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Sample records for attending family planning

  1. The role of traditional birth attendants in family planning programs in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Peng, J Y

    1979-01-01

    The training and utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and child health and family planning programs in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia are discussed. Special efforts to organize and train TBAs for family planning in Malaysia are examined in detail. Import factors for successful utilization of TBAs include: (a) definite assignment of functions and tasks, (b) organization of good operational steps and (c) implementation of good supervisory activities.

  2. STDS in women attending family planning clinics: a case study in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M E; Tibaux, G; Kloos, H; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Perine, P L; Peutherer, J; Young, H; Jamil, Y; Darougar, S; Lind, I; Reimann, K; Piot, P; Roggen, E

    1997-02-01

    For cultural reasons modern contraception has been slow to gain acceptance in Ethiopia. Knowledge about contraception and abortion is still limited in many family and community settings in which it is socially disapproved. By 1990 only 4% of Ethiopian females aged 15-49 used contraception. Little is known of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in family planning (FP) attenders in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, even though attenders of family planning clinics (FPCs) are appropriate target groups for epidemiological studies and control programmes. A study of 2111 women of whom 542 (25.7%) attended FPCs in Addis Ababa showed utilisation rates to be highest in women who were: Tigre (33%) or Amhara (31%), aged 20-34 years (30%), age 16 or older at first marriage/coitus (28%:38% in those first married after 25 years); who had a monthly family income of 10 Ethiopian Birr (EB) or more (33%:36% for those with income 100-500 EB), three or more children (37%), more than five lifetime husbands/sexual partners (39%); or were bargirls (73%) or prostitutes (43%). The seroprevalence rates for all STDs, higher in FPC attenders compared with other women, were syphilis (TPHA) 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 66%, genital chlamydia 64%, HSV-2 41%, HBV 40% and Haemophilus ducreyi 20%. Only 4% of FPC attenders had no serological evidence of STD: 64% were seropositive for 3 or more different STD. Clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was also more common in the FPC attenders (54%), 37% having evidence of salpingitis. The FPC provides a favourable setting for screening women likely to have high seroprevalence of STD, who for lack of symptoms will not attend either an STD clinic nor a hospital for routine check up. We recommend that measures be taken to adequately screen, treat and educate FPC attenders, their partners, and as appropriate and when possible their clients, in an attempt to control STDs and ultimately HIV in the community. Social, economic

  3. Attitudes toward consequences of pregnancy in young women attending a family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between young women's knowledge and attitude concerning pregnancy and their sexual behavior. The study involved 78 young women (14-20 years of age) who had attended a midwestern family planning clinic. Primarily from a larger socioeconomic status, 70% of the participants said that they had never been pregnant. Adapting the testing methods of previous investigations, the study presented the participants with various exams intended to measure the following: 1) knowledge concerning "how babies are made"; 2) knowledge regarding intercourse and pregnancy; 3) anticipation of future consequences of adolescent childbirth; 4) anticipation of immediate consequences or fears of adolescent pregnancy. The study also examined the participants' contraceptive behavior and pregnancy history. The findings indicate that knowledge concerning understanding "how babies are made" does not influence sexual behavior, with no significant difference found between contraceptive users and non-contraceptive users. Also, the participants generally had accurate knowledge concerning intercourse and pregnancy. But the study did reveal significant differences in the evaluation of the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth. Those women who had previously been pregnant -- including those who had terminated their pregnancies -- showed a less negative attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth than those who had never been pregnant. Furthermore, as the age of the women increased, the attitude became more positive. However, the study found that the attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth had no impact on contraceptive behavior. PMID:12283995

  4. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  5. Male Attendance at Title X Family Planning Clinics - United States, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Besera, Ghenet; Moskosky, Susan; Pazol, Karen; Fowler, Christina; Warner, Lee; Johnson, David M; Barfield, Wanda D

    2016-06-17

    Although both men and women have reproductive health care needs, family planning providers traditionally focus services toward women (1,2). Challenges in providing family planning services to men, including preconception health, infertility, contraceptive, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) care (3,4), include their infrequent use of preventive health services, a perceived lack of need for these services (1,5), and the lack of provider guidance regarding men's reproductive health care needs (4). Since 1970, the National Title X Family Planning Program has provided cost-effective and confidential family planning and related preventive health services with priority for services to low-income women and men. To examine men's use of services at Title X service sites, CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Population Affairs (OPA) analyzed data from the 2003-2014 Family Planning Annual Reports (FPAR), annual data that are required of all Title X-funded agencies. During 2003-2014, 3.8 million males visited Title X service sites in the United States and the percentage of family planning users who were male nearly doubled from 4.5% (221,425 males) in 2003 to 8.8% (362,531 males) in 2014. In 2014, the percentage of family planning users who were male varied widely by state, ranging from ≤1% in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama to 27.2% in the District of Columbia (DC). Title X service sites are increasingly providing services for males. Health care settings might want to adopt the framework employed by Title X clinics to better provide family planning and related preventative services to men (3).

  6. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  7. The Traditional Birth Attendant in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning: A Guide to Her Training and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderese, Maria de Lourdes; Turnbull, Lily M.

