Accurate force fields are essential for producing reliable simulations, and subsequently important for several fields of applications (e.g. rational drug design and biomolecular modeling). We discuss how using HORNET, a recently constructed specific ultra high-resolution tiled display wall, enhances the visual analytics that are necessary for conformational-based interpretation of the raw data from molecular calculations. Simultaneously viewing multiple potential energy graphs and conformation overlays leads to an enhanced way of evaluating force fields and in their optimization. Consequently, we have integrated visual analytics into our existing Wolf2Pack workflow. We applied this workflow component to analyze how major AMBER force fields (Parm14SB, Gaff, Lipid14, Glycam06j) perform at reproducing the quantum mechanics relative energies and geometries of saturated hydrocarbons. Included in this comparison are the 1996 OPLS force field and our newly developed ExTrM force field. While we focus on atomistic force fields the ideas presented herein are generalizable to other research areas, particularly those that involve numerous representations of large data amounts and whose simultaneous visualization enhances the analysis. PMID:26454265

  10. Visualizing potential energy curves and conformations on ultra high-resolution display walls.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Karl N; Reith, Dirk; Jato, Oliver; Hinkenjann, André

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine how visualization on an ultra high-resolution display wall can augment force-field research in the field of molecular modeling. Accurate force fields are essential for producing reliable simulations, and subsequently important for several fields of applications (e.g. rational drug design and biomolecular modeling). We discuss how using HORNET, a recently constructed specific ultra high-resolution tiled display wall, enhances the visual analytics that are necessary for conformational-based interpretation of the raw data from molecular calculations. Simultaneously viewing multiple potential energy graphs and conformation overlays leads to an enhanced way of evaluating force fields and in their optimization. Consequently, we have integrated visual analytics into our existing Wolf2Pack workflow. We applied this workflow component to analyze how major AMBER force fields (Parm14SB, Gaff, Lipid14, Glycam06j) perform at reproducing the quantum mechanics relative energies and geometries of saturated hydrocarbons. Included in this comparison are the 1996 OPLS force field and our newly developed ExTrM force field. While we focus on atomistic force fields the ideas presented herein are generalizable to other research areas, particularly those that involve numerous representations of large data amounts and whose simultaneous visualization enhances the analysis.

  11. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  12. Ultra high energy gamma rays, cosmic rays and neutrinos from accreting degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecher, K.; Chanmugam, G.

    1985-01-01

    Super-Eddington accretion for a recently proposed unipolar induction model of cosmic ray acceleration in accreting binary star systems containing magnetic white dwarfs or neutron stars is considered. For sufficiently high accretion rates and low magnetic fields, the model can account for: (1) acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei up to energies of 10 to the 19th power eV; (2) production of more or less normal solar cosmic ray composition; (3) the bulk of cosmic rays observed with energies above 1 TeV, and probably even down to somewhat lower energies as well; and (4) possibly the observed antiproton cosmic ray flux. It can also account for the high ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray flux observed from several accreting binary systems (including Cygnus X-3), while allowing the possibility of an even higher neutrino flux from these sources, with L sub nu/L sub gamma is approximately 100.

  13. Observation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays by the Telescope Array Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory inhabits about 700 sq km of central Utah desert ~3 hours south of Salt Lake City and is a hybrid cosmic ray detector consisting of fluorescence telescopes observing the sky above an array of scintillator detectors which sample the charged particle density from cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. It is used to study the energy spectrum, chemical composition and anisotropy of cosmic rays. Recently we have extended the energy reach lower so that we observe over more than four decades of energy. We are also in the process of extending the Telescope Array aperture by a factor of 4 to better understand a ``hot spot'' in the northern sky which could turn out be the first observed source of ultra high energy cosmic rays. The experiment and its measurements will be introduced. We appreciate the support of the NSF.

  14. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray acceleration in engine-driven relativistic supernovae.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, S; Ray, A; Soderberg, A M; Loeb, A; Chandra, P

    2011-01-01

    The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remains an enigma. They offer a window to new physics, including tests of physical laws at energies unattainable by terrestrial accelerators. They must be accelerated locally, otherwise, background radiations would severely suppress the flux of protons and nuclei, at energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit. Nearby, gamma ray bursts (GRBs), hypernovae, active galactic nuclei and their flares have all been suggested and debated as possible sources. A local sub-population of type Ibc supernovae (SNe) with mildly relativistic outflows have been detected as sub-energetic GRBs, X-ray flashes and recently as radio afterglows without detected GRB counterparts. Here, we measure the size-magnetic field evolution, baryon loading and energetics, using the observed radio spectra of SN 2009bb. We place such engine-driven SNe above the Hillas line and establish that they can readily explain the post-GZK UHECRs. PMID:21285953

  15. Shock waves raised by explosions in space as sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichigin, Gennadiy

    2015-03-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of particle acceleration up to ultrahigh energies in the relativistic waves generated by various explosive processes in the interstellar medium. We propose to use the surfatron mechanism of acceleration (surfing) of charged particles trapped in the front of relativistic waves as a generator of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs). Conditions under which surfing in these waves can be made are studied thoroughly. Ultra-high-energy CRs (up to 10^20 eV) are shown to be obtained due to the surfing in the relativistic plane and spherical waves. Surfing is supposed to take place in nonlinear Langmuir waves excited by powerful electromagnetic radiation or relativistic beams of charged particles, as well as in strong shock waves generated by relativistic jets or spherical formations that expand fast (fireballs).

  16. Relativistic waves raised by explosions in space as sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichigin, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of particle acceleration up to high energies in relativistic waves generated by various explosive processes in the interstellar medium. We propose to use the surfatron mechanism of acceleration (surfing) of charged particles trapped in the front of relativistic waves as a generator of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs). Conditions under which surfing in the waves under consideration can be made are studied thoroughly. Ultra-high-energy CRs (up to 1020 eV) are shown to be obtained due to the surfing in relativistic plane and spherical waves. Surfing is supposed to take place in nonlinear Langmuir waves excited by powerful electromagnetic radiation or relativistic beams of charged particles, as well as in strong shock waves generated by relativistic jets or spherical formations that expand fast (fireballs).

  17. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray acceleration in engine-driven relativistic supernovae.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, S; Ray, A; Soderberg, A M; Loeb, A; Chandra, P

    2011-02-01

    The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remains an enigma. They offer a window to new physics, including tests of physical laws at energies unattainable by terrestrial accelerators. They must be accelerated locally, otherwise, background radiations would severely suppress the flux of protons and nuclei, at energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit. Nearby, gamma ray bursts (GRBs), hypernovae, active galactic nuclei and their flares have all been suggested and debated as possible sources. A local sub-population of type Ibc supernovae (SNe) with mildly relativistic outflows have been detected as sub-energetic GRBs, X-ray flashes and recently as radio afterglows without detected GRB counterparts. Here, we measure the size-magnetic field evolution, baryon loading and energetics, using the observed radio spectra of SN 2009bb. We place such engine-driven SNe above the Hillas line and establish that they can readily explain the post-GZK UHECRs.

  18. ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS FROM CENTAURUS A: JET INTERACTION WITH GASEOUS SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal-Krishna; Biermann, Peter L.; De Souza, Vitor; Wiita, Paul J.

    2010-09-10

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies above {approx}6 x 10{sup 19} eV, seem to show a weak correlation with the distribution of matter relatively near to us in the universe. It has earlier been proposed that UHECRs could be accelerated in either the nucleus or the outer lobes of the nearby radio galaxy Cen A. We show that UHECR production at a spatially intermediate location about 15 kpc northeast from the nucleus, where the jet emerging from the nucleus is observed to strike a large star-forming shell of gas, is a plausible alternative. A relativistic jet is capable of accelerating lower energy heavy seed cosmic rays (CRs) to UHECRs on timescales comparable to the time it takes the jet to pierce the large gaseous cloud. In this model, many CRs arising from a starburst, with a composition enhanced in heavy elements near the knee region around PeV, are boosted to ultra-high energies by the relativistic shock of a newly oriented jet. This model matches the overall spectrum shown by the Auger data and also makes a prediction for the chemical composition as a function of particle energy. We thus predict an observable anisotropy in the composition at high energy in the sense that lighter nuclei should preferentially be seen toward the general direction of Cen A. Taking into consideration the magnetic field models for the Galactic disk and a Galactic magnetic wind, this scenario may resolve the discrepancy between HiRes and Auger results concerning the chemical composition of UHECRs.

  19. The MIDAS experiment: A prototype for the microwave emission of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monasor, M.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bodgan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Genat, J. F.; Facal San Luis, P.; Mills, E.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Wayne, S.; Reyes, L. C.; Santos, E. M.; Privitera, P.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-06-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) emit signals in the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement, a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers), a prototype of microwave detector, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 53 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented.

  20. Searches for ultra-high energy neutrinos at the Pierre Auger observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos in the sub-EeV energy range and above can be detected and identified with the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The identification can be efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavours interacting in the atmosphere, typically above 60° (downward-going), as well as for “Earth-skimming” neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos (upward-going). Three sets of identification criteria were designed to search for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60° − 75° and 75° − 90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos. The three searches have been recently combined, providing, in the absence of candidates in data from 1 January 04 until 31 December 12, a stringent limit to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  1. Burst activity of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar at high and ultra-high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvansky, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes) and 100 TeV (EAS arrays) are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, may be the difference between "flares" and "waves" recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  2. Isotropy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and multiple supernova I galactic source

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1983-04-07

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are usually associated with an extragalactic origin. Active galactic nuclei are an unlikely source because of photon drag. Here the possibility of supernova events are considered. The time spread of arrival of 10/sup 20/ eV protons is 100 to 400 years at 10 to 20 kpc and the angular spread is +-15 to +-30/sup 0/ depending upon the Galactic field configuration. The time spread is sufficient to include several to a dozen type I SN. This is enough events and angular spread to include the observed data. The concentration of the observed events at the galactic poles is contradictory. The flux is reasonable if the observed flux and slope at 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 15/ eV is characteristic of the source(s) and confined at this energy for roughly 100 traversals of the Galaxy, or 3 x 10/sup 6/ years.

  3. On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin; Kotera, Kumiko; Pétri, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are outstanding accelerators in Nature, in the sense that they accelerate electrons up to the radiation reaction limit. Motivated by this observation, this paper examines the possibility that young pulsar wind nebulae can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We consider here powerful PWNe, fed by pulsars born with ~ millisecond periods. Assuming that such pulsars exist, at least during a few years after the birth of the neutron star, and that they inject ions into the wind, we find that protons could be accelerated up to energies of the order of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off, for a fiducial rotation period P ~ 1 msec and a pulsar magnetic field Bstar ~ 1013 G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity Lp ~ 1045 erg/s and a spin-down time tsd ~ 3× 107 s. The main limiting factor is set by synchrotron losses in the nebula and by the size of the termination shock; ions with Z>= 1 may therefore be accelerated to even higher energies. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. For a proton-dominated composition, our maximum flux lies slightly below the 5-year sensitivity of IceCube-86 and above the 3-year sensitivity of the projected Askaryan Radio Array. It might thus become detectable in the next decade, depending on the exact level of contribution of these millisecond pulsar wind nebulae to the ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux.

  4. ANN based Estimation of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Shower Size using Radio Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kalpana Roy; Datta, Pranayee; Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Size estimation is a challenging area in the field of Ultra High Energy (UHE) showers where actual measurements are always associated with uncertainty of events and imperfections in detection mechanisms. The subtle variations resulting out of such factors incorporate certain random behaviour in the readings provided by shower detectors for subsequent processing. Field strength recorded by radio detectors may also be affected by this statistical nature. Hence there is a necessity of development of a system which can remain immune to such random behaviour and provide resilient readings to subsequent stages. Here, we propose a system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which accepts radio field strength recorded by radio detectors and provides estimates of shower sizes in the UHE region. The ANN in feed-forward form is trained with a range of shower events with which it can effectively handle the randomness observed in the detector reading due to imperfections in the experimental apparatus and related set-up.

  5. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W. H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-12-01

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest "conventional" cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  6. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  7. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE PAGES

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore » design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  8. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, M.; Dawson, B.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandat, D.; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J. N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, M.; Pech, M.; Privitera, P.; Schovanek, P.; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S. B.; Travnicek, P.; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometers as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.

  9. Ultra high energy cosmic rays and possible signature of black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos, Rita C.; Coimbra-Araújo, Carlos H.; da Rocha, Roldão; de Souza, Vitor

    2016-03-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) probably originate in extreme conditions in which extra dimension effects might be important. In this paper we calculate the correction in black hole accretion mechanisms due to extra dimension effects in the static and rotating cases. A parametrization of the external Kerr horizons in both cases is presented and analysed. We use previous calculations of upper limits on the UHECR flux to set limits on the UHECR production efficiency of nine sources. The upper limit on the UHECR luminosity calculation is based on GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements. The total luminosity due to the accretion mechanism is compared to the upper limit on UHECRs. The dependence of the UHECR production efficiency upper limit on black hole mass is also presented and discussed.

  10. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  11. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  12. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  13. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  14. Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by Telescope Array in Hybrid Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, William; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits several important features such as the knee (E ~10 15 . 5 eV), ankle (E ~10 18 . 7 eV), and high energy suppression (E ~10 19 . 8 eV). Cosmic ray chemical composition is the key to understanding their galactic and extragalactic sources as well as the origin of particle production and acceleration mechanisms. Energy dependent chemical composition is a fundamental input for models of cosmic ray sources and interstellar transport which may lead to competing explanations of the observed spectral features. Understanding composition will therefore allow one to distinguish between the different scenarios of cosmic ray origin, a decades old problem in astrophysics. In this talk we will describe measurements of ultra high energy cosmic ray composition performed by Telescope Array (TA) using Xmax measured in extended air showers (EAS) simultaneously observed by the TA surface array and TA fluorescence stations (called hybrid mode). Showers with primary energies above 1018 eV will be considered. We will also discuss improved methods of comparing the measured composition to EAS models.

  15. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  16. Greenland Neutrino Observatory (GNO): A New Detector for Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, Abigail

    2014-03-01

    Neutrinos travel virtually unimpeded through the universe, making them unique messenger particles for cosmic sources and carrying information about very distant sources that would otherwise be unavailable. The observation of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos (E >1018 eV) would also allow a measurement of weak interaction couplings at center of mass energies well beyond that of the LHC and reveal the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. We are planning to deploy a new array of radio detectors for UHE neutrinos near the surface of the ice at Summit Station in Greenland, a year-round NSF station that sits atop 3 km of ice at the height of the Greenland plateau. The full array will have the sensitivity required to discover neutrinos produced through the so-called GZK process (the interaction of the highest energy cosmic rays with cosmic microwave background photons) even in the most pessimistic of models and will detect ~ 10 events per year at the high-energy portion (E >1015 eV) of the observed IceCube astrophysical neutrino spectrum with sub-degree pointing resolution. We are planning to deploy our first module in the summer of 2014.

  17. Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baerwald, Philipp; Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

    2015-03-01

    We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because (a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and (b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space - unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

  18. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  19. “ESPRESSO” ACCELERATION OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    We propose that ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) above 10{sup 18} eV are produced in relativistic jets of powerful active galactic nuclei via an original mechanism, which we dub “espresso” acceleration: “seed” galactic CRs with energies ≲10{sup 17} eV that penetrate the jet sideways receive a “one-shot” boost of a factor of ∼Γ{sup 2} in energy, where Γ is the Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. For typical jet parameters, a few percent of the CRs in the host galaxy can undergo this process, and powerful blazars with Γ ≳ 30 may accelerate UHECRs up to more than 10{sup 20} eV. The chemical composition of espresso-accelerated UHECRs is determined by that at the Galactic CR knee and is expected to be proton-dominated at 10{sup 18} eV and increasingly heavy at higher energies, in agreement with recent observations made at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  20. Search for Ultra High-Energy Neutrinos with AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-19

    A search for diffuse neutrinos with energies in excess of 10{sup 5} GeV is conducted with AMANDA-II data recorded between 2000 and 2002. Above 10{sup 7} GeV, the Earth is essentially opaque to neutrinos. This fact, combined with the limited overburden of the AMANDA-II detector (roughly 1.5 km), concentrates these ultra high-energy neutrinos at the horizon. The primary background for this analysis is bundles of downgoing, high-energy muons from the interaction of cosmic rays in the atmosphere. No statistically significant excess above the expected background is seen in the data, and an upper limit is set on the diffuse all-flavor neutrino flux of E{sup 2} {Phi}{sub 90%CL} < 2.7 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} valid over the energy range of 2 x 10{sup 5} GeV to 10{sup 9} GeV. A number of models which predict neutrino fluxes from active galactic nuclei are excluded at the 90% confidence level.

  1. The coherent acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays and the galactic dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    In order to accelerate cosmic rays to ultra high energy, >10{sup 18} ev, requires that the step size in energy in a diffusive process be very much larger than occurs in galactic or extra galactic hydrodynamic mechanisms where {Delta}E/F {approximately} v/c{approximately}1/300 per step. This step size requires >10{sup 5} scatterings per doubling in energy (the shock mechanism) and therefore <10{sup {minus}5} energy loss per scattering. Coherent acceleration (CA), on the other hand, is proposed in which the energy gained, {Delta}E per particle in the CA region is very much larger so that only one or several scatterings are required to reach the final energy. The power law spectrum is created by the probability of loss from the CA region where this probability is inversely proportional to the particle`s rigidity, E. Therefore the fractional loss in number per fractional gain in energy, dN/N {approximately} {minus}{Gamma} dE/E, results in a power law spectrum. CA depends upon the electric field, E = {eta}J, J, the current density, in a force free field, where magnetic helicity, J={alpha}B, arises universally in all evolving mass condensations due to twisting of magnetic flux by the large number of turns before pressure support. The acceleration process is E*v, where universe beam instabilities enhance {eta} leading to phased coherent acceleration (PCA). The result of the energy transfer from field energy to matter energy is the relaxation of the field helicity, or reconnection but with J{parallel}B rather than J{perpendicular}B.

  2. Optimized trigger for ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray and neutrino observations with the low frequency radio array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Anderson, J. M.; van Ardenne, A.; Arts, M.; Avruch, M.; Asgekar, A.; Bell, M.; Bennema, P.; Bentum, M.; Bernadi, G.; Best, P.; Boonstra, A.-J.; Bregman, J.; van de Brink, R.; Broekema, C.; Brouw, W.; Brueggen, M.; Buitink, S.; Butcher, H.; van Cappellen, W.; Ciardi, B.; Coolen, A.; Damstra, S.; Dettmar, R.; van Diepen, G.; Dijkstra, K.; Donker, P.; Doorduin, A.; Drost, M.; van Duin, A.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M.; Gerbers, M.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Grit, T.; Gruppen, P.; Gunst, A.; van Haarlem, M.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, L. A.; Huijgen, A.; James, C.; de Jong, A.; Kant, D.; Kooistra, E.; Koopman, Y.; Koopmans, L.; Kuper, G.; Lambropoulos, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Mallary, C.; McFadden, R.; Meulman, H.; Mol, J.-D.; Morawietz, J.; Mulder, E.; Munk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Nijboer, R.; Norden, M. J.; Noordam, J.; Overeem, R.; Paas, H.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Reich, W.; de Reijer, J.; Renting, A.; Riemers, P.; Roettgering, H.; Romein, J.; Roosjen, J.; Ruiter, M.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schoonderbeek, G.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B.; Steinmetz, M.; Stiepel, H.; Stuurwold, K.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Ter Veen, S.; Vermeulen, R.; de Vos, M.; Vogt, C.; van der Wal, E.; Weggemans, H.; Wijnholds, S.; Wise, M.; Wucknitz, O.; Yattawatta, S.; van Zwieten, J.

    2012-02-01

    When an ultra-high energy neutrino or cosmic-ray strikes the Lunar surface a radio-frequency pulse is emitted. We plan to use the LOFAR radio telescope to detect these pulses. In this work we propose an efficient trigger implementation for LOFAR optimized for the observation of short radio pulses.

  3. Ultra-high energy neutrino fluxes as a probe for non-standard physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Choubey, Sandhya; Gandhi, Raj; Watanabe, Atsushi E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in E-mail: watanabe@muse.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2010-09-01

    We examine how light neutrinos coming from distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) and similar high energy sources may be used as tools to probe non-standard physics. In particular we discuss how studying the energy spectra of each neutrino flavour coming from such distant sources and their distortion relative to each other may serve as pointers to exotic physics such as neutrino decay, Lorentz symmetry violation, pseudo-Dirac effects, CP and CPT violation and quantum decoherence. This allows us to probe hitherto unexplored ranges of parameters for the above cases, for example lifetimes in the range 10{sup −3}−10{sup 4} s/eV for the case of neutrino decay. We show that standard neutrino oscillations ensure that the different flavours arrive at the earth with similar shapes even if their flavour spectra at source may differ strongly in both shape and magnitude. As a result, observed differences between the spectra of various flavours at the detector would be signatures of non-standard physics altering neutrino fluxes during propagation rather than those arising during their production at source. Since detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is perhaps imminent, it is possible that such differences in spectral shapes will be tested in neutrino detectors in the near future. To that end, using the IceCube detector as an example, we show how our results translate to observable shower and muon-track event rates.

  4. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P.

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion σ(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ∼ E{sup -γ} with γ∼ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ∼ 5Z× 10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ∼ E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}≈ 5× 10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  5. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisio, R.; Berezinsky, V.; Blasi, P.

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate Xmax(E) and dispersion σ(Xmax) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ~ E-γ with γ~ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ~ 5Z× 1018 eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ~ E-2.7). In this sense, at the ankle EA≈ 5× 1018 eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  6. THE FIRST LIMITS ON THE ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINO FLUENCE FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, A. G.; Belov, K.; Palladino, K.; Allison, P.; Baughman, B. M.; Beatty, J. J.; Connolly, A.; Grashorn, E. W.; Besson, D. Z.; Detrixhe, M.; Bevan, S.; Binns, W. R.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; De Marco, D.; DuVernois, M.; Gorham, P. W.; Hill, B.

    2011-07-20

    We set the first limits on the ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino fluence at energies greater than 10{sup 9} GeV from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on data from the second flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). During the 31 day flight of ANITA-II, 26 GRBs were recorded by Swift or Fermi. Of these, we analyzed the 12 GRBs which occurred during quiet periods when the payload was away from anthropogenic activity. In a blind analysis, we observe 0 events on a total background of 0.0044 events in the combined prompt window for all 12 low-background bursts. We also observe 0 events from the remaining 14 bursts. We place a 90% confidence level limit on the E{sup -4} prompt neutrino fluence between 10{sup 8} GeV < E < 10{sup 12} GeV of E{sup 4}{Phi} = 2.5 x 10{sup 17} GeV{sup 3} cm{sup -2} from GRB090107A. This is the first reported limit on the UHE neutrino fluence from GRBs above 10{sup 9} GeV, and the strongest limit above 10{sup 8} GeV.

  7. Feasibility of determining diffuse ultra-high energy cosmic neutrino flavor ratio through ARA neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shi-Hao; Chen, Pisin; Nam, Jiwoo; Huang, Melin E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: phmelin@snolab.ca

    2013-11-01

    The flavor composition of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN) carries precious information about the physical properties of their sources, the nature of neutrino oscillations and possible exotic physics involved during the propagation. Since UHECN with different incoming directions would propagate through different amounts of matter in Earth and since different flavors of charged leptons produced in the neutrino-nucleon charged-current (CC) interaction would have different energy-loss behaviors in the medium, measurement of the angular distribution of incoming events by a neutrino observatory can in principle be employed to help determine the UHECN flavor ratio. In this paper we report on our investigation of the feasibility of such an attempt. Simulations were performed, where the detector configuration was based on the proposed Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Observatory at the South Pole, to investigate the expected event-direction distribution for each flavor. Assuming ν{sub μ}-ν{sub τ} symmetry and invoking the standard oscillation and the neutrino decay scenarios, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the event directions are utilized to extract the flavor ratio of cosmogenic neutrinos on Earth. The simulation results are summarized in terms of the probability of flavor ratio extraction and resolution as functions of the number of observed events and the angular resolution of neutrino directions. We show that it is feasible to constrain the UHECN flavor ratio using the proposed ARA Observatory.

  8. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR

  9. Constraints on the flux of Ultra-High Energy neutrinos from WSRT observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, O; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2010-04-02

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims. By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHEneutrino flux. Methods. The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrow band radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth?s ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results. With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  10. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  11. Large doppler shift in radar detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Radar detection of cosmic ray air showers has been discussed for 60 years, but never clearly observed. The topic was reexamined by Gorham in 2001 and some serious simulations were done by Takai, who also initiated the Mariachi project utilizing commercial television transmissions as a signal source. The air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays are expected to generate a plasma with plasma frequency in the high VHF region. One factor limiting the received signal strength is the short ion recombination time in air at low altitude. However, a major factor which has not been the center of attention so far is the possible large Doppler shifts for non-specular reflection, and the soft transition between specular and diffuse for small objects and short time scales. We discuss recent work on receivers, and simulations of the Doppler shift. These simulations assume a very short ion recombination time in the lower atmosphere, and use an extremely simple mathematical model. A central feature of our simulations is large Doppler shift from non-moving material.

  12. The isotropy problem of sub-ankle ultra high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rahul; Eichler, David

    2014-01-20

    We study the time dependent propagation of sub-ankle ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) originating from point-like Galactic sources. We show that drift in the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) may play an important role in the propagation of UHECRs and their measured anisotropy, particularly when the transport is anisotropic. To fully account for the discreteness of UHECR sources in space and time, a Monte Carlo method is used to randomly place sources in the Galaxy. The low anisotropy measured by Auger is not generally characteristic of the theoretical models, given that the sources are distributed in proportion to the star formation rate, but it can possibly be understood as (1) intermittency effects due to the discrete nature of the sources or, with extreme parameters, (2) a cancellation of drift current along a current sheet with outward radial diffusive flux. We conclude that it is possible to interpret the Galactic sub-ankle CR flux as being due entirely to intermittent discrete Galactic sources distributed in proportion to star formation, but only with a probability of roughly 35%, of which the spectrum is in accord with observations about 30% of the time. An alternative explanation for the low anisotropy may be that they are mostly extragalactic and/or heavy.

  13. Technology Development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) Suborbital Ultra-High Energy Particle Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth; Gorham, Peter; Furer, Joshua; Miki, Christian

    We describe technology development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA), the next generation balloon-borne ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics, utilizing the super-pressure balloon surface to mount an RF reflector and an internal feed-array suspended inside of the balloon, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. A 1/20 scale model test with an actual inflated balloon is planned for late Spring 2014 at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. A 5.8~meter diameter super-pressure balloon will be pulsed at 3~GHz to test electronics and data acquisition systems. The 1/20 scale model will also be used to investigate deployment of the EVA system. Feed deployment is a semi-autonomous process that proceeds gradually as the volume of the ascending balloon increases. A mathematical model was developed to analyze deployment of the EVA system. Numerical solutions based on the model will be compared with measurements of ascent-like shapes assumed by the physical model during inflation.

  14. Constraints on the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Bacelar, J.; Braun, R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Strom, R. G.; Yahyaoui, R. Al

    2010-10-01

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims: By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHE neutrino flux. Methods: The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrowband radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth's ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results: With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  15. The Isotropy Problem of Sub-ankle Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Eichler, David

    2014-01-01

    We study the time dependent propagation of sub-ankle ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) originating from point-like Galactic sources. We show that drift in the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) may play an important role in the propagation of UHECRs and their measured anisotropy, particularly when the transport is anisotropic. To fully account for the discreteness of UHECR sources in space and time, a Monte Carlo method is used to randomly place sources in the Galaxy. The low anisotropy measured by Auger is not generally characteristic of the theoretical models, given that the sources are distributed in proportion to the star formation rate, but it can possibly be understood as (1) intermittency effects due to the discrete nature of the sources or, with extreme parameters, (2) a cancellation of drift current along a current sheet with outward radial diffusive flux. We conclude that it is possible to interpret the Galactic sub-ankle CR flux as being due entirely to intermittent discrete Galactic sources distributed in proportion to star formation, but only with a probability of roughly 35%, of which the spectrum is in accord with observations about 30% of the time. An alternative explanation for the low anisotropy may be that they are mostly extragalactic and/or heavy.

  16. Intergalactic Magnetic Field and Arrival Direction of Ultra-High-Energy Iron Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Das, S.; Ryu, D.

    2012-05-01

    We have studied how the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) affects the propagation of super-GZK iron nuclei that originate from extragalactic sources within the local GZK sphere. Toward this end, we set up hypothetical sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs), virtual observers, and the magnetized cosmic web in a model universe constructed from cosmological structure formation simulations. We then arranged a set of reference objects at high density region to represent astronomical objects formed in the large scale structure (LSS).With our model IGMF, the paths of UHE iron nuclei are deflected on average by about 70 degrees, which might indicate a nearly isotropic distribution of arrival directions. However, the separation angle between the arrival directions and the nearest reference object on the LSS is only 6 degrees, which is twice the mean distance to the nearest neighbors among the reference objects. This means that the positional correlation of observed UHE iron events with their true sources would be erased by the IGMF, but the correlation with the LSS itself is to be sustained. We discuss implications of our findings for correlations studies of real UHECR events.This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0002433).

  17. Modeling a Kolmogorov-Type Magnetic Field in the Galaxy and its Effect on an Extragalactic Isotropic Flux of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudifar, Pantea

    2016-08-01

    A model of turbulent galactic magnetic fields was developed in which, the type of turbulence were considered to be Kolmogorov. We tested the effect of this model on an isotropically distributed flux of ultra high energy cosmic ray in the extragalactic space. To do this, a giant Galactic halo (radius of ∼⃒ 100Mpc) was considered. Regular and random components of the Galactic Magnetic Fields were considered to have the mean observed relevant values and also satisfy a Kolmogorov field type. The deviation from isotropy then were calculated considering the propagation of ultra high energy protons in such a magnetic field and results were discussed to show how isotropic is the flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the extragalactic space. It is seen that considering an isotropic flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic space for different choices of galactic magnetic field is not consistence with the distribution of observed ultra high energy events.

  18. Ultra High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays: a “Vision” for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, A.

    2007-04-01

    Ultra High Energy Neutrinos, with energies from a few 1018 eV to beyond the decade of 1020 eV, and Cosmic Rays with E≥5×10 eV appear to be the only suitable messengers to explore the Universe at frontier energies, where radiation is expected to be produced under the most extreme physical conditions. Observations of these UHE particles will certainly provide new information on the sources and on the physical mechanisms able to accelerate these extreme messengers to macroscopic energies. Moreover, they might, also, provide evidence of yet unknown physics or of exotic particles, relics of the early Universe. To reach these goals, innovative experiments with larger effective aperture (A≥10 kmsr) and good understanding of systematic uncertainties (less than ˜ 10%) must be developed. The ground-based Pierre Auger Observatory, whose southern site is expected to be completed in Malargue, Argentina by the end of 2006, will surely provide, in the near future, a more solid observational scenario (Flux, Spectral shape, Composition) for UHE Cosmic Rays (UHECR). However, only space-based observatories can reach the effective area necessary to systematically explore the UHE Universe. In the present paper 1.) we present the Science Rationale behind UHE studies; 2.) we review the status of current experimental efforts, with main emphasis on the actual generation of space-based observatories; 3.) we briefly discuss the science goals, requirements, and R&D of a “next-generation” space-based mission for UHE observations. To develop such a challenging and innovative observatory for UHE particles, the ESA “Cosmic Vision 2015-2025” long term plan provides certainly an unique opportunity.

  19. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays: Composition, Early Air Shower Interactions, and Xmax Skewness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, James

    The composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) is still not completely understood, and must be inferred from Extended Air Shower (EAS), particle cascades which they initiate upon entering the atmosphere. The atmospheric depth at which the shower contains the maximum number of particles ( Xmax) is the most composition-sensitive property of the air shower, but its interpretation is hindered by intrinsic statistical fluctuations in EAS development which cause distinct compositions to produce overlapping Xmax distributions as well as our limited knowledge at these energies of hadronic physics which strongly impacts the Xmax distribution's shape. These issues ultimately necessitate a variety of complementary approaches to interpreting UHECR composition from Xmax data. The current work advances these approaches by connecting X max skewness to the uncertainties above. The study of X max has historically focused only on the mean and standard deviation of its distribution, but skewness is shown here to be strongly related to both the statistical fluctuations in EAS development as well as the least-understood hadronic cross-sections in the air shower. This leads into a treatment of the Exponentially-Modified Gaussian (EMG) distribution, whose little-known properties make it very useful for Xmax analysis and for data analysis in general. A powerful method emerges which uses only descriptive statistics in a robust check for energy-dependent changes in UHECR mass or EAS development. The application of these analyses to X max data provides tantalizing clues concerning issues of critical importance, such as the relationship between Xmax and the 'ankle' break in the UHECR energy spectrum, or the inferred properties of the UHECR mass distribution and its strong dependence on hadronic model systematics.

  20. On Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays and Their Resultant Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavish, Eyal; Eichler, David

    2016-05-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope collaboration has recently reported on 50 months of measurements of the isotropic extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) spectrum between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) protons interact with the cosmic microwave background photons and produce cascade photons of energies 10 MeV-1 TeV that contribute to the EGRB flux. We examine seven possible evolution models for UHECRs and find that UHECR sources that evolve as the star formation rate (SFR), medium low luminosity active galactic nuclei type-1 (L = 1043.5 erg s-1 in the [0.5-2] KeV band), and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the most acceptable given the constraints imposed by the observed EGRB. Other possibilities produce too much secondary γ-radiation. In all cases, the decaying dark matter (DM) contribution improves the fit at high energy, but the contribution of still unresolved blazars, which would leave the smallest role for decaying DM, may yet provide an alternative improvement. The possibility that the entire EGRB can be fitted with resolvable but not-yet-resolved blazars, as recently claimed by Ajello et al., would leave little room in the EGRB to accommodate γ-rays from extragalactic UHECR production, even for many source evolution rates that would otherwise be acceptable. We find that under the assumption of UHECRs being mostly protons, there is not enough room for producing extragalactic UHECRs with active galactic nucleus, gamma-ray burst, or even SFR source evolution. Sources that evolve as BL Lacs, on the other hand, would produce much less secondary γ-radiation and would remain a viable source of UHECRs, provided that they dominate.