    The publication provides guidelines for assisting developing countries in determining strategies for the utilization and training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). TBA's are persons (usually women in rural areas) who assist the mother at childbirth and who initially acquired their skills through experience rather than formal training. After…

  8. Predicting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection using risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase urine dipsticks among asymptomatic women attending a family planning clinic in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, M W; Kidula, N; Sande, J; Ombette, J; Temmerman, M

    1999-09-01

    This cross sectional study presents a risk scoring system that would identify women at highest risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). 1058 randomly selected women participated in the study in Nairobi, Kenya; of these, 1048 participants were included in the analysis. The study was conducted from May 1994 to July 1995 at a clinic sponsored by the Family Planning Association of Kenya. Information pertaining to the demographic, behavioral and social characteristics of the participants was gathered. In addition, a clinical algorithm, which includes physical examination, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase (LE) urine dipsticks, was employed to detect gonorrhea and chlamydia infections among asymptomatic women. The results revealed that the prevalence of STIs, including HIV-1, was high among women attending this urban family planning clinic. Standard demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics were only weakly associated with infection, resulting in poor sensitivity and specificity calculations in the risk scores. Detection of cervical infections gave a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 30%. A positive LE urine dipstick had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 47%. Although the addition of physical examination and LE dipstick to the work-up improved the sensitivity of case detection, it did not improve the overall validity of the scoring system.

  9. Family planning in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, K

    1968-01-01

    Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly

  10. [Liu Jie attends Henan planned parenthood meeting].

    PubMed

    1981-03-01

    Henan scored excellent results in planned parenthood work last year. The natural population growth rate fell to 9.53/1000, a fall of 3.35/1000 from the 1979 level. The province victoriously fulfilled the population plan assigned by the state. Some 320,000 couples with 1 child have taken out single-child certificates. The provincial CCP Committee recently convened a planned parenthood meeting. Provincial CCP Committee 1st Secretary Liu Jie and Secretaries Dai Suli and Zhang Shude spoke at the meeting. Li Xiuzhen, deputy director of the State Council's planned parenthood leading group and director of its administrative office, also attended and spoke at the meeting. The speakers stressed: Party committees and government at all levels must strengthen leadership over planned parenthood, put this work in an important place on their agenda, resolve to promote this work, and succeed in grasping the 2 items of production together. We must further publicize and implement the Central Committee's open letter, vigorously advocate that each couple should have only 1 child, strictly control the birth of a 2nd child, and take resolute measures to prevent the birth of more than 2. We must put ideological education in the primary position. CCP and CYL members and cadres at all levels must take the lead in practicing planned parenthood.

  11. Family Planning & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

  12. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  13. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  14. [Men and family planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J G

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs since their beginnings have focused exclusively on women. The importance of male participation in family planning has not been recognized. Today's society demands greater understanding and empathy between spouses, if they are to meet the new and difficult challenges of modern life. Incorporation of men into family planning programs is needed because of the deteriorating live conditions of a large segment of the population and the accelerating decomposition of social structures. Persuading men to participate in family planning should strengthen the couple and increase the probability that decisions about family size will be responsible. Strategies should be designed to interest men in family planning and increase their awareness of their role in fathering happy children who enter the world in more just and humane conditions. Such strategies must combat sex role socialization that begins in infancy. The assignment of responsibility for family planning to the woman excludes men from what should be a fundamental role.

  15. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  16. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  17. Family planning costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training. PMID:12316737

  18. Family planning costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  19. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  20. Population and family planning.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, C W

    1974-01-01

    The author agrees with the United Teheran Declaration of Human Rights which declared the right of each couple to choose the size of their own family. Government policies must preserve and increase informed choice for all couples. The Supreme Court recognized the right of all married couples to practice birth control in a 1965 decision; the Court extended this right to all persons in 1972. The 1970 Family Planning Services and Population Research Act involved the United States government in family planning support here and abroad. By 1973 organized family planning programs were serving more than 3.2 million women. They had been extended geographically too. Fertility research is being conducted. Before 1980 family planning programs will be integrated into general health care systems with comprehensive health care insurance covering the bills.

  1. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  2. Family Planning in Thailand.

    PubMed

    1980-12-01

    Until 1958, when the World Bank Economic Mission reported that Thailand's high rate of population growth was adversely affecting its development efforts, Thailand had a pronatalist policy. Government concern led to a formal declaration of voluntary family planning support in 1970. The National Family Planning Program (NFPP) under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health has the following objectives: reduce the population growth rate to 2.5% per annum by the end of 1976; inform and motivate women about family planning, using methods of mass communication; increase availability of family planning services throughout the country; and to integrate family planning activities with maternal and child health services. Activities include training and supervision of NFPP personnel, research and evaluation, and the coordination of public and private family planning organizations. The NFPP has been successful in reducing the growth rate to 2.55% in 1976 and in surpassing its target contraceptive acceptor level of 1,975,000 to a level of 2,490,850. Future concerns of NFPP include its dependence on foreign financial support, and its need to encourage local funding.

  3. Family planning Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1968-06-01

    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  4. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly.

  5. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  6. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  7. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  8. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  9. Family planning: where now?

    PubMed

    Saunders, L

    1977-01-01

    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  10. Nonclinical family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, W D

    1978-01-01

    Reasons commonly advanced for providing family planning are the need for it as a health measure, as part of the basic human right of parents to plan their families, and as a measure to slow demographic growth. Provision of access to all couples desiring birth control, not just to the wealthy and educated, is a less frequently discussed reason. All these reasons require broad coverage in order to be effective. The author argues, using data on the relative health risks of contraceptive usage vs. pregnancy, that nonclinic distribution of contraceptives is consistent with responsible health considerations. The argument is buttressed by ethical considerations. The demand for family planning services is next considered, with the author arguing that availability of contraceptives is an important factor in increasing demand for them. The characteristics and users of nonclinic delivery systems are then discussed. Commercial distribution systems may provide services for up to 5% of women of fertile age, thus providing a useful supplement to organized and more highly subsidized programs. Noncommercial distribution -- household or community based systems -- has allowed contraceptive use to expand to levels of 20 or 25% and sometimes as high as 50%, in periods as short as a year and a half, at low cost. Community leaders have often proven to be more effective than clinic personnel in providing instruction and support to contraceptive users.

  11. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  12. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-06-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception.

  13. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

  14. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large.

  15. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  16. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning.

  17. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  18. Characteristics of family planning clients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Khan, A R

    1983-01-01

    The study objective was to establish a profile of family planning clients in Bangladesh to illustrate differences and similarities of the clients who obtain various types of contraceptives--oral contraceptives (OCs), injectables, tubal ligation, and vasectomy--in both urban and rural areas. The urban women receiving OCs attended the family planning clinics of 6 hospitals in Dacca during the 1974-77 period. The rural OC clients attended a government family planning clinic about 25 miles southeast of Dacca between 1975-77. Urban injectable clients all attended the family planning clinic of the model clinic in Dacca. Rural injectable clients attended the same family planning clinic in Matlab as did rural OC clients. Urban tubal ligation clients were randomly selected from 2 areas, Kalicakar and Kustia. Vasectomy clients were randomly sampled from the lists of vasectomy clients which attended mass vasectomy centers in Shibjuir and Shalna provinces 2 years prior to the survey follow-up. The higher mean ages of all rural contraceptive users, regardless of method, was consistent with their high parities and the small percentages of these women who desired more children. 15.6% of urban women choosing sterilization had never used contraception previously, but 93.2% of urban OC acceptors and 61.5% of the injectable clients were obtaining contraception for the 1st time. 62% of sterilization clients who had previously used contraception had been using OCs. Among the rural users of contraceptives, those using pills and vasectomy had the highest proportions of no prior use of contraception (94% and 95.7%, respectively). 42% of tubal ligation clients had never used contraception previously; 64.2% of the injectable clients indicated they had never used contraceptives. Among the OC acceptors the majority of previous users had IUDs inserted. Injectable and tubal ligation acceptors previously using contraception had primarily been OC users. In both the urban and rural areas the vast

  19. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program.

  20. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  1. Evaluation techniques in family planning.

    PubMed

    1968-01-01

    What proved to be a lively yet highly technical conference on the assessment of the acceptance and use-effctiveness of family planning methods was held in Bangkok last June by ECAFE on the initiative of Dr. C. Chandrasekaran, the regional demographic adviser. The meeting was attended by a strong contingent of demographers, sociologists and statisticans from the USA and by workers from Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. There were representatives of FAO, WHO and the Population Division of the UN. The conference considered and debated a wide range of issues involved in evaluation, from the definition of terms to detailed procedures in the calculation of indices and the detection of fertility trends. A certain amount of new ground was broken with the introduction of the concept of "extended use-effectiveness" (the study of pregnancy rates among acceptors of a method beyond the point of discontinuance) and the presentation of new methods of calculating births prevented by contraceptive use. Some progress was made towards laying down standards for the frequency of performance of surveys, both of K.A.P. in populations at large, and of contraceptive continuance and event-rates among acceptors. Attention was given to the special problems of evaluation presented by oral contraceptives, and by data on abortions and sterilizations. The proven usefulness of the life-table method of studying use-effectiveness was reaffirmed, and work on refining this now basic tool of evaluation was reported. A number of quite different schemes of data collection and processing for study of the characteristics of acceptors was described, and it was accepted by the participants that, although as much standardization as possible was desirable, each programme must make its own selection from the range of possibilities in the light of specific conditions. In addition to the main lines of analysis of use-effectiveness and

  2. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  3. Family Planning in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ann C.; Stewart, Felicia H.

    2004-01-01

    Family planning has long been acknowledged as an effective public health intervention. In recent years, however, family planning has come under increased scrutiny from conservative politicians and constituents. National US policies instituted since 2001 are resulting in cutbacks in family planning programs worldwide. In the long run, these conservative initiatives may set back several decades of progress in reproductive health and reproductive rights. In promoting an ideologically driven approach to sexual and reproductive health, the recent policy developments threaten to subvert ethical standards of medical care and the principle of evidence-based policy. PMID:14713687

  4. Filial/Family Play Therapy for Single Parents of Young Children Attending Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dee; Bratton, Sue C.; Brandt, Marielle A.

    2000-01-01

    States that many single parents are attending institutions of higher education to qualify for employment that will ensure the economic security of their families. Focuses on the use of filial/family play therapy with single parents attending community colleges as an effective intervention for improving the present and future welfare of these…

  5. Connecting with Families to Improve Students' School Attendance: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    School attendance is a rising issue in public schools. Students regularly absent from school can end up involved in destructive behaviors and dropout of school. Family characteristics are strong determining factors in students' school attendance. This presents the question, "Can family involvement improve public school students'…

  6. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

  7. Family planning and the Malawian male.

    PubMed

    Kishindo, P

    1994-01-01

    To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs.

  8. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  9. Has family planning a future?

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1987-01-01

    Population is a subject that touches issues central to the human condition, including personal freedom and the very definition of economic and social progress. Hence it is understandable that people and their governments may have a wide range of views on this and related subjects. Some researchers admit that rapid population growth is more likely to impede progress than to promote it and conclude that, even if the economic grounds for family planning are not as compelling as some maintain, it is amply justified on the basis of individual family health and welfare. It would be naive to think that family planning alone can solve the problems of developing countries. But it would seem to be equally naive to believe that these problems can be solved without some family planning. It cannot be overemphasized that the impact of family planning goes far beyond the issues of population growth and economic development; it is an important tool to improve the health status of populations, especially in developing countries. The logical conclusion seems to be that there is a need for a much wider variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation that will suit the individual situation, the socioeconomic condition and the cultural and religious values of different couples. To develop new and safe methods and to provide answers to the questions posed, research is needed. There are 7 cardinal elements negatively affecting greatly needed research and development efforts at present: insufficient funding, hostile philosophies, liability issues, the drug regulatory climate, shortage in manpower, relative paucity of new ideas, and gaps in communication. What is needed now is that mankind shows a little more generosity towards itself and invests a bit more into research in family planning. Experience and history also indicate that research is a cost-effective investment in many areas. To invest in research in family planning means to invest in a brighter future. PMID:3568655

  10. Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wenli

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

  11. 76 FR 15307 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as...