  1. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  2. [INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBINED DISINFECTANT EFFECT OF ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY ENERGY AND SILVER ON WATER IN FLOW].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the results of investigating the combined effect of ultra-high frequency (UHF) energy and silver on contaminated water. Silver was used both in the ion form at the minimal concentration of 0.01-0.02 mg/l and solid state, i.e. a silver wire spiral. The purpose was to determine UHF-regimes of the flowing water disinfection process in the presence of silver. PMID:26554133

  3. [INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBINED DISINFECTANT EFFECT OF ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY ENERGY AND SILVER ON WATER IN FLOW].

    PubMed

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the results of investigating the combined effect of ultra-high frequency (UHF) energy and silver on contaminated water. Silver was used both in the ion form at the minimal concentration of 0.01-0.02 mg/l and solid state, i.e. a silver wire spiral. The purpose was to determine UHF-regimes of the flowing water disinfection process in the presence of silver.

  4. Astrophysics of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Photons, and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Peter; Watson, Alan; Waxman, Eli

    2005-05-01

    This miniworkshop concentrates on the astrophysics of GeV to ZeV cosmic rays, photons and neutrinos from active galaxies, gamma ray bursts and other compact or diffuse sources, as well as the transport processes and the physics of acceleration mechanisms that determine their observed fluxes and spectra. SCIENCE and MOTIVATION There are a number of major issues which this workshop is aimed at: * What is the origin of the ultra-high energy(PeV to ZeV) cosmic rays? Independently of whether there are super-GZK events or not, the CR flux levels near 1E20 eV from AGASA and HIRES are within 3 sigma of each other, and there is an intense debate about the possible astrophysical sources. What is the contribution to these from gamma-ray bursts, active galaxies, galactic core sources? Can we reconcile the AGASA and HIRES discrepancies? Can Fermi acceleration explain particles at the GZK limit, and can we test shock acceleration? How strong is the case for alternative astrophysical acceleration mechanisms? What are the implications of Auger's accumulating data, as the array progresses towards completion? What can be learned about intergalactic matter from cosmic ray propagation effects? * What is the origin of GeV-TeV photons from AGN, GRB, SNRs? Are the jets in AGN and GRB hadronic or leptonic? What constraints can be imposed on these from TeV and correlated lower energy spectra and variability? What is the origin of the GeV-TeV emission from pulsars and possibly magnetars(polar cap or outer gap emittors?) Are there smoking gun signatures of Fermi(diffusive) or other, e.g. linear(wakefield, etc) acceleration of leptons? For scattering off magnetic turbulence, reconnection, etc? Is there strong evidence for proton acceleration and hadronic cascades? How realistic is it to detect gamma-ray signatures of the quantum-gravity energy scale, vacuum dispersion, etc., with GLAST, SWIFT, etc? * What is the TeV to EeV neutrino emission of AGN, GRB, micro- quasars and other sources? How

  5. Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation with PRESHOWER 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, P.; Engel, R.; Pysz, A.; Wilczyński, H.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we describe a new release of the PRESHOWER program, a tool for Monte Carlo simulation of propagation of ultra-high energy photons in the magnetic field of the Earth. The PRESHOWER program is designed to calculate magnetic pair production and bremsstrahlung and should be used together with other programs to simulate extensive air showers induced by photons. The main new features of the PRESHOWER code include a much faster algorithm applied in the procedures of simulating the processes of gamma conversion and bremsstrahlung, update of the geomagnetic field model, and a minor correction. The new simulation procedure increases the flexibility of the code so that it can also be applied to other magnetic field configurations such as, for example, encountered in the vicinity of the sun or neutron stars. Program summaryProgram title: PRESHOWER 2.0 Catalog identifier: ADWG_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3968 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37198 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, FORTRAN 77. Computer: Intel-Pentium based PC. Operating system: Linux or Unix. RAM:< 100 kB Classification: 1.1. Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Catalog identifier of previous version: ADWG_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 173 (2005) 71 Nature of problem: Simulation of a cascade of particles initiated by UHE photon in magnetic field. Solution method: The primary photon is tracked until its conversion into an e+ e- pair. If conversion occurs each individual particle in the resultant preshower is checked for either bremsstrahlung radiation (electrons) or secondary gamma conversion (photons). Reasons for

  6. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  7. Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation in the geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, P.; Góra, D.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.; PeĶala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.

    2005-12-01

    The identification of primary photons or specifying stringent limits on the photon flux is of major importance for understanding the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays. UHE photons can initiate particle cascades in the geomagnetic field, which leads to significant changes in the subsequent atmospheric shower development. We present a Monte Carlo program allowing detailed studies of conversion and cascading of UHE photons in the geomagnetic field. The program named PRESHOWER can be used both as an independent tool or together with a shower simulation code. With the stand-alone version of the code it is possible to investigate various properties of the particle cascade induced by UHE photons interacting in the Earth's magnetic field before entering the Earth's atmosphere. Combining this program with an extensive air shower simulation code such as CORSIKA offers the possibility of investigating signatures of photon-initiated showers. In particular, features can be studied that help to discern such showers from the ones induced by hadrons. As an illustration, calculations for the conditions of the southern part of the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. Catalogue identifier:ADWG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG Program obtainable: CPC Program Library, Quen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer on which the program has been thoroughly tested:Intel-Pentium based PC Operating system:Linux, DEC-Unix Programming language used:C, FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:<100 kB No. of bits in a word:32 Has the code been vectorized?:no Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2567 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:25 690 Distribution format:tar.gz Other procedures used in PRESHOWER:IGRF [N.A. Tsyganenko, National Space Science Data Center, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/magnetos/data-based/geopack.html], bessik

  8. Observations of potential ultra high energy gamma-ray sources above 10(15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Perrett, J. C.; Watson, A. A.; West, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Haverah Park 50 m water-Cerenkov array has been used to examine a number of periodic sources for ultra high energy gamma-ray emission above 10 to the 15th power eV. The data, recorded between 1 Jan. 1979 and 31 Dec. 1984, feature a modest angular resolution of approx 3 deg with millisecond arrival time resolution post 1982. The sources investigated include the Crab pulsar, Her X-1, Au0115 + 63 and Geminga. All objects have been detected by workers in the TeV region, with varying degrees of confidence.

  9. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho, W. R., Jr.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ∼36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  10. THE MINIMUM WIDTH OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTION DISTRIBUTION OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS DETECTED WITH THE YAKUTSK ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-05-10

    This paper presents the results of searches for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) detected with the Yakutsk Array during the 1974–2008 observational period as well as searches in available data from other giant extensive air shower arrays working at present. A method of analysis based on a comparison of the minimum width of distributions in equatorial coordinates is used. As a result, a hypothesis of isotropy in arrival directions is rejected at the 99.5% significance level. The observed decrease in the minimum width of the distribution can be explained by the presence of CR sources in energy intervals and sky regions according to recent indications inferred from data of the Yakutsk Array and Telescope Array experiments.

  11. Global anisotropy of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: capabilities of space-based detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashev, O E; Troitsky, S V; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P; Sharakin, S E-mail: bkhrenov@yandex.ru E-mail: sharakin@eas.sinp.msu.ru

    2008-03-15

    Planned space-based ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray detectors (TUS, JEM-EUSO and S-EUSO) are best suited for searches of global anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic-ray particles because they will be able to observe the full sky with a single instrument. We calculate quantitatively the strength of anisotropies associated with two models of the origin of the highest-energy particles: the extragalactic model (sources follow the distribution of galaxies in the Universe) and the superheavy dark matter model (sources follow the distribution of dark matter in the Galactic halo). Based on the expected exposure of the experiments, we estimate the optimal strategy for efficient search of these effects.

  12. Measurement of the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settimo, Mariangela; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The understanding of the nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is one of the most intriguing open questions for current and future observatories. With its hybrid design and huge exposure, the Pierre Auger Observatory provides valuable statistical measurements of the chemical composition of cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV, including the search for neutral primaries such as neutrinos and photons. We report on the most recent results which are based on the accurate measurement of the depth of the shower maximum, Xmax, by the fluorescence telescopes and on the shape of the signals recorded by the water-Cherenkov detectors. The interpretation of these results in terms of mass composition is also discussed related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe the development of air showers.

  13. Coleman-Glashow Massive Photon and Ultra-HighEnergy Cosmic Rays beyond the GZK Cutoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Very high-energy gamma rays and neutrinos could be probes of quantum gravity (QG) nature of vacuum [Amelio-Camella, et al, 1998]. Extreme Energy (EE) photons lose energy by pair production in a vacuum due to the ubiquitous microwave photons. Their path length at EE energies is limited to less than 10 Mpc in ordinary space and they are believed to be unable to reach earth from Gamma Ray BurstUs (GRB) of cosmological distances. However, EE gamma rays in the QG vacuum can pass through a large distance exceeding many Gpc, because electron-pair production with 2.7K (E') microwave background may be kinematically prohibited above 10 TeV under the QG structure of vacuum. The energy-momentum conservation for the pair process does not hold for E >> 10 TeV for E' = 10-3 (Kifune, 1999), because 4 mc^4 = E^2 - (pc)^2 = E^2 (E'/E - k E/E0) < 0, where k = 1. The reported observation of EECRUs above 4 4 10^eV with unaccounted pair or triple coincidence in spatial and temporal ( ~ 2 years) coordinates is also a mystery. They also seem to be correlated with high luminosity GRBUs within 1 year [Milgrom and Usov, 1995; Takahashi, 1998]. If this correlation is true, then the ballpark correlation of one-year is hard to understand with any theory, while a possible explanation is available if Quantum Gravity (QG) is considered with Planck mass (10^28eV/c^2) grain of spacetime (10-33 cm). The QG scheme [Amelio-Camella, et al, 1998] leads to a delay time of gamma rays of the order of 1 year at 5 x 10^19 eV from cosmological distance (L) of GRB's (typically, L ~ 1 Gpc). The reduced speed of EHE gamma rays in QG is v = (1 - k 4 E/E0)c, where E0 is the Planck mass (10^20 eV/c^2) or gravitino mass (E0/k, k as a parameter O(1)). The fundamental question is whether such high energy particle acceleration occurs in GRBUs. Studies of photonic acceleration in extreme photon outburst sites, GRBUs, might lead to an even more profound cosmological test of the vacuum of Universe; in particular

  14. CRPropa 3—a public astrophysical simulation framework for propagating extraterrestrial ultra-high energy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Dundovic, Andrej; Erdmann, Martin; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Kuempel, Daniel; Müller, Gero; Sigl, Guenter; van Vliet, Arjen; Walz, David; Winchen, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    We present the simulation framework CRPropa version 3 designed for efficient development of astrophysical predictions for ultra-high energy particles. Users can assemble modules of the most relevant propagation effects in galactic and extragalactic space, include their own physics modules with new features, and receive on output primary and secondary cosmic messengers including nuclei, neutrinos and photons. In extension to the propagation physics contained in a previous CRPropa version, the new version facilitates high-performance computing and comprises new physical features such as an interface for galactic propagation using lensing techniques, an improved photonuclear interaction calculation, and propagation in time dependent environments to take into account cosmic evolution effects in anisotropy studies and variable sources. First applications using highlighted features are presented as well.

  15. Electrical energy production from biosolids: a comparative study between anaerobic digestion and ultra-high-temperature gasification.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids management is one of the most expensive and complicated processes in sanitation engineering. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is often employed for the stabilization ofbiomass and for energy production, as approximately 50% of the carbon entering the anaerobic digester is recovered as methane (CH4). Gasification has been used recently for the thermal reformation of biosolids to synthesis gas (syngas), which primarily consists ofcarbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). In the present work, the net electrical energy production from biosolids has been calculated, for a typical activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with an inlet flow rate of 75,708 m3/d (equal to 20 Mgd). The calculations suggest that the ultra-high-temperature gasification (UHTG) system can achieve a net electrical energy output of about 15.40 MJ/kg (dry biosolids), whereas the AD system can achieve values between 8.45 MJ/kg(dry biosolids). The latter values correspond to approximate net electrical energy power of 18.8 kW for UHTG, versus 9.9 kW for AD, for a wastewater treatment plant with capacity of 1000 m3/d; thus, the UHTG process yields approximately 190% of the energy that may be produced by the AD process. PMID:25145165

  16. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65°. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  17. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colalillo, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  18. Measurement of the Flux of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays by the Telescope Array FADC Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, Sean R.

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produce the most powerful collisions between single particles and atmospheric matter. They have been studied since the early 20th century yet, to this date, there is no clear answer as to the acceleration process responsible for their production. The Telescope Array Project is an experiment designed to observe the showers of particles produced as by-products of the interactions between UHECRs and the atmosphere. As a hybrid experiment, it currently utilizes 38 fluorescence detectors (FDs) divided between three sites overlooking an array of 507 surface detectors (SDs). The project's mission is to study the energy, composition and origin of UHECRs using a variety of techniques which may include some or all of the experiment's apparatus. This document, in particular, is a presentation of the UHECR energy spectrum measured at Telescope Array using the fluorescence detection technique in monocular mode. Only data from the 24 FDs at Black Rock Mesa (BR) and Long Ridge (LR) stations are used here.

  19. Ultra-high frequency induction energy effects on refractory oxides as applied to processing and immobilization of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Jay A.

    The application of ultra-high frequency induction melting of refractory oxides (i.e. borosilicate glass [BSG]) has been extensively investigated to determine the feasibility of developing and implementing an innovative inductively heated draining technique that is reliable and predictable. The primary purpose is for immobilizing highly radioactive waste streams resulting from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This work has included development and validation of a numerical model, using ANSYS MultiPhysics software, as well as numerous proof-of-concept and pilot-scale experimental tests. The model is a steady state axially-symmetric geometry for a cylindrical water-cooled crucible that includes two separate induction energy sources operating at different frequencies. It accounts for the induction energy interactions, thermal conduction, convection, and radiation effects, as well as hydrodynamic phenomenon due to buoyancy effects. The material property models incorporated into the numerical model include temperature dependence up to 2,000°C of key parameters including density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity, which can vary by several orders of magnitude within the temperature variations seen. The model has been experimentally validated, and shown to provide excellent representation of steady state temperature distributions, convection cell configurations, and flow field velocities for molten low conductivity materials. Thus, it provides the capability to conduct parametric studies to understand operational sensitivities and geometry effects that determine the performance of the inductively heated draining device, including scale-up effects. Complementary experimental work has also been conducted to test the model predictions, and iteratively used to improve the model accuracy. However, the primary focus of the experimental efforts was to demonstrate the feasibility of the inductively heated draining technique for application to

  20. Cygnus X-3 and other ultra-high-energy gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, several binary X-ray sources have been found to be sources of ultrahigh-energy gamma emission. Air-shower observations indicate photon energies above about 1 PeV. Observations from Cyg X-3 are reviewed and compared with data on the sources Her X-1, Vel X-1, and LMC X-4. Current theoretical models for the production of gamma rays and the acceleration of high-energy particles are discussed, and the consequences for the evolution of such systems are examined.

  1. Bubbler---A Novel Ultra High Power Density Energy Harvesting Method Based on Reverse Electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tsung-Hsing

    A novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy has been proposed and experimentally and theoretically investigated. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse inside a conductive liquid placed in contact with a dielectric-covered electrode. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, can enable extremely high power densities, in excess of 10 kW/m2. The method can be scaled in power from microwatts to tens of watts, and can enable direct coupling to a wide range of mechanical energy sources, which make it particularly attractive for energy harvesting applications. We believe that this approach can enable extraction of useful energy from various non-traditional sources including thermal expansion of buildings, human motion, and vehicle and machinery movement. Also, this makes the fabrication of small light-weight energy harvesting devices capable of producing a wide range of power outputs feasible.

  2. Magnetic diffusion effects on the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the effects of diffusion of high energy cosmic rays in turbulent extra-galactic magnetic fields. We find an approximate expression for the low energy suppression of the spectrum of the different mass components (with charge Z) in the case in which this suppression happens at energies below ∼ Z EeV, so that energy losses are dominated by the adiabatic ones. The low energy suppression appears when cosmic rays from the closest sources take a time comparable to the age of the Universe to reach the Earth. This occurs for energies E < Z EeV (B/nG)√(l{sub c}/Mpc)(d{sub s}/70Mpc) in terms of the magnetic field RMS strength B, its coherence length l{sub c} and the typical separation between sources d{sub s}. We apply this to scenarios in which the sources produce a mixed composition and have a relatively low maximum rigidity (E{sub max} ∼ (2–10)Z EeV), finding that diffusion has a significant effect on the resulting spectrum, the average mass and on its spread, in particular reducing this last one. For reasonable values of B and l{sub c} these effects can help to reproduce the composition trends observed by the Auger Collaboration for source spectra compatible with Fermi acceleration.

  3. Bubbler: A Novel Ultra-High Power Density Energy Harvesting Method Based on Reverse Electrowetting

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tsung-Hsing; Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed and successfully demonstrated a novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy using microfluidics. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, provides a possibility to increase the generated power density by over an order of magnitude, as compared to the REWOD alone. This energy conversion approach is particularly well suited for energy harvesting applications and can enable effective coupling to a broad array of mechanical systems including such ubiquitous but difficult to utilize low-frequency energy sources as human and machine motion. The method can be scaled from a single micro cell with 10−6 W output to power cell arrays with a total power output in excess of 10 W. This makes the fabrication of small light-weight energy harvesting devices capable of producing a wide range of power outputs feasible. PMID:26567850

  4. Bubbler: A Novel Ultra-High Power Density Energy Harvesting Method Based on Reverse Electrowetting.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tsung-Hsing; Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2015-11-16

    We have proposed and successfully demonstrated a novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy using microfluidics. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, provides a possibility to increase the generated power density by over an order of magnitude, as compared to the REWOD alone. This energy conversion approach is particularly well suited for energy harvesting applications and can enable effective coupling to a broad array of mechanical systems including such ubiquitous but difficult to utilize low-frequency energy sources as human and machine motion. The method can be scaled from a single micro cell with 10(-6) W output to power cell arrays with a total power output in excess of 10 W. This makes the fabrication of small light-weight energy harvesting devices capable of producing a wide range of power outputs feasible.

  5. The sensitivity of past and near-future lunar radio experiments to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Various experiments have been conducted to search for the radio emission from ultra-high-energy (UHE) particles interacting in the lunar regolith. Although they have not yielded any detections, they have been successful in establishing upper limits on the flux of these particles. I present a review of these experiments in which I re-evaluate their sensitivity to radio pulses, accounting for effects which were neglected in the original reports, and compare them with prospective near-future experiments. In several cases, I find that past experiments were substantially less sensitive than previously believed. I apply existing analytic models to determine the resulting limits on the fluxes of UHE neutrinos and cosmic rays (CRs). In the latter case, I amend the model to accurately reflect the fraction of the primary particle energy which manifests in the resulting particle cascade, resulting in a substantial improvement in the estimated sensitivity to CRs. Although these models are in need of further refinement, in particular to incorporate the effects of small-scale lunar surface roughness, their application here indicates that a proposed experiment with the LOFAR telescope would test predictions of the neutrino flux from exotic-physics models, and an experiment with a phased-array feed on a large single-dish telescope such as the Parkes radio telescope would allow the first detection of CRs with this technique, with an expected rate of one detection per 140 h.

  6. Model-dependent estimate on the connection between fast radio bursts and ultra high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2014-12-10

    The existence of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of extragalatic transient, has recently been established, and quite a few models have been proposed. In this work, we discuss the possible connection between the FRB sources and ultra high energy (>10{sup 18} eV) cosmic rays. We show that in the blitzar model and the model of merging binary neutron stars, which includes the huge energy release of each FRB central engine together with the rather high rate of FRBs, the accelerated EeV cosmic rays may contribute significantly to the observed ones. In other FRB models, including, for example, the merger of double white dwarfs and the energetic magnetar radio flares, no significant EeV cosmic ray is expected. We also suggest that the mergers of double neutron stars, even if they are irrelevant to FRBs, may play a nonignorable role in producing EeV cosmic ray protons if supramassive neutron stars are formed in a sufficient fraction of mergers and the merger rate is ≳ 10{sup 3} yr{sup –1} Gpc{sup –3}. Such a possibility will be unambiguously tested in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  7. Design And Development Of An Autonomous Radar Receiver For The Detection Of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Samridha

    The detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is constrained by their flux, requiring detectors with apertures of hundreds or even thousands of square kilometers and close to one hundred percent duty cycle. The sheer scale that would be required of conventional detectors, to acquire sufficient statistics for energy, composition or anisotropy studies, means that new techniques that reduce manpower and financial resources are continually being sought. In this dissertation, the development of a remote sensing technique based observatory known as bistatic radar, which aims to achieve extensive coverage of the Earth's surface, cf. Telescope Array's 700 km2 surface detector, is discussed. Construction of the radar projects transmitter station was completed in the summer of 2013, and remote receiver stations were deployed in June and November of 2014. These stations accomplish radar echo detection using an analog signal chain. Subject to less radio interference, the remote stations add stereoscopic measurement capabilities that theoretically allow unique determination of cosmic ray geometry and core location. An FPGA is used as a distributed data processing node within the project. The FPGA provides triggering logic for data sampled at 200 MSa/s, detecting Cosmic Ray shower echoes chirping at -1 to -10 Megahertz/microsecond (depending on the geometry) for several microseconds. The data acquisition system with low power consumption at a cost that is also comparatively inexpensive is described herein.

  8. Super Heavy Dark Matter in light of BICEP2, Planck and Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, R.; Matarrese, S.; Olinto, A.V. E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it

    2015-08-01

    The announcement by BICEP2 of the detection of B-mode polarization consistent with primordial gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r=0.2{sup +0.07}{sub −0.05}, challenged predictions from most inflationary models of a lower value for r. More recent results by Planck on polarized dust emission show that the observed tensor modes signal is compatible with pure foreground emission. A more significant constraint on r was then obtained by a joint analysis of Planck, BICEP2 and Keck Array data showing an upper limit to the tensor to scalar ratio r≤ 0.12, excluding the case 0r= with low statistical significance. Forthcoming measurements by BICEP3, the Keck Array, and other CMB polarization experiments, open the possibility for making the fundamental measurement of r. Here we discuss how r sets the scale for models where the dark matter is created at the inflationary epoch, the generically called super-heavy dark matter models. We also consider the constraints on such scenarios given by recent data from ultrahigh energy cosmic ray observatories which set the limit on super-heavy dark matter particles lifetime. We discuss how super-heavy dark matter can be discovered by a precise measurement of r combined with future observations of ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  9. Volumetric Heating of Ultra-High Energy Density Relativistic Plasmas by Ultrafast Laser Irradiation of Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Pukhov, Alexander; Keiss, David; Townsend, Amanda; Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Prieto, Amy; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    We have demonstrated the volumetric heating of near-solid density plasmas to keV temperatures by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser irradiation of arrays of vertically aligned nanowires with an average density up to 30% solid density. X-ray spectra show that irradiation of Ni and Au nanowire arrays with laser pulses of relativistic intensities ionizes plasma volumes several micrometers in depth to the He-like and Co-like (Au 52 +) stages respectively. The penetration depth of the heat into the nanowire array was measured monitoring He-like Co lines from irradiated arrays in which the nanowires are composed of a Co segment buried under a selected length of Ni. The measurement shows the ionization reaches He-like Co for depth of up to 5 μm within the target. This volumetric plasma heating approach creates a new laboratory plasma regime in which extreme plasma parameters can be accessed with table-top lasers. Scaling to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures approaching those in the center of the sun. Work supported by the U.S Department of Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079. A.P was supported by of DFG-funded project TR18.

  10. Creation of ultra-high energy density matter using nanostructured targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Park, J.; London, R.; Chen, H.; Hollinger, R. C.; Bargsten, C.; Shlyaptsev, V.; Capeluto, M.; Keiss, D.; Townsend, A.; Rocca, J. J.; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, A.; Hill, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that trapping of 60 femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensity deep within ordered nanowire arrays can create a new ultra-hot plasma regime. Here we report on the experiments at the Titan laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that aim to scale these results by two orders of magnitude in laser energy. Preliminary analysis of the Titan results show that sub-picosecond laser irradiation of vertically aligned nanostructures of Au, Ag and Ni produces an increase of a factor greater than 1.6 in the suprathermal electron temperatures and an increase by a factor of 3 in the conversion efficiency into continuum x-rays, both with respect to flat targets of the same composition. Kα radiation from nanowire array targets also shows an increase between 3x and 5x over flat targets. The nanowire array targets reflected a 5x smaller fraction of the laser energy, indicating significantly larger absorption of the laser pulse. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, U.S Department of Energy, and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079.

  11. Origin of ultra-high-energy gamma-rays from Cygnus X-3 and related sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.; Ellison, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration of ions is examined as the mechanism responsible for the ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma ray emission observed from Cygnus X-3 and several other binary X-ray sources at energies of 10 to the 15th eV and higher. The shock acceleration can under reasonable assumptions be sufficiently short to allow acceleration of ions to energies near 10 to the 16th eV. It is proposed that the subsequent proton-proton collisions and photodissociation of He-4 can produce a flux of neutrons that escapes from the acceleration site despite high magnetic fields. These neutrons, by interacting with the binary companion, produce the observed UHE radiation.

  12. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accurate data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.

  13. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accuratemore » data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.« less

  14. Search for ultra high energy gamma-rays from various sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzikowski, T.; Gawin, J.; Grochalska, B.; Korejwo, J.; Wdowczyk, J.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that there exists an excess of showers from the Galactic plane on the level 1 to 2% at energies just above 10 to the 16th power eV is explored. The excess shower from the Galactic plane seems to be very similar in properties to excess showers from the point sources/flat spectrum, deficit of low energy muons. Those facts suggest that the excess from the Galactic plane are probably due to summing up of the contribution from individual point sources. That in turn suggest that those sources are rather numerous.

  15. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  16. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohácová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20,30,...,110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 49.3 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  17. Adventures in Gaseous Positronics - An Ultra-High-Energy-Resolution Cryogenic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natisin, Mike

    2016-05-01

    While positron interactions with matter are important in a variety of contexts, many important experiments have been inhibited due to the difficulties encountered in creating beams with narrow energy spreads. This talk focuses on the development of a pulsed positron beam with a total energy spread of 7 meV FWHM; this represents a factor of five improvement over the previous state-of-the-art. Current positron atomic physics experiments rely on high quality beams from buffer gas traps. Although widely used, the physical phenomena operative in beam formation had not previously been fully investigated, and understanding these processes proved crucial to improving beam quality. Experimental measurements and simulation results of positron cooling and beam formation are discussed, with an emphasis on beam energy resolution. Using these results, a new cryogenic, trap-based beam system was built. Positrons are cooled to 50 K using a CO buffer gas, resulting in beams with total energy spreads as low as 6.9 meV FWHM, sub-microsecond temporal spreads and beam diameters as small as 1 mm. Details of this beam system, as well as new experiments that will be enabled by it, will be discussed. Work supported by NSF Grant PHY-1401794.

  18. Structured block copolymer thin film composites for ultra-high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Saumil; Hailu, Shimelis; Grabowski, Christopher; Durstock, Michael; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2014-03-01

    Development of high energy density capacitors is essential for future applications like hybrid vehicles and directed energy weaponry. Fundamentally, energy density is governed by product of dielectric permittivity ɛ and breakdown strength Vbd. Hence, improvements in energy density are greatly reliant on improving either ɛ or Vbd or a combination of both. Polymer films are widely used in capacitors due to high Vbd and low loss but they suffer from very low permittivities. Composite dielectrics offer a unique opportunity to combine the high ɛ of inorganic fillers with the high Vbd of a polymer matrix. For enhancement of dielectric properties, it is essential to improve matrix-filler interaction and control the spatial distribution of fillers for which nanostructured block copolymers BCP act as ideal templates. We use Directed Self-assembly of block copolymers to rapidly fabricate highly aligned BCP-TiO2 composite nanostructures in thin films under dynamic thermal gradient field to synergistically combine the high ɛ of functionalized TiO2 and high Vbd of BCP matrix. The results of impact of BCP morphology, processing conditions and concentration of TiO2 on capacitor performance will be reported. U.S. Air Force of Scientific Research under contract FA9550-12-1-0306

  19. Symmetric inertial confinement fusion implosions at ultra-high laser energies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Meezan, N B; Suter, L J; Dixit, S N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, J; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; Landen, O L; Lindle, J D; LePape, S; Moody, J D; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Schneider, M B; Town, R J; Wegner, P; Widmann, K; Whitman, P; Young, B F; Van Wonterghem, B; Atherton, J E; Moses, E I

    2009-12-03

    The first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented laser drive energies of 0.7 MJ. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 1.8-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced by the hohlraum. Self-generated plasma-optics gratings on either end of the hohlraum tune the laser power distribution in the hohlraum producing symmetric x-ray drive as inferred from capsule self-emission measurements. These experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to achieve burning fusion plasmas and energy gain in the laboratory.

  20. New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E{sub v} = 3 x 10{sup 18} eV. ANITA-1 flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. We report here on our initial analysis, which was performed as a blind search of the data. No neutrino candidates are seen, with no detected physics background. We set model-independent limits based on this result. Upper limits derived from our analysis rule out the highest cosmogenic neutrino models. In a background horizontal-polarization channel, we also detect six events consistent with radio impulses from ultrahigh energy extensive air showers.

  1. Magnetowave Induced Plasma Wakefield Acceleration for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Pisin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert; Sydora, Richard; /Alberta U.

    2009-10-17

    Magnetowave induced plasma wakefield acceleration (MPWA) in a relativistic astrophysical outflow has been proposed as a viable mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic particles to ultrahigh energies. Here we present simulation results that clearly demonstrate the viability of this mechanism for the first time. We invoke the high frequency and high speed whistler mode for the driving pulse. The plasma wakefield obtained in the simulations compares favorably with our newly developed relativistic theory of the MPWA. We show that, under appropriate conditions, the plasma wakefield maintains very high coherence and can sustain high-gradient acceleration over hundreds of plasma skin depths. Invoking active galactic nuclei as the site, we show that MPWA production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays beyond ZeV (10{sup 21} eV) is possible.

  2. Sterile neutrinos, dark matter, and resonant effects in ultra high energy regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Parada, A.

    2015-05-01

    Interest in light dark matter candidates has recently increased in the literature; some of these works consider the role of additional neutrinos, either active or sterile. Furthermore, extragalactic neutrinos have been detected with energies higher than have ever been reported before. This opens a new window of opportunities to the study of neutrino properties that were unreachable up to now. We investigate how an interaction potential between neutrinos and dark matter might induce a resonant enhancement in the oscillation probability, an effect that may be tested with future neutrino data.

  3. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2014-07-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ {sub b} ≈ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

  4. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  5. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window. PMID:27603692

  6. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment.

  7. Shock Initiation of Hexanitrostilbene at Ultra-high Shock Pressures and Critical Energy Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Hexanitrostilbene is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria Pn τ . The calculated value of n is compared to published values and discussed for similar systems. The James Criterion is used to analyze the initiation, with values of Ec and Σc being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  8. Shock initiation of hexanitrostilbene at ultra-high shock pressures and critical energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew Peter; Knowles, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria P2τ. The James Criterion is used to analyse the initiation, with values of EC and ΣC being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  9. PeV neutrinos from the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Roulet, Esteban; Mollerach, Silvia; Sigl, Guenter; Vliet, Arjen van E-mail: guenter.sigl@desy.de E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that the PeV neutrinos recently observed by IceCube are produced by the interactions of extragalactic cosmic rays during their propagation through the radiation backgrounds. We show that the fluxes resulting from the decays of neutrons produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons with the CMB background are suppressed (E{sub ν}{sup 2}dΦ{sub ν}/dE < 10{sup −10} GeV/cm{sup 2} s sr), with those resulting from the decays of pions produced in the interactions with the UV/optical/IR backgrounds being the dominant ones at PeV energies. The anti-neutrino fluxes produced by the decay of neutrons resulting from the photodisintegration of heavy nuclei with CMB photons are also shown to be quite suppressed (E{sub ν}{sup 2}dΦ{sub ν}/dE < 10{sup −11} GeV/cm{sup 2} s sr), while those produced by photo-pion processes with UV/optical/IR backgrounds may be larger, although they are not expected to be above those achievable in the pure proton case. Scenarios with mixed composition and low cutoff rigidities can lead to PeV neutrino fluxes enhanced with respect to those in the pure Fe scenarios. We also discuss the possible impact of the Glashow resonance for the detection of these scenarios, showing that it plays a moderate role.

  10. Report of the Working Group on the Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Bellido, J.; Belz, J.; de Souza, V.; Hanlon, W.; Ikeda, D.; Lundquist, J. P.; Sokolskypt, P.; Stroman, T.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Unger, M.; Yushkov, A.

    For the first time a proper comparison of the average depth of shower maximum (Xmax) published by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Observatories is presented. The Xmax distributions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory were fit using simulated events initiated by four primaries (proton, helium, nitrogen and iron). The primary abundances which best describe the Auger data were simulated through the Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence and surface detector array. The simulated events were analyzed by the TA Collaboration using the same procedure as applied to their data. The result is a simulated version of the Auger data as it would be observed by TA. This analysis allows a direct comparison of the evolution of < Xmax > with energy of both data sets. The < Xmax > measured by TA-MD is consistent with a preliminary simulation of the Auger data through the TA detector and the average difference between the two data sets was found to be (2.9 ± 2.7 (stat.) ± 18 (syst.)) g/cm2.

  11. Evidence for long-term variability in the ultra high energy photon flux from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Rannot, R. C.; Rawat, H. S.; Razdan, H.; Sanecha, V. K.; Sapru, M.

    1985-01-01

    A time-correlation analysis of atmospheric Cerenkov pulses by a wide-angle photomultiplier system was previously shown to have present in it a nonrandom component which seemed associated with the Right Ascension (RA) range approx. 20+or-04h. A recent examination of multi-muon events recorded by a photon-decay detector shows a similar time-dependent effect, closely matching the previous results, supporting the suggestion that the effect is of cosmic origin. However, even though Cyg. X-3 lies well inside the region of peak intensity, it does not seem possible to ascribe to it the whole effect, for the implied photon flux appears too large to be reconciled to various gamma-ray measurements of Cyg. X-3. The original data were subjected to a phase-histogram analysis and it as found that only 2.5% of overall recorded data are compatible with a phase-dependent emission from Cyg. X-3. Assuming these events to be gamma rays yields a detected flux of (2.6 + or - 0.3) x 10 to the minus 12th power gamma cm -2s-1 above 5 x 10 to the 14th power eV. Comparing this value with more recent ultra high energy (UHE) photon data from the same source, it is suggested that the available data generally favor a long-term reduction in the Cyg. X-3 inferred luminosity ( 10 to the 13th power eV) by a factor of (1.8 + or - 0.3) per year.