  12. Family planning week in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Antarsh, L

    1997-01-01

    More than 600 events, including disco dances, seminars, and training courses for health professionals, took place during National Family Planning Week, held throughout Ukraine this year from May 26 to June 1. The events were announced on the radio, television, and in newspapers in every region of the country. The following are among the events which took place during the week: physicians gave presents and contraceptives to mothers of newborn infants in maternity hospitals in Dnipropetrovsk; loudspeakers blared messages about family planning in the most crowded streets of Sevastopol, Crimea; family planning rooms and centers opened in 8 districts of Rivninska; and every region of the country held an official opening ceremony. Many of the events had a special focus upon youth, with more than 200 events for adolescents. For more than 6 months, a special multi-ministry coordinating committee worked closely with AVSC to make this first-time event a reality. Public awareness of family planning increased as a result of the Week. Ukraine's Ministry of Health is looking forward to holding the event again next year with or without the support of outside agencies. PMID:12349011

  13. Key developments in family planning.

    PubMed

    Kubba, A

    1997-10-01

    Family planning services should try to continually improve patients' access to family planning information and services, in addition to achieving better success with issues of confidentiality, dignity, and privacy. The range of available contraceptive methods continues to widen, although standards set by the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Family Planning are accepted as the gold standard. With regard to contraceptive choices, the long-acting methods of contraception are attracting renewed interest. In family planning clinics and general practice, nurses are being given the authority to provide systemic contraceptives, especially emergency contraception. Emergency contraception is so safe that many argue that it should be made available without prescription. Updated faculty guidelines on emergency contraception will be published by the end of the year. Progress is being made in the development of male systemic contraception. Persona is a miniature computerized device which accurately predicts a woman's fertile phase; efficacy studies suggest a failure rate of 6%. Combined oral contraceptives, IUDs, and monthly combined injectables are discussed.

  14. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  15. Family allowance and family planning in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S J

    1978-01-01

    Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child. PMID:717610

  16. The Power Equity Guide: attending to gender in family therapy.

    PubMed

    Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; MacPhee, D

    2000-04-01

    In the past two decades, feminist scholars have challenged the field of family therapy to incorporate the organizing principle of gender in its theory, practice, and training. In this paper, we introduce a training, research, and therapeutic tool that provides guidance for addressing or observing gender and power differentials in the practice of family therapy. As a training tool, the Power Equity Guide helps trainees to translate their theoretical understanding of feminist principles into specific behaviors in therapy. Researchers and supervisors can use the Power Equity Guide to evaluate the practice of gender-informed family therapy. We also provide specific suggestions for its use by trainers, supervisors, therapists, and researchers.

  17. The Power Equity Guide: attending to gender in family therapy.

    PubMed

    Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; MacPhee, D

    2000-04-01

    In the past two decades, feminist scholars have challenged the field of family therapy to incorporate the organizing principle of gender in its theory, practice, and training. In this paper, we introduce a training, research, and therapeutic tool that provides guidance for addressing or observing gender and power differentials in the practice of family therapy. As a training tool, the Power Equity Guide helps trainees to translate their theoretical understanding of feminist principles into specific behaviors in therapy. Researchers and supervisors can use the Power Equity Guide to evaluate the practice of gender-informed family therapy. We also provide specific suggestions for its use by trainers, supervisors, therapists, and researchers. PMID:10776603

  18. AIDS and family planning: Thailand conference breaks new ground.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1990-12-01

    The July 1990 2-day meeting in Pattaya, Thailand, attended by over 220 family planning practitioners was the first nationwide conference in the developing world to address integration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and education into the family planning service delivery system. The conference was co-sponsored by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health, the Thailand Fertility Research Association, and Family Health International, with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the Hewlett Foundation. As of September 1990, 22,075 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection--including 53 AIDS cases--has been documented in Thailand. There is general consensus that the actual number of HIV-infected persons is 50,000-100,000, with commercial sex workers, their clients, the clients' spouses, and newborns at highest risk. Conference organizers hope to boost AIDS prevention and control effectiveness by building on the already established cooperation between governmental and nongovernmental organizations in a nationwide network for family planning service delivery. A priority need is the development of counseling materials aimed at various target populations. A Women and AIDS Week is planned to involve women's groups. Another projected program centers on counseling men who visit commercial sex workers. In addition to AIDS education to family planning clients, family planning centers plan to provide counseling to contacts of HIV-infected persons and condoms to infected couples. At present, condoms are available at 18,000 family planning clinics and 10,000 pharmacies in Thailand. PMID:12283719

  19. Patterns of Visit Attendance in the Nurse–Family Partnership Program

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yinglin; Kitzman, Harriet J.; Dozier, Ann M.; Olds, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined visit attendance patterns in the Memphis trial of the Nurse–Family Partnership and associations between these patterns and family characteristics, outcomes, and treatment–control differences in outcomes. Methods. We employed repeated measures latent class analysis to identify attendance patterns among the 228 mothers assigned to receive home nurse visits during pregnancy and until the child was aged 2 years, associated background characteristics, outcomes, and treatment–control differences by visit class. Home visits were conducted from June 1990 to March 1994. We collected outcome data from May 1992 to April 1994 and July 2003 to December 2006. Results. We identified 3 visit attendance patterns. High attenders (48%) had the most visits and good outcomes. Low attenders (33%) had the most education and the best outcomes. Increasing attenders (18%) had the fewest completed visits during pregnancy, the poorest intake characteristics, and the poorest outcomes. Treatment–control group differences varied by class, with high and low attenders having better outcomes on some measures than did their control group counterparts. Conclusions. Three patterns were associated with distinct groups of mothers with different long-term outcomes. Further examination and use of patterns to classify mothers and prioritize resources may improve efficiency in the Nurse–Family Partnership. PMID:25122021

  20. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  1. Distinguishing Absentee Students from Regular Attenders: The Combined Influence of Personal, Family, and School Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corville-Smith, Jane; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Dalicandro, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between student attendance and personal characteristics of the student, the student's family relations, and school variables was studied with 54 high school students. T-tests revealed statistically significant relationships between school absence and many student, family, and school variables. Absentee and regularly attending…

  2. [Family planning in Colombia -- 1987].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1987-09-01

    Frequent surveys have produced detailed information on demographic trends in Colombia and the use of various contraceptive methods. The annual rate of population growth declined from 2.5% in 1974 to a projected 1.65% in 1987. The decline of 34% is 1 of the most significant in Latin America. The number of fertile aged women increased by 53% between 1974 and 1987, from 3,036,000 to 4,660,000, as the large cohorts born 15-25 years ago reached childbearing age. The distorted age structure represented by the large cohorts is a serious demographic challenge for the country and a logistical challenge for family planning programs. Although young fertile aged couples exhibit more moderate fertility behavior than their parents did, their larger numbers will cause the crude birth rate to increase. Contraceptive use has increased from 38% in 1974 to 63% in 1986 and possibly 65% in 1987. The number of women who must be supplied with contraceptives has increased from 1,150,000 in 1974 to a projected 3,000,000 in 1987. Among women using contraception in 1986, 25.4% used pills, 28.6% used sterilization, 17.4% used IUDs, 3.2% injectables, 3.2% each vaginal methods and condoms, 7.9% rhythm, 9.5% withdrawal, and 1.6% other methods. In 1976, 37.2% of women using contraceptives used pills, 11.6% sterilization, 23.2% IUDs, 14.0% rhythm, 11.6% withdrawal, and 2.3% other methods. In 1986, 17.4% of couples used the less effective methods of rhythm and withdrawal. In 1987, 9-10 million cycles of pills will be used, 110,000 IUDs will be inserted, 122,000 sterilizations will be performed, and 12 million condoms and the same quantity of vaginal tablets will be distributed. Much time consuming and complex training for natural family planning users will also be required. Colombia's success in family planning over the past 2 decades, despite a relatively unpromising start, was not due simply to the existence of demand for contraceptive information and services, which also was present in other

  3. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

    2012-07-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes.

  4. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  5. Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

  6. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell.

  7. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell. PMID:12264032

  8. AAPS: Local Attendance Area Planning for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    Written by a planning team representing 10 schools in the Portland, Oregon area, the program assessment and planning guide is intended to be an instrument for planning and measuring the achievement of career education programs for grades K-12. Its format is designed to separate problems into a priority ranking and list them by the year to help…

  9. Public health nurses and family planning.

    PubMed

    Oakley, D; Swanson, J; Swenson, I; Marcy, S

    1990-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a health problem that is particularly important in the practice of public health nurses (PHNs). Data from 844 PHNs showed that they were likely to practice in settings that incorporate family planning services and were knowledgeable about specific family planning methods. They favored family planning services and an expanded supportive government role in both family planning and abortion. Since PHNs are an important resource for the community activism required to build the consensus needed to expand these services, a multiple-regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of activism. Political participation was the major predictor for activism on both family planning and abortion. PMID:2217056

  10. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  11. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

  12. Family, religious attendance, and trajectories of psychological well-being among youth.

    PubMed

    Petts, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.

  13. The Individual Family Service Plan: Unresolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.; Hover, Sarah A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that federal requirement to develop Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) for all infants and toddlers with special needs has major conceptual difficulty stemming from linkage of family service to family assessment. Sees many authorities as advocating parents and professionals as partners in assessing needs and planning services. Questions…

  14. Planning families or checking population?

    PubMed

    Lukk, T

    1978-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest birth rates (43/1000) and lowest death rates (15.5/1000) in Africa. The population growth rate is 2.7 per year; the population doubling time is 26 years. The black birth rate is about double that of whites. Blacks now represent about 70% of the population. By the year 2000 they will comprise 74%, compared to 14% whites. Birth control among blacks is viewed with suspicion since the apartheid regime encourages white reproduction and immigration. Black South African men have many prejudices against birth cotnrol. Many still have children by different wives. 38% South African men preferred to have 6-8 children. Young South African women are beginning to use birth control of their own volition. Birth control is associated with genocide, but family planning, in which the number and timing of children is determined by the parents is perceived to be desirable by South Africans. PMID:12260802

  15. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however.

  16. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

  17. [The man in family planning programs].

    PubMed

    Muhawenimana, A

    1988-12-01

    Men have played a dominant role for millenia in decisions regarding the family, but until recently they were almost ignored by most family planning programs. Men are sometimes the partner who directly utilizes the contraceptive method, and they often have the decisive word in procreation, family planning, and use of the family's resources. Women who favor family planning are often hesitant to use a method if their husbands disapprove. Surveys in the Caribbean, Latin America, the US, and elsewhere indicate that men often approve of family planning. In most regions, male opposition has not constituted a major obstacle to family planning. Even in Africa, where male opposition has been vigorous, recent surveys show that attitudes are changing, especially regarding birth spacing. Lack of communication between spouses in family size decisions is recognized as a major impediment to family planning use. Surveys have shown that men and women usually do not differ greatly in the number of children they want, but men may have less knowledge of family planning than women. Men may hear about family planning from their wives, from friends, or from the media, but rarely from health workers. The 1983 Rwanda Fertility Survey showed that slightly over 1/3 of men vs. 1/5 of women in union did not want more children. Men wanted slightly smaller families on average, 5.9 children vs. 6.3 for women. Men were more receptive to the idea of future family planning use: about 1/2 of men who had never used contraception thought they might in the future, but only 31% of their wives expected to do so. Men were more aware of the rapid rate of population growth and more in favor of government intervention in the demographic domain. Family planning programs for men could try various strategies since the most effective strategy has not yet been identified. But services offered to men should meet the same standards of quality and accessibility as those for any other group.