  12. Blazars as Ultra-high-energy Cosmic-ray Sources: Implications for TeV Gamma-Ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.; Takami, Hajime; Migliori, Giulia

    2012-04-01

    The spectra of BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley I radio galaxies are commonly explained by the one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. Spectral modeling of correlated multiwavelength data gives the comoving magnetic field strength, the bulk outflow Lorentz factor, and the emission region size. Assuming the validity of the SSC model, the Hillas condition shows that only in rare cases such sources accelerate protons to much above 1019 eV, so >~ 1020 eV ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are likely to be heavy ions if powered by this type of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Survival of nuclei is shown to be possible in TeV BL Lacs and misaligned counterparts with weak photohadronic emissions. Another signature of hadronic production is intergalactic UHECR-induced cascade emission, which is an alternative explanation of the TeV spectra of some extreme non-variable blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 1101-232. We study this kind of cascade signal, taking into account effects of the structured extragalactic magnetic fields in which the sources should be embedded. We demonstrate the importance of cosmic-ray deflections on the γ-ray flux, and show that required absolute cosmic-ray luminosities are larger than the average UHECR luminosity inferred from UHECR observations and can even be comparable to the Eddington luminosity of supermassive black holes. Future TeV γ-ray observations using the Cerenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector array can test for UHECR acceleration by observing >25 TeV photons from relatively low redshift sources such as 1ES 0229+200, and gsimTeV photons from more distant radio-loud AGNs.

  13. BLAZARS AS ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY SOURCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.; Takami, Hajime; Migliori, Giulia

    2012-04-10

    The spectra of BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley I radio galaxies are commonly explained by the one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. Spectral modeling of correlated multiwavelength data gives the comoving magnetic field strength, the bulk outflow Lorentz factor, and the emission region size. Assuming the validity of the SSC model, the Hillas condition shows that only in rare cases such sources accelerate protons to much above 10{sup 19} eV, so {approx}> 10{sup 20} eV ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are likely to be heavy ions if powered by this type of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Survival of nuclei is shown to be possible in TeV BL Lacs and misaligned counterparts with weak photohadronic emissions. Another signature of hadronic production is intergalactic UHECR-induced cascade emission, which is an alternative explanation of the TeV spectra of some extreme non-variable blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 1101-232. We study this kind of cascade signal, taking into account effects of the structured extragalactic magnetic fields in which the sources should be embedded. We demonstrate the importance of cosmic-ray deflections on the {gamma}-ray flux, and show that required absolute cosmic-ray luminosities are larger than the average UHECR luminosity inferred from UHECR observations and can even be comparable to the Eddington luminosity of supermassive black holes. Future TeV {gamma}-ray observations using the Cerenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector array can test for UHECR acceleration by observing >25 TeV photons from relatively low redshift sources such as 1ES 0229+200, and {approx}>TeV photons from more distant radio-loud AGNs.

  14. Mass entrainment and turbulence-driven acceleration of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wykes, Sarka; Croston, Judith H.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Eilek, Jean A.; Biermann, Peter L.; Achterberg, Abraham; Bray, Justin D.; Lazarian, Alex; Haverkorn, Marijke; Protheroe, Ray J.; Bromberg, Omer

    2013-10-01

    Observations of the FR I radio galaxy Centaurus A in radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands provide evidence for lepton acceleration up to several TeV and clues about hadron acceleration to tens of EeV. Synthesising the available observational constraints on the physical conditions and particle content in the jets, inner lobes and giant lobes of Centaurus A, we aim to evaluate its feasibility as an ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray source. We apply several methods of determining jet power and affirm the consistency of various power estimates of ~1 × 1043 erg s-1. Employing scaling relations based on previous results for 3C 31, we estimate particle number densities in the jets, encompassing available radio through X-ray observations. Our model is compatible with the jets ingesting ~3 × 1021 g s-1 of matter via external entrainment from hot gas and ~7 × 1022 g s-1 via internal entrainment from jet-contained stars. This leads to an imbalance between the internal lobe pressure available from radiating particles and magnetic field, and our derived external pressure. Based on knowledge of the external environments of other FR I sources, we estimate the thermal pressure in the giant lobes as 1.5 × 10-12 dyn cm-2, from which we deduce a lower limit to the temperature of ~1.6 × 108 K. Using dynamical and buoyancy arguments, we infer ~440-645 Myr and ~560 Myr as the sound-crossing and buoyancy ages of the giant lobes respectively, inconsistent with their spectral ages. We re-investigate the feasibility of particle acceleration via stochastic processes in the lobes, placing new constraints on the energetics and on turbulent input to the lobes. The same "very hot" temperatures that allow self-consistency between the entrainment calculations and the missing pressure also allow stochastic UHECR acceleration models to work.

  15. Study of crosslinking onset and hydrogen annealing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John Ford

    1997-09-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is used extensively in hip and knee endoprostheses. Radiation damage from the sterilization of these endoprostheses prior to surgical insertion results in polymer crosslinking and decreased oxidative stability. The motivation for this study was to determine if UHMW-PE could be crosslinked by low dose proton irradiation with minimal radiation damage and its subsequent deleterious effects. I found that low dose proton irradiation and post irradiation hydrogen annealing did crosslink UHMW-PE and limit post irradiation oxidation. Crosslinking onset was investigated for UHMW-PE irradiated with 2.6 and 30 MeV H+ ions at low doses from 5.7 × 1011-2.3 × 1014 ions/cm2. Crosslinking was determined from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene sol fractions and increased with dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed irradiation resulted in increased free radicals confirmed from increased carbonyl groups. Radiation damage, especially at the highest doses observed, also showed up in carbon double bonds and increased methyl end groups. Hydrogen annealing after ion irradiation resulted in 40- 50% decrease in FTIR absorption associated with carbonyl. The hydrogen annealing prevented further oxidation after aging for 1024 hours at 80oC. Hydrogen annealing was successful in healing radiation damage through reacting with the free radicals generated during proton irradiation. Polyethylenes, polyesters, and polyamides are used in diverse applications by the medical profession in the treatment of orthopedic impairments and cardiovascular disease and for neural implants. These artificial implants are sterilized with gamma irradiation prior to surgery and the resulting radiation damage can lead to accelerated deterioration of the implant properties. The findings in this study will greatly impact the continued use of these materials through the elimination of many problems associated with radiation

  16. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  17. EPR study of the relationship between ultra high molecular weight polyethylene structure and radicals formed during irradiation with high energy sources.

    PubMed

    Brunella, Valentina; Paganini, Maria Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Three different samples of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene have been irradiated with a high energy source (electron beam), and radicals have been generated. Different radical species have been assigned on the basis of their electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Electron paramagnetic resonance data have been used also to evaluate the amount of each kind of radical that has been generated on different starting materials. The structure of the polymer (number of double bonds or crystallinity) is strictly connected to the response of the sample itself to the irradiation. A rationalization between these different parameters has been performed in order to evaluate the stability of polymer samples toward high energy irradiation processes.

  18. Topics in Particle Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the Origin of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvez, Antoine

    the electrons gives rise to a signal that could also be detectable by future X-ray telescope experiments. Besides being one of the preferred explanation for the high-energy electron and positron excess suggested by ATIC, PAMELA, and Fermi, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have also been invoked to explain the 511 keV emission from the galactic bulge. While independent explanations can be responsible for these phenomena, we explore the possibility of their common GRB-related origin, by modeling the GRB distribution and estimating their rates. For an expected long GRB rate in the Milky Way, neither of the two signals is generic; the local electron excess requires a 2% coincidence while the signal from the galactic center requires a 20% coincidence with respect to the timing of the latest GRB. The simultaneous explanation requires a 0.4% coincidence. Considering the large number of statistical "trials" created by multiple searches for new physics, the coincidences of a few per cent cannot be dismissed as unlikely. Alternatively, both phenomena can be explained by GRBs if the galactic rate is higher than expected. We also show that a similar result is difficult to obtain assuming a simplified short GRB distribution. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory ( PAO), showing energy-dependent chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with a growing fraction of heavy elements at high energies, suggest a possible non-negligible contribution to the spectrum from galactic sources. We show that in the case of UHECRs produced by gamma-ray bursts, or by rare types of supernova explosions that took place in the Milky Way in the past, the change in composition of the UHECR, spectrum can result from the difference in diffusion times for different species. The anisotropy in the direction of the galactic center is expected to be a few percent on average, but the locations of the most recent/closest bursts can be associated with the possible observed clustering of

  19. Ultra high energy density nanocomposite capacitors with fast discharge using Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A

    2013-04-10

    Nanocomposites combining a high breakdown strength polymer and high dielectric permittivity ceramic filler have shown great potential for pulsed power applications. However, while current nanocomposites improve the dielectric permittivity of the capacitor, the gains come at the expense of the breakdown strength, which limits the ultimate performance of the capacitor. Here, we develop a new synthesis method for the growth of barium strontium titanate nanowires and demonstrate their use in ultra high energy density nanocomposites. This new synthesis process provides a facile approach to the growth of high aspect ratio nanowires with high yield and control over the stoichiometry of the solid solution. The nanowires are grown in the cubic phase with a Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 composition and have not been demonstrated prior to this report. The poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites resulting from this approach have high breakdown strength and high dielectric permittivity which results from the use of high aspect ratio fillers rather than equiaxial particles. The nanocomposites are shown to have an ultra high energy density of 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m and provide microsecond discharge time quicker than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors. The energy density of our nanocomposites exceeds those reported in the literature for ceramic/polymer composites and is 1138% greater than the reported commercial capacitor with energy density of 1.2 J/cc at 640 MV/m for the current state of the art biaxial oriented polypropylene.

  20. The energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays measured by the Telescope Array FADC fluorescence detectors in monocular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Myers, I.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2013-08-01

    We present a measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays performed by the Telescope Array experiment using monocular observations from its two new FADC-based fluorescence detectors. After a short description of the experiment, we describe the data analysis and event reconstruction procedures. Since the aperture of the experiment must be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, we describe this calculation and the comparisons of simulated and real data used to verify the validity of the aperture calculation. Finally, we present the energy spectrum calculated from the merged monocular data sets of the two FADC-based detectors, and also the combination of this merged spectrum with an independent, previously published monocular spectrum measurement performed by Telescope Array's third fluorescence detector [T. Abu-Zayyad et al., The energy spectrum of Telescope Array's middle drum detector and the direct comparison to the high resolution fly's eye experiment, Astroparticle Physics 39 (2012) 109-119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.05.012, Available from: ]. This combined spectrum corroborates the recently published Telescope Array surface detector spectrum [T. Abu-Zayyad, et al., The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment, ApJ 768 (2013) L1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1, Available from: ] with independent systematic uncertainties.

  1. Energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed with the Telescope Array using a hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-02-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than 1018.2 eV with the fluorescence detectors (FDs) and the surface detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27, 2008 to September 7, 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  2. Energy Spectrum and Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers Using Hybrid Analysis from Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui, Charles; Allen, Monica; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Stokes, Benjamin; Ivanov, Dmitri

    2013-04-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) consists of 38 fluorescence telescopes spread over three detector sites. The three sites at located the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters, covering 700 square km, with a spacing of 1.2 km. TA is designed to study the energy spectrum, composition, and arrival direction anisotropy of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR). A unique feature of TA is that one of three fluorescence detector (FD) sites, Middle Drum (MD), is instrumented with 14 refurbished telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. This commonality provides TA with a direct link back to the HiRes experiment and data. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the MD data improves the geometrical reconstruction and hence provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle and shower profile. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum composition results will be presented.

  3. Microstructure of X210Cr12 steel after the forming in semi-solid state visualized by very low energy SEM in ultra high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikmeková, Š.; Mašek, B.; Jirková, H.; Aišman, D.; Müllerová, I.; Frank, L.

    2013-06-01

    Progress in materials science is inseparably connected with development of new analytical methods which make possible to observe the materials microstructure with high sensitivity. The aim of the present study is shown that scanning low energy electron microscopy (SLEEM) has a significant impact in advance of a fundamental understanding of the evolution of microstructure upon semi-solid processing. This paper deals with the application of the ultra high vacuum scanning low energy electron microscopy (UHV SLEEM) to the study of microstructure of X210Cr12 steel after the formation in semi-solid state and the study of the annealing of deformed metastable austenite. Examples from these specimens show that the contrast between differently oriented grains in polycrystalline materials is very sensitive to the parameters such as energy of the primary beam, working distance and detection of high angle backscattered electrons.

  4. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collica, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  5. The expected high-energy to ultra-high-energy gamma-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Jager, O. C.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The inverse Compton scattering model for the unpulsed TeV emission from the Crab Nebula is reexamined using the magnetic field distribution derived from MHD flow models of the nebula. It is shown that the observed flux can be explained if the average nebular field is indeed about 0.0003, as is predicted by the spectral break between radio and optical. The brightness distribution of the TeV gamma-ray signal is expected to extend out to about 1.5 arcmin from the pulsar. The present estimates predict a steady flux of unpulsed ultrahigh-energy gamma-rays due to the inverse Compton scattering of soft photons by shock-accelerated electrons and/or positrons in the vicinity of the shock.

  6. Comprehensive metabolite profiling of Plantaginis Semen using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Tong, Renchao; Wang, Rui; Bligh, S W Annie; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-05-01

    Plantaginis Semen is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat edema, hypertension, and diabetes. The commercially available Plantaginis Semen in China mainly comes from three species. To clarify the chemical composition and distinct different species of Plantaginis Semen, we established a metabolite profiling method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique. A total of 108 compounds, including phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, guanidine derivatives, terpenoids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were identified from Plantago asiatica L., P. depressa Willd., and P. major L. Results showed significant differences in chemical components among the three species, particularly flavonoids. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive chemical profile of Plantaginis Semen, which could be involved into the quality control, medication guide, and developing new drug of Plantago seeds.

  7. Comprehensive metabolite profiling of Plantaginis Semen using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Tong, Renchao; Wang, Rui; Bligh, S W Annie; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-05-01

    Plantaginis Semen is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat edema, hypertension, and diabetes. The commercially available Plantaginis Semen in China mainly comes from three species. To clarify the chemical composition and distinct different species of Plantaginis Semen, we established a metabolite profiling method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique. A total of 108 compounds, including phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, guanidine derivatives, terpenoids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were identified from Plantago asiatica L., P. depressa Willd., and P. major L. Results showed significant differences in chemical components among the three species, particularly flavonoids. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive chemical profile of Plantaginis Semen, which could be involved into the quality control, medication guide, and developing new drug of Plantago seeds. PMID:27030316

  8. CORRELATIONS OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS WITH EXTRAGALACTIC OBJECTS AS OBSERVED BY THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W.; Aida, R.; Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T.; Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; and others

    2013-11-10

    We search for correlations between the positions of extragalactic objects and the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energy E ≥ 40 EeV as observed by the surface detector array of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment during the first 40 months of operation. We examine several public astronomical object catalogs, including the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalog of active galactic nuclei. We count the number of TA events correlated with objects in each catalog as a function of three parameters: the maximum angular separation between a TA event and an object, the minimum energy of the events, and the maximum redshift of the objects. We determine the combination of these parameters that maximizes the correlations, and we calculate the probability of having the same levels of correlations from an isotropic distribution of UHECR arrival directions. No statistically significant correlations are found when penalties for scanning over the above parameters and for searching in several catalogs are taken into account.

  9. Correlations of the Arrival Directions of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays with Extragalactic Objects as Observed by the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2013-11-01

    We search for correlations between the positions of extragalactic objects and the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energy E >= 40 EeV as observed by the surface detector array of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment during the first 40 months of operation. We examine several public astronomical object catalogs, including the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalog of active galactic nuclei. We count the number of TA events correlated with objects in each catalog as a function of three parameters: the maximum angular separation between a TA event and an object, the minimum energy of the events, and the maximum redshift of the objects. We determine the combination of these parameters that maximizes the correlations, and we calculate the probability of having the same levels of correlations from an isotropic distribution of UHECR arrival directions. No statistically significant correlations are found when penalties for scanning over the above parameters and for searching in several catalogs are taken into account.

  10. On the influence of statistics on the determination of the mean value of the depth of shower maximum for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.

    2012-09-01

    The chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays is still uncertain. The latest results obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the HiRes collaboration, concerning the measurement of the mean value and the fluctuations of the atmospheric depth at which the showers reach the maximum development, Xmax, are inconsistent. From comparison with air shower simulations it can be seen that, while the Auger data may be interpreted as a gradual transition to heavy nuclei for energies larger than ˜2-3 × 1018 eV, the HiRes data are consistent with a composition dominated by protons. In Wilk and Wlodarczyk (2011 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 38 085201), it is suggested that a possible explanation for the observed deviation of the mean value of Xmax from the proton expectation, observed by Auger, could originate in a statistical bias arising from the approximated exponential shape of the Xmax distribution, combined with the decrease of the number of events as a function of primary energy. In this paper, we consider a better description of the Xmax distribution and show that the possible bias in the Auger data is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the one obtained when assuming an exponential distribution. Therefore, we conclude that the deviation of the Auger data from the proton expectation is unlikely to be explained by such statistical effect.

  11. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Aüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schöder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcąu, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cáardenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 × 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

  12. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrativemore » values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.« less

  13. Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

  14. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li-S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g-1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li-S batteries.

  15. On the Possibility of Radar Detection of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray- and Neutrino-induced Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P.

    1999-01-01

    We show that cosmic rays air showers resulting from primaries with energies above 10(sup 19) eV should be straightforward to detect with radar ranging techniques, where the radar echoes are produced by scattering from the column of ionized air produced by the shower.

  16. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P

    2011-06-17

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

  17. Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizot, Etienne

    2014-11-01

    We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of 1017 eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovæ in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role in the origin of cosmic-rays, and could solve some persistent problems of the standard SNR-GCR scenario in a rather natural way.

  18. A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Highly Inclined Events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu, P

    2011-12-30

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associatedmore » systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE < 1.74 x 10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1 x 1017eV < E < 1 x 1020 eV.« less

  19. A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Highly Inclined Events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P

    2011-12-30

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associated systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE < 1.74 x 10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1 x 1017eV < E < 1 x 1020 eV.

  20. Ultra-high energy collisions in static space-times: single versus multi-black hole cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2015-04-01

    We consider collision of two particles near static electrically charged extremal black holes and elucidate the conditions under which the energy in the centre of mass frame grows unbounded. For a single black hole, we generalize the results obtained earlier for the Reissner-Nordström metric, to distorted black holes. In the multi-black hole space-time, qualitatively new features appear. If the point of collision is close to at least two horizons simultaneously, unbounded are possible (i) without fine-tuning of particles' parameters, (ii) for an arbitrary mutual orientation of two velocities. Such a combination of properties (i) and (ii) has no analogues in the single black hole case and facilitates the condition of getting unbounded . Collisions in the electro-vacuum Majumdar-Papapetrou metric (several extremal black holes in equilibrium) is analyzed explicitly.

  1. ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN HiRes DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Archbold, G.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Brusova, O. A.; Burt, G. W.; Cannon, C.; Cao, Z.; Deng, W.; Fedorova, Y.; Findlay, J.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. F.; Amann, J. F.; Hoffman, C. M.; Finley, C. B.

    2010-04-10

    Stereo data collected by the HiRes experiment over a six-year period are examined for large-scale anisotropy related to the inhomogeneous distribution of matter in the nearby universe. We consider the generic case of small cosmic-ray deflections and a large number of sources tracing the matter distribution. In this matter tracer model the expected cosmic-ray flux depends essentially on a single free parameter, the typical deflection angle {theta} {sub s}. We find that the HiRes data with threshold energies of 40 EeV and 57 EeV are incompatible with the matter tracer model at a 95% confidence level unless {theta} {sub s} > 10 deg. and are compatible with an isotropic flux. The data set above 10 EeV is compatible with both the matter tracer model and an isotropic flux.

  2. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  3. Bimodal solar system based on a ultra-high-temperature TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogloblin, B. G.; Kirillov, E. Ya.; Klimov, A. V.; Shalaev, A. I.; Shumov, D. P.; Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Sitnov, V. I.

    1996-03-01

    The paper considers an ecological, solar, bimodal system with ultra-high temperature thermionic energy converter (TEC). The solar bimodal Space Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) characteristics are presented.

  4. Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Dan; Bull, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in ultra-high temperature ceramic composites, and their application to advanced vehicle thermal protection systems will be discussed. Research and testing of refractory ceramics has resulted in the identification of a new family of ceramic composites that promise temperature performance to 4000 F+, significantly beyond the current state-of-the-art of reusable systems which are limited to approximately 300 F. This new family of materials includes zirconium and hafnium diboride composites with various reinforcements, such as fibers and particulates. Preliminary material characterization and testing results, including plasma arc-jet testing of prototype vehicle components, will be described. Future directions for the research and material development activities will also be discussed.

  5. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  6. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  7. Waste heat recovery with ultra high-speed turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Vakkilainen, E.; Larjola, J.; Lindgren, O.

    1984-08-01

    A new ORC heat recovery system which converts waste heat to electricity has been developed in Lappeenranta University of Technology with support from Department of Energy in Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Use of ultra high-speed turbomachinery (10 000 rpm - 200 000 rpm) promises lower unit costs, higher efficiencies and fast amortization rate, 2,4 - 3,0 years.

  8. Ultra-high-speed embossed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Etsuro; Sato, Koetsu; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2008-11-01

    Embossed radiography is an important technique for imaging target region by decreasing absorption contrast of objects. The ultra-high-speed embossed radiography system consists of a computed radiography system, an intense flash x-ray generator, and a computer program for shifting the image pixel. In the flash x-ray generator, a high-voltage condenser of 200 nF was charged to 50 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the flash x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The molybdenum-target evaporation lead to the formation of weakly ionized linear plasma, and intense molybdenum K-series x-rays were produced. High-speed radiography was performed using molybdenum K-rays, and the embossed radiography was carried out utilizing single-energy subtraction after the image shifting. The minimum spatial resolution was equal to the sampling pitch of the CR system of 87.5 μm, and concavoconvex radiography such as phase-differential imaging was performed with an x-ray duration of approximately 0.5 Μs.

  9. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, Sergei M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  10. Fast ion acceleration from thin foils irradiated by ultra-high intensity, ultra-high contrast laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Doria, D.; Quinn, K. E.; Romagnani, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A. A.; Brenner, C. M.; Gallegos, P.; Carroll, D. C.; McKenna, P.; Tresca, O.; Dover, N. P.; Najmudin, Z.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Neely, D.; Green, J. S.; Foster, P. S.; Schreiber, J.; and others

    2011-09-19

    Ion acceleration resulting from the interaction of ultra-high intensity (2 x 10{sup 20 }W/cm{sup 2}) and ultra-high contrast ({approx}10{sup 10}) laser pulses with 0.05-10 {mu}m thick Al foils at normal (0 deg.) and 35 deg. laser incidence is investigated. When decreasing the target thickness from 10 {mu}m down to 0.05 {mu}m, the accelerated ions become less divergent and the ion flux increases, particularly at normal (0 deg.) laser incidence on the target. A laser energy conversion into protons of {approx}6.5% is estimated at 35 deg. laser incidence. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with theoretical estimates and can be a benchmark for further theoretical and computational work.

  11. Absolute Photoionization Cross Section with an Ultra-high Energy Resolution for Ne in the Region of 1s Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.

  12. Large Scale Distribution of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with Zenith Angles up to 80°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in the E\\gt 8 EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension r1α =(4.4+/- 1.0)× {{10}-2}, that has a chance probability P(≥slant r1α )=6.4× {{10}-5}, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.

  13. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in the $E\\gt 8$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$, that has a chance probability $P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.

  14. Large scale distribution of ultra high energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with zenith angles up to 80°

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-30

    In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in the right ascension and one in the azimuth angle distributions, that are sensitive to modulations in right ascension and declination, respectively. The largest departure from isotropy appears in themore » $$E\\gt 8$$ EeV energy bin, with an amplitude for the first harmonic in right ascension $$r_{1}^{\\alpha }=(4.4\\pm 1.0)\\times {{10}^{-2}}$$, that has a chance probability $$P(\\geqslant r_{1}^{\\alpha })=6.4\\times {{10}^{-5}}$$, reinforcing the hint previously reported with vertical events alone.« less

  15. Simultaneous determination of taurine, glucuronolactone and glucuronic acid in energy drinks by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole).

    PubMed

    Ricciutelli, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Lombardozzi, Antonietta; Strano, Morela; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2014-10-17

    In this work, we present for the first time a rapid and robust UHPLC-MS/MS method for analyzing taurine, GlcLA and GlcA in energy drinks simultaneously and without derivatization. The separation of three analytes was achieved using a Kinetex Hilic analytical column (100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) and a mobile phase formed by water (A) and acetonitrile (B) both with formic acid 0.1% at a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) with isocratic elution in 3.5 min. Calibration curves were calculated using the method of standard addition in a concentration range from 2 to 6 mg/100 ml for taurine (R(2)>0.987), from 0.4 to 1.2 mg/100 ml for GlcLa (R(2)>0.997), and from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/100 ml for GlcA acid (R(2)>0.998). The validated method was applied to the analysis of nine commercial energy drinks. The level of taurine found ranged from 0.01 to 0.45 g/100 ml, and it matched with that reported in the labels of the analyzed energy drink samples.

  16. Miniaturized FRET assays and microfluidics: key components for ultra-high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Mere; Bennett; Coassin; England; Hamman; Rink; Zimmerman; Negulescu

    1999-08-01

    Assay miniaturization applicable across a wide range of target classes, along with automation and process integration, are well-recognized goals for ultra-high-throughput screening on an industrial scale. This report summarizes the implementation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biochemical and cell-based assays in 3456-well NanoWelltrade mark assay plates using key components of Aurora's ultra-high-throughput screening system.

  17. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Isidoro E.

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  18. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  19. Is the ultra-high energy cosmic-ray excess observed by the telescope array correlated with IceCube neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Fujii, Toshihiro; Linden, Tim; Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-10-20

    The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 deg{sup 2} centered on coordinates R.A. = 146.7, decl. = 43.2. We note that the location of this excess correlates with 2 of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2σ level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single source which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, we discuss possible source classes with the correct characteristics to explain the cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes with a single source.

  20. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  1. Search for Point-like Sources of Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory and Improved Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Tau Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-08-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E ν between 1017 eV and 1020 eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55° and north of -65° declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of ~3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and ~2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k PS · E -2 ν from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k PS at the level of ≈5 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  2. SEARCH FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND IMPROVED LIMIT ON THE DIFFUSE FLUX OF TAU NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E{sub {nu}} between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 20} eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55 Degree-Sign and north of -65 Degree-Sign declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of {approx}3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and {approx}2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k{sub PS} {center_dot} E {sup -2}{sub {nu}} from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k{sub PS} at the level of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  3. Springback analysis of ultra high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenma, Kenji; Kina, Futoshi; Suzuki, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    It is an inevitable trend in the automotive industry to apply more and more high strength steels and even ultra-high strength steels. Even though these materials are more difficult to process the development time of forming tools must be reduced. In order to keep the development time under control, simulation tools are used to verify the forming process in advance. At Aoi Machine Industry a project has been executed to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels in order to reduce the tool tryout time. In the first phase of the project the simulation settings were optimized based on B-Pillar model A made of Dual Phase 980. In the second phase, it was verified with B-Pillar model B whether these simulation settings were usable as general setting. Results showed that with the right settings it is very well possible to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels. In the third phase the project the stamping of a B-Pillar of Dual Phase 1180 was studied.

  4. Ultra-High-Field MR Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Balchandani, P.; Naidich, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY At ultra-high magnetic fields, such as 7T, MR imaging can noninvasively visualize the brain in unprecedented detail and through enhanced contrast mechanisms. The increased SNR and enhanced contrast available at 7T enable higher resolution anatomic and vascular imaging. Greater spectral separation improves detection and characterization of metabolites in spectroscopic imaging. Enhanced blood oxygen level–dependent contrast affords higher resolution functional MR imaging. Ultra-high-field MR imaging also facilitates imaging of nonproton nuclei such as sodium and phosphorus. These improved imaging methods may be applied to detect subtle anatomic, functional, and metabolic abnormalities associated with a wide range of neurologic disorders, including epilepsy, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and psychiatric conditions. At 7T, however, physical and hardware limitations cause conventional MR imaging pulse sequences to generate artifacts, requiring specialized pulse sequences and new hardware solutions to maximize the high-field gain in signal and contrast. Practical considerations for ultra-high-field MR imaging include cost, siting, and patient experience. PMID:25523591

  5. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  6. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  7. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  8. BAKABLE ULTRA-HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Mark, J.T.; Gantz, I.H.

    1962-07-10

    S>This patent relates to a valve useful in applications involving successively closing and opening a communication between a chamber evacuated to an ultra-high vacuum condition of the order of 10/sup -10/ millimeters of mercury and another chamber or the ambient. The valve is capable of withstanding extended baking at 450 deg C and repeated opening and closing without repiacement of the valve seat (approximately 200 cycle limit). The seal is formed by mutual interdiffusion weld, coerced by a pneumatic actuator. (AEC)

  9. Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds. PMID:21280840

  10. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  11. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Loehman, Ronald E.; Corral, Erica L.

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  12. The Bendability of Ultra High strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, S. K.; Efthymiadis, P.; Alamoudi, A.; Kumar, R. L. V.; Shollock, B.; Dashwood, R.

    2016-08-01

    Automotive manufacturers have been reducing the weight of their vehicles to meet increasingly stringent environmental legislation that reflects public demand. A strategy is to use higher strength materials for parts with reduced cross-sections. However, such materials are less formable than traditional grades. The frequent result is increased processing and piece costs. 3D roll forming is a novel and flexible process: it is estimated that a quarter of the structure of a vehicle can be made with a single set of tooling. Unlike stamping, this process requires material with low work hardening rates. In this paper, we present results of ultra high strength steels that have low elongation in a tension but display high formability in bending through the suppression of the necking response.

  13. Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic (UHTC) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Ellerby, Don

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA Ames has been developing new, Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic (UHTC) materials for Thermal Protection Systems applications. The UHTC s are a family of materials including compositions of HfE32 and ZrB2 with a Sic second phase. A collaboration with Glenn was recently initiated to evaluate the viability of some UHTC materials that had been produced by an outside vendor for use in gas turbine en,@ne environments. Results from this collaboration have indicated that compositions based on HfB2 show the most promise, among the UHTC compositions evaluated, for use in these environments. Work at ARC has been initiated to fabricate these materials in-house and evaluate methods of improving their properties for use in engine environments.

  14. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  15. [Mutation effect of ultra high pressure on microbe].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sui-Lou; Wu, Xiao-Zong; Hao, Li-Hua; Sun, Jun-She

    2005-12-01

    (Ultra) high pressure had many influences on microbe. It could regulate the expression of gene and protein, influence DNA's structure and function as well as change cell morphology and cell component. These effects not only make (ultra) high pressure to be applied into food sterilization, conserving and some processing, but also indicate it would play an important role in mutagenic breeding of microbe. Pressure can change the structure and function of microbe, yet it is possible that (ultra) high pressure could induce mutation of microbe. Now the feasibility of (ultra) high pressure's mutation effect was discussed according to the effects of it on microbe, some examples and author's studying.

  16. Ultra-High Pressure Modeling and Experiments Review

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, M; Darnell, I

    2004-06-01

    The RDHWT/MARIAH II energy addition, run time, and mass flow rate requirement simply large air and nitrogen fluid volumes at the highest practicable static enthalpy. The objective of the gas supply concept development is the satisfaction of ultra-high pressure (UHP), high temperature thermodynamic requirements in a facility with acceptable safety and economic risks. The primary challenges for the mechanical design are connecting multiple volumes at pressures greater than 1,400MPa and temperatures greater than 500 K; fabricating high strength steel sections approximately 2 m in typical dimension, and reacting the pressure-related forces in the system. In the 'octahedral module' concept, four UHP intensifiers and two UHP manifolds are arranged in an 'octahedral' geometry that results in acceptable deviatoric stresses at cross bores. Multiple modules join to provide the required UHP volume at a stagnation pressure of 2100MPa and stagnation temperature of 750 K.

  17. The spheromak as a prototype for ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-08-01

    In view of current progress in the development of superconductor materials, the ultimate high-field limit of superconducting magnets is likely to be set by mechanical stress problems. Maximum field strength should be attainable by means of approximately force-free magnet windings having favorable ''MHD'' stability properties (so that small winding errors will not grow). Since a low-beta finite-flux-hole spheromak configuration qualifies as a suitable prototype, the theoretical and experimental spheromak research effort of the past decade has served to create a substantial technical basis for the design of ultra-high-field superconducting coils. 11 refs.

  18. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Christopher

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  19. Delamination toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, A.; Tellez, J.; Casas-Rodriguez, J. P.

    2012-08-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites are an important group of material for armours solutions, where their unique combination of properties could be utilized. A commonly observed failure mode in this kind of unidirectional laminated composites under impact ballistic is delamination between the composite layers. In the present study, an investigation on the delamination toughness behaviour exhibited by UHMWPE composites laminated was made. The interlaminar Mode II critical strain energy release rates of (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites were characterized using the End Notch Flexural (ENF) test. Critical strain energy release rate was obtained from the load - deflection test data using the beam theory expression. It was found that the energy release rate of the composite exhibited a very low value of around 60J/m2 using a moulding pressure of approximately 1200 psi. In order to analyse the delamination resistance of composite, the effects of changing the manufacture process variables and the use of a thermoplastic adhesive film in the composites were investigated. The composite laminates were produced by hot compressing moulding using a film-stacking procedure. It was found that the damage resistance of the UHMWPE composite was influenced by the manufacture method, which affects the Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and the ballistic response of composites.

  20. Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.