  18. Traditional midwives and family planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M; Solomon, D S

    1975-05-01

    The objectives of this article are (1) review the contribution of traditional midwives to family planning communication in several Asian countries; (2) organize knowledge gathered from various studies into general guidelines for the most effective use of traditional midwives in family planning programs; and (3) present hypotheses for future research. In certain countries where pilot projects have tested the potential performance of traditional midwives in family planning programs, results have been encouraging. In other nations, more research is needed to determine the contribution traditional midwives can make to the family planning program.

  19. A five-year plan for population research and family planning services. 3. Family planning services.

    PubMed

    Beckles, F N

    1971-10-01

    A tentative family planning program plan for 1971-1975 is presented. The estimated need for family planning services by 1975 is projected to be 6.6 million individuals, classified as poor and medically indigent. The author states that more research is needed to project a similar need for higher income groups who have trouble controlling the number and timing of their children. With better research family planning services could help meet their needs too. The plan projects greater expansion of services to non-metropolitan areas to overcome a maldistribution of present programs. It is estimated that 90% of those in need can now be served by existing services, while new delivery agencies would need to be created to serve the remaining need. Manpower development of this plan calls for an expansion in the use and role of paraprofessional personnel. The utilization of operational research, planning and evaluation is needed for objective data, to help programmers determine shape and scope of required program, and to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. To do this a 3 phase 5 year plan is presented. As program services expand the role information, education and communication plays is critical. Development of these functions will help in reaching program goals. Projected estimates by 1975 of direct costs of provision of family planning services will be between 360 and 395 million dollars.

  20. Willing to pay for family planning service. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the case of a middle-class woman in Indonesia who travels 60 kilometers to receive family planning services instead of going to a locally-based private or public facility. She is a long-term IUD-using mother with children aged 18, 15, and 6 years who attends a private Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB) clinic in northern Jakarta. YKB is an independent nongovernmental organization (NGO) which promotes private sector involvement in urban family planning in Indonesia. Its 6 clinics served an estimated 9284 acceptors in 1993. Two clinics are self- sufficient, one is almost, and the rest should be within a few years. The case described reflects a trend in Indonesia of women increasingly seeking fee-based family planning services. While 20% of family planning acceptors now use family planning services provided by the private sector and NGOs in Indonesia, only 12% did so 6 years ago. Purely free family planning services are quickly disappearing in Indonesia. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board encourages this trend. Friendly and competent female midwives and support staff; short waiting times; the absence of sick and injured patients; bright and clean atmospheres; and affordable prices at YKB clinics attract and hold clients. YKB also promotes various community-based health programs such as the fee-charging school health program in Jakarta since 1987. Further, the organization has offered technical assistance to other private/NGO groups who wish to replicate similar programs elsewhere. The Executive Director notes in closing that maternal and child health services should account for an ever larger share of YKB services over time.

  1. Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.

    PubMed

    Hume, M

    1991-01-01

    The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862

  2. Men's absence in family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    De Souza, L

    1990-12-01

    Few men are found in family planning centers. The author describes how the changing role of fatherhood and the typically female-oriented focus of family planning centers do not endear men to seek out clinic services. Men will not frequent a family planning clinic which focuses exclusively upon gynecological and contraceptive services, but they may go to centers which offer services related to pregnancy, sexological problems, and where information may be obtained on vasectomy and AIDS. Men and boys rarely visit family planning centers on their own initiative, but instead usually with a partner and at her request often when a specific problem must be resolved. Four family planning counselors and one midwife working in family planning clinics in Francophone Switzerland believe that male participation should be encouraged, particularly among adolescents, but without placing undue pressure upon men. They suggest sex education courses emphasizing family planning, providing a gender neutral clinic environment, developing relevant printed media with an eye to male participation, offering clinic hours adapted to men's working hours, encouraging men to express their feelings and desires during contraceptive and other counseling sessions, developing clinic sessions specially for STDs and AIDS, and improving the socioeconomic status of family planning counselors and personnel in the interest of bringing more men into the field professionally.

  3. Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

  4. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  5. Karnataka: pioneer in family planning.

    PubMed

    Rao, S

    1983-01-26

    A century ago the administration of Mysore (India) realized the need for family planning, and Dewan Rangacharlu, when addressing the 1st session of the Mysore State Representative Assembly on October 7, 1881, indicated concern at the rapid population growth which hampered production. On June 11, 1930 Shri Nyapathy Madhava Rao, Chief Secretary, passed orders for the establishment of birth control clinics, making Mysore the 1st government in the world to start a network of birth control clinics in the state. Clinics at Bangalore and Mysore were frequented by married women in need of advice from experts. Despite the social taboo, many took advantage of the facility provided by the state. When World War 2 broke out in 1939, the work in these clinics had to slow down because of a lack of funds. The text of the orders for the birth control clinics included the proposals of the Senior Surgeon who recognized the need to provide the necessary knowledge and the means for contraception: the Lady Medical Officers of the Victoria and the Maternity Hospitals, Bangalore and the Krishnarajendra and the Vani Vilas Hospitals, Mysore, be authorized to provide information to women who want knowledge on the subject and to teach the necessary technique; contraceptive appliances be supplied at cost price to those who want them; and Dr. C. V. Natarajan be asked to cooperate with the Lady Medical officers by giving them such advice as they may require for the development of the birth control clinics.

  6. Understanding Attendance in a Community-Based Parenting Intervention for Immigrant Latino Families.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Allen, Michele; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Maldonado, Francisco; Gutierrez, Lois; Svetaz, Maria Veronica; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can help increase the attendance in community programs. Padres Informados, Jovenes Preparados (PIJP) is a program that aims to prevent tobacco and other substance use among Latino youth by promoting positive parenting. Although the trial used CBPR approaches, attendance was inconsistent. In the present study, factors associated with attendance and nonattendance and recommendations to maximize participation were explored in 12 brief feedback discussions (BFDs) with participants and in 10 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facilitators who delivered PIJP. Content analysis guided two pairs of researchers, who independently coded emerging themes and categories (κ = .86 for BFDs and .73 for IDIs). Data from BFDs and IDIs were merged and interpreted together. We grouped factors that positively affected participation into three categories: individual and family (e.g., motivation), program (e.g., offering food and childcare and having facilitators who are trusted), and research (e.g., having incentives). Barriers to participation were grouped into four categories: individual and family (e.g., family conflicts), sociocultural (e.g., community and cultural beliefs), program (e.g., fixed schedules), and research (e.g., recruitment procedures). Participants provided recommendations to address all types of barriers. Although PIJP used CBPR, complete satisfaction of community needs is difficult. Effective community programs must address participants' needs and preferences. PMID:25869496

  7. Understanding Attendance in a Community-Based Parenting Intervention for Immigrant Latino Families.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Allen, Michele; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Maldonado, Francisco; Gutierrez, Lois; Svetaz, Maria Veronica; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can help increase the attendance in community programs. Padres Informados, Jovenes Preparados (PIJP) is a program that aims to prevent tobacco and other substance use among Latino youth by promoting positive parenting. Although the trial used CBPR approaches, attendance was inconsistent. In the present study, factors associated with attendance and nonattendance and recommendations to maximize participation were explored in 12 brief feedback discussions (BFDs) with participants and in 10 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facilitators who delivered PIJP. Content analysis guided two pairs of researchers, who independently coded emerging themes and categories (κ = .86 for BFDs and .73 for IDIs). Data from BFDs and IDIs were merged and interpreted together. We grouped factors that positively affected participation into three categories: individual and family (e.g., motivation), program (e.g., offering food and childcare and having facilitators who are trusted), and research (e.g., having incentives). Barriers to participation were grouped into four categories: individual and family (e.g., family conflicts), sociocultural (e.g., community and cultural beliefs), program (e.g., fixed schedules), and research (e.g., recruitment procedures). Participants provided recommendations to address all types of barriers. Although PIJP used CBPR, complete satisfaction of community needs is difficult. Effective community programs must address participants' needs and preferences.

  8. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R

    1983-01-01

    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas.

  9. [On family planning and socialist cultural civilization].

    PubMed

    Yin, G; Cao, J; Yin, W

    1984-03-29

    Family planning is a very important part of the Socialist cultural civilization, and it has a great impact on the ideology, ethics, and change of moral concepts. The old concept of having a large family and favoring boys over girls has been changed because of the popularization of family planning, and the overall quality of China's population can thus be improved. In the practical work of family planning, construction of the Socialist cultural civilization should be handled well. Science should be developed and taught to the general public, and the traditional ideology concerning birth and population should be gradually changed and eliminated. In this way, people will become more conscious of the need for family planning. In the meantime, efforts should be made to promote social welfare, such as the establishment of more and better daycare centers and nursing homes so that the common worries about family planning can be removed. The people should gradually learn about their rights and responsibilities as citizens and understand that family planning is in the best interest of the whole country as well as for the good fortune of later generations. With close cooperation between the people and the government and with reasonable management of family planning, China will be built into a strong nation with an adavnced Socialist cultural civilization.

  10. Linking Intentions and Behavior: Australian Students' College Plans and College Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Peter G; Fleishman, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines factors that influence Australian high school seniors' plans to attend college and their actual entry into college. Uses the Fishbein-Ajzen model of attitude-behavior relations to link intentions to continue school with the realization of those intentions. (RB)

  11. National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-02-01

    This news insert relays information on the Second National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program held in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, during December 1996. Conference participants included Mme. Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission and 200 participants from 30 provinces and State Council departments. The conference aimed to discuss the family planning system in relation to the socialist market economy, improvements in delivery of more and better services to reproductive age couples, and more scientific and reasonable family planning management. The conference was sponsored by the State Family Planning Commission. The program offered the opportunity to exchange experiences in implementing urban family planning programs. The first conference was held in Shanghai in 1992. Significant changes have taken place over the past 10 years. There is now a low birth rate, a low rate of natural increase, and changes in attitudes toward fertility. Family planning is a voluntary practice. The urban population has experienced improvements in the quality of life. People demand more and better services and services for maternal and child health and reproductive health. The process of urbanization is accelerating as more people move to cities and towns and new towns are formed. An increasing number of workers are engaged in joint-venture businesses and in the private sector.

  12. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  13. Comprehensive understanding of "truth of China's family planning practices".