    2004-01-01

    Issues associated with the development and use of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites (UHTCC) for leading edges of hypersonic vehicles will be discussed. These include attachments, constituent selection, processing, oxidation, physical and mechanical properties, and attachments.

  1. Alternative Processing Methods for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Beckman, Sarah; Gasch, Matthew; Ellerby, Don; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are being developed for possible use in a number of structural applications including hypersonic vehicles, engines, plasma arc electrodes and high temperature shielding. Alternative methods of processing Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) will be discussed. Techniques that may improve oxidation resistance, strength, and reduce the processing temperature of the UHTCs will be presented. Hot-pressed UHTCs made using either milled/uncoated powders or non-milled coated powders will be compared.

  2. Analysis of trace halocarbon contaminants in ultra high purity helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, Larry L.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of ultra high purity helium. Purification studies were conducted and containment removal was effected by the utilization of solid adsorbent purge-trap systems at cryogenic temperatures. Volatile organic compounds in ultra high purity helium were adsorbed on a solid adsorbent-cryogenic trap, and thermally desorbed trace halocarbon and other contaminants were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  3. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  4. Ultra-High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M C; Badakov, H; Rosenzweig, J B; Travish, G; Hogan, M; Ischebeck, R; Kirby, N; Siemann, R; Walz, D; Muggli, P; Scott, A; Yoder, R

    2006-08-04

    Ultra-high gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators are a potential option for a linear collider afterburner since they are immune to the ion collapse and electron/positron asymmetry problems implicit in a plasma based afterburner. The first phase of an experiment to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range has been completed. The experiment took advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., {sigma}{sub z} = 20 {micro}m at Q = 3 nC). The FFTB electron beam was successfully focused down and sent through short lengths of fused silica capillary tubing (ID = 200 {micro}m/OD = 325 {micro}m). The pulse length of the electron beam was varied to produce a range of electric fields between 2 and 20 GV/m at the inner surface of the dielectric tubes. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m. In future experiments being developed for the SLAC SABER and BNL ATF we plan to use the coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube as a field strength diagnostic and demonstrate GV/m range particle energy gain.

  5. Ultra-High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.; Badakov, H.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Travish, G.; Hogan, M.; Ischebeck, R.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Muggli, P.; Scott, A.; Yoder, R.; /LLNL, Livermore /UCLA /SLAC /Southern California U. /UC, Santa Barbara /Manhattan Coll., Riverdale

    2007-03-27

    Ultra-high gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators are a potential option for a linear collider afterburner since they are immune to the ion collapse and electron/positron asymmetry problems implicit in a plasma based afterburner. The first phase of an experiment to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range has been completed. The experiment took advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., {sigma}{sub z} = 20 {micro}m at Q = 3 nC). The FFTB electron beam was successfully focused down and sent through short lengths of fused silica capillary tubing (ID = 200 {micro}m/OD = 325 {micro}m). The pulse length of the electron beam was varied to produce a range of electric fields between 2 and 20 GV/m at the inner surface of the dielectric tubes. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m. In future experiments being developed for the SLAC SABER and BNL ATF we plan to use the coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube as a field strength diagnostic and demonstrate GV/m range particle energy gain.

  6. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, I V

    2014-05-30

    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  7. Attained energy densities and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.

    1989-01-01

    The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Enhancement of maximum attainable ion energy in the radiation pressure acceleration regime using a guiding structure

    DOE PAGES

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-03-13

    Radiation Pressure Acceleration is a highly efficient mechanism of laser driven ion acceleration, with the laser energy almost totally transferrable to the ions in the relativistic regime. There is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. In the case of a tightly focused laser pulses, which are utilized to get the highest intensity, another factor limiting the maximum ion energy comes into play, the transverse expansion of the target. Transverse expansion makes the target transparent for radiation, thus reducing the effectiveness of acceleration. Utilization of an external guidingmore » structure for the accelerating laser pulse may provide a way of compensating for the group velocity and transverse expansion effects.« less

  9. Enhancement of maximum attainable ion energy in the radiation pressure acceleration regime using a guiding structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-03-13

    Radiation Pressure Acceleration is a highly efficient mechanism of laser driven ion acceleration, with the laser energy almost totally transferrable to the ions in the relativistic regime. There is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. In the case of a tightly focused laser pulses, which are utilized to get the highest intensity, another factor limiting the maximum ion energy comes into play, the transverse expansion of the target. Transverse expansion makes the target transparent for radiation, thus reducing the effectiveness of acceleration. Utilization of an external guiding structure for the accelerating laser pulse may provide a way of compensating for the group velocity and transverse expansion effects.

  10. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  11. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  12. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  13. An Ultra High Temperature Positive Photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, John; Turner, Edwin J.; Spencer, Allen C.; Sawoska, David A.; Ben-Shushan, Giyora

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses the functional performance features of a new positive photoresist designated as ULTRAMAC' PR78T that can be subjected to temperatures up to 220°C. without any changes in the critical dimensions (CD's). No deep UV stabilization, intermediate post bakes, or other stabilization techniques are required to achieve high temperature thermal stability (220°C.). This high temperature positive photoresist is based on a diazo-coupled alkali soluble resin. The resolution and photospeed of this resist, ULTRAMAC' PR78T, are shown to be in the order of 1 micron using a 1.5 microns resist film thickness at 44 mJ/cm2. This resist also has submicron capabilities using step-and-repeat exposure equipment (10:1) utilizing monochromatic 436 nanometer light. ULTRAMAC' PR78T resist shows optimum sensitivity in the 300 - 500 nanometer UV spectral range. In contact or projection exposure equipment, resolution in the order of 1 micron can be achieved using a 1 micron resist film with exposure energies of about 35 mJ/cm2. For steppers using monochromatic light at 436 nanometers, typical exposure energies are in the order of 160 to 180 mJ/cm2, using either metal-ion-free or buffered metal based developers. Contrast (gamma) curves are shown for both metal-ion-free developer, ULTRAMAC' MF72A, and buffered metal containing developer, ULTRAMAC" D71A. High current ion implant data is also presented, showing no resist degradation. Anisotropic plasma/RIE etching selectivity data is also shown on SiO2 and aluminum alloy substrates.

  14. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  15. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  16. Time-domain observation of strong coupling between counter-propagating ultra-high Q whispering gallery modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiki, Wataru; Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fujii, Shun; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-03-01

    An ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) cavity is attractive because the light-matter interaction is enhanced inside it. In terms of science and engineering, an interesting use of a WGM cavity is as a coupled system. When two cavity modes are strongly coupled, they are split in the frequency domain and photons are transferred cyclically between the two modes in the time domain. Recently, the time-domain observation and control of the coupling states were reported with photonic crystal nanocavities, and this technology is essential for developing a quantum node and a quantum network. However, such experiments have not yet been achieved with ultra-high Q modes despite the potential benefit to be gained from the use of ultra-high Q cavities. In this study, we observed strong coupling between ultra-high Q modes in the time domain for the first time. We employed two counter-propagating modes that coupled with each other via surface scattering in a silica toroid microcavity. We employed two tapered fibers (add-drop configuration), one for excitation and the other for observing the energy oscillation between two cavities, which is a necessary technique for directly observing energy in a cavity. The results revealed clear oscillatory behavior, which was induced by the strong coupling. In addition, the oscillation period in the time domain precisely matched that inferred from the mode splitting in the frequency domain, and the measured results showed excellent agreement with those calculated with the developed numerical model.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of ultra-high resolution multilayer-coated blazed gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov,, Dmitriy; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad; Yashchuk, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-07-26

    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the most promising candidate for ultra-high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy. They combine the ability of blazed gratings to concentrate almost all diffraction energy in a desired high diffraction order with high reflectance soft x-ray multilayers. However in order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a near perfect groove profile with an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on successful fabrication and testing of ultra-dense saw-tooth substrates with 5,000 and 10,000 lines/mm.

  18. Ztek`s ultra high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine combination

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.

    1995-10-19

    Ztek is proceeding on development of an ultra-high efficiency hybrid system of its Planar SOFC with a gas turbine, realizing shared cost and performance benefits. The gas turbine as the Balance-of-Plant was a logical selection from a fuel cell system perspective because of (1) the high-power-density energy conversion of gas turbines; (2) the unique compatibility of the Ztek Planar SOFC with gas turbines, and (3) the availability of low-cost commercial gas turbine systems. A Tennessee Valley Authority/Ztek program is ongoing, which addresses operation of the advanced Planar SOFC stacks and design scale-up for utility power generation applications.

  19. MOF-derived crumpled-sheet-assembled perforated carbon cuboids as highly effective cathode active materials for ultra-high energy density Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HECs).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhik; Upadhyay, Kush Kumar; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-04-21

    Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ∼65 W h kg(-1) which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (∼36 W h kg(-1)) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ∼20 W h kg(-1)). The MOF-DC/Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ∼82% of the initial value (∼25 W h kg(-1)) retained after 10,000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration.

  20. Special session on environment and energy, and repeated emphasis from early-`80s onwards, hybrid-drive targets for penetrating beams, that encompasses ultra high intensity lasers and/or particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W. ||

    1994-10-05

    In this special session, we discuss {bold global} {bold climate} {bold change} concerns, as well as {bold cleanup} {bold of} {bold wastes} {bold and}/{bold or} {bold toxic} {bold materials}, their relations to energy and other technologies. We especially bring together scientists to discuss available and/or developable technologies of amelioration or cleanup, for consideration of unusual uses of {bold Lasers}, {bold Particle} {bold Beams} {bold and} {bold other} {bold plasma} Phenomena. {copyright}{ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics} 1994

  1. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Fisch; V.M. Malkin

    2003-06-10

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10{sup 25} W/cm{sup 2} can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers.

  2. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  3. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at Los

  4. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.

    2015-08-01

    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  5. [Spoilage microorganisms encountered in ultra-high temperature processed milk].

    PubMed

    Lee, C M

    1984-05-01

    40 strains of aerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganisms were isolated from a total of 37 spoiled ultra high temperature processed milk. 13 of them were identified as the genus Bacillus. They were 6 B. cereus, 5 B. licheniformis, 1 B. brevis and 1 B. pumilus. The other 27 strains were nonsporeforming microorganisms, which included 5 yeasts, 2 Pseudomonas sp., 3 Streptococcus sp., 12 Lactobacillus sp., 1 Shigella sp., 1 Aeromonas sp. and 3 Micrococcus sp. Results indicate that the spoilage of milk sample was caused mainly by the contamination during the filling operation. The Bacillus strains isolated were mesophilic or thermophilic, and some of them, were also psychrotrophic.

  6. Evaluation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Propulsion Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials consisting of zirconium diboride or hafnium diboride plus silicon carbide offer a combination of properties that make them candidates for airframe leading edges on sharp-bodied reentry vehicles. These UHTC perform well in the environment for such applications, i.e. low pressure air. The purpose of this study was to examine three of these materials under conditions more representative of a propulsion environment, i.e. higher oxygen and total pressure. Results of stren$h and fracture toughness measurements, furnace oxidation, and thermal shock exposures are presented. The poor oxidation resistance of UHTCs is the predominant factor limiting their applicability to propulsion.

  7. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  8. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs. PMID:27338408

  9. Overview of ERA Ultra High Bypass Propulsor Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A review of the current research being conducted under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Ultra High Bypass (UHB) Testing subelement is presented. The four exiting tasks under the subelement, a description of each task, and the current status of each are given. The four tasks are: 1. Collaborate with P&W to design, fabricate and test a second generation of Geared Turbofan 2. Design, fabricate and test advanced Over the Rotor acoustic treatment and acoustically treated Soft Vanes 3. Develop a Shape Memory Alloy Variable Area Nozzle concept and demonstrate prototype 4. Refurbish and update the GRC Ultra High Bypass Drive Rig Following the current task updates, an overview of three proposed additional tasks to support the existing tasks is presented. The additional tasks would allow noise reduction and noise diagnostic testing technologies to be demonstrated at TRL 4 as part of existing planned fan model testing in the NASA Glenn 9 x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel under the ERA UHB Testing subelement.

  10. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs. PMID:27338408

  11. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  12. Radar detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Isaac J.

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment co-located with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, UT. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW transmitter and high gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and in the FD field of view to a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. Data collection began in August, 2013. TARA stands apart from other cosmic ray radar experiments in that radar data is directly compared with conventional cosmic ray detector events. The transmitter is also directly controlled by TARA researchers. Waveforms from the FD-triggered data stream are time-matched with TA events and searched for signal using a novel signal search technique in which the expected (simulated) radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to radio waveforms. This technique is used to calculate the radar cross-section (RCS) upper-limit on all triggers that correspond to well-reconstructed TA FD monocular events. Our lowest cosmic ray RCS upper-limit is 42 cm2 for an 11 EeV event. An introduction to cosmic rays is presented with the evolution of detection and the necessity of new detection techniques, of which radar detection is a candidate. The software simulation of radar scattering from cosmic rays follows. The TARA detector, including transmitter and receiver systems, are discussed in detail. Our search algorithm and methodology for calculating RCS is presented for the purpose of being repeatable. Search results are explained in context of the usefulness and future of cosmic ray radar detection.

  13. Nanocomposites of TiO₂/cyanoethylated cellulose with ultra high dielectric constants.

    PubMed

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; Shivareddy, Sai G; Hiralal, Pritesh; Eddleston, Mark D; Choi, Youngjin; Oliver, Rachel A; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2016-05-13

    A novel dielectric nanocomposite containing a high permittivity polymer, cyanoethylated cellulose (CRS) and TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully prepared with different weight percentages (10%, 20% and 30%) of TiO2. The intermolecular interactions and morphology within the polymer nanocomposites were analysed. TiO2/CRS nanofilms on SiO2/Si wafers were used to form metal-insulator-metal type capacitors. Capacitances and loss factors in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz were measured. At 1 kHz CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited ultra high dielectric constants of 118, 176 and 207 for nanocomposites with 10%, 20% and 30% weight of TiO2 respectively, significantly higher than reported values of pure CRS (21), TiO2 (41) and other dielectric polymer-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Furthermore, all three CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites show a loss factor <0.3 at 1 kHz and low leakage current densities (10(-6)-10(-7) A cm(-2)). Leakage was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy and it was observed that the leakage is associated with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the CRS polymer matrix. A new class of ultra high dielectric constant hybrids using nanoscale inorganic dielectrics dispersed in a high permittivity polymer suitable for energy management applications is reported.

  14. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment.

  15. Nanocomposites of TiO2/cyanoethylated cellulose with ultra high dielectric constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; Shivareddy, Sai G.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Eddleston, Mark D.; Choi, Youngjin; Oliver, Rachel A.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2016-05-01

    A novel dielectric nanocomposite containing a high permittivity polymer, cyanoethylated cellulose (CRS) and TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully prepared with different weight percentages (10%, 20% and 30%) of TiO2. The intermolecular interactions and morphology within the polymer nanocomposites were analysed. TiO2/CRS nanofilms on SiO2/Si wafers were used to form metal-insulator-metal type capacitors. Capacitances and loss factors in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz were measured. At 1 kHz CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited ultra high dielectric constants of 118, 176 and 207 for nanocomposites with 10%, 20% and 30% weight of TiO2 respectively, significantly higher than reported values of pure CRS (21), TiO2 (41) and other dielectric polymer-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Furthermore, all three CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites show a loss factor <0.3 at 1 kHz and low leakage current densities (10-6-10-7 A cm-2). Leakage was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy and it was observed that the leakage is associated with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the CRS polymer matrix. A new class of ultra high dielectric constant hybrids using nanoscale inorganic dielectrics dispersed in a high permittivity polymer suitable for energy management applications is reported.

  16. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. PMID:26295438

  17. An Ultra-High Pressure Proportional Counter for Hard X-Ray Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zongnan

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the successful development of ultra-high pressure proportional counters for balloon -borne hard X-ray astronomy. The proportional counters were filled with argon/xenon at pressures up to {~}30atm. The properties of proportional counters filled at such pressures have been studied by the author in the laboratory. The spatial response of these counters to X-rays and charged particles, and the energy response to X-rays up to 1MeV have been analysed. Gas gain measurements using the charge collection technique and analysis of the subsequent data show that simple extrapolation from low pressures cannot explain the observed behaviour (e.g. the mobility of positive ions and quenching efficiency) of these counters at high pressures. A hard X-ray telescope consisting of 32 such proportional counters filled at ultra-high pressures is being constructed, details of which are described. The sensitivity of this telescope for both continuum and narrow-line spectra is superb compared to contemporary balloon-and satellite-borne hard X-ray detectors. Together with an imaging phoswich Anger camera, it is scheduled for launch from Alice Springs in November 1992. An anticoincidence system for an X-ray detector, consisting of a combined passive and active shield, has been designed and constructed by the author, and flown on a balloon. The active shield, made of a plastic scintillator, has resulted in an additional reduction of 25% in the background registered at balloon altitudes.

  18. Nanocomposites of TiO2/cyanoethylated cellulose with ultra high dielectric constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; Shivareddy, Sai G.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Eddleston, Mark D.; Choi, Youngjin; Oliver, Rachel A.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2016-05-01

    A novel dielectric nanocomposite containing a high permittivity polymer, cyanoethylated cellulose (CRS) and TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully prepared with different weight percentages (10%, 20% and 30%) of TiO2. The intermolecular interactions and morphology within the polymer nanocomposites were analysed. TiO2/CRS nanofilms on SiO2/Si wafers were used to form metal–insulator–metal type capacitors. Capacitances and loss factors in the frequency range of 1 kHz–1 MHz were measured. At 1 kHz CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited ultra high dielectric constants of 118, 176 and 207 for nanocomposites with 10%, 20% and 30% weight of TiO2 respectively, significantly higher than reported values of pure CRS (21), TiO2 (41) and other dielectric polymer-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Furthermore, all three CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites show a loss factor <0.3 at 1 kHz and low leakage current densities (10‑6–10‑7 A cm‑2). Leakage was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy and it was observed that the leakage is associated with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the CRS polymer matrix. A new class of ultra high dielectric constant hybrids using nanoscale inorganic dielectrics dispersed in a high permittivity polymer suitable for energy management applications is reported.

  19. Nanocomposites of TiO₂/cyanoethylated cellulose with ultra high dielectric constants.

    PubMed

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; Shivareddy, Sai G; Hiralal, Pritesh; Eddleston, Mark D; Choi, Youngjin; Oliver, Rachel A; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2016-05-13

    A novel dielectric nanocomposite containing a high permittivity polymer, cyanoethylated cellulose (CRS) and TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully prepared with different weight percentages (10%, 20% and 30%) of TiO2. The intermolecular interactions and morphology within the polymer nanocomposites were analysed. TiO2/CRS nanofilms on SiO2/Si wafers were used to form metal-insulator-metal type capacitors. Capacitances and loss factors in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz were measured. At 1 kHz CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited ultra high dielectric constants of 118, 176 and 207 for nanocomposites with 10%, 20% and 30% weight of TiO2 respectively, significantly higher than reported values of pure CRS (21), TiO2 (41) and other dielectric polymer-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Furthermore, all three CRS-TiO2 nanocomposites show a loss factor <0.3 at 1 kHz and low leakage current densities (10(-6)-10(-7) A cm(-2)). Leakage was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy and it was observed that the leakage is associated with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the CRS polymer matrix. A new class of ultra high dielectric constant hybrids using nanoscale inorganic dielectrics dispersed in a high permittivity polymer suitable for energy management applications is reported. PMID:27040504

  20. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  1. Ultra-high-speed teleradiology with ISDN technology.

    PubMed

    Lear, J L; Manco-Johnson, M; Feyerabend, A; Anderson, G; Robinson, D

    1989-06-01

    A solid-state, personal computer-based, image digitization and transmission system was developed that uses integrated services digital network (ISDN), a technology under development for ultra-high-speed data transmission over normal phone lines. Thousands of images have been transmitted to a site more than 15 miles away, with data rates exceeding 56,000 bits or 7,000 bytes (1 byte = 8 bits) per second with nearly perfect accuracy. Present modification of the system hardware and software should increase the data rate to 128,000 bits, or 16,000 bytes, per second. With this rate of transmission, remote radiologic image transmission should become a practical, routinely available diagnostic tool. PMID:2717765

  2. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for crude plant extract profiling.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Guillarme, Davy; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems operating at very high pressures and using sub-2 microm packing columns have allowed a remarkable decrease in analysis time and increase in peak capacity, sensitivity, and reproducibility compared to conventional HPLC. This technology has rapidly been widely accepted by the analytical community and is being gradually applied to various fields of plant analysis such as QC, profiling and fingerprinting, dereplication, and metabolomics. For many applications, an important improvement of the overall performances has been reported. In this review, the basic principles of UHPLC are summarized, and practical information on the type of columns used and phase chemistry available is provided. An overview of the latest applications to natural product analysis in complex mixtures is given, and the potential and limitations as well as some new trends in the development of UHPLC are discussed.

  3. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Low Noise Engine Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, W. N., III

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify engine cycle and technologies needed for a regional aircraft which could be capable of achieving a 10 EPNdB reduction in community noise level relative to current FAR36 Stage 3 limits. The study was directed toward 100-passenger regional aircraft with engine configurations in the 15,000 pound thrust class. The study focused on Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) cycles due to low exhaust jet velocities and reduced fan tip speeds. The baseline engine for this study employed a gear-driven, 1000 ft/sec tip speed fan and had a cruise bypass ratio of 14:1. A revised engine configuration employing fan and turbine design improvements are predicted to be 9.2 dB below current takeoff limits and 12.8 dB below current approach limits. An economic analysis was also done by estimating Direct Operating Cost (DOC).

  4. Characterization of an Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) are of interest for hypersonic vehicle leading edge applications. Monolithic UHTCs are of concern because of their low fracture toughness and brittle behavior. UHTC composites (UHTCC) are being investigated as a possible approach to overcome these deficiencies. In this study a small sample of a UHTCC was evaluated by limited mechanical property tests, furnace oxidation exposures, and oxidation exposures in a flowing environment generated by an oxy-acetylene torch. The composite was prepared from a carbon fiber perform using ceramic particulates and a pre-cerns about microcracking due to thermal expansion mismatch between the matrix and the carbon fiber reinforcements, and about the oxidation resistance of the HfB2-SiC coating layer and the composite constituents. However, positive performance in the torch test warrants further study of this concept.

  5. Ultra-high-speed optical and electronic distributed devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-high-speed semiconductor optical and electronic devices. High-speed operation is achieved by velocity matching the input stimulus to the output signal along the device`s length. Electronic devices such as field-effect transistors (FET`s), should experience significant speed increases by velocity matching the electrical input and output signals along the device. Likewise, optical devices, which are typically large, can obtain significant bandwidths by velocity matching the light being generated, detected or modulated with the electrical signal on the device`s electrodes. The devices discussed in this report utilize truly distributed electrical design based on slow-wave propagation to achieve velocity matching.

  6. Oxidation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynGiao N.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Opila, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) including HfB2 + 20% SiC (HS), and ZrB2 + 20% SiC (ZC), and ZrB2 + 30% C + 14% SiC (ZCS) have been investigated for use as potential aeropropolsion engine materials. These materials were oxidized in water vapor (90%) using a cyclic vertical furnace at 1 atm. The total exposure time was 10 hours at temperature of 1200, 1300, and 1400 C. CVD SiC was also evaluate as a baseline for comparison. Weight change, X-ray diffraction analysis, surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS were performed. These results are compared with tests conducted in a stagnant air furnace at temperatures of 1327 C for 100 minutes, and with high pressure burner rig (HPBR) results at 1100 and 1300 C at 6 atm for 50 h. Total recession measurements are also reported for the two tests environments.

  7. Bufferless Ultra-High Speed All-Optical Packet Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttagi, Shrihari; Prince, Shanthi

    2011-10-01

    All-Optical network is still in adolescence to cope up with steep rise in data traffic at the backbone network. Routing of packets in optical network depends on the processing speed of the All-Optical routers, thus there is a need to enhance optical processing to curb the delay in packet forwarding unit. In the proposed scheme, the header processing takes place on fly, therefore processing delay is at its lower limit. The objective is to propose a framework which establishes high data rate transmission with least latency in data routing from source to destination. The Routing table and optical header pulses are converted into Pulse Position (PP) format, thus reducing the complexity and in turn the processing delay. Optical pulse matching is exercised which results in multi-output transmission. This results in ultra-high speed packet forwarding unit. In addition, this proposed scheme includes dispersion compensation unit, which makes the data reliable.

  8. Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    2008-11-11

    The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

  9. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  10. ULTRA-HIGH STRENGTH IN NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS UNDER SHOCK LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Bringa, E M; Caro, A; Wang, Y M; Victoria, M; McNaney, J; Remington, B A; Smith, R; Torralva, B; Van Swygenhoven, H

    2005-04-11

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline (nc) copper under shock loading show an unexpected ultra-high strength behind the shock front. The strength at high pressure can be up to twice the value at low pressure, for all grain sizes studied here (5-50 nm grains, with up to {approx}4 10{sup 8} atoms). Partial and perfect dislocations, twinning, and debris from dislocation interactions are found behind the shock front. Results are interpreted in terms of the pressure dependence of both deformation mechanisms active at these grain sizes, namely dislocation plasticity and grain boundary sliding. These simulations, together with new shock experiments on nc nickel, raise the possibility of achieving ultra-hard materials during and after shock loading.

  11. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  12. Ultra-High Temperature Materials Characterization for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; Hyers, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Propulsion system efficiency increases as operating temperatures are increased. Some very high-temperature materials are being developed, including refractory metal alloys, carbides, borides, and silicides. System design requires data for materials properties at operating temperatures. Materials property data are not available for many materials of interest at the desired operating temperatures (up to approx. 3000 K). The objective of this work is to provide important physical property data at ultra-high temperatures. The MSFC Electrostatic levitation (ESL) facility can provide measurements of thermophysical properties which include: creep strength, density and thermal expansion for materials being developed for propulsion applications. The ESL facility uses electrostatic fields to position samples between electrodes during processing and characterization studies. Because the samples float between the electrodes during studies, they are free from any contact with a container or test apparatus. This provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, reactive materials. ESL can be used to process a wide variety of materials including metals, alloys, ceramics, glasses and semiconductors. The MSFC ESL has provided non-contact measurements of properties of materials up to 3400 C. Density and thermal expansion are measured by analyzing digital images of the sample at different temperatures. Our novel, non-contact method for measuring creep uses rapid rotation to deform the sample. Digital images of the deformed samples are analyzed to obtain the creep properties, which match those obtained using ASTM Standard E-139 for Nb at 1985 C. Data from selected ESL-based characterization studies will be presented. The ESL technique could support numerous propulsion technologies by advancing the knowledge base and the technology readiness level for ultra-high temperature materials. Applications include non-eroding nozzle materials and lightweight, high

  13. Rapid brain MRI acquisition techniques at ultra-high fields.

    PubMed

    Setsompop, Kawin; Feinberg, David A; Polimeni, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Ultra-high-field MRI provides large increases in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as enhancement of several contrast mechanisms in both structural and functional imaging. Combined, these gains result in a substantial boost in contrast-to-noise ratio that can be exploited for higher-spatial-resolution imaging to extract finer-scale information about the brain. With increased spatial resolution, however, there is a concurrent increased image-encoding burden that can cause unacceptably long scan times for structural imaging and slow temporal sampling of the hemodynamic response in functional MRI - particularly when whole-brain imaging is desired. To address this issue, new directions of imaging technology development - such as the move from conventional 2D slice-by-slice imaging to more efficient simultaneous multislice (SMS) or multiband imaging (which can be viewed as "pseudo-3D" encoding) as well as full 3D imaging - have provided dramatic improvements in acquisition speed. Such imaging paradigms provide higher SNR efficiency as well as improved encoding efficiency. Moreover, SMS and 3D imaging can make better use of coil sensitivity information in multichannel receiver arrays used for parallel imaging acquisitions through controlled aliasing in multiple spatial directions. This has enabled unprecedented acceleration factors of an order of magnitude or higher in these imaging acquisition schemes, with low image artifact levels and high SNR. Here we review the latest developments of SMS and 3D imaging methods and related technologies at ultra-high field for rapid high-resolution functional and structural imaging of the brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ultra-high speed communications based on solitons in fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    The citation of the Maxwell prize reads: ``For innovative discoveries and seminal contributions to the theories of nonlinear drift wave turbulence, Alfvén wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas, and optical solitons and their application to high speed communication". The prize is given to three somewhat unrelated contributions made during the course of my career as a plasma physicist. Traditionally an award talk summarizes works related to the citation. However, because of the diversified contents of the citations, I prepared my talk with the focus only on the last topic because some of the audience may be of more expertise on the other subjects. I apologize for the fact that the talk may be worth only one third of the prize. Multi-Terabits’s, ultra-high speed optical transmissions over several thousand kilometers on fibers are becoming reality and are expected to serve as the trunk line for highly demanded Internet traffics. Most of them use soliton or soliton-like RZ (Return to Zero) format in fibers with properly managed (group velocity) dispersion. These formats are the only stable envelope waveforms of light waves in fibers in the presence of Kerr (cubic) nonlineariy and dispersion with loss compensated by periodic optical amplifications. In practice, the transmission systems utilize the all-optical transmission concept and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation assisted by the split step numerical solutions as the master equation to describe the information transfer in fibers. All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers. The talk presents a brief historical development of the soliton based high-speed communications followed by current status of ultra-high speed communications by means of solitons as well as by other formats. Although the talk may not be of a core interest of plasma physics community, it presents an interesting example of a useful by-product of plasma physics research.

  15. Ultra-high sensitivity moment magnetometry of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Scanning SQUID microscopy offers a unique combination of high spatial resolution and magnetic field sensitivity that allows for the detection of magnetic moments as weak as 10^-16 Am2. This opens the possibility of extending paleomagnetic analyses to samples that have not been accessible to standard moment magnetometry, for which the detection limit is 10^-12 Am2. Of particular interest are individual terrestrial and extraterrestrial particles of small size (< 500 μm) that may preserve records of planetary dynamos and early nebular magnetic fields. Example targets include impact melt spherules, zircon and other silicate crystals, micrometeorites, cosmic dust, chondrules and refractory inclusions. These grains may be adequately modeled as small uniformly magnetized volumes, such that retrieving their magnetic moments from measured magnetic field maps does not require solving non-unique inverse problems. As a consequence, SQUID microscopes can be utilized as ultra-high sensitivity moment magnetometers. We show alternating field and thermal demagnetization data for several grains that demonstrate the performance of this technique. In addition, we compare scanning SQUID microscopy data with net moment measurements of the same samples performed by a commercial superconducting rock magnetometer. The results agree for stronger moments, as expected, but rapidly diverge as net moments fall below the lower 10^-10 Am2 range. These studies underscore the inability of conventional instruments not only to detect very weak moments but also to isolate contamination originating from background sources such as sample holders and mounts. We expect ultra-high sensitivity moment magnetometry using scanning SQUID microscopy will be a powerful tool in helping elucidate the formation of the solar system and planetary history.

  16. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao; Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Rosenmann, Daniel; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W.; Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-01-01

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  17. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  18. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  19. Ultra-High Gradient S-Band Linac for Laboratory And Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, L.; Agustsson, R.; Dolgashev, V.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Yakimenko, V.; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-11

    A strong demand for high gradient structures arises from the limited real estate available for linear accelerators. RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a Doubled Energy Compact Accelerator (DECA) structure: an S-band standing wave electron linac designed to operate at accelerating gradients of up to 50 MV/m. In this paper, we present the radio-frequency design of the DECA S-band accelerating structure, operating at 2.856 GHz in the {pi}-mode. The structure design is heavily influenced by NLC collaboration experience with ultra high gradient X-band structures; S-band, however, is chosen to take advantage of commonly available high power S-band klystrons.

  20. Ultra-High Gradient S-band Linac for Laboratory and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, L.; Agustsson, R.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Dolgashev, V.; Rosenzweig, J.; Yakimenko, V.

    2010-11-04

    A strong demand for high gradient structures arises from the limited real estate available for linear accelerators. RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a Doubled Energy Compact Accelerator (DECA) structure: an S-band standing wave electron linac designed to operate at accelerating gradients of up to 50 MV/m. In this paper, we present the radio-frequency design of the DECA S-band accelerating structure, operating at 2.856 GHz in the {pi}-mode. The structure design is heavily influenced by NLC collaboration experience with ultra high gradient X-band structures; S-band, however, is chosen to take advantage of commonly available high power S-band klystrons.

  1. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  2. Ultra-high efficient solar cell based on decagonal arrays of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohamed; Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Areed, Nihal F. F.; Obayya, Salah Sabry A.

    2014-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are the subject of intense research in solar energy harvesting due to their unique electrical and optical characteristics. The transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of decagonal Si NWs (D-SiNWs) solar cells have been calculated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to present a design guideline for ultra-high efficiency SiNW in solar cell applications. In this study, the structure geometrical parameters of the suggested design are tuned to maximize light absorption. The ultimate efficiency is used to quantify the absorption enhancement of the SiNWs solar cells. A maximum ultimate efficiency of 39.3% is achieved for the reported D-SiNWs, which is greater than that of the previous work of slanting Si NWs by 17.49%.

  3. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bacrania, Minesh K; Croce, Mark; Bond, Evelyn; Dry, Donald; Moody, W. Allen; Lamont, Stephen; Rabin, Michael; Rim, Jung; Smith, Audrey; Beall, James; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Horansky, Robert; Hilton, Gene; Schmidt, Daniel; Ullom, Joel; Cantor, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  4. Ultra-High Gradient S-band Linac for Laboratory and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faillace, L.; Agustsson, R.; Dolgashev, V.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Yakimenko, V.

    2010-11-01

    A strong demand for high gradient structures arises from the limited real estate available for linear accelerators. RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a Doubled Energy Compact Accelerator (DECA) structure: an S-band standing wave electron linac designed to operate at accelerating gradients of up to 50 MV/m. In this paper, we present the radio-frequency design of the DECA S-band accelerating structure, operating at 2.856 GHz in the π-mode. The structure design is heavily influenced by NLC collaboration experience with ultra high gradient X-band structures; S-band, however, is chosen to take advantage of commonly available high power S-band klystrons.

  5. Application of a nanosecond laser pulse to evaluate dynamic hardness under ultra-high strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziejewska, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents results of experimental tests of plastic metals deformation generated by a shock wave induced by laser pulse. Tests were carried out on the Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and the laser pulse of 10 ns duration. The shock wave generate by the laser pulse was used to induced local plastic deformation of the material surface. The study examined the possibility of application the process to develop a new method of measuring the dynamic hardness of materials under ultra-high strain rate. It has been shown that the shock wave induced by the laser pulse with an energy of 0.35-1.22 J causes a repeatable plastic deformation of surface of commercially available metals and alloys without thermal effects on the surfaces. Based on the knowledge of an imprint geometry, it is possible to evaluate the dynamic hardness of materials at strain rate in the range of 107 s-1.

  6. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology... of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose...

  7. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology...) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology and Finding of No... less than two weeks; however, for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil...

  8. Evaluation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Aeropropulsion Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) are a group of materials consisting of zirconium diboride or hafnium diboride plus silicon carbide, and in some instances, carbon. These materials offer a good combination of properties that make them candidates for airframe leading edges on sharp-bodied reentry vehicles. These UHTC perform well in the environment for such applications, i.e., air at low pressure. The purpose of this study was to examine three of these materials under conditions more representative of a propulsion environment, i.e., higher oxygen partial pressure and total pressure. Results of strength and fracture toughness measurements, furnace oxidation and high velocity thermal shock exposures are presented for ZrB2 plus 20 volume % SiC, ZrB2 plus 14 volume % SiC plus 30 volume % C, and SCS-9a SiC fiber reinforced ZrB2 plus 20 volume % SiC. The poor oxidation resistance of UHTCs is the predominant factor limiting their applicability to propulsion applications.

  9. Application of ultra high pressure (UHP) in starch chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) processing is an attractive non-thermal technique for food treatment and preservation at room temperature, with the potential to achieve interesting functional effects. The majority of UHP process applications in food systems have focused on shelf-life extension associated with non-thermal sterilization and a reduction or increase in enzymatic activity. Only a few studies have investigated modifications of structural characteristics and/or protein functionalities. Despite the rapid expansion of UHP applications in food systems, limited information is available on the effects of UHP on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch and/or its chemical derivatives included in most processed foods as major ingredients or minor additives. Starch and its chemical derivatives are responsible for textural and physical properties of food systems, impacting their end-use quality and/or shelf-life. This article reviews UHP processes for native (unmodified) starch granules and their effects on the physicochemical properties of UHP-treated starch. Furthermore, functional roles of UHP in acid-hydrolysis, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and cross-linking reactions of starch granules, as well as the physicochemical properties of UHP-assisted starch chemical derivatives, are discussed.

  10. The Sparse MLE for Ultra-High-Dimensional Feature Screening

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Jiahua

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is fundamental for modeling the high dimensional data, where the number of features can be huge and much larger than the sample size. Since the feature space is so large, many traditional procedures become numerically infeasible. It is hence essential to first remove most apparently non-influential features before any elaborative analysis. Recently, several procedures have been developed for this purpose, which include the sure-independent-screening (SIS) as a widely-used technique. To gain the computational efficiency, the SIS screens features based on their individual predicting power. In this paper, we propose a new screening method via the sparsity-restricted maximum likelihood estimator (SMLE). The new method naturally takes the joint effects of features in the screening process, which gives itself an edge to potentially outperform the existing methods. This conjecture is further supported by the simulation studies under a number of modeling settings. We show that the proposed method is screening consistent in the context of ultra-high-dimensional generalized linear models. PMID:25382886

  11. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  12. Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.; Petko, Jeanne; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTC. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHT applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTC for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The progress on approaches to improving oxidation resistance by alloying and functional grading will be reported. In particular, initial tests of tantalum additions have shown potential for major improvement. Less promising results of additional tests at higher temperatures will be presented. Two fabrication approaches are being pursued to produce carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites: prepregging and rigid perform infiltration. Fabrication procedures and microstructures for composites will be reported.

  13. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics' Processing Routes and Microstructures Compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Stackpoole, Mairead; Johnson, Sylvia; Gasch, Matt; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs), such as HfB2 and ZrB2 composites containing SiC, are known to have good thermal shock resistance and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. These UHTCs have been proposed for a number of structural applications in hypersonic vehicles, nozzles, and sharp leading edges. NASA Ames is working on controlling UHTC properties (especially, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, and oxidation resistance) through processing, composition, and microstructure. In addition to using traditional methods of combining additives to boride powders, we are preparing UHTCs using coat ing powders to produce both borides and additives. These coatings and additions to the powders are used to manipulate and control grain-boundary composition and second- and third-phase variations within the UHTCs. Controlling the composition of high temperature oxidation by-products is also an important consideration. The powders are consolidated by hot-pressing or field-assisted sintering (FAS). Comparisons of microstructures and hardness data will be presented.

  14. Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeanne; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTC. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTC for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The progress on approaches to improving oxidation resistance by alloying and functional grading will be reported. In particular, initial tests of tantalum additions have shown potential for major improvement. Results for additional tests at higher temperatures will be presented. These oxidation improvements are being incorporated in the composites approaches. Two fabrication approaches are being persued to produce carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites: prepregging and rigid perform infiltration. Fabrication procedures, microstructures, and initial mechanical property and oxidation results for composites will be reported.

  15. Nanoporous ultra-high specific surface inorganic fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanehata, Masaki; Ding, Bin; Shiratori, Seimei

    2007-08-01

    Nanoporous inorganic (silica) nanofibres with ultra-high specific surface have been fabricated by electrospinning the blend solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and colloidal silica nanoparticles, followed by selective removal of the PVA component. The configurations of the composite and inorganic nanofibres were investigated by changing the average silica particle diameters and the concentrations of colloidal silica particles in polymer solutions. After the removal of PVA by calcination, the fibre shape of pure silica particle assembly was maintained. The nanoporous silica fibres were assembled as a porous membrane with a high surface roughness. From the results of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, the BET surface area of inorganic silica nanofibrous membranes was increased with the decrease of the particle diameters. The membrane composed of silica particles with diameters of 15 nm showed the largest BET surface area of 270.3 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.66 cm3 g-1. The physical absorption of methylene blue dye molecules by nanoporous silica membranes was examined using UV-vis spectrometry. Additionally, the porous silica membranes modified with fluoroalkylsilane showed super-hydrophobicity due to their porous structures.

  16. Microscopic Evaluation of Contaminants in Ultra-High Purity Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Edwards, Danny J.; Farmer, Orville T.; Fast, James E.; Gerlach, David C.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.

    2009-10-08

    Copper is one of the very few elements having no relatively long-lived radioisotopes and which can be electrodeposited to ultra-high levels of purity. Next generation experiments probing neutrino properties and searching for direct evidence of Dark Matter require ultra-clean materials, such as copper, containing the smallest quantities obtainable of naturally occurring radioactive contaminants. Copper is also of interest in the material science field for applications requiring low-activity materials, such as in electronics and semi-conductors, an example of which is reduced alpha activity, low-fault integrated circuits. Determining the purity of the copper is of great interest, but even more important is establishing the location of any contamination and its dispersion within the bulk material. Co-deposition of contaminants during copper electrodeposition and its relationship to nucleation and growth processes were investigated using a variety of analytical methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS).

  17. Impact resistance and fractography in ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, J A; Pascual, F J; Martínez-Morlanes, M J

    2014-02-01

    Highly crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) stabilized by a remelting process or by the addition of an antioxidant are highly wear resistant and chemically stable. However, these polyethylenes currently used in total joint replacements suffer a loss of mechanical properties, especially in terms of fracture toughness. In this study we analyze the impact behavior of different polyethylenes using an instrumented double notch Izod test. The materials studied are three resins: GUR1050, GUR1020 with 0.1wt% of vitamin E, and MG003 with 0.1wt% of vitamin E. These resins were gamma irradiated at 90kGy, and pre and post-irradiation remelting processes were applied to GUR1050 for two different time periods. Microstructural data were determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Fractography carried out on the impact fracture surfaces and images obtained by scanning electron microscopy after etching indicated the existence of a fringe structure formed by consecutive ductile-brittle and brittle-ductile transitions, which is related to the appearance of discontinuities in the load-deflection curves. A correlation has been made of the macroscopic impact strength results and the molecular chain and microstructural characteristics of these aforementioned materials, with a view to designing future resins with improved impact resistance. The use of UHMWPE resins with low molecular weight or the application of a remelting treatment could contribute to obtain a better impact strength behavior.

  18. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    SciTech Connect

    ROSENTHAL,STEPHEN E.; DESJARLAIS,MICHAEL P.; SPIELMAN,RICK B.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.; ASAY,JAMES R.; DOUGLAS,M.R.; HALL,C.A.; FRESE,M.H.; MORSE,R.L.; REISMAN,D.B.

    2000-08-29

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model.

  19. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10

  20. Diffuse Axonal Injury at Ultra-High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Moenninghoff, Christoph; Kraff, Oliver; Maderwald, Stefan; Umutlu, Lale; Theysohn, Jens M.; Ringelstein, Adrian; Wrede, Karsten H.; Deuschl, Cornelius; Altmeppen, Jan; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H.; Schlamann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a specific type of traumatic brain injury caused by shearing forces leading to widespread tearing of axons and small vessels. Traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) are regarded as a radiological marker for DAI. This study aims to compare DAI-associated TMBs at 3 Tesla (T) and 7 T susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to evaluate possible diagnostic benefits of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI. Material and Methods 10 study participants (4 male, 6 female, age range 20-74 years) with known DAI were included. All MR exams were performed with a 3 T MR system (Magnetom Skyra) and a 7 T MR research system (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany) each in combination with a 32-channel-receive coil. The average time interval between trauma and imaging was 22 months. Location and count of TMBs were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists on 3 T and 7 T SWI images with similar and additionally increased spatial resolution at 7 T. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Count and diameter of TMB were evaluated with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Susceptibility weighted imaging revealed a total of 485 TMBs (range 1-190, median 25) at 3 T, 584 TMBs (plus 20%, range 1-262, median 30.5) at 7 T with similar spatial resolution, and 684 TMBs (plus 41%, range 1-288, median 39.5) at 7 T with 10-times higher spatial resolution. Hemorrhagic DAI appeared significantly larger at 7 T compared to 3 T (p = 0.005). Inter- and intraobserver correlation regarding the counted TMB was high and almost equal 3 T and 7 T. Conclusion 7 T SWI improves the depiction of small hemorrhagic DAI compared to 3 T and may be supplementary to lower field strengths for diagnostic in inconclusive or medicolegal cases. PMID:25793614

  1. Ultra high magnification endoscopy: Is seeing really believing?

    PubMed

    Arya, Aman V; Yan, Brian M

    2012-10-16

    Endoscopy is an indispensible diagnostic and therapeutic instrument for gastrointestinal diseases. Endocytoscopy and confocal endomicroscopy are two types of ultra high magnification endoscopy techniques. Standard endoscopy allows for 50 × magnification, whereas endocytoscopy can magnify up to 1400 × and confocal endomicroscopy can magnify up to 1000 ×. These methods open the realm of real time microscopic evaluation of the GI tract, including cellular and subcellular structures. Confocal endomicroscopy has the additional advantage of being able to visualize subsurface structures. The use of high magnification endoscopy in conjunction with standard endoscopy allows for a real-time microscopic assessment of areas with macroscopic abnormalities, providing "virtual biopsies" with valuable information about cellular and subcellular changes. This can minimize the number of biopsies taken at the time of endoscopy. The use of this technology may assist in detecting pre-malignant or malignant changes at an earlier state, allowing for earlier intervention and treatment. High magnification endoscopy has shown promising results in clinical trials for Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell cancer, gastric cancer, celiac disease, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. As the use of high magnification endoscopy techniques increases, the clinical applications will increase as well. Of the two systems, only confocal endomicroscopy is currently commercially available. Like all new technologies there will be an initial learning curve before operators become proficient in obtaining high quality images and discerning abnormal from normal pathology. Validated criteria for the diagnosis of the various gastrointestinal diseases will need to be developed for each method. In this review, the basic principles of both modalities are discussed, along with their clinical applicability and limitations. PMID:23189217

  2. Oxidation of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) including HfB2 + 20v/0 SiC (HS), ZrB2 + 20v/0 SiC (ZS), and ZrB2 + 30v/0 C + 14v/0 SiC (ZCS) have been investigated for use as potential aeropropulsion engine materials. These materials were oxidized in water vapor (90 percent) using a cyclic vertical furnace at 1 atm. The total exposure time was 10 h at temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 C. CVD SiC was also evaluated as a baseline for comparison. Weight change, X-ray diffraction analyses, surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS were performed. These results are compared with tests ran in a stagnant air furnace at temperatures of 1327 C for 100 min, and with high pressure burner rig (HPBR) results at 1100 and 1300 C at 6 atm for 50 h. Low velocity water vapor does not make a significant contribution to the oxidation rates of UHTCs when compared to stagnant air. The parabolic rate constants at 1300 C, range from 0.29 to 16.0 mg(sup 2)cm(sup 4)/h for HS and ZCS, respectively, with ZS results between these two values. Comparison of results for UHTCs tested in the furnace in 90 percent water vapor with HPBR results was difficult due to significant sample loss caused by spallation in the increased velocity of the HPBR. Total recession measurements are also reported for the two test environments.

  3. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200–870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000–20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  4. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  5. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M.

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  6. Oxidation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) including HfB2 + SiC (20% by volume), ZrB2 + SiC (20% by volume) and ZrB2 + SiC (14% by volume) + C (30% by volume) have historically been evaluated as reusable thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles. This study investigates UHTCs for use as potential combustion and aeropropulsion engine materials. These materials were oxidized in water vapor (90%) using a cyclic vertical furnace at 1 atm. The total exposure time was 10 hours at temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 C. CVD SiC was also evaluated as a baseline comparison. Weight change measurements, X-ray diffraction analyses, surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS were performed. These results will be compared with tests ran in static air at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C. Oxidation comparisons will also be made to the study by Tripp. A small number of high pressure burner rig (HPBR) results at 1100 and 1300 C will also be discussed. Specific weight changes at all three temperatures along with the SIC results are shown. SiC weight change is negligible at such short duration times. HB2 + SiC (HS) performed the best out of all the tested UHTCS for all exposure temperatures. ZrB2 + Sic (ZS) results indicate a slightly lower oxidation rate than that of ZrBl + SiC + C (ZCS) at 1200 and 1400 C, but a clear distinction can not be made based on the limited number of tested samples. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross-sections of all the UHTCs were evaluated. A representative area for HS is presented at 1400 C for 26 hours which was the composition with the least amount of oxidation. A continuous SiO2 scale is present in the outer most edge of the surface. An image of ZCS is presented at 1400 C for 10 hours, which shows the most degradation of all the compositions studied. Here, the oxide surface is a mixture of ZrSiO4, ZrO2 and SO2.

  7. Ultra-high strain rate behavior of FCC nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Ryan Scott

    This work addresses the influence of ultra-high strain rates loading observed in our world today via ballistics, explosions and astrophysical collisions on well-defined metal structures. There is a plentiful amount of research examining metals at a macroscopic level that are subjected to ballistics and explosions but observing the microstructure is difficult as those procedures are fairly destructive testing mechanisms. Therefore, to understand the true mechanisms that occur in these loading situations a more novel technique is necessary. Modifications were made to the Laser Spallation Technique in order to load structures under a single transient wave pulse. This study characterized FCC nanostructures shock loaded at extreme pressures, strain rates and temperatures. By utilizing nanostructures, extremely large values of stain could be produced within the structure. It was first observed that at lower laser fluence levels and subsequently low stress states that there was a chemical activation of the surface of Cu nanopillars. This occurred due to nanofacet formation on the surface of the nanopillars which left pristine Cu surfaces to recombine with the environment. Dislocation motion was also observed and clearly identified in Cu nanopillars, Cu nanobenches and Al nanopillars. Further studies analyzed Cu nanopillars subjected to higher laser fluence generated stress waves, which led to bending and axial shortening deformation. These deformations were observed at laser fluence values of 144 kJ/m2 for bending and 300 kJ/m 2 for bulging similar to that of Taylor Impact experiments. To explore an even more extreme loading environment, a specialized test setup was employed to cryogenically cool the copper nanopillars to a temperature of 83K in an attempt to elucidate brittle behavior. Under these loading conditions the nanopillars continued to deform in a ductile manner but with delayed onset of both bending deformation and bulging deformation compared to the room

  8. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) SiC Fiber (Phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, James A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lizcano, Maricela; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon-carbide fiber-reinforced silicon-carbide ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMC) are emerginglightweight re-usable structural materials not only for hot section components in gas turbine engines, but also for controlsurfaces and leading edges of reusable hypersonic vehicles as well as for nuclear propulsion and reactor components. Ithas been shown that when these CMC are employed in engine hot-section components, the higher the upper usetemperature (UUT) of the SiC fiber, the more performance benefits are accrued, such as higher operating temperatures,reduced component cooling air, reduced fuel consumption, and reduced emissions. The first generation of SiCSiC CMC with a temperature capability of 2200-2400F are on the verge of being introduced into the hot-section components ofcommercial and military gas turbine engines.Today the SiC fiber type currently recognized as the worlds best in terms ofthermo-mechanical performance is the Sylramic-iBN fiber. This fiber was previously developed by the PI at NASA GRC using patented processes to improve the high-cost commercial Sylramic fiber, which in turn was derived from anotherlow-cost low-performance commercial fiber. Although the Sylramic-iBN fiber shows state-of-the art creep and rupture resistance for use temperatures above 2550oF, NASA has shown by fundamental creep studies and model developmentthat its microstructure and creep resistance could theoretically be significantly improved to produce an Ultra HighTemperature (UHT) SiC fiber.This Phase II Seedling Fund effort has been focused on the key objective of effectively repeating the similar processes used for producing the Sylramic-iBN fiber using a design of experiments approach to first understand the cause of the less than optimum Sylramic-iBN microstructure and then attempting to develop processconditions that eliminate or minimize these key microstructural issues. In so doing, it is predicted that that theseadvanced process could result in an UHT Si

  9. Ultra-high contrast frontend for high peak power fs-lasers at 1030 nm.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hornung, Marco; Seidel, Andreas; Hellwing, Marco; Kessler, Alexander; Keppler, Sebastian; Schorcht, Frank; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2014-10-01

    We present the results from a new frontend within a double-chirped pulse amplification architecture (DCPA) utilizing crossed-polarized wave generation (XPW) for generating ultra-high contrast, 150 μJ-level, femtosecond seed pulses at 1030 nm. These pulses are used in the high energy class diode-pumped laser system Polaris at the Helmholtz Institute in Jena. Within this frontend, laser pulses from a 75 MHz oscillator-pulse train are extracted at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, temporally stretched, amplified and then recompressed reaching a pulse energy of 2 mJ, a bandwidth of 12 nm and 112 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm. These pulses are temporally filtered via XPW in a holographic-cut BaF₂ crystal, resulting in 150 μJ pulse energy with an efficiency of 13 %. Due to this non-linear filtering, the relative intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission preceding the main pulse is suppressed to 2×10⁻¹³. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value achieved in a high peak power laser system operating at 1030 nm center wavelength. PMID:25322052

  10. Design of a Multi-Channel Ultra-High Resolution Superconducting Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Terracol, S F; Miyazaki, T; Drury, O B; Ali, Z A; Cunningham, M F; Niedermayr, T R; Barbee Jr., T W; Batteux, J D; Labov, S E

    2004-11-29

    Superconducting Gamma-ray microcalorimeters operated at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K offer an order of magnitude improvement in energy resolution over conventional high-purity Germanium spectrometers. The calorimeters consist of a {approx}1 mm{sup 3} superconducting or insulating absorber and a sensitive thermistor, which are weakly coupled to a cold bath. Gamma-ray capture increases the absorber temperature in proportion to the Gamma-ray energy, this is measured by the thermistor, and both subsequently cool back down to the base temperature through the weak link. We are developing ultra-high-resolution Gamma-ray spectrometers based on Sn absorbers and superconducting Mo/Cu multilayer thermistors for nuclear non-proliferation applications. They have achieved an energy resolution between 60 and 90 eV for Gamma-rays up to 100 keV. We also build two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for user-friendly detector operation at 0.1 K. We present recent results on the performance of single pixel Gamma-ray spectrometers, and discuss the design of a large detector array for increased sensitivity.

  11. Ultra-high contrast frontend for high peak power fs-lasers at 1030 nm.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hornung, Marco; Seidel, Andreas; Hellwing, Marco; Kessler, Alexander; Keppler, Sebastian; Schorcht, Frank; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2014-10-01

    We present the results from a new frontend within a double-chirped pulse amplification architecture (DCPA) utilizing crossed-polarized wave generation (XPW) for generating ultra-high contrast, 150 μJ-level, femtosecond seed pulses at 1030 nm. These pulses are used in the high energy class diode-pumped laser system Polaris at the Helmholtz Institute in Jena. Within this frontend, laser pulses from a 75 MHz oscillator-pulse train are extracted at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, temporally stretched, amplified and then recompressed reaching a pulse energy of 2 mJ, a bandwidth of 12 nm and 112 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm. These pulses are temporally filtered via XPW in a holographic-cut BaF₂ crystal, resulting in 150 μJ pulse energy with an efficiency of 13 %. Due to this non-linear filtering, the relative intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission preceding the main pulse is suppressed to 2×10⁻¹³. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value achieved in a high peak power laser system operating at 1030 nm center wavelength.

  12. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  13. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  14. Characterization of a Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) are of interest for hypersonic vehicle leading edge applications. Monolithic UHTCs are of concern because of their low fracture toughness and brittle behavior. UHTC composites (UHTCC) are being investigated as a possible approach to overcome these deficiencies. In this study a small sample of a UHTCC was evaluated by limited mechanical property tests, furnace oxidation exposures, and oxidation exposures in a flowing environment. The composite was prepared from a carbon fiber perform using ceramic particulates and a preceramic polymer. The as-received composite plate was non-uniform from front to back surface. Plate dimensions were 150 x 150 x 6 mm. The back surface had a fibrous, uniform appearance; XRD analysis revealed the presence of Sic and C. The front surface was smooth and non-uniform in appearance with evidence of a coarse grain structure produced by a liquid phase; XRD analysis revealed the presence of HfB2. Microcracks were present throughout the thickness as one might expect from a carbon fiber reinforced composite with attendant large thermal expansion mismatch between the matrix phases and the fibers. The HfB2 phase on the front surface was comparable in thickness to a fiber ply or about 0.6 mm, and surface microcracks were evident. Limited four point flexural tests were carried out at span to depth ratios of approximately 14 and 16 with markedly different results. Tests were run with the front or the back surface in tension. At the shorter span to depth failures occurred under a loading pin for both orientations. At a span to depth of 16 failures occurred in the center of the span with fracture clearly initiating from a tensile failure. Ultimate flexural strength, strain at ultimate stress, stress and strain at deviation from linear elastic behavior are reported. Strains at ultimate stress ranged from about 0.6 to 0.7 % for the back surface in tension, and 0.4 to 0.6 for the front surface in tension. At constant

  15. Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics Evaluated for Aeropropulsion Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high-temperature ceramics (UHTC) are a group of materials consisting of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) or hafnium diboride (HfB2) plus silicon carbide (SiC), and in some instances, carbon (C). They offer a combination of properties that make them candidates for airframe leading edges on sharp-bodied reentry vehicles. These UHTCs perform well in the environment for such applications (i.e., air at low pressures). The purpose of this study at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to examine three of these materials under conditions more representative of a propulsion environment: that is, higher oxygen partial pressure and total pressure. Relatively long, multiple-exposure cycles were emphasized. We completed an in-house study of ZrB2 plus 20 vol% SiC (abbreviated as ZS), ZrB2 plus 14 vol% SiC and 30 vol% C (ZSC), and SCS-9a SiC fiber-reinforced ZrB2 plus 20 vol% SiC (ZSS). HfB2-based compositions were not included in the study because of their high cost. The capability of UHTC for propulsion applications must be compared with that of mature, available, and commercially used ceramics such as silicon nitride (e.g., AS-800) to put things in proper perspective. In terms of mechanical properties, UHTCs fall short in terms of strength and fracture toughness. At about 1300 C, the creep resistance of ZS appears to be superior to the creep resistance reported for AS-800. However, the stress rupture life for Si3N4 under stress and temperature conditions similar to those used in this study is measured in hundreds of hours. Because of oxidation, ZS could not achieve such lives. In terms of oxidation resistance, acceptable amounts of material recession in 1 hour to thousands of hours, depending on the specific propulsion application, are on the order of 100 to 300 mm. This converts to an acceptable range of parabolic recession rate constants kp" of approximately less than or equal to 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -2) square millimeters per hour for a 1-hr application. For a 100-hr

  16. Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

  17. Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality

  18. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the first time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of Kalpha x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an effective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser

  19. Stripping of thermal spray coatings with ultra high pressure water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohr, James M.; Thorpe, Merle L.

    1992-04-01

    The ultra high pressure water jet coating removal system uses supersonic jet(s) of water to completely remove tenaciously adhered coatings and debris from almost any part or substrate. It is differentiated from more conventional water cleaning techniques by much higher pressures which require unique pump, hydraulic and control systems. In the case of coatings, the water jet hits the surface with such a force that the coating fractures, spalls, and erodes without causing part damage. In the case of other contamination, the jet enters the smaller holes and crevices to remove all contamination. The energy in the supersonic water jet stream is provided by an intensifier that pumps water pressure in the range of 40,000 to 60,000 psi through one or more small diameter orifices. Removal alternatives are briefly discussed, however the papers major emphasis is in the characterization of the process for removing thermally sprayed coating on jet engine parts. The performance of various nozzle designs are discussed along with system requirement.

  20. Direct tension and fracture resistance curves of ultra high performance marine composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Guo; Han, Sang-Mook

    2008-09-01

    Fracture behavior is one of the most important, yet still little understood properties of ultra-high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC), a new marine structural engineering material. Research on the fracture and direct tension behavior of UHPCC was carried out. The constitution law of UHPCC was divided into three phases: pre-partial debonding, partial debonding, and pullout phases. A direct tension constitution law was constructed based on the proposed fiber reinforcing parameter as a function of fiber volume fraction, fiber diameter and length, and fiber bonding strength. With the definition of linear crack shape, the energy release rate of UHPCC was derived and the R-curve equation was calculated from this. Loading tests of UHPCC using a three-point bending beam with an initial notch were carried out. The predictions from the proposed R-curve were in good agreement with the test results, indicating that the proposed R-curve accurately describes the fracture resistance of UHPCC. Introduction of a fiber reinforcement parameter bridges the fracture property R-curve and micro-composites’ mechanics parameters together. This has laid the foundation for further research into fracture properties based on micro-mechanics. The proposed tension constitution law and R-curve can be references for future UHPCC fracture evaluation.

  1. Ultra-High Rate Measurements of Spent Fuel Gamma-Ray Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Vandevender, Brent; Wood, Lynn; Glasgow, Brian; Taubman, Matthew; Wright, Michael; Dion, Michael; Pitts, Karl; Runkle, Robert; Campbell, Luke; Fast, James

    2014-03-01

    Presently there are over 200,000 irradiated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the world, each containing a concerning amount of weapons-usable material. Both facility operators and safeguards inspectors want to improve composition determination. Current measurements are expensive and difficult so new methods are developed through models. Passive measurements are limited since a few specific decay products and the associated down-scatter overwhelm the gamma rays of interest. Active interrogation methods produce gamma rays beyond 3 MeV, minimizing the impact of the passive emissions that drop off sharply above this energy. New devices like the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) detector are being developed to advance these novel measurement methods. Designed for reasonable resolution at 106 s-1 output rates (compared to ~ 1 - 10 e 3 s-1 standards), SNF samples were directly measured using UHRGe and compared to models. Model verification further enables using Los Alamos National Laboratory SNF assembly models, developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, to determine emission and signal expectations. Measurement results and future application requirements for UHRGe will be discussed.

  2. Isoflavone Profiles and Kinetic Changes during Ultra-High Temperature Processing of Soymilk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C

    2016-03-01

    Isoflavone profile is greatly affected by heating process. However, kinetic analyses of isoflavone conversion and degradation using a continuous industry processing method have never been characterized. In this study, Proto soybean was soaked and blanched at 80 °C for 2 min and then processed into soymilk, which underwent UHT (ultra-high temperature) at 135 to 150 °C for 10 to 50 s with a pilot plant-scale Microthermics processor. The isoflavone profile was determined at different time/temperature combinations. The results showed that all isoflavone forms exhibited distinct changing patterns over time. In the soymilk under UHT conditions, the degradation (disappearance) of malonyldaizin and malonylgenistin exhibited first-order kinetics with activation energies of 59 and 84 kj/mole, respectively. At all UHT temperatures, malonylgenistin showed higher rate constants than malonyldaidzin. However, malonylglycitin changed irregularly under these UHT temperatures. The increase of genistin, daidzin, glycitein and acetlydaidzin during heating demonstrated zero-order kinetics and the rate constants increased with temperature except for the conditions of 145 to 150 °C for 50 s. Overall, genistein series exhibited higher stability than daidzein series. Under all UHT conditions, total isoflavone decreased from 12% to 24%. PMID:26814612

  3. Diffusion of Vitamin E in Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Oral, Ebru; Wannomae, Keith K.; Rowell, Shannon L.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin E-doped, radiation cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is developed as an alternate oxidation and wear resistant bearing surface in joint arthroplasty. We analyzed the diffusion behavior of vitamin E through UHMWPE and predicted penetration depth following doping with vitamin E and subsequent homogenization in inert gas used to penetrate implant components with vitamin E. Cross-linked UHMWPE (65- and 100-kGy irradiation) had higher activation energy and lower diffusion coefficients than uncross-linked UHMWPE, but there were only slight differences in vitamin E profiles and penetration depth between the two doses. By using homogenization in inert gas below the melting point of the polymer following doping in pure vitamin E, the surface concentration of vitamin E was decreased and vitamin E stabilization was achieved throughout a desired thickness. We developed an analytical model based on Fickian theory that closely predicted vitamin E concentration as a function of depth following doping and homogenization. PMID:17881049

  4. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  5. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  6. A hadronic origin for ultra-high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti, M.; Zech, A.; Boisson, C.; Inoue, S.

    2015-03-01

    Current Cherenkov telescopes have identified a population of ultra-high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (UHBLs), also known as extreme blazars, that exhibit exceptionally hard TeV spectra, including 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 0347-121, RGB J0710+591, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 1218+304. Although one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) models have been generally successful in interpreting the high-energy emission observed in other BL Lac objects, they are problematic for UHBLs, necessitating very large Doppler factors and/or extremely high minimum Lorentz factors of the emitting leptonic population. In this context, we have investigated alternative scenarios where hadronic emission processes are important, using a newly developed (lepto-)hadronic numerical code to systematically explore the physical parameters of the emission region that reproduces the observed spectra while avoiding the extreme values encountered in pure SSC models. Assuming a fixed Doppler factor δ = 30, two principal parameter regimes are identified, where the high-energy emission is due to: (1) proton-synchrotron radiation, with magnetic fields B ˜ 1-100 G and maximum proton energies Ep; max ≲ 1019 eV; and (2) synchrotron emission from p-γ-induced cascades as well as SSC emission from primary leptons, with B ˜ 0.1-1 G and Ep; max ≲ 1017 eV. This can be realized with plausible, sub-Eddington values for the total (kinetic plus magnetic) power of the emitting plasma, in contrast to hadronic interpretations for other blazar classes that often warrant highly super-Eddington values.

  7. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOEpatents

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  8. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  9. NASA / Pratt and Whitney Collaborative Partnership Research in Ultra High Bypass Cycle Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Chris; Lord, Wed

    2008-01-01

    Current collaborative research with Pratt & Whitney on Ultra High Bypass Engine Cycle noise, performance and emissions improvements as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Ultra High Bypass Engine Partnership Element is discussed. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals are reviewed, as well as their relative technology level compared to previous NASA noise program goals. Progress toward achieving the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals over the 2008 fiscal year by the UHB Partnership in this area of research are reviewed. The current research activity in Ultra High Bypass Engine Cycle technology, specifically the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan, at NASA and Pratt & Whitney are discussed including the contributions each entity bring toward the research project, and technical plans and objectives. Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan current and future technology and business plans are also discussed, including the role the NASA SFW UHB partnership plays toward achieving those goals.

  10. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  11. X-ray astronomy with ultra-high-angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braig, Christoph; Predehl, Peter

    2004-10-01

    We present new schemes for a next-generation X-ray telescope for the energy range between approximately 1 and 10 keV providing an angular resolution of at least 1 milli-arcsec. Its technology will be based on diffractive transmission optics, e.g. Fresnel zone plates and their derivatives. Beside near-diffraction limited imaging, these devices hold the potential of a large collecting area well beyond 10 square meters at a simple and lightweight construction, compared to conventional mirror telescopes. However, there are drawbacks. Firstly the intrinsically long focal lengths do require separation and precise formation flight of lens and detector spacecraft. Accordingly, techniques will be discussed for relative stabilization on the one hand and possibilities to reduce focal length and thus lever arm on the other hand. For this purpose, large arrays of small, independent lenses might offer a notable perspective. Secondly, diffractive optics feature severe focal length dispersion which has to be accepted using narrow-band spectral selection or-better-should be corrected over a practicable wide energy range. In the hard X-ray regime, hybrid lens devices made of beryllium, lithium or plastics like polycarbonate will be an appropriate solution for a fixed energy, while tunable systems with variable correction lenses possess-in principle-the capability for dispersion compensation in the soft X-ray region, too. An overview on the science case of milli-arcsec X-ray imaging will conclude the contribution. We show that significant new insights in astrophysical processes are expected just at and beyond this angular scale and give examples from X-ray binaries over AGN's up to gamma-ray bursts.

  12. An (ultra) high-vacuum compatible sputter source for oxide thin film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, Lukas; Köpfle, Norbert; Auer, Andrea; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2013-09-15

    A miniaturised CF-38 mountable sputter source for oxide and metal thin film preparation with enhanced high-vacuum and ultra-high-vacuum compatibility is described. The all home-built sputtering deposition device allows a high flexibility also in oxidic sputter materials, suitable deposition rates for preparation of films in the nm- and the sub-monolayer regime and excellent reliability and enhanced cleanliness for usage in UHV chambers. For a number of technologically important – yet hardly volatile – materials, the described source represents a significant improvement over thermal deposition techniques like electron-beam- or thermal evaporation, as especially the latter are no adequate tool to prepare atomically clean layers of refractory oxide materials. Furthermore, it is superior to commercially available magnetron sputter devices, especially for applications, where highly reproducible sub-monolayer thin film preparation under very clean UHV conditions is required (e.g., for studying phase boundary effects in catalysis). The device in turn offers the usage of a wide selection of evaporation materials and special target preparation procedures also allow the usage of pressed oxide powder targets. To prove the performance of the sputter-source, test preparations with technologically relevant oxide components, comprising ZrO{sub 2} and yttrium-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, have been carried out. A wide range of characterization methods (electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering, atomic force microscopy, and catalytic testing) were applied to demonstrate the properties of the sputter-deposited thin film systems.

  13. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  14. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies.

  15. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2016-09-08

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies.

  16. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies. PMID:27604848

  17. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies. PMID:27604848

  18. Application of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems to Ultra-High Reynolds Number Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system development is briefly reviewed. Technical work currently underway at NASA Langley Research Center is detailed, where it relates to the ultra-high Reynolds number application. The application itself is addressed, concluded to be quite feasible, and broad design recommendations given.

  19. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Louis

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10 -30 g cm -3) have been irradiated by X- and γ-rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

  20. Ultra-High Temperature Metallic Seal/Energizer Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Ken; Newman, Jesse; Datta, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The industry is requiring seals to operate at higher and higher temperatures. Traditional static seal designs and materials experience stress relaxation, losing their ability to maintain contact with moving flanges. Ultra High Temperature seal development program is a multiphase program with incremental increases in seal operating temperatures.

  1. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  2. Caveats when Analyzing Ultra-high Molar Mass Polymers by SEC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of ultra-high molar mass (M > 1 million g/mol) polymers via size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) presents a number of non-trivial challenges. Dissolution and full solvation may take days, as is the case for cellulose dissolution in non-complexing non degrading solvents; very low concent...

  3. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stock density grazing in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stock density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. However, little credible research exists to support anecdotal claims that forage and soil improvement occur through trampling high proportions (75+%) of mature forage into the soil by grazing dense groups of cattle o...

  4. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stock density grazing in the northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stock density (UHSD) grazing (also loosely referred to as ‘mob grazing’) has attracted a lot of attention and press in the forage industry. Numerous anecdotal articles can be found in trade magazines that promote the perceived benefits of UHSD grazing. However, there is little credible re...

  5. Research and Development for Ultra-High Gradient Accelerator Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Dolgashev, Valery; Higashi, Yasuo; Spataro, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Research on the basic physics of high-gradient, high frequency accelerator structures and the associated RF/microwave technology are essential for the future of discovery science, medicine and biology, energy and environment, and national security. We will review the state-of-the-art for the development of high gradient linear accelerators. We will present the research activities aimed at exploring the basic physics phenomenon of RF breakdown. We present the experimental results of a true systematic study in which the surface processing, geometry, and materials of the structures have been varied, one parameter at a time. The breakdown rate or alternatively, the probability of breakdown/pulse/meter has been recorded for different operating parameters. These statistical data reveal a strong dependence of breakdown probability on surface magnetic field, or alternatively on surface pulsed heating. This is in contrast to the classical view of electric field dependence.

  6. Cryogenic ultra-high power infrared diode laser bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, Paul; Frevert, C.; Hösler, H.; Bugge, F.; Knigge, S.; Pittroff, W.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2014-02-01

    GaAs-based high power diode lasers are the most efficient source of optical energy, and are in wide use in industrial applications, either directly or as pump sources for other laser media. Increased output power per laser is required to enable new applications (increased optical power density) and to reduce cost (more output per component leads to lower cost in $/W). For example, laser bars in the 9xx nm wavelength range with the very highest power and efficiency are needed as pump sources for many high-energy-class solid-state laser systems. We here present latest performance progress using a novel design approach that leverages operation at temperatures below 0°C for increases in bar power and efficiency. We show experimentally that operation at -55°C increases conversion efficiency and suppresses thermal rollover, enabling peak quasi-continuous wave bar powers of Pout > 1.6 kW to be achieved (1.2 ms, 10 Hz), limited by the available current. The conversion efficiency at 1.6 kW is 53%. Following on from this demonstration work, the key open challenge is to develop designs that deliver higher efficiencies, targeting > 80% at 1.6 kW. We present an analysis of the limiting factors and show that low electrical resistance is crucial, meaning that long resonators and high fill factor are needed. We review also progress in epitaxial design developments that leverage low temperatures to enable both low resistance and high optical performance. Latest results will be presented, summarizing the impact on bar performance and options for further improvements to efficiency will also be reviewed.

  7. The use of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography for studying hydrolysis kinetics of CL-20 and related energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Alexey; Lobrutto, Rosario; Christodoulatos, Christos; Jerkovich, Anton

    2009-03-15

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) utilizes columns packed with sub-2-mum stationary-phase particles and allows operation with pressures of up to 15,000 psi to yield increased resolution, speed, and sensitivity versus conventional HPLC. This promising new technology was used for the analysis of energetic compounds (RDX, HMX and CL-20) and a selective method was developed on an Acquity UPLC. A fast UHPLC method was applied to determine alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of major energetic compounds. Activation energies of alkaline hydrolysis reaction for CL-20, RDX and HMX were comparable to those in literature, however they were determined in a shorter amount of time due to the speed of analysis of the chromatographic method. The use of liophilic salts (KPF(6)) as mobile-phase additives for the enhancement of separation selectivity of energetic compounds was demonstrated. PMID:18644671

  8. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  9. Constitutive modeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene under large-deformation and cyclic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Bergström, J S; Kurtz, S M; Rimnac, C M; Edidin, A A

    2002-06-01

    When subjected to a monotonically increasing deformation state, the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE is characterized by a linear elastic response followed by distributed yielding and strain hardening at large deformations. During the unloading phases of an applied cyclic deformation process, the response is characterized by nonlinear recovery driven by the release of stored internal energy. A number of different constitutive theories can be used to model these experimentally observed events. We compare the ability of the J2-plasticity theory, the "Arruda-Boyce" model, the "Hasan-Boyce" model, and the "Bergström-Boyce" model to reproduce the observed mechanical behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). In addition a new hybrid model is proposed, which incorporates many features of the previous theories. This hybrid model is shown to most effectively predict the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of UHMWPE. PMID:12013180

  10. Numerical and experimental evaluation of laser forming process for the shape correction in ultra high strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Kim, E. Z.; Lee, N. K.; Lee, G. A.; Park, S. J.; Chu, A.

    2013-12-16

    In this paper, laser forming characteristics in ultra high strength steel with ultimate strength of 1200MPa are investigated numerically and experimentally. FE simulation is conducted to identify the response related to deformation and characterize the effect of laser power, beam diameter and scanning speed with respect to the bending angle for a square sheet part. The thermo-mechanical behaviors during the straight-line heating process are presented in terms of temperature, stress and strain. An experimental setup including a fiber laser with maximum mean power of 3.0 KW is used in the experiments. From the results in this work, it would be easily adjustment the laser power and the scanning speed by controlling the line energy for a bending operation of CP1180 steel sheets.

  11. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia and related structures

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Temel, Yasin; Roebroeck, Alard; Uludağ, Kâmil; Ivanov, Dimo; Kuijf, Mark L.; ter Haar Romenij, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinson's disease and other related disorders, involving the surgical placement of electrodes in the deeply situated basal ganglia or thalamic structures. Good clinical outcome requires accurate targeting. However, due to limited visibility of the target structures on routine clinical MR images, direct targeting of structures can be challenging. Non-clinical MR scanners with ultra-high magnetic field (7T or higher) have the potential to improve the quality of these images. This technology report provides an overview of the current possibilities of visualizing deep brain stimulation targets and their related structures with the aid of ultra-high field MRI. Reviewed studies showed improved resolution, contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios at ultra-high field. Sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility such as T2* and susceptibility weighted imaging and their maps in general showed the best visualization of target structures, including a separation between the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra, the lamina pallidi medialis and lamina pallidi incompleta within the globus pallidus and substructures of the thalamus, including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). This shows that the visibility, identification, and even subdivision of the small deep brain stimulation targets benefit from increased field strength. Although ultra-high field MR imaging is associated with increased risk of geometrical distortions, it has been shown that these distortions can be avoided or corrected to the extent where the effects are limited. The availability of ultra-high field MR scanners for humans seems to provide opportunities for a more accurate targeting for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. PMID:25414656

  12. Mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Beccaria, Marco; Fawzy, Nermeen; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-10-12

    A non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed, and optimized for triacylglycerol analysis in a Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil sample. Four columns were serially coupled to tackle such a task, for a total length of 60 cm of shell-packed stationary phase, and operated under ultra high pressure conditions. As detection, positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to attain identification of the analyzed sample components. A number of 137 triacylglycerols containing up to 19 fatty acids, with 14-22 carbon atom alkyl chain length and 0-6 double bonds, were positively identified in the complex lipidic sample. This is the first work that reports an extensive characterization of the triacylglycerol fraction of menhaden oil. PMID:22503927

  13. Theoretical Predictions of Phase Transitions at Ultra-high Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boates, Brian

    2013-06-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the high-pressure phase diagrams of important planetary materials such as CO2, MgSiO3, and MgO. For CO2, we predict a series of distinct liquid phases over a wide pressure (P) and temperature (T) range, including a first-order transition to a dense polymer liquid. We have computed finite-temperature free energies of liquid and solid CO2 phases to determine the melting curve beyond existing measurements and investigate possible phase separation transitions. The interaction of these phase boundaries with the mantle geotherm will also be discussed. Furthermore, we find evidence for a vast pressure-temperature regime where molten MgSiO3 decomposes into liquid SiO2 and solid MgO, with a volume change of approximately 1.2 percent. The demixing transition is driven by the crystallization of MgO ? the reaction only occurs below the high-pressure MgO melting curve. The predicted transition pressure at 10,000 K is in close proximity to an anomaly reported in recent laser-driven shock experiments of MgSiO3. We also present new results for the high-pressure melting curve of MgO and its B1-B2 solid phase transition, with a triple point near 364 GPa and 12,000 K.

  14. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  15. Spectroscopic and sub optical band gap properties of e-beam irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hamna; Gahfoor, Bilal; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Ahmad, Manzoor; Yasin, Tariq; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-12-01

    Muller matrix spectro-polarimeter has been used to study the absorption behavior of pristine and e-beam irradiated (30, 65,100 kGy) ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) over the visible spectral range i.e. 400-800 nm. As a result, significant changes occur in the absorption behavior of irradiated samples due to radiation induced physical and chemical changes. To analyze these (radiation induced) changes in polymer matrix, Urbach edge method is employed for the calculation of optical activation energy. In addition to this, direct and indirect energy band gaps along the number of carbon atoms in C=C unsaturation have been determined by using modified Urbach formula and Tauc's equation, respectively. The results obtained during study reveal that Urbach energy decreases with radiation treatment and has a lower value for 100 kGy sample i.e. Eu=71.63 meV. The values of direct and indirect energy band gaps are also following the decreasing trend with e-beam irradiation. Moreover, indirect energy gaps are found to have lower values as compared to direct energy gaps. The number of carbon atoms in clusters (as estimated from modified Tauc's equation) has been found to vary from ∼6 to 8 for direct energy band gaps and from ∼9 to 11 for indirect energy band gaps.

  16. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

    2006-06-22

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent

  17. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed

  18. Chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule by double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiong; Ye, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingyi; Li, Hua; Song, Fenyun

    2015-06-01

    A method incorporating double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the investigation of the chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule. The chromatographic separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) at 30°C using gradient elution with water/formic acid (1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A total of 11 chemical constituents of Ganmaoling granule were identified from their molecular weight, UV spectra, tandem mass spectrometry data, and retention behavior by comparing the results with those of the reference standards or literature. And 25 peaks were selected as the common peaks for fingerprint analysis to evaluate the similarities among 25 batches of Ganmaoling granule. The results of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis showed that the important chemical markers that could distinguish the different batches were revealed as 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. This is the first report of the ultra high performance liquid chromatography chemical fingerprint and component identification of Ganmaoling granule, which could lay a foundation for further studies of Ganmaoling granule.

  19. Sterilization of liquid foods by pulsed electric fields-an innovative ultra-high temperature process.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Kai; Schottroff, Felix; Meneses, Nicolas; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to investigate the inactivation of endospores by a combined thermal and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment. Therefore, self-cultivated spores of Bacillus subtilis and commercial Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with certified heat resistance were utilized. Spores of both strains were suspended in saline water (5.3 mS cm(-1)), skim milk (0.3% fat; 5.3 mS cm(-1)) and fresh prepared carrot juice (7.73 mS cm(-1)). The combination of moderate preheating (70-90°C) and an insulated PEF-chamber, combined with a holding tube (65 cm) and a heat exchanger for cooling, enabled a rapid heat up to 105-140°C (measured above the PEF chamber) within 92.2-368.9 μs. To compare the PEF process with a pure thermal inactivation, each spore suspension was heat treated in thin glass capillaries and D-values from 90 to 130°C and its corresponding z-values were calculated. For a comparison of the inactivation data, F-values for the temperature fields of both processes were calculated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A preheating of saline water to 70°C with a flow rate of 5 l h(-1), a frequency of 150 Hz and an energy input of 226.5 kJ kg(-1), resulted in a measured outlet temperature of 117°C and a 4.67 log10 inactivation of B. subtilis. The thermal process with identical F-value caused only a 3.71 log10 inactivation. This synergism of moderate preheating and PEF was even more pronounced for G. stearothermophilus spores in saline water. A preheating to 95°C and an energy input of 144 kJ kg(-1) resulted in an outlet temperature of 126°C and a 3.28 log10 inactivation, whereas nearly no inactivation (0.2 log10) was achieved during the thermal treatment. Hence, the PEF technology was evaluated as an alternative ultra-high temperature process. However, for an industrial scale application of this process for sterilization, optimization of the treatment chamber design is needed to reduce the occurring inhomogeneous temperature fields.

  20. Sterilization of liquid foods by pulsed electric fields–an innovative ultra-high temperature process

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Kai; Schottroff, Felix; Meneses, Nicolas; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to investigate the inactivation of endospores by a combined thermal and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment. Therefore, self-cultivated spores of Bacillus subtilis and commercial Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with certified heat resistance were utilized. Spores of both strains were suspended in saline water (5.3 mS cm−1), skim milk (0.3% fat; 5.3 mS cm−1) and fresh prepared carrot juice (7.73 mS cm−1). The combination of moderate preheating (70–90°C) and an insulated PEF-chamber, combined with a holding tube (65 cm) and a heat exchanger for cooling, enabled a rapid heat up to 105–140°C (measured above the PEF chamber) within 92.2–368.9 μs. To compare the PEF process with a pure thermal inactivation, each spore suspension was heat treated in thin glass capillaries and D-values from 90 to 130°C and its corresponding z-values were calculated. For a comparison of the inactivation data, F-values for the temperature fields of both processes were calculated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A preheating of saline water to 70°C with a flow rate of 5 l h−1, a frequency of 150 Hz and an energy input of 226.5 kJ kg−1, resulted in a measured outlet temperature of 117°C and a 4.67 log10 inactivation of B. subtilis. The thermal process with identical F-value caused only a 3.71 log10 inactivation. This synergism of moderate preheating and PEF was even more pronounced for G. stearothermophilus spores in saline water. A preheating to 95°C and an energy input of 144 kJ kg−1 resulted in an outlet temperature of 126°C and a 3.28 log10 inactivation, whereas nearly no inactivation (0.2 log10) was achieved during the thermal treatment. Hence, the PEF technology was evaluated as an alternative ultra-high temperature process. However, for an industrial scale application of this process for sterilization, optimization of the treatment chamber design is needed to reduce the occurring inhomogeneous temperature

  1. Sterilization of liquid foods by pulsed electric fields-an innovative ultra-high temperature process.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Kai; Schottroff, Felix; Meneses, Nicolas; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to investigate the inactivation of endospores by a combined thermal and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment. Therefore, self-cultivated spores of Bacillus subtilis and commercial Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with certified heat resistance were utilized. Spores of both strains were suspended in saline water (5.3 mS cm(-1)), skim milk (0.3% fat; 5.3 mS cm(-1)) and fresh prepared carrot juice (7.73 mS cm(-1)). The combination of moderate preheating (70-90°C) and an insulated PEF-chamber, combined with a holding tube (65 cm) and a heat exchanger for cooling, enabled a rapid heat up to 105-140°C (measured above the PEF chamber) within 92.2-368.9 μs. To compare the PEF process with a pure thermal inactivation, each spore suspension was heat treated in thin glass capillaries and D-values from 90 to 130°C and its corresponding z-values were calculated. For a comparison of the inactivation data, F-values for the temperature fields of both processes were calculated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A preheating of saline water to 70°C with a flow rate of 5 l h(-1), a frequency of 150 Hz and an energy input of 226.5 kJ kg(-1), resulted in a measured outlet temperature of 117°C and a 4.67 log10 inactivation of B. subtilis. The thermal process with identical F-value caused only a 3.71 log10 inactivation. This synergism of moderate preheating and PEF was even more pronounced for G. stearothermophilus spores in saline water. A preheating to 95°C and an energy input of 144 kJ kg(-1) resulted in an outlet temperature of 126°C and a 3.28 log10 inactivation, whereas nearly no inactivation (0.2 log10) was achieved during the thermal treatment. Hence, the PEF technology was evaluated as an alternative ultra-high temperature process. However, for an industrial scale application of this process for sterilization, optimization of the treatment chamber design is needed to reduce the occurring inhomogeneous temperature fields

  2. Enhancing ultra-high CPV passive cooling using least-material finned heat sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Leonardo; Fernandez, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Reddy, K. S.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems aim to increase the cost-competiveness of CPV by increasing the concentrations over 2000 suns. In this work, the design of a heat sink for ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications is presented. For the first time, the least-material approach, widely used in electronics to maximize the thermal dissipation while minimizing the weight of the heat sink, has been applied in CPV. This method has the potential to further decrease the cost of this technology and to keep the multijunction cell within the operative temperature range. The designing procedure is described in the paper and the results of a thermal simulation are shown to prove the reliability of the solution. A prediction of the costs is also reported: a cost of 0.151/Wp is expected for a passive least-material heat sink developed for 4000x applications.

  3. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Nord C.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Swain, Thomas L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochrometers for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line.

  4. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  5. The Promise and Challenges of Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Technology and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, an overview of the research being conducted by the ERA Project in Ultra High Bypass aircraft propulsion and in partnership with Pratt & Whitney with their Geared TurboFan (GTF) is given. The ERA goals are shown followed by a discussion of what areas need to be addressed on the engine to achieve the goals and how the GTF is uniquely qualified to meet the goals through a discussion of what benefits the cycle provides. The first generation GTF architecture is then shown highlighting the areas of collaboration with NASA, and the fuel burn, noise and emissions reductions possible based on initial static ground test and flight test data of the first GTF engine. Finally, a 5 year technology roadmap is presented focusing on Ultra High Bypass propulsion technology research areas that are being pursued and being planned by ERA and P&W under their GTF program.

  6. Enhancing ultra-high CPV passive cooling using least-material finned heat sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, Leonardo Mallick, Tapas K.; Fernandez, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Reddy, K. S.

    2015-09-28

    Ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems aim to increase the cost-competiveness of CPV by increasing the concentrations over 2000 suns. In this work, the design of a heat sink for ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications is presented. For the first time, the least-material approach, widely used in electronics to maximize the thermal dissipation while minimizing the weight of the heat sink, has been applied in CPV. This method has the potential to further decrease the cost of this technology and to keep the multijunction cell within the operative temperature range. The designing procedure is described in the paper and the results of a thermal simulation are shown to prove the reliability of the solution. A prediction of the costs is also reported: a cost of 0.151$/W{sub p} is expected for a passive least-material heat sink developed for 4000x applications.

  7. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a hode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  8. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  9. Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

  10. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, John; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick H; Mirin, Arthur A.; Craig, Anthony; Jacob, Robert L.; Mickelson, Sheri A.

    2012-01-01

    With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now possible, enabling eddy-resolving ocean and sea ice models to be coupled to a finite-volume atmosphere model for a range of atmospheric resolutions. This capability was made possible by enabling the model to use large scale parallelism, which required a significant refactoring of the software infrastructure. We describe the scalability of two ultra-high-resolution coupled configurations on leadership class computing platforms. We demonstrate the ability to utilize over 30,000 processor cores on a Cray XT5 system and over 60,000 cores on an IBM Blue Gene/P system to obtain climatologically relevant simulation rates for these configurations.

  11. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk.

  12. NASA Partnerships and Collaborative Research on Ultra High Bypass Cycle Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Current collaborative research with General Electric Aviation on Open Rotor propulsion as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Ultra High Bypass Engine Partnership Element is discussed. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals are reviewed, as well as their relative technology level compared to previous NASA noise program goals. The current Open Rotor propulsion research activity at NASA and GE are discussed including the contributions each entity bring toward the research project, and technical plans and objectives.

  13. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Research for Reducing Noise, Emissions, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Schweitzer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to 2000s is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are discussed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program.

  14. Modelling of radiation losses for ion acceleration at ultra-high laser intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdessus, Remi; d'Humières, Emmanuel; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Radiation losses of charged particles can become important in ultra high intensity laser plasma interaction. This process is described by the radiation back reaction term in the electron equation of motion. This term is implemented in the relativistic particle-in-cell code by using a renormalized Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. In the hole boring regime case of laser ion acceleration it is shown that radiation losses results in a decrease of the piston velocity.

  15. Can low-temperature thermoluminescence cast light on the nature of ultra-high dilutions?

    PubMed

    Rey, Louis

    2007-07-01

    Low-temperature thermoluminescence has been used in attempt to understand the particular structure of ultra high dilutions. Samples are activated by irradiation after freezing at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 degrees K). Experimental results show that, in the course of rewarming, the thermoluminescent glow is susbtantially different between dilutions of different substances. It is suggested that the dispersed gas phase might play a role in this process. PMID:17678813

  16. Fabry-Pérot-multichannel spectrometer tandem for ultra-high resolution Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rozas, Guillermo; Jusserand, Bernard; Fainstein, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel ultra-high resolution Raman spectroscopy technique based in a Fabry-Pérot/triple spectrometer tandem with multichannel acquisition. We describe the system, detail the calibration process, and experimentally test the technique, showing that effective finesses in excess of 1000 are possible. The technique is specifically tailored for low intensity, complex and spectrally extended Raman spectra, providing shorter acquisition times with respect to similar tandem systems with monochannel detectors.

  17. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.; Ivanova, L. R.; Suan, T. Nguen

    2014-11-14

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied.

  18. Ultra-high degree spectral modelling of Earth and planetary topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian

    2016-04-01

    New methods for ultra-high degree spherical harmonic analyses and syntheses have been developed and studied over the past years. The focus group "High-resolution Gravity Modelling", established in 2013 at TU Munich, has implemented ultra-high degree spectral modelling techniques and used successfully to transform high-resolution topography grids of Earth, Moon and Mars into spherical harmonics. For Earth, a new set of 1 arc-min topography models, developed by our group and released under the name Earth2014, was expanded into a spherical harmonic series to degree 10,800. For the 15 arc-sec resolution SRTM15_plus topography and bathymetry, a spectral resolution of degree 43,200 was achieved. For Moon and Mars, topography grids from laser altimetry were harmonically analysed up to degree ~46,000. The spectral representations of the topography grids presented in this contribution are required in the context of spectral gravity forward modelling with ultra-high degree, where the topographic potential is computed as a function of the spherical harmonic series of the topography and its integer powers. References: Hirt, C., and M. Rexer (2015) Earth2014: 1 arc-min shape, topography, bedrock and ice-sheet models - available as gridded data and degree-10,800 spherical harmonics, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 39, 103-112, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2015.03.001. Rexer, M. and C. Hirt (2015), Ultra-high degree surface spherical harmonic analysis using the Gauss-Legendre and the Driscoll/Healy quadrature theorem and application to planetary topography models of Earth, Moon and Mars. Surveys in Geophysics 36(6), 803-830, doi: 10.1007/s10712-015-9345-z.

  19. RECENT ADVANCES IN ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials.

  20. A Novel Method for Electroplating Ultra-High-Strength Glassy Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel method for electroplating ultra-high-strength glassy metals, nickel-phosphorous and nickel-cobalt-phosphorous, has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, cooperatively with the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Traditionally, thin coatings of these metals are achieved via electroless deposition. Benefits of the new electrolytic process include thick, low-stress deposits, free standing shapes, lower plating temperature, low maintenance, and safer operation with substantially lower cost.

  1. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk. PMID:25084664

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials. PMID:25045170

  3. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Grinner, F. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Maier, A. R.; Becker, S.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2009-02-11

    Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron-laser (FEL). Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultra-high peak beam currents (10-100 kA) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution), which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  4. Interpersonal sensitivity and functioning impairment in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Masillo, A; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Brandizzi, M; Lindau, J F; Solfanelli, A; Curto, M; Narilli, F; Telesforo, L; Kotzalidis, G D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2016-01-01

    A personality trait that often elicits poor and uneasy interpersonal relationships is interpersonal sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and psychosocial functioning in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis as compared to help-seeking individuals who screened negative for an ultra-high risk of psychosis. A total sample of 147 adolescents and young adult who were help seeking for emerging mental health problems participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: 39 individuals who met criteria for an ultra-high-risk mental state (UHR), and 108 (NS). The whole sample completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) and the Global Functioning: Social and Role Scale (GF:SS; GF:RS). Mediation analysis was used to explore whether attenuated negative symptoms mediated the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning. Individuals with UHR state showed higher IPSM scores and lower GF:SS and GF:RS scores than NS participants. A statistically negative significant correlation between two IPSM subscales (Interpersonal Awareness and Timidity) and GF:SS was found in both groups. Our results also suggest that the relationship between the aforementioned aspects of interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning was not mediated by negative prodromal symptoms. This study suggests that some aspects of interpersonal sensitivity were associated with low level of social functioning. Assessing and treating interpersonal sensitivity may be a promising therapeutic target to improve social functioning in young help-seeking individuals.

  5. In Situ Visualization of Tears on Contact Lens Using Ultra High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiao, Shuliang; Ruggeri, Marco; Shousha, Mohammed Abou; Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the capability of directly visualizing the tear film on contact lenses using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Six eyes of three healthy subjects wearing PureVision and ACUVUE Advance soft and Boston RGP hard contact lenses were imaged with a custom built, high speed, ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomograph. Refresh Liquigel was used to demonstrate the effect of artificial tears on the tear film. Results Ultra high resolution images of the pre- and post-lens films were directly visualized when each lens was inserted onto the eye. After the instillation of artificial tears during lens wear, the tear film was thicker. The post-lens tear film underneath the lens edge was clearly shown. Interactions between the lens edges and the ocular surface were obtained for each of the lens types and base curves. With a contrast enhancement agent, tear menisci on the contact lenses around the upper and lower eyelids were highlighted. With hard contact lenses, the tear film was visualized clearly and changed after a blink when the lens was pulled up by the lid. Conclusions Ultra-high resolution OCT is a potentially promising technique for imaging tears around contact lenses. This successful demonstration of in situ post-lens tear film imaging suggests that OCT could open a new era in studying tear dynamics during contact lens wear. The novel method may lead to new ways of evaluating contact lens fitting. PMID:19265323

  6. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  7. Surface texture and micromechanics of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopaedic implant bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Monica A.

    2001-07-01

    Tibial bearings of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were characterized to identify differences in morphology, surface texture (roughness and skewness), and micro-scale mechanical behavior. These orthopaedic implant components were fabricated by direct molding or by machining after isostatic compression molding. Sterilization was by gamma irradiation (3.3 Mrad) in air, followed by shelf aging for 2 years. Comparisons were made between unsterile and sterile bearings to identify differences in structure and properties related to wear debris. Characterization methods included confocal optical microscopy, nanoindentation, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized light microscopy. Morphology was compared between bulk and surface (top and bottom) specimens of the bearings. Cryo-microtomy was used to prepare thin specimens transverse to the top surface for polarized microscopy. Nanoindentation was performed on the top bearing surfaces, near areas examined by confocal microscopy. Processing methods affected both small- and large-scale morphology of UHMWPE. Direct molding produced thinner lamellae, thicker long periods, and slightly lower crystallinity than isostatic compression molding. Both bearing types contained a thick interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases. Interfacial free energy varied with interface thickness. Resin particles were consolidated better in direct molded bearings than in machined bearings. Segregated amorphous regions were observed in the machined bearings. Sterilization and shelf aging affected nanometer-scale morphology. Chain scission significantly decreased the interface thickness, causing an increase in lamellar thickness and a small increase in crystallinity. Only a small decrease in the amorphous thickness resulted. Heterogeneous oxidation increased these changes in interface

  8. New IES Scheme for Power Conditioning at Ultra-High Currents: from Concept to MHD Modeling and First Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvatin, Alexandre S.; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Aranchuk, Leonid E.; Huet, Dominique; Gasilov, Vladimir A.; Krukovskii, Alexandre Yu.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Fursov, Fiodor I.

    2002-12-01

    This work introduces an inductive energy storage (IES) scheme which aims pulsed-power conditioning at multi- MJ energies. The key element of the scheme represents an additional plasma volume, where a magnetically accelerated wire array is used for inductive current switching. This plasma acceleration volume is connected in parallel to a microsecond capacitor bank and to a 100-ns current ruse-time useful load. Simple estimates suggest that optimized scheme parameters could be reachable even when operating at ultra-high currents. We describe first proof-of-principle experiments carried out on GIT12 generator [1] at the wire-array current level of 2 MA. The obtained confirmation of the concept consists in generation of a 200 kV voltage directly at an inductive load. This load voltage value can be already sufficient to transfer the available magnetic energy into kinetic energy of a liner at this current level. Two-dimensional modeling with the radiational MHD numerical tool Marple [2] confirms the development of inductive voltage in the system. However, the average voltage increase is accompanied by short-duration voltage drops due to interception of the current by the low-density upstream plasma. Upon our viewpoint, this instability of the current distribution represents the main physical limitation to the scheme performance.

  9. Comparison of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of spirostanol saponins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Yong-Wei; Sun, Qing-Long; Sun, Xin-Guang; Kang, Li-Ping; Yan, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2016-02-20

    Spirostanol saponins are important active components of some herb medicines, and their isolation and purification are crucial for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicines. We aimed to compare the separation of spirostanol saponins by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Four groups of spirostanol saponins were separated respectively by UHPSFC and UHPLC. After optimization, UHPSFC was performed with a HSS C18 SB column or a Diol column and with methanol as the co-solvent. A BEH C18 column and mobile phase containing water (with 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile were used in UHPLC. We found that UHPSFC could be performed automatically and quickly. It is effective in separating the spirostanol saponins which share the same aglycone and vary in sugar chains, and is very sensitive to the number and the position of hydroxyl groups in aglycones. However, the resolution of spirostanol saponins with different aglycones and the same sugar moiety by UHPSFC was not ideal and could be resolved by UHPLC instead. UHPLC is good at differentiating the variation in aglycones, and is influenced by double bonds in aglycones. Therefore, UHPLC and UHPSFC are complementary in separating spirostanol saponins. Considering the naturally produced spirostanol saponins in herb medicines are different both in aglycones and in sugar chains, a better separation can be achieved by combination of UHPLC and UHPSFC. UHPSFC is a powerful technique for improving the resolution when UHPLC cannot resolve a mixture of spirostanol saponins and vice versa.

  10. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data

  11. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites

  12. Laser Beam Welding of Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. Strengths of up to 2 GPa at fracture elongations of 15% can be attained through this. Welding of these materials, as a result, became a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply efficient heat control. For two application cases, tailored blank production in as-rolled condition and welding during assembly in hot stamped condition, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown through metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KS-II concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method.

  13. Ultra-high-speed pumping of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for high-speed laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöholm, Johan; Kristensson, Elias; Richter, Mattias; Aldén, Marcus; Göritz, Guido; Knebel, Kai

    2009-02-01

    The feasibility of pumping an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with an ultra-high repetition rate multi:YAG laser system, producing a burst of up to eight high-energy pulses, has been investigated. For this investigation an OPO with a bandwidth around 5 cm-1, together with a frequency doubling crystal, was selected. In some laser-induced fluorescence measurements the large linewidth from the OPO can be advantageous as several lines can be excited simultaneously avoiding the saturation effects of individual lines. The energy output from the OPO as a function of pulse separation was measured down to pulse separations of 400 ns and was found to be completely independent of the pulse separation. The efficiency of the OPO unit, when optimized for single-pulse operation, was measured to be around 25% for all pulses, giving over 80 mJ at 585 nm output when pumped with ~350 mJ at 355 nm. This is similar to the specified efficiency for the OPO. The system was found to give a slightly lower efficiency when double pulsing the Nd:YAG lasers. This is attributed to a somewhat elongated pulse length from the Nd:YAG lasers giving a lower pump energy density. The system was applied for measuring high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence images of OH radicals in a Bunsen burner.

  14. Insulation degradation behavior of multilayer ceramic capacitors clarified by Kelvin probe force microscopy under ultra-high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keigo; Okamoto, Takafumi; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Ando, Akira

    2013-02-01

    We investigated surface potential images on the cross section of degraded multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) by Kelvin probe force microscopy measured under a dc bias voltage in ultra-high vacuum. A highly accelerated lifetime test (HALT) was conducted to obtain degraded MLCCs. The high energy resolution of the present measurement allows us to observe the step-like voltage drops on dielectric layers of as-fired MLCCs. The step-like voltage drops disappear on the dielectric layers of degraded MLCCs, indicating that the resistance at grain boundaries declines with the progress of insulation degradation. Furthermore, the electric field concentrations near the electrodes are clearly observed under forward and backward bias. The discussion based on energy band diagrams suggests that the electric field concentrations near electrodes are attributable to energy barrier formed at the interface between electrode and dielectrics. In particular, the electric field concentration at cathode in HALT measured under backward bias is much higher than that at anode in HALT measured under forward bias. This implies that oxygen vacancies accumulated during HALT cause band bending near the cathode in HALT. We propose that the initial decline of resistance at grain boundaries and following electric-field concentrations at anode in HALT is essential to the insulation degradation on dielectric layers of MLCCs under dc bias voltage.

  15. Collaborative Research on the Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Cycle to Reduce Noise, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to present is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are addressed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program to meet the goals. Ultra High Bypass cycle research collaboration successes with Pratt & Whitney are presented.

  16. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    -dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

  17. A vision for an ultra-high resolution integrated water cycle observation and prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    biomass would improve soil-moisture retrieval by avoiding the need for auxiliary vegetation information. This multivariable water-cycle observation system must be integrated with high-resolution, application relevant prediction systems to optimize their information content and utility is addressing critical water cycle issues. One such vision is a real-time ultra-high resolution locally-moasiced global land modeling and assimilation system, that overlays regional high-fidelity information over a baseline global land prediction system. Such a system would provide the best possible local information for use in applications, while integrating and sharing information globally for diagnosing larger water cycle variability. In a sense, this would constitute a hydrologic telecommunication system, where the best local in-situ gage, Doppler radar, and weather station can be shared internationally, and integrated in a consistent manner with global observation platforms like the multivariable water cycle mission. To realize such a vision, large issues must be addressed, such as international data sharing policy, model-observation integration approaches that maintain local extremes while achieving global consistency, and methods for establishing error estimates and uncertainty.

  18. Ultra high resolution images of the solar chromosphere and corona using coordinated rocket and balloon observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the scientific objectives that can be pursued by simultaneous coronal/chromospheric observation with the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), and a new balloon-borne observatory called the Ultra-High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroheliograph (UHRVS). Attention is given to the proposed UHRVS observatory, which will incorporate two instruments, a 65-cm aperture telescope with narrowband filters for high resolution photographic and photoelectric spectroheliograms, and a very high resolution spectrograph which uses a 40-cm aperture telescope. The capabilities of the MSSTA, and the joint UHRVS/MSSTA observing program that is envisioned are reviewed.

  19. The global lambda visualization facility: An international ultra-high-definition wide-area visualization collaboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leigh, J.; Renambot, L.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Jeong, B.; Jagodic, R.; Schwarz, N.; Svistula, D.; Singh, R.; Aguilera, J.; Wang, X.; Vishwanath, V.; Lopez, B.; Sandin, D.; Peterka, T.; Girado, J.; Kooima, R.; Ge, J.; Long, L.; Verlo, A.; DeFanti, T.A.; Brown, M.; Cox, D.; Patterson, R.; Dorn, P.; Wefel, P.; Levy, S.; Talandis, J.; Reitzer, J.; Prudhomme, T.; Coffin, T.; Davis, B.; Wielinga, P.; Stolk, B.; Bum, Koo G.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Corrie, B.; Zimmerman, T.; Boulanger, P.; Garcia, M.

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper marks an initial global cooperative effort between visualization and collaboration researchers to build a persistent virtual visualization facility linked by ultra-high-speed optical networks. The goal is to enable the comprehensive and synergistic research and development of the necessary hardware, software and interaction techniques to realize the next generation of end-user tools for scientists to collaborate on the global Lambda Grid. This paper outlines some of the visualization research projects that were demonstrated at the iGrid 2005 workshop in San Diego, California. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NASA / GE Aviation Collaborative Partnership Research in Ultra High Bypass Cycle Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Zeug, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Current collaborative research with General Electric Aviation on Open Rotor propulsion as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Ultra High Bypass Engine Partnership Element is discussed. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals are reviewed, as well as their relative technology level compared to previous NASA noise program goals. The current Open Rotor propulsion research activity at NASA and GE are discussed including the contributions each entity bring toward the research project, and technical plans and objectives. GE Open Rotor propulsion technology and business plans currently and toward the future are also discussed, including the role the NASA SFW UHB partnership plays toward achieving those goals.

  1. Developmental and morphological studies in Japanese medaka with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gladys, Fanny Moses; Matsuda, Masaru; Lim, Yiheng; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Imai, Takuto; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Cense, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We propose ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography to study the morphological development of internal organs in medaka fish in the post-embryonic stages at micrometer resolution. Different stages of Japanese medaka were imaged after hatching in vivo with an axial resolution of 2.8 µm in tissue. Various morphological structures and organs identified in the OCT images were then compared with the histology. Due to the medaka’s close resemblance to vertebrates, including humans, these morphological features play an important role in morphogenesis and can be used to study diseases that also occur in humans. PMID:25780725

  2. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  3. Investigation of Molecular Exchange Using DEXSY with Ultra-High Pulsed Field Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2008-12-01

    Diffusion exchange spectroscopy has been employed for the investigation of water exchange between different regions of a cosmetic lotion as well as for the exchange of n-pentane between the inter- and intra-crystalline space in zeolite NaX. We successfully combined this two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment with methods for the application of ultra-high pulsed field gradients of up to 35 T/m, resulting in observation times and mixing times as short as 2 ms and 2.8 ms, respectively.

  4. Investigation of Molecular Exchange Using DEXSY with Ultra-High Pulsed Field Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Gratz, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2008-12-05

    Diffusion exchange spectroscopy has been employed for the investigation of water exchange between different regions of a cosmetic lotion as well as for the exchange of n-pentane between the inter- and intra-crystalline space in zeolite NaX. We successfully combined this two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment with methods for the application of ultra-high pulsed field gradients of up to 35 T/m, resulting in observation times and mixing times as short as 2 ms and 2.8 ms, respectively.

  5. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  6. The ultra high resolution XUV spectroheliograph: An attached payload for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, Einar; Timothy, J. Gethyn; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    1990-01-01

    The principle goal of the ultra high resolution XUV spectroheliograph (UHRXS) is to improve the ability to identify and understand the fundamental physical processes that shape the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and corona. The ability of the UHRXS imaging telescope and spectrographs to resolve fine scale structures over a broad wavelength (and hence temperature) range is critical to this mission. The scientific objectives and instrumental capabilities of the UHRXS investigation are reviewed before proceeding to a discussion of the expected performance of the UHRXS observatory.

  7. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  8. Effects of Thermal Environments on the Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiguo; Fang, Daining

    In the present study, the temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance parameter of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) was measured based on the current evaluation theories of thermal shock resistance parameters, since the material parameters of UHTCs are very sensitive to the changes of temperature. The influence of some important thermal environment parameters on the thermal shock resistance and critical temperature difference of rupture of UHTCs were studied. By establishing the relation between the temperature and the thermal or mechanical properties of the UHTCs, we found that thermal shock behavior of UHTCs is strongly affected by the surface heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer condition and initial temperature of the thermal shock.

  9. Assessment of the State of the Art of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Gasch, Matt; Stackpoole, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are a family of materials that includes the borides, carbides and nitrides of hafnium-, zirconium- and titanium-based systems. UHTCs are famous for possessing some of the highest melting points of known materials. In addition, they are very hard, have good wear resistance, mechanical strength, and relatively high thermal conductivities (compared to other ceramic materials). Because of these attributes, UHTCs are ideal for thermal protection systems, especially those that require chemical and structural stability at extremely high operating temperatures. UHTCs have the potential to revolutionize the aerospace industry by enabling the development of sharp hypersonic vehicles or atmospheric entry probes capable of the most extreme entry conditions.

  10. In-situ Formation of Reinforcement Phases in Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M (Inventor); Gasch, Matthew J (Inventor); Olson, Michael W (Inventor); Hamby, Ian W. (Inventor); Johnson, Sylvia M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A tough ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composite comprises grains of UHTC matrix material, such as HfB.sub.2, ZrB.sub.2 or other metal boride, carbide, nitride, etc., surrounded by a uniform distribution of acicular high aspect ratio reinforcement ceramic rods or whiskers, such as of SiC, is formed from uniformly mixing a powder of the UHTC material and a pre-ceramic polymer selected to form the desired reinforcement species, then thermally consolidating the mixture by hot pressing. The acicular reinforcement rods may make up from 5 to 30 vol % of the resulting microstructure.

  11. Ultra-high-power plasma switch INPIS for pulse power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, En H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.

    1990-01-01

    A novel plasma switch, the inverse pinch switch (IN-PIS), with a combination geometry based on an inverse-pinch mechanism, has been tested and shown to alleviate the shortcomings of conventional spark gaps. The INPIS switch or INPIStron is currently being upscaled for high-voltage (approximately 1 MV) operation with a multigap arrangement similar to Sandia's rimfire electrodes used for ultra-high-voltage hold off. Preliminary results of the multigap INPIS tests at 230 kV and plasma-puff initiation methods are presented, and an application to compact pulser systems is discussed.

  12. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in commercial ultra-high-temperature-treated milk.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, J L; Domínguez, L; Gómez-Lucía, E; Garayzabal, J F; García, J A; Suárez, G

    1988-01-01

    Forty-seven samples of commercial ultra-high-temperature-treated milk from a dairy facility in the northwest part of Spain were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1. A total of 14 samples (29.8%) were positive for aflatoxin M1 (4 in May, 3 in November, 3 in December, 1 in January, 1 in April, 1 in July, and 1 in August), 29 (61.7%) were negative, and 4 (8.5%) were doubtful, i.e., they showed trace quantities of aflatoxin M1. The range of aflatoxin M1 content was 0.02 to 0.1 ng/ml. PMID:3137868

  13. Processing and evaluation of the AGS Booster ultra-high vaccum system

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Mapes, M.; Schnitzenbaumer, P.; Shen, B.; Sikora, R.; Stattel, P.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange of the partially stripped, low {Beta} very heavy ions with the residual gas molecules, pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} Torr is required for the 200 m booster ring. To achieve this ultra high vacuum, chemical cleaning, vacuum furnace degassing and insitu bake were employed for all chambers and beam components. Using these procedures, vacuums of low 10{sup {minus}11} Torr have been routinely achieved during the testing of individual half cells and beam components, and during the commissioning of the vacuum sectors. In this paper, the design and layout of chambers, flanges and bakeout hardware is briefly described. The vacuum processing of different components and the results of bakeout and evaluation are summarized. The experience gained during the construction and commissioning of this ultra-high vacuum system is also given. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-02-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates.

  15. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented. PMID:24973297

  16. Repeated Strike Process During Disconnector Operation in Ultra-High Voltage Gas-Insulated Switchgear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yonggang; Cai, Yuanji; Chen, Weijiang; Liu, Weidong; Li, Zhibing; Yue, Gongchang; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Very fast transient over-voltage (VFTO), induced by disconnector operations in gas-insulated switchgears, has become the limiting dielectric stress at ultra-high voltage levels. Much work has been done to investigate single-strike waveforms of VFTO. However, little study has been carried out investigating the repeated strike process, which would influence VFTO significantly. In this paper, we carried out 450 effective experiments in an ultra-high voltage test circuit, and conducted calculations through the Monte Carlo simulation method, to investigate the repeated strike process. Firstly, the mechanism of the repeated strike process is proposed, based on the experimental results. Afterwards, statistical breakdown characteristics of disconnectors are obtained and analyzed. Finally, simulations of the repeated strike process are conducted, which indicate that the dielectric strength recovery speed and polarity effect factor have a joint effect on VFTO. This study enhances the understanding of the nature of VFTO, and may help to optimize the disconnector designed to minimize VFTO. supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277106) and in part by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2011CB209405)

  17. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates. PMID:26864968

  18. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh; Tran, Tuan Kiet; Kim, Dong Joo

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  19. Ultra-high vacuum compatible induction-heated rod casting furnace.

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Neubauer, A; Münzer, W; Regnat, A; Benka, G; Meven, M; Pedersen, B; Pfleiderer, C

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of a radio-frequency induction-heated rod casting furnace that permits the preparation of polycrystalline ingots of intermetallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum compatible conditions. The central part of the system is a bespoke water-cooled Hukin crucible supporting a casting mold. Depending on the choice of the mold, typical rods have a diameter between 6 mm and 10 mm and a length up to 90 mm, suitable for single-crystal growth by means of float-zoning. The setup is all-metal sealed and may be baked out. We find that the resulting ultra-high vacuum represents an important precondition for processing compounds with high vapor pressures under a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 3 bars. Using the rod casting furnace, we succeeded to prepare large high-quality single crystals of two half-Heusler compounds, namely, the itinerant antiferromagnet CuMnSb and the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb.

  20. An ultra-high-resolution FBG static-strain sensor for geophysics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Hotate, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    We report an ultra-high-resolution static-strain measurement with a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), one for strain sensing and the other for compensating the error due to temperature disturbance and source drift. The difference between the two FBGs' Bragg wavelengths is evaluated by utilizing a cross-correlation algorithm. The mechanism of noise suppression by the cross-correlation algorithm is quantitatively analyzed and the factor that determines the ability of noise suppression of this algorithm is revealed. The temperature dependence is further subtracted by using a vector operation. When no strain is applied, an ultra-high wavelength resolution corresponding to 2.6 nɛ was obtained, which gives the ultimate performance of the measurement system. With a variable strain applied with a piezo-stage, a resolution of 17.6 nɛ was demonstrated. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, that a real-static strain down to 10 nɛ is measured, providing a powerful technique for the measurement in geophysics application.

  1. Comparative wear tests of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Harsha, A P; Joyce, Tom J

    2013-05-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major concern in hip implant failure. Therefore, recent research work has focussed on wear-resistant materials, one of the most important of which is cross-linked polyethylene. In view of this, the objective of this study was to compare the in vitro wear performance of cross-linked polyethylene to traditional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. In order to mimic appropriate in vivo conditions, a novel high-capacity wear tester called a circularly translating pin-on-disc was used. The results of this in vitro study demonstrated that the wear rate for cross-linked polyethylene was about 80% lower than that of conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. This difference closely matches in vivo results reported in the literature for total hip replacements that use the two biopolymers. The in vitro results were also verified against ASTM F732-00 (standard test method for wear testing of polymeric materials for use in total joint prostheses). The 50-station circularly translating pin-on-disc proved to be a reliable device for in vitro wear studies of orthopaedic biopolymers.

  2. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-02-11

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called "Si photonics"). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates.

  3. Ultra-high vacuum compatible induction-heated rod casting furnace.

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Neubauer, A; Münzer, W; Regnat, A; Benka, G; Meven, M; Pedersen, B; Pfleiderer, C

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of a radio-frequency induction-heated rod casting furnace that permits the preparation of polycrystalline ingots of intermetallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum compatible conditions. The central part of the system is a bespoke water-cooled Hukin crucible supporting a casting mold. Depending on the choice of the mold, typical rods have a diameter between 6 mm and 10 mm and a length up to 90 mm, suitable for single-crystal growth by means of float-zoning. The setup is all-metal sealed and may be baked out. We find that the resulting ultra-high vacuum represents an important precondition for processing compounds with high vapor pressures under a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 3 bars. Using the rod casting furnace, we succeeded to prepare large high-quality single crystals of two half-Heusler compounds, namely, the itinerant antiferromagnet CuMnSb and the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb. PMID:27370472

  4. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  5. Ultra-high vacuum compatible induction-heated rod casting furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Neubauer, A.; Münzer, W.; Regnat, A.; Benka, G.; Meven, M.; Pedersen, B.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of a radio-frequency induction-heated rod casting furnace that permits the preparation of polycrystalline ingots of intermetallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum compatible conditions. The central part of the system is a bespoke water-cooled Hukin crucible supporting a casting mold. Depending on the choice of the mold, typical rods have a diameter between 6 mm and 10 mm and a length up to 90 mm, suitable for single-crystal growth by means of float-zoning. The setup is all-metal sealed and may be baked out. We find that the resulting ultra-high vacuum represents an important precondition for processing compounds with high vapor pressures under a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 3 bars. Using the rod casting furnace, we succeeded to prepare large high-quality single crystals of two half-Heusler compounds, namely, the itinerant antiferromagnet CuMnSb and the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb.

  6. Development of an Ultra High Frequency Gyrotron with a Pulsed Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Idehara, T.; Kamada, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Hayashi, T.; Agusu, La; Mitsudo, S.; Ogawa, I.; Manuilov, V. N.; Naito, K.; Yuyama, T.; Jiang, W.; Yatsui, K.

    2006-01-03

    An ultra-high frequency gyrotron is being developed as a THz radiation source by using a pulsed magnet. We have achieved the highest field intensity of 20.2 T. High frequency operation at the second harmonic will achieve 1.01 THz; the corresponding cavity mode is TE6,11,1. On the other hand, an ultra-high power gyrotron with a pulsed magnet is also being developed as a millimeter to submillimeter wave radiation source. The gyrotron is a large orbit gyrotron (LOG) using an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB). A pulsed power generator 'ETIGO-IV' is applied for generation of the IREB. A prototype relativistic LOG was constructed for fundamental operation. The output of the LOG will achieve 144 GHz and 9 MW; the corresponding cavity mode is TE1,4,1. Cavities for 2nd and 4th harmonic operations were designed by numerical simulation for achievement of higher frequency. The progress of development for prototype high frequency gyrotrons with pulsed magnets is presented.

  7. Ultra-High-Power-Density Motor Being Developed for Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2003-01-01

    To support the Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept Program, NASA Glenn Research Center' s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future more-electric aircraft. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines that can generate power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20 000 A/cm2 was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced. A simple synchronous machine model that consists of rotor and stator windings and back-irons was considered first. The model had a sinusoidally distributed winding that produces a sinusoidal distribution of flux P poles. Excitation of the rotor winding produced P poles of rotor flux, which interacted with the P stator poles to produce torque.

  8. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  9. Ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography using supercontinuum light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yiheng; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2016-04-01

    An ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was developed using a cost-effective supercontinuum laser. A spectral filter consists of a dispersive prism, a cylindrical lens and a right-angle prism was built to transmit the wavelengths in range 680-940 nm to the OCT system. The SD-OCT has achieved 1.9 μm axial resolution and the sensitivity was estimated to be 91.5 dB. A zero-crossing fringes matching method which maps the wavelengths to the pixel indices of the spectrometer was proposed for the OCT spectral calibration. A double sided foam tape as a static sample and the tip of a middle finger as a biological sample were measured by the OCT. The adhesive and the internal structure of the foam of the tape were successfully visualized in three dimensions. Sweat ducts was clearly observed in the OCT images at very high resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ultra-high resolution visualization of sweat duct by OCT.

  10. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented.

  11. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim; Kondziella, Daniel; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kerrn-Jespersen, Bjørg Morell; Lindelof, Mette; Lassmann, Hans; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. Methods: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. Results: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots. There was no evidence of lymphoma in any of the 4 patients. The 7.0T MRI in clinical remission also revealed supratentorial lesions and perivascular pathology in vivo with contrast-enhancing lesions centered around a small venous vessel. Ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T disclosed prominent T1 hypointensities in the brainstem, which were not seen on 3.0T MRI. This corresponded to neuropathologic detection of axonal injury in the autopsy case. Conclusion: Our findings suggest more widespread perivascular inflammation and postinflammatory axonal injury in patients with CLIPPERS. PMID:27144217

  12. [Ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, K; Nakagawa, S; Mikami, K; Watanabe, H; Sonoda, Y; Abe, T; Fujii, H

    1994-02-01

    This is a report of 45-year-old man with advanced nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (stage IIIB2: embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, seminoma), who had relapse after PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine, bleomycin) chemotherapy. Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were taken by two consecutive apheresis using a CS-3000 blood separator after high-dose chemotherapy of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. In total, 6.4 x 10(5)/kg of granulocytic cells (CFU-GM) was collected. He was treated with ultra high-dose chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (800 mg/m2), etoposide (1,000 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) from day 1, followed by peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation (PBSCT) on day 9. We transfused 2.4 x 10(5)/kg CFU-GM, which was enough number of stem cells for safe PBSCT. No serious side effects or complications were encountered. The patient achieved partial remission for more than two months. However, he died of respiratory dysfunction caused by metastatic lung cancer 5 months later. It was thought that ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT might be a new therapy for refractory testicular cancer.

  13. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ≳ 10 λ, where λ is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  14. Advanced modeling of active control of fan noise for ultra high bypass turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Florence Vanel

    1999-11-01

    An advanced model of active control of fan noise for ultra high bypass turbofan engines has been developed. This model is based on a boundary integral equation method and simulates the propagation, radiation and control of the noise generated by an engine fan surrounded by a duct of finite length and cylindrical shape, placed in a uniform flow. Control sources, modeled by point monopoles placed along the wall of the engine inlet or outlet duct, inject anti-noise into the duct to destructively interfere with the sound field generated by the fan. The duct inner wall can be lined or rigid. Unlike current methods, reflection from the duct openings is taken into account, as well as the presence of the evanescent modes. Forward, as well as backward (i.e., from the rear of the engine), external radiation is computed. The development of analytical expressions for the sound field resulting from both the fan loading noise and the control sources is presented. Two fan models are described. The first model uses spinning line sources with radially distributed strength to model the loading force that the fan blades exert on the medium. The second model uses radial arrays of spinning point dipoles to simulate the generation of fan modes of specific modal amplitudes. It is shown that these fan models can provide a reasonable approximation of actual engine fan noise in the instance when the modal amplitude of the propagating modes or the loading force distribution on the fan blades, is known. Sample cases of active noise control are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the model. The results from these tests indicate that this model (1)is conducive to more realistic studies of active control of fan noise on ultra high bypass turbofan engines because it accounts for the presence of evanescent modes and for interference between inlet and outlet radiation, which were shown to have some impact on the performance of the active control system; (2)is very useful because it allows

  15. Discharging a Li-S battery with ultra-high sulphur content cathode using a redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi Ryong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are under intense research due to the high specific capacity and low cost. However, several problems limit their commercialization. One of them is the insulating nature of sulphur, which necessitates a large amount of conductive agent and binder in the cathode, reducing the effective sulphur load as well as the energy density. Here we introduce a redox mediator, cobaltocene, which acts as an electron transfer agent between the conductive surface and the polysulphides in the electrolyte. We confirmed that cobaltocene could effectively convert polysulphides to Li2S using scanning electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and in-situ X-ray diffraction studies. This redox mediator enabled excellent electrochemical performance in a cathode with ultra-high sulphur content (80 wt%). It delivered 400 mAh g(-1)cathode capacity after 50 cycles, which is equivalent to 800 mAh g(-1)S in a typical cathode with 50 wt% sulphur. Furthermore, the volumetric capacity was also dramatically improved. PMID:27573528

  16. Discharging a Li-S battery with ultra-high sulphur content cathode using a redox mediator

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwi Ryong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are under intense research due to the high specific capacity and low cost. However, several problems limit their commercialization. One of them is the insulating nature of sulphur, which necessitates a large amount of conductive agent and binder in the cathode, reducing the effective sulphur load as well as the energy density. Here we introduce a redox mediator, cobaltocene, which acts as an electron transfer agent between the conductive surface and the polysulphides in the electrolyte. We confirmed that cobaltocene could effectively convert polysulphides to Li2S using scanning electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and in-situ X-ray diffraction studies. This redox mediator enabled excellent electrochemical performance in a cathode with ultra-high sulphur content (80 wt%). It delivered 400 mAh g−1cathode capacity after 50 cycles, which is equivalent to 800 mAh g−1S in a typical cathode with 50 wt% sulphur. Furthermore, the volumetric capacity was also dramatically improved. PMID:27573528

  17. Design and analysis of a direct-drive wind power generator with ultra-high torque density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Linni; Shi, Yujun; Wei, Jin; Zheng, Yanchong

    2015-05-01

    In order to get rid of the nuisances caused by mechanical gearboxes, generators with low rated speed, which can be directly connected to wind turbines, are attracting increasing attention. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new direct-drive wind power generator (DWPG), which can offer ultra-high torque density. First, magnetic gear (MG) is integrated to achieve non-contact torque transmission and speed variation. Second, armature windings are engaged to achieve electromechanical energy conversion. Interior permanent magnet (PM) design on the inner rotor is adopted to boost the torque transmission capability of the integrated MG. Nevertheless, due to lack of back iron on the stator, the proposed generator does not exhibit prominent salient feature, which usually exists in traditional interior PM (IPM) machines. This makes it with good controllability and high power factor as the surface-mounted permanent magnet machines. The performance is analyzed using finite element method. Investigation on the magnetic field harmonics demonstrates that the permanent-magnetic torque offered by the MG can work together with the electromagnetic torque offered by the armature windings to balance the driving torque captured by the wind turbine. This allows the proposed generator having the potential to offer even higher torque density than its integrated MG.

  18. Discharging a Li-S battery with ultra-high sulphur content cathode using a redox mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwi Ryong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are under intense research due to the high specific capacity and low cost. However, several problems limit their commercialization. One of them is the insulating nature of sulphur, which necessitates a large amount of conductive agent and binder in the cathode, reducing the effective sulphur load as well as the energy density. Here we introduce a redox mediator, cobaltocene, which acts as an electron transfer agent between the conductive surface and the polysulphides in the electrolyte. We confirmed that cobaltocene could effectively convert polysulphides to Li2S using scanning electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and in-situ X-ray diffraction studies. This redox mediator enabled excellent electrochemical performance in a cathode with ultra-high sulphur content (80 wt%). It delivered 400 mAh g-1cathode capacity after 50 cycles, which is equivalent to 800 mAh g-1S in a typical cathode with 50 wt% sulphur. Furthermore, the volumetric capacity was also dramatically improved.

  19. PREFACE: Rheology and Elasticity Studies at Ultra-High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haozhe; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2006-06-01

    One of the major goals of geophysical research is to understand deformation in the deep Earth. The COMPRES (Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences) workshop on `Rheology and Elasticity Studies at Ultra-High Pressures and Temperatures' was held on 21-23 October 2005 at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, organized by Haozhe Liu, Hans-Rudolf Wenk and Thomas S Duffy, and provided an opportunity to assemble more than 50 scientists from six countries. Experts in diamond anvil cell (DAC) design, large-volume high-pressure apparatus and data analysis defined the current state of ultra-high pressure deformation studies and explored initiatives to push the technological frontier. The DAC, when used in radial diffraction geometry, emerges as a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity and elasticity of materials at high pressures. More information regarding this workshop can be found at the website: http://www.hpcat.aps.anl.gov/Hliu/Workshop/Index1.htm. In this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 17 manuscripts review the state-of-the-art and we hope they will stimulate researchers to participate in this field and take it forward to a new level. A major incentive for high-pressure research has been the need of geophysicists to understand composition, physical properties and deformation in the deep Earth in order to interpret the macroscopically observed seismic anisotropy. In the mantle and core, materials deform largely in a ductile manner at low stresses and strain rates. From observational inferences and experiments at lower pressures, it is considered plausible that deformation occurs in the field of dislocation creep or diffusion creep and deformation mechanisms depend in a complex way on stress, strain rate, pressure, temperature, grain size and hydration state. With novel apparatus such as the rotational Drickamer press or deformation DIA (D-DIA) multianvil apparatus, large volumes (approximately 10

  20. Quantitative investigative analysis of tumour separability in the prostate gland using ultra-high b-value computed diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Cameron, Andrew; Wong, Alexander; Haider, Masoom A

    2012-01-01

    High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging is a promising approach for diagnosing and localizing cancer in the prostate gland. However, ultra-high b-value imaging is difficult to achieve at a high signal-to-noise ratio due to hardware limitations. An alternative approach being recently discussed is computed diffusion-weighted imaging, which allows for estimation of ultra-high b-value images from a set of diffusion-weighted acquisitions with different magnetic gradient strengths. This paper presents a quantitative investigative analysis of the improvement in tumour separability in the prostate gland from using ultra-high b-value computed diffusion-weighted imaging. The analysis computes ultra-high b-value images for six patient cases and investigates the separability of the tumour from the normal prostate gland. Based on quantitative metrics such as expected probability of classification error and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), it was found that the use of ultra-high computed diffusion-weighted imaging may significantly improve tumour separability, with a b-value around 3000 providing optimal separability.

  1. Enhanced quality of epitaxial AlN thin films on 6H-SiC by ultra-high-vacuum ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungasmita, S.; Birch, J.; Persson, P. O. A.˚.; Järrendahl, K.; Hultman, L.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial AlN thin films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates by ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The low-energy ion-assisted growth (Ei=17-27 eV) results in an increasing surface mobility, promoting domain-boundary annihilation and epitaxial growth. Domain widths increased from 42 to 135 nm and strained-layer epitaxy was observed in this energy range. For Ei>52 eV, an amorphous interfacial layer of AlN was formed on the SiC, which inhibited epitaxial growth. Using UHV condition and very pure nitrogen sputtering gas yielded reduced impurity levels in the films (O: 3.5×1018cm-3). Analysis techniques used in this study are in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section high-resolution electron microscopy.

  2. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; Wunderink, L.; Nieboer, R.; Aleman, A.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR). Methods A literature search (1970-July 2015) was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms ‘social cognition’, ‘theory of mind’, ‘emotion recognition’, ‘attributional style’, ‘social knowledge’, ‘social perception’, ‘empathy’, ‘at risk mental state’, ‘clinical high risk’, ‘psychosis prodrome’, and ‘ultra high risk’. The pooled effect size (Cohen’s D) and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used. Results Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38–0.65). No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM). Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces

  3. Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. A strength of up to 2 GPa at a fracture strain of 15% can be attained. Welding of these materials became apparently a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply an efficient heat control. For two application cases, production of tailored blanks in as-rolled condition and welding in assembly in hot stamped conditions, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown in metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KSII concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method. For the case of assembly also joining with deep drawing and manganese boron steel was taken into consideration. The strength of the joint is determined by the weaker partner but can benefit from its ductility.

  4. Z: A Fast Pulsed Power Generator for Ultra-High Magnetic Field Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, J.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Bernard, M.A.; Hall, C.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.

    1998-11-04

    Advances in fast, pulsed-power technologies have resulted in the development of very high current drivers that have current rise times - 100 ns. The largest such pulsed power drive r today is the new Z accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Z is capable of delivering more than 20 MA with a time-to-peak of 105 ns to low inductance (- 1 nH)loads. Such large drivers are capable of directly generating magnetic fields approaching 3 kT in small, 1 -cm3, volumes. In addition to direct field generation, Z can be used to compress an applied, axial seed field with a plasma. Flux compression scheme~: are not new and are, in fact, the basis of all explosive flux-compression generators but we propose the use of plasma armatures rather than solid, conducting armatures. We will present experimental results from the Z accelerator in which magnetic fields - 2 kT are generated and measured with several diagnostics. Issues such as energy loss in solid conductors and dynamic response of current-carrying conductors to very large magnetic fields will be reviewed in context with Z experiments. We will describe planned flux-compression experiments that are expected to create the highest-magnitude uniform-field volumes yet attained in the laboratory.

  5. Effects of the ultra-high pressure on structure and α-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharide from Astragalus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Luo, You; Dong, Guo-Ling; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Jing; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-06-01

    A novel homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (APS) was extracted from Astragalus by hot water and purified by Sephadex G-100 and G-75 column. Its molecular weight was 693kDa. APS and APS with ultra-high pressure treatment exhibited significant inhibitory abilities on a-glucosidase, inhibition rate from high to low in order was 400MPa-APS, 300MPa-APS, 500MPa-APS and APS. The inhibition ​percentage of 400MPa-APS (1.5mg/mL) was 49% (max.). This suggested that the inhibitory activity of APS on a-glucosidase was improved by ultra-high pressure treatment. FT-IR, SEM, CD spectra, atomic force microscope and Congo red test analysis of APS and 400MPa-APS showed ultra-high pressure treatment didn't change the preliminary structure but had an effect on its advanced structure. PMID:26993530

  6. Examination of the vocal fold activity using ultra high speed filming: archival recordings by Paul Moore and Hans von Leden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Vaughan, Laura

    2012-02-01

    We present excerpts from three archival ultra high-speed films on the function of the human larynx by Paul Moore, Ph. D. and Hans von Leden, M.D. The films received two awards for best scientific cinematography from two different international film festivals in Italy in 1957. These films present ultra high-speed cinematographic accounts on the workings of the human vocal folds during various phonatory and ventilatory activities. These films were captured at speeds of 2000 to 5000 frames-per-second via an ingeniously arranged laryngeal mirror viewing device. Such speeds were revolutionary six decades ago. Technology currently allows us to film laryngeal behavior at speeds of up to 16,000 frames-per-second using digital recordings. However, the ultra high-speed films by Paul and Hans remain a beacon for anyone sincerely interested in how the smallest instrument of sound production works, and how it is subjected to failure by intrinsic or extrinsic factors.

  7. Effects of the ultra-high pressure on structure and α-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharide from Astragalus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Luo, You; Dong, Guo-Ling; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Jing; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-06-01

    A novel homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (APS) was extracted from Astragalus by hot water and purified by Sephadex G-100 and G-75 column. Its molecular weight was 693kDa. APS and APS with ultra-high pressure treatment exhibited significant inhibitory abilities on a-glucosidase, inhibition rate from high to low in order was 400MPa-APS, 300MPa-APS, 500MPa-APS and APS. The inhibition ​percentage of 400MPa-APS (1.5mg/mL) was 49% (max.). This suggested that the inhibitory activity of APS on a-glucosidase was improved by ultra-high pressure treatment. FT-IR, SEM, CD spectra, atomic force microscope and Congo red test analysis of APS and 400MPa-APS showed ultra-high pressure treatment didn't change the preliminary structure but had an effect on its advanced structure.

  8. Detection of bacterial spoilage in some fruit flavoured ultra-high temperature milks in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Y B

    1986-01-01

    Statistical analyses of pH measurements and microbiological methods have been employed to monitor microbial activity (spoilage) in a brand of non-refrigerated mango and vanilla flavoured ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk drinks in Nigeria. The mango flavoured milks were more sensitive to changes in storage conditions than was the vanilla flavoured milks. The aerobic bacterial flora in the spoiled flavoured milks was dominated by Gram-positive cocci, both catalase-positive and catalase-negative types. Coliforms and pseudomonads were also detected. The importance of this study to the methods for detecting spoilage in quality control and to the storage conditions of such products in the tropics is discussed.

  9. An ultra-high Q silicon compound cantilever resonator for Young's modulus measurements.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Thomas H; Liu, Xiao

    2013-07-01

    We describe the design of ultra-high Q mechanical cantilever resonators, fabricated from single-crystal silicon wafers. The mechanical resonance mode at f ≈ 8.5 kHz achieves a background damping of Q(-1)

  10. A 20-GHz ultra-high-speed InP DHBT comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Huang; Lei, Zhou; Yongbo, Su; Zhi, Jin

    2012-07-01

    An ultra-high-speed, master-slave voltage comparator circuit is designed and fabricated using InP/GaInAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology with a current gain cutoff frequency of 170 GHz. The complete chip die, including bondpads, is 0.75 × 1.04 mm2. It consumes 440 mW from a single -4 V power supply, excluding the clock part. 77 DHBTs have been used in the monolithic comparator. A full Nyquist test has been performed up to 20 GHz, with the input sensitivity varying from 6 mV at 10 GHz to 16 mV at 20 GHz. To our knowledge, this is the first InP based integrated circuit including more than 70 DHBTs, and it achieves the highest sampling rate found on the mainland of China.

  11. Weld Metallurgy and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Ultra-high Strength Steel Dissimilar Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Martin; Lindner, Stefan; Monfort, Damien; Petring, Dirk

    The increasing demand for ultra-high strength steels in vehicle manufacturing leads to the application of new alloys. This poses a challenge on joining especially by fusion welding. A stainless high manganese steel sheet with excellent strength and deformation properties stands in the centre of the development. Similar and dissimilar welds with a metastable austenitic steel and a hot formed martensitic stainless steel were performed. An investigation of the mixing effects on the local microstructure and the hardness delivers the metallurgical features of the welds. Despite of carbon contents above 0.4 wt.% none of the welds have shown cracks. Mechanical properties drawn from tensile tests deliver high breaking forces enabling a high stiffness of the joints. The results show the potential for the application of laser beam welding for joining in assembly of structural parts.

  12. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of chiral organic compounds of ultra-high purity of >99% ee

    PubMed Central

    NEGISHI, Ei-ichi; XU, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of Zr-catalyzed carboalumination of alkynes in 1978, we sought expansion of the scope of this reaction so as to develop its alkene version for catalytic asymmetric C–C bond formation, namely the ZACA (Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes). However, this seemingly easy task proved to be quite challenging. The ZACA reaction was finally discovered in 1995 by suppressing three competitive side reactions, i.e., (i) cyclic carbometalation, (ii) β-H transfer hydrometalation, and (iii) alkene polymerization. The ZACA reaction has been used to significantly modernize and improve syntheses of various natural products including deoxypolypropionates and isoprenoids. This review focuses on our recent progress on the development of ZACA–lipase-catalyzed acetylation–transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling processes for highly efficient and enantioselective syntheses of a wide range of chiral organic compounds with ultra-high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26460317

  13. (Ultra) high pressure homogenization for continuous high pressure sterilization of pumpable foods - a review.

    PubMed

    Georget, Erika; Miller, Brittany; Callanan, Michael; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for the food industry, which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to a reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternatives are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400 MPa and thus, opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra) high pressure homogenization (U)HPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet, and valve temperatures). This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work.

  14. Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2011-09-01

    High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

  15. Application of porcelain enamel as an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible electrical insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, C.; Hseuh, H.; Mapes, M.

    2000-07-01

    Many accelerator vacuum system components require electrical insulation internal to the vacuum system. Some accelerator components at Brookhaven National Laboratory are installed in ultra-high-vacuum systems which require the insulation to have excellent vacuum characteristics, be radiation resistant, and be able to withstand high temperatures when used on baked systems. Porcelain enamel satisfies all these requirements. This article describes the process and application of coating metal parts with porcelain enamel to provide electrical insulation. The mechanical and vacuum testing of Marman flanges coated with porcelain and using metal Helicoflex seals to form a zero-length electrical break are detailed. The use of porcelain enameled parts is attractive since it can be done quickly, is inexpensive and environmentally safe, and most of all satisfies stringent vacuum system requirements. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  16. Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers via the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinwei; Mai, Yongyi; Zhang, Yumei

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization process was proposed to improve the poor interfacial bonding property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. The polymerization was initiated by dormant semipinacol (SP) groups and carried out in a thin liquid layer. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and acryl amide (AM) were grafted stepwise onto the surface of UHMWPE fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting. The analysis result of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) indicated the structure of grafted chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the apparent morphology changing, and the grafted layers were observed. Interfacial shear stress (IFSS) test of the modified fibers showed an extensively improved interfacial bonding property. The active groups grafted onto the fibers would supply enough anchor points for the chemical bonding with various resins or further reactions.

  17. Multidetection of antibiotics in liver tissue by ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-22

    A multiresidue quantitative screening method covering 39 antibiotics from 7 different families by ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is described. Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, penicillins and chloramphenicol are simultaneously detected in liver tissue. A simple sample treatment method consisting of extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) cartridge was developed. The methodology was validated, in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC, by evaluating the following required parameters: decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), specificity, repeatability and reproducibility. The precision, in terms of the relative standard deviation, was under 22% for all of the compounds, and the recoveries were between 80% and 110%. The CCα and CCβ were determined according to the maximum residue limit (MRL) or the minimum required performance limit (MRPL), when established.

  18. Note: A simple sample transfer alignment for ultra-high vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamtögl, A.; Carter, E. A.; Ward, D. J.; Avidor, N.; Kole, P. R.; Jardine, A. P.; Allison, W.

    2016-06-01

    The alignment of ultra-high-vacuum sample transfer systems can be problematic when there is no direct line of sight to assist the user. We present the design of a simple and cheap system which greatly simplifies the alignment of sample transfer devices. Our method is based on the adaptation of a commercial digital camera which provides live views from within the vacuum chamber. The images of the camera are further processed using an image recognition and processing code which determines any misalignments and reports them to the user. Installation has proven to be extremely useful in order to align the sample with respect to the transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the alignment software can be easily adapted for other systems.

  19. Note: mounting ultra-high vacuum windows with low stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Solmeyer, Neal; Zhu, Kunyan; Weiss, David S

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a way to mount ultra-high vacuum windows onto standard ConFlat(®) vacuum systems with very low stress-induced birefringence. Each window is sealed to a stainless steel flange with a compressed indium wire, and that flange is connected to a vacuum chamber with another indium seal. We find that deformation of a standard ConFlat flange during indium sealing dominates the stress on the window, so an extra-rigid flange is needed for minimal birefringence. With this mounting scheme, the typical residual birefringence is Δn = 2.3 × 10(-7) and is unchanged by a 120 °C bake.

  20. (Ultra) High Pressure Homogenization for Continuous High Pressure Sterilization of Pumpable Foods – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Georget, Erika; Miller, Brittany; Callanan, Michael; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for the food industry, which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to a reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternatives are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400 MPa and thus, opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra) high pressure homogenization (U)HPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet, and valve temperatures). This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work. PMID:25988118

  1. Note: Mounting ultra-high vacuum windows with low stress-induced birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmeyer, Neal; Zhu, Kunyan; Weiss, David S.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a way to mount ultra-high vacuum windows onto standard ConFlat® vacuum systems with very low stress-induced birefringence. Each window is sealed to a stainless steel flange with a compressed indium wire, and that flange is connected to a vacuum chamber with another indium seal. We find that deformation of a standard ConFlat flange during indium sealing dominates the stress on the window, so an extra-rigid flange is needed for minimal birefringence. With this mounting scheme, the typical residual birefringence is Δn = 2.3 × 10-7 and is unchanged by a 120 °C bake.

  2. Droplet-based microfluidics platform for ultra-high-throughput bioprospecting of cellulolytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Najah, Majdi; Calbrix, Raphaël; Mahendra-Wijaya, I Putu; Beneyton, Thomas; Griffiths, Andrew D; Drevelle, Antoine

    2014-12-18

    Discovery of microorganisms producing enzymes that can efficiently hydrolyze cellulosic biomass is of great importance for biofuel production. To date, however, only a miniscule fraction of natural biodiversity has been tested because of the relatively low throughput of screening systems and their limitation to screening only culturable microorganisms. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic system that allowed the screening of over 100,000 cells in less than 20 min. Uncultured bacteria from a wheat stubble field were screened directly by compartmentalization of single bacteria in 20 pl droplets containing a fluorogenic cellobiohydrolase substrate. Sorting of droplets based on cellobiohydrolase activity resulted in a bacterial population with 17- and 7-fold higher cellobiohydrolase and endogluconase activity, respectively, and very different taxonomic diversity than when selected for growth on medium containing starch and carboxymethylcellulose as carbon source. PMID:25525991

  3. Mechanical flip-chip for ultra-high electron mobility devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-09-22

    In this study, electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. This approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.

  4. Mechanical Flip-Chip for Ultra-High Electron Mobility Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. This approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility. PMID:26391400

  5. The nano-mechanical signature of Ultra High Performance Concrete by statistical nanoindentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sorelli, Luca Constantinides, Georgios; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Toutlemonde, Francois

    2008-12-15

    Advances in engineering the microstructure of cementitious composites have led to the development of fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concretes (UHPC). The scope of this paper is twofold, first to characterize the nano-mechanical properties of the phases governing the UHPC microstructure by means of a novel statistical nanoindentation technique; then to upscale those nanoscale properties, by means of continuum micromechanics, to the macroscopic scale of engineering applications. In particular, a combined investigation of nanoindentation, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) indicates that the fiber-matrix transition zone is relatively defect free. On this basis, a four-level multiscale model with defect free interfaces allows to accurately determine the composite stiffness from the measured nano-mechanical properties. Besides evidencing the dominant role of high density calcium silicate hydrates and the stiffening effect of residual clinker, the suggested model may become a useful tool for further optimizing cement-based engineered composites.

  6. Friction, wear, transfer and wear surface morphology of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25 C in a 50-percent-relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440 C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears to be the predominant wear mechanism; but after long sliding distances at slow speeds, heavy ridges of transfer result which can induce fatigue-like wear on the UHMWPE disk wear track. In one instance, abrasive wear to the metallic pin was observed. This was caused by a hard particle embedded in the UHMWPE disk wear track.

  7. Isotopic Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel with an Ultra-High Rate HPGe Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2014-06-06

    A longstanding challenge is the assay of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Determining the isotopic content of SNF requires gamma-ray spectroscopy. PNNL has developed new digital filtering and analysis techniques to produce an ultra high-rate gamma-ray spectrometer from a standard coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystal. This ~40% efficient detector has been operated for SNF measurements at a throughput of about 400k gamma-ray counts per second (kcps) at an input rate of 1.3 Mcps. Optimized filtering algorithms preserve the spectroscopic capability of the system even at these high rates. This talk will present the results of a SNF measurement with aged SNF pellets at PNNL’s Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, first results with a FPGA front end processor capable of processing the data in real time, and the development path toward a multi-element system to assay fuel assemblies.

  8. Influence of amorphous silica on the hydration in ultra-high performance concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Oertel, Tina; Helbig, Uta; Hutter, Frank; Kletti, Holger; Sextl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Amorphous silica particles (silica) are used in ultra-high performance concretes to densify the microstructure and accelerate the clinker hydration. It is still unclear whether silica predominantly increases the surface for the nucleation of C–S–H phases or dissolves and reacts pozzolanically. Furthermore, varying types of silica may have different and time dependent effects on the clinker hydration. The effects of different silica types were compared in this study by calorimetric analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ X-ray diffraction and compressive strength measurements. The silica component was silica fume, pyrogenic silica or silica synthesized by a wet-chemical route (Stoeber particles). Water-to-cement ratios were 0.23. Differences are observed between the silica for short reaction times (up to 3 days). Results indicate that silica fume and pyrogenic silica accelerate alite hydration by increasing the surface for nucleation of C–S–H phases whereas Stoeber particles show no accelerating effect.

  9. Tribological behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in a hip joint simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Raffi, N.; Kanagarajan, D.; Srinivasan, V.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper effects of various injection molding parameters on tribological properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were investigated. The tribological properties like coefficient of friction and wear rate were obtained from the experimental results of hip simulator which was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant in this study. In addition, the hardness of the specimen was also investigated as well. The injection molding parameters that varied for this study are melt temperature, injection velocity and compaction time. The results show that contact loads and melt temperature were mostly influenced the tribological behavior of UHMWPE. A wear mechanism map was developed to study the dominant wear mechanism that influences the wear behavior of UHMWPE. SEM was employed to study the worn out morphologies of UHMWPE. The dominant wear mechanisms that are dominated through our study are ironing, scratching, ploughing, plastic deformation, and fatigue wear.

  10. Thermal Behaviour of W+C Ion Implanted Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.

    2009-03-10

    The aim of this work was to examine thermal behavior of the surface modified Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE ) in order to understand the effect of ion implantation on the properties of this polymer which is widely used especially for biomedical applications. UHMWPE samples were Tungsten and Carbon (W+C) hybrid ion implanted by using Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique with a fluence of 10 17 ions/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface-treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Analysis, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrometry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). This study has shown that ion implantation represents a powerful tool on modifying thermal properties of UHMWPE surfaces. This combination of properties can make implanted UHMWPE a preferred material for biomedical applications.

  11. Droplet-based microfluidics platform for ultra-high-throughput bioprospecting of cellulolytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Najah, Majdi; Calbrix, Raphaël; Mahendra-Wijaya, I Putu; Beneyton, Thomas; Griffiths, Andrew D; Drevelle, Antoine

    2014-12-18

    Discovery of microorganisms producing enzymes that can efficiently hydrolyze cellulosic biomass is of great importance for biofuel production. To date, however, only a miniscule fraction of natural biodiversity has been tested because of the relatively low throughput of screening systems and their limitation to screening only culturable microorganisms. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic system that allowed the screening of over 100,000 cells in less than 20 min. Uncultured bacteria from a wheat stubble field were screened directly by compartmentalization of single bacteria in 20 pl droplets containing a fluorogenic cellobiohydrolase substrate. Sorting of droplets based on cellobiohydrolase activity resulted in a bacterial population with 17- and 7-fold higher cellobiohydrolase and endogluconase activity, respectively, and very different taxonomic diversity than when selected for growth on medium containing starch and carboxymethylcellulose as carbon source.

  12. Ultra-high crystallinity millimeter long multiwall carbon nanotubes fabricated by mechanothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manafi, S. A.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Soltanmoradi, A.

    2012-09-01

    In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ultra-high crystalline structure have been prepared by mechanothermal (MT) method. The novel super nanostructure is introduced for the first time as an extraordinary fullerene-carbon based material which, due to its special electronic and mechanical properties, can be used to construct unique building blocks for nanoengineering. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder has been obtained by mechanical activation under Ar atmosphere. Finally, the mechanically activated product is heat-treated at 1350 °C for 3-4 h under an Ar gas flow. However, the crystallite size and crystallinity degree of the MWCNTs increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

  13. Ultra-high resolution filter and optical field modulator based on a surface plasmon polariton.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Wang, Hongqing

    2016-05-15

    A new filter structure and optical field modulator with ultra-high resolution based on plasmonic nano-cavity resonators is proposed and numerically investigated. The structure consists of a square nano-cavity resonator connected with several waveguides. All waveguides and cavity are etched on a silver film whose size is 1.1×0.75  μm. Compared with traditional filters, the FWHM (full width at half-maximum) of this structure's spectrum curve can be less than 7 nm; namely, the resolution has been greatly improved. The structure also presents the feature of an optical field modulator when both inputs are working simultaneously, and it provides a promising way to design and manufacture future optical logical device. PMID:27176990

  14. The design and structure of the ultra-high vacuum system of HIRFL-CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Jun; Zhan, Wenlong

    2001-12-01

    To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange of very heavy ions with the residual gas molecules, ultra-high vacuum of 6×10-9 Pa is required for the HIRFL-CSR facility, which is the lowest pressure in a large vacuum system in China up to now. The total length of the system is about 450 meters and the total inner surface is about 263 square meters. More than 500 standard vacuum components are needed and more than 400 different chambers have to be manufactured. A lot of researches have been down to try to find out the experiences to obtain the required pressure. In this article the following contents are described: the layout of the system; the structure of main vacuum chambers; the treatment metherd to reduce the outgassing rate of the chamber wall surfaces; vacuum equipment; pressure distribution and the progress of the system.

  15. Temperature independent torsion sensor based on modal interferometry in ultra high-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazão, Orlando; Jesus, C.; Baptista, José M.; Santos, José L.; Roy, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    A fiber-optic sensor for torsion measurement, based on a two-LP-mode operation in ultra high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is described. The structure of the photonic crystal fiber presents two large asymmetric holes adjacent to the core fiber. When linearly polarized light is injected in x or in y directions, respectively, two different interferometers can be obtained. In one of these cases, as torsion is applied to the ultra Hi-Bi PCF a beat between the two interferometers is formed due to the simultaneous excitation of the two polarization states. The detection technique to read the torsion sensor is based on the analysis of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which is an alternative and simple solution. The sensor exhibited reduced sensitivity to temperature and also to strain.

  16. Ultra high pressure homogenization of almond milk: Physico-chemical and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Briviba, Karlis; Gräf, Volker; Walz, Elke; Guamis, Buenaventura; Butz, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) of food is a processing technology to improve food safety and shelf life. However, despite very short treatment duration UHPH may lead to changes in chemical and physico-chemical properties including formation of submicro-/nano-particles. This may affect the physiological or toxicological properties of the treated food. Here, we treated raw almond milk (AMr) with UHPH at 350 MPa and 85 °C (AMuhph), known able to inactivate food relevant microorganisms. UHPH-treatment led to about a threefold increase of the mean particle size. There was a nearly complete loss of antigenicity investigated by ELISA for determination of traces of almond proteins. The content of vitamins B1 and B2 remained unchanged, while free exposed sulfhydryl groups decreased. Despite of observed modifications, UHPH-treatment of almond milk did not cause any changes in cyto- or genotoxic effects and antigenotoxic capability of protecting intestinal cells against iron induced DNA damage in vitro.

  17. Silicon epitaxy using tetrasilane at low temperatures in ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbun, Ramsey; Hart, John; Hickey, Ryan; Ghosh, Ayana; Fernando, Nalin; Zollner, Stefan; Adam, Thomas N.; Kolodzey, James

    2016-06-01

    The deposition of silicon using tetrasilane as a vapor precursor is described for an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition tool. The growth rates and morphology of the Si epitaxial layers over a range of temperatures and pressures are presented. The layers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Atomic Force Microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Based on this characterization, high quality single crystal silicon epitaxy was observed. Tetrasilane was found to produce higher growth rates relative to lower order silanes, with the ability to deposit crystalline Si at low temperatures (T=400 °C), with significant amorphous growth and reactivity measured as low as 325 °C, indicating the suitability of tetrasilane for low temperature chemical vapor deposition such as for SiGeSn alloys.

  18. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Oliver, Rachel A.; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia; Robertson, John

    2013-08-01

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 μm and a mass density of 1.6 g cm-3. This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ˜22 kΩ), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors.

  19. In vitro and in vivo imaging of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene orbital implants.

    PubMed

    Olszycki, Marek; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Elgalal, Marcin; Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) for visualization of an orbital alloplastic prosthesis made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) both in vitro and in vivo. A study of 15 test implants from UHMW-PE visualized in vitro in CT and MRI and an in vivo visualization in a patient who suffered from orbital injury and underwent reconstructive surgery is presented. The postsurgery MRI showed the UHMW-PE material clearly, with no significant artifacts. The surrounding tissues could be satisfactorily evaluated. The CT scans did not present the graft material. Both techniques were sufficient tools for in vitro evaluation of the shape and measurement of the prosthesis.

  20. Equal channel angular extrusion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Steven D; Engler, Alexander J; Carlson, Evan M; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty, is subject to material property tradeoffs associated with conventional processing techniques. For orthopaedic applications, radiation-induced cross-linking is used to enhance the wear resistance of the material, but cross-linking also restricts relative chain movement in the amorphous regions and hence decreases toughness. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is proposed as a novel mechanism by which entanglements can be introduced to the polymer bulk during consolidation, with the aim of imparting the same tribological benefits of conventional processing without complete inhibition of chain motion. ECAE processing at temperatures near the crystalline melt for UHMWPE produces (1) increased entanglements compared to control materials; (2) increasing entanglements with increasing temperature; and (3) mechanical properties between values for untreated polyethylene and for cross-linked polyethylene. These results support additional research in ECAE-processed UHMWPE for joint arthroplasty applications.

  1. An ultra-high input impedance ECG amplifier for long-term monitoring of athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Gaetano; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Ruffo, Mariano; Romano, Maria; Calvo, Rafael A; Jin, Craig; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    We present a new, low-power electrocardiogram (ECG) recording system with an ultra-high input impedance that enables the use of long-lasting, dry electrodes. The system incorporates a low-power Bluetooth module for wireless connectivity and is designed to be suitable for long-term monitoring during daily activities. The new system using dry electrodes was compared with a clinically approved ECG reference system using gelled Ag/AgCl electrodes and performance was found to be equivalent. In addition, the system was used to monitor an athlete during several physical tasks, and a good quality ECG was obtained in all cases, including when the athlete was totally submerged in fresh water. PMID:22915916

  2. Universal nonlinear scattering in ultra-high Q whispering gallery-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Dudley, John M; Chembo, Yanne K

    2016-06-27

    Universal nonlinear scattering processes such as Brillouin, Raman, and Kerr effects are fundamental light-matter interactions of particular theoretical and experimental importance. They originate from the interaction of a laser field with an optical medium at the lattice, molecular, and electronic scale, respectively. These nonlinear effects are generally observed and analyzed separately, because they do not often occur concomitantly. In this article, we report the simultaneous excitation of these three fundamental interactions in mm-size ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators under continuous wave pumping. Universal nonlinear scattering is demonstrated in barium fluoride and strontium fluoride, separately. We further propose a unified theory based on a spatiotemporal formalism for the understanding of this phenomenology. PMID:27410640

  3. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form.

  4. Status of local oscillators for operating ultra-high resolution frequency discriminators as frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.; Mattison, E. M.; Levine, M. W.; Walsworth, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of new improved frequency standards based on new ultra-high-resolution frequency discriminators requires high stability local, or 'flywheel' oscillators. We review the spectral density of phase fluctuations of existing flywheel oscillators and the related time domain frequency stability of new and proposed cryogenically cooled oscillators suitable for this application. Presently used devices include the quartz crystal oscillator, the room-temperature actively oscillating atomic hydrogen (H) maser, and the superconducting maser oscillator. Future devices include the cryogenic H-maser and other cryogenic devices using resonators of superconducting metal or solid crystalline sapphire. The relation of the phase spectral density of these devices to the characteristics of present and proposed frequency discriminators based on trapped cooled ions and cold atoms is discussed in terms of their operation as frequency standards.

  5. In vitro and in vivo imaging of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene orbital implants.

    PubMed

    Olszycki, Marek; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Elgalal, Marcin; Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) for visualization of an orbital alloplastic prosthesis made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) both in vitro and in vivo. A study of 15 test implants from UHMW-PE visualized in vitro in CT and MRI and an in vivo visualization in a patient who suffered from orbital injury and underwent reconstructive surgery is presented. The postsurgery MRI showed the UHMW-PE material clearly, with no significant artifacts. The surrounding tissues could be satisfactorily evaluated. The CT scans did not present the graft material. Both techniques were sufficient tools for in vitro evaluation of the shape and measurement of the prosthesis. PMID:25830408

  6. Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion using ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene cable.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Ikuho; Arai, Yasuhisa; Tsuji, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masaki; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2005-10-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) cable system in atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion through the clinical results of 10 postoperative patients with atlantoaxial subluxation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Among them, one patient with only one screw placed owing to an anomalous vertebral artery had the correction loss of the 3-mm atlas-dens interval after surgery. Another patient had a second operation to remove the screw and cable after 2 years 11 months because a unilateral transarticular screw had come to protrude through the lateral mass of the atlas ventrally. All patients had achieved C1-C2 osseous fusion without any complications associated with this cable system. The UHMW-PE cable is a very useful material as sublaminar wiring in atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion. PMID:16189448

  7. Analyses of acute kidney injury biomarkers by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Ali, Badreldin H; ALOthman, Zeid A; Ali, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed acute kidney injury biomarkers are very important for the early and timely detection of kidney diseases. This review contains details of the analyses of several acute kidney injury biomarkers using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine and plasma samples. In this review we attempt to discuss some aspects of the types of the biomarkers, patents, sample preparation, and the analyses. Besides, efforts were also made to discuss the possible uses of superficially porous (core-shell) columns in traditional and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography instruments. Additionally, the challenges and the future prospects are also highlighted. The present review will be useful for the academicians, scientists, and clinicians for the early detection of acute kidney injury biomarkers.

  8. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shan; Yang, Zhengyi; Fischer, Karin; Zhong, Kai; Stadler, Jörg; Godenschweger, Frank; Steiner, Johann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Mawrin, Christian; Reutens, David C.; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods can be effectively combined at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time) the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 μm isotopic) imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information. PMID:24098272

  9. Ultra-High Temperature Materials Characterization for Space and Missile Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; Hyers, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Numerous advanced space and missile technologies including propulsion systems require operations at high temperatures. Some very high-temperature materials are being developed to meet these needs, including refractory metal alloys, carbides, borides, and silicides. System design requires data for materials properties at operating temperatures. Materials property data are not available at the desired operating temperatures for many materials of interest. The objective of this work is to provide important physical property data at ultra-high temperatures. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) facility can provide measurements of thermophysical properties which include: creep strength, emissivity, density and thermal expansion. ESL uses electrostatic fields to position samples between electrodes during processing and characterization experiments. Samples float between the electrodes during studies and are free from any contact with a container or test apparatus. This provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, reactive materials. ESL can be used to process a wide variety of materials including metals, alloys, ceramics, glasses and semiconductors. A system for the determination of total hemispherical emissivity is being developed for the MSFC ESL facility by AZ Technology Inc. The instrument has been designed to provide emissivity measurements for samples during ESL experiments over the temperature range 700-3400K. A novel non-contact technique for the determination of high-temperature creep strength has been developed. Data from selected ESL-based characterization studies will be presented. The ESL technique could advance space and missile technologies by advancing the knowledge base and the technology readiness level for ultra-high temperature materials. Applications include non-eroding nozzle materials and lightweight, high-temperature alloys for turbines and structures.

  10. An Evaluation of Ultra-High Pressure Regulator for Robotic Lunar Landing Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher; Trinh, Huu; Pedersen, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Lunar Lander Development (RLLD) Project Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has studied several lunar surface science mission concepts. These missions focus on spacecraft carrying multiple science instruments and power systems that will allow extended operations on the lunar surface. Initial trade studies of launch vehicle options for these mission concepts indicate that the spacecraft design will be significantly mass-constrained. To minimize mass and facilitate efficient packaging, the notional propulsion system for these landers has a baseline of an ultra-high pressure (10,000 psig) helium pressurization system that has been used on Defense missiles. The qualified regulator is capable of short duration use; however, the hardware has not been previously tested at NASA spacecraft requirements with longer duration. Hence, technical risks exist in using this missile-based propulsion component for spacecraft applications. A 10,000-psig helium pressure regulator test activity is being carried out as part of risk reduction testing for MSFC RLLD project. The goal of the test activity is to assess the feasibility of commercial off-the-shelf ultra-high pressure regulator by testing with a representative flight mission profile. Slam-start, gas blowdown, water expulsion, lock-up, and leak tests are also performed on the regulator to assess performance under various operating conditions. The preliminary test results indicated that the regulator can regulate helium to a stable outlet pressure of 740 psig within the +/- 5% tolerance band and maintain a lock-up pressure less than +5% for all tests conducted. Numerous leak tests demonstrated leakage less than 10-3 standard cubic centimeters per second (SCCS) for internal seat leakage at lock-up and less than10-5 SCCS for external leakage through the regulator ambient reference cavity. The successful tests have shown the potential for 10,000 psig helium systems in NASA spacecraft and have reduced risk

  11. Urban Stormwater Modeling: Ultra-High-Resolution Evaluation of Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Urban infrastructures affect drainage networks, alter flow paths, change feedbacks to the atmosphere and enhance contaminant transport. Urban stormwater either floods a system due to poor drainage and impervious surfaces, or is quickly transported out of the system in channels that then carry contaminants to downstream ecosystems with potentially harmful impacts. To mitigate these impacts, developers often use best management practices (BMPs) such as pervious pavement, infiltration basins, rain gardens or engineered wetlands. BMPs are typically represented using conceptually-based, coarse resolution hydrologic models; however, to effectively capture the flow dynamics, trace non-source pollutants and test BMP types and distributions, a high-resolution hydrologic model is needed. The goal of this work is to develop a novel approach to evaluate BMP implementation using an ultra-high-resolution hydrologic model. This study domain is located in Aurora, CO, in an area characterized by growing urban development. The ultra-high-resolution domain was constructed using LIDAR imagery and consisted of 1m x 1m horizontal resolution over a ~12 km by 4.5 km lateral extent up to 1m in the subsurface, with a domain totaling more than 108 unknowns. This analysis was performed using ParFlow, a physically-based, parallel hydrologic model that simulates surface and subsurface water interactions. Extreme wet, dry and normal storms events were coupled with three types of pervious pavement, amounting to 9 simulation scenarios. We investigated changes to stormwater routing and infiltration with and without BMP implementation. Contaminant transport is also included in this analysis via a Lagrangian, particle tracking approach, that allows for complex, contaminant-loading scenarios common in the urban environment. Future work includes investigating implications of alternate BMPs also used within urban developments.

  12. Optical design of a 4-off-axis-unit Cassegrain ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics module with a central receiver.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan P; Fernández, Eduardo F; Almonacid, Florencia; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics (UHCPV), with concentrations higher than 1000 suns, have been pointed out by different authors as having great potential for being a cost-effective PV technology. This Letter presents a UHCPV Cassegrain-based optical design in which the sunrays are concentrated and sent from four different and independent paraboloid-hyperboloid pairs optical units onto a single central receiver. The optical design proposed has the main advantage of the achievement of ultra-high concentration ratios using relative small mirrors with similar performance values of efficiency, acceptance angle, and irradiance uniformity to other designs.

  13. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of {alpha}-synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki |; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami |; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi |

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-{alpha}-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of {alpha}-synuclein.

  14. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    SciTech Connect

    Badziak, J.; Rosiński, M.; Krousky, E.; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-03-15

    A novel, efficient method of generating ultra-high-pressure shocks is proposed and investigated. In this method, the shock is generated by collision of a fast plasma projectile (a macro-particle) driven by laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) with a solid target placed at the LICPA accelerator channel exit. Using the measurements performed at the kilojoule PALS laser facility and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, it is shown that the shock pressure ∼ Gbar can be produced with this method at the laser driver energy of only a few hundred joules, by an order of magnitude lower than the energy needed for production of such pressure with other laser-based methods known so far.

  15. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  16. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  17. Simultaneous determination of three herbicides in wheat, wheat straw, and soil using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a sensitive and effective analytical method for the extraction and detection of three herbicide residues (florasulam, fluroxypyr, and halauxifen-methyl) in wheat and soil was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water followed by salting out, dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup, and detection using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The target analytes were detected within a 5 min runtime using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography high-strength silica trifunctional column connected to an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The method was validated in five replicates at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Adequate pesticide quantification and identity confirmation were attained, even at the lowest concentration levels. The method showed very good accuracy and precision. Good recoveries were observed for the three herbicides and mostly ranged between 75.8 and 114.6%, with intraday relative standard deviations <6.01% and interday relative standard deviations <4.02%. The limits of quantification ranged between 0.14 and 7.68 μg/kg for each herbicide. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the three herbicides in actual trial samples, and the results proved that the proposed method was effective in detecting these three herbicides.

  18. Hierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC) imagery for rangeland mapping and assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra high resolution digital aerial photography has great potential to complement or replace ground measurements of vegetation cover for rangeland monitoring and assessment. We investigated object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques for classifying vegetation in southwestern U.S. arid rangelands...

  19. The issues and tentative solutions for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field strength.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Morelli, John N; Lux, Francois; Tillement, Olivier; Schneider, Günther; Buecker, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at ultra-high field strengths beyond 3 Tesla (T) has become increasingly prevalent in research and preclinical applications. As such, the inevitable clinical implementation of such systems lies on the horizon. The major benefit of ultra-high field MRI is the markedly increased signal-to-noise ratios achievable, enabling acquisition of MR images with simultaneously greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, at field strengths higher than 3 T, the efficacy of Gd(III)-based contrast agents is diminished due to decreased r1 relaxivity, somewhat limiting imaging of the vasculature and contrast-enhanced imaging of tumors. There have been extensive efforts to design new contrast agents with high r1 relaxivities based on macromolecular compounds or nanoparticles; however, the efficacy of these agents at ultra-high field strengths has not yet been proven. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic principles of MR contrast enhancement processes and to highlight the main factors influencing relaxivity. In addition, challenges and opportunities for contrast-enhanced MRI at ultra-high field strengths will be explored. Various approaches for the development of effective contrast agent molecules that are suitable for a broad spectrum of applied field strengths will be discussed in the context of the current literature.

  20. Apparent Ultra-High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Image Reconstruction via Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Haider, Shahid A; Wong, Alexander; Lui, Dorothy; Cameron, Andrew; Modhafar, Ameen; Fieguth, Paul; Haider, Masoom A

    2015-05-01

    A promising, recently explored, alternative to ultra-high b-value diffusion weighted imaging (UHB-DWI) is apparent ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted image reconstruction (AUHB-DWR), where a computational model is used to assist in the reconstruction of apparent DW images at ultra-high b -values. Firstly, we present a novel approach to AUHB-DWR that aims to improve image quality. We formulate the reconstruction of an apparent DW image as a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) in which tissue model diffusion parameters act as hidden states in this random field. The second contribution of this paper is a new generation of fully connected conditional random fields, called the hidden stochastically fully connected conditional random fields (HSFCRF) that allows for efficient inference with significantly reduced computational complexity via stochastic clique structures. The proposed AUHB-DWR algorithms, HCRF and HSFCRF, are evaluated quantitatively in nine different patient cases using Fisher's criteria, probability of error, and coefficient of variation metrics to validate its effectiveness for the purpose of improving intensity delineation between expert identified suspected cancerous and healthy tissue within the prostate gland. The proposed methods are also examined using a prostate phantom, where the apparent ultra-high b-value DW images reconstructed using the tested AUHB-DWR methods are compared with real captured UHB-DWI. The results illustrate that the proposed AUHB-DWR methods has improved reconstruction quality and improved intensity delineation compared with existing AUHB-DWR approaches.