    PubMed

    Zhou, P

    1986-12-01

    This is an account of the tour by 25 U.S. Congressmen to the Peoples' Republic of China in November 1986 to determine the degree of coercion in the family planning program. 1st, the delegates attended a conference in Beijing, introducing the family planning program in China, lead by the minister of the China State Family Planning Commission. Then they had talks with researchers at the Population Research Centre. The group split up and some inspected the Nanjing Institute of Family Planning Management. Others went to Shanghai and visited the International Peace Hospital of Maternity and Child Care. 2 delegates travelled to a rural community in Jiangsu Province. Thus, the congressmen and women got a wide exposure of central authorities and local organizations. A spokesman for the Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee emphasized that the few incidents of coercion were exceptions, contrary to policy, and greatly spectacularized in the western press. Some cases were merely a variety of management style, and were dealt with by admonition. Women usually go for abortions on their own request. Those who have unplanned births are subject to social pressure and taxation. China's population policy must be respected as it is designed to meet her particular needs. PMID:12341212

  14. The Impact of Child and Family Team Composition on Wraparound Fidelity: Examining Links between Team Attendance Consistency and Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamaro Munsell, Eylin; Cook, James R.; Kilmer, Ryan P.; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Strompolis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature has examined wraparound implementation and fidelity, child and family team (CFT) members' levels of participation and the consistency of their attendance have not been systematically examined. This study explored the relationship between CFT member attendance consistency and the fidelity of wraparound team…

  15. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  16. CONSUMERS' INTENTION TO ATTEND SOCCER EVENTS: APPLICATION AND EXTENSION OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Eddosary, Melfy; Ko, Yong Jae; Sagas, Michael; Kim, Hee Youn

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify important factors of consumers' intention to attend professional soccer events among Saudi Arabian soccer fans. To explore the decision-making process of this relatively understudied population, the theory of planned behavior was used as theoretical background. Particularly, this study measured the effect of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (time and money), and game importance on intention to attend, and examined the moderating role of commitment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using 231 Saudi university students (M = 21.9 yr., SD = 1.21) indicate that attitude and game importance were significantly related to attendance intention. The effect of subjective norms was significant only for the low commitment group and game importance was more important for the low than the high commitment group. PMID:26241095

  17. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, T V

    1985-01-01

    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  18. [Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Hou, W

    1985-07-29

    This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards.

  19. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  20. Population policy and family planning.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  1. Barriers to effective family planning in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Schuler, S R; McIntosh, E N; Goldstein, M C; Pande, B R

    1985-01-01

    To investigate why family planning (FP) services in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal are underused, a study was initiated under the auspices of the Nepal Family Planning/Maternal--Child Health Project. The study was intended to provide a user perspective, by examining interactions between FP clinic staff and their clientele. "Simulated" clients were sent to 16 FP clinics in Kathmandu to request information and advice. The study revealed that in the impersonal setting of a family planning clinic, clients and staff fall into traditional, hierarchical modes of interaction. In the process, the client's "modern" goal of limiting her family size is subverted by the service system that was created to support this goal. Particularly when status differences are greatest, that is, with lower-class and low caste clients, transmission of information is inhibited.

  2. Behavior change strategies for family planning.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Estey, J D

    1992-10-01

    The technology of behavior modification is central to most family planning and population control strategies. Positive, differential and negative reinforcement, usually cast in terms of 'incentives' and 'disincentives', have been applied to promoting child spacing and contraceptive use throughout the developing world. A wide variety of options are available to program planners interested in decreased birth rates, increased contraceptive use and/or birth spacing, and general promotion of family planning behavior. Given the tremendous problems with overpopulation and maternal/child health in developing nations today, behavior modification techniques are proposed specifically as the most effective way to motivate behavior change in the area of birth planning. These techniques also provide a useful framework with which to classify current family planning strategies and maximize their overall effectiveness. Given the powerful potential of this technology, understanding relevant ethical considerations and limitations is of paramount importance.

  3. STD services in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Cole, L; Finger, W R

    1994-12-01

    Few family planning programs provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Yet, more and more policymakers and program managers are thinking of ways that family planning programs can address reproductive health needs, including STDs. Family planning programs that have already added STD services now operate in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, and Jamaica. Most of them concentrate on STD/AIDS preventive services: providing information, counseling, and promoting condom use. Some programs also provide STD management services. A family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, gradually integrated STD services into its program. It first provided clients with information about STDs, then nurses were trained to diagnose and treat STDs, and last the clinic began receiving STD drugs. This clinic targets low-income workers and groups at high risk for HIV infection. It has 60 outreach volunteers working in bars, brothels, and small shops. During September 1991-March 1994, 57% of clients used condoms. The nurses use a syndromic approach to decide on what treatment to use for STD patients. Since some women do not have obvious STD symptoms, laboratories and microscopes are used to make an accurate diagnosis. A considerable outlay of funds is needed for extensive training in STD diagnosis and treatment, but ending the cycle of infection saves money. Concerns about contraceptive effectiveness of barrier methods keep family planning programs from promoting condom use. Another obstacle to integrating STD services into family planning programs is that most programs focus on women. Clinics should encourage couples to be together for family planning and STD counseling. They can also direct educational materials to men. Other challenges include the difficulty of diagnosing STDs in women, expensive and often unavailable STD drugs, reinfection by partners who do not receive treatment, and lack of power to insist on condom use.

  4. Teaching family planning management and evaluation skills.

    PubMed

    Gorosh, M E; Helbig, D W; Revson, J E

    1980-01-01

    In the last several years the need for training schemes in family planning programme administration has become increasingly apparent with the rapid growth of family planning services throughout the world. This paper reports on the development and use of a series of 16 practical classroom training exercises designed for teaching planning, management and evaluation skills. Each exercise can be introduced, worked and discussed in a morning or an afternoon. It is available in an individual booklet, which contains worksheets, blank tables and step-by-step instructions for working the exercise, along with a discussion of the skills being taught. Topics covered include demographic rates and concepts, the Dryfoos-Polgar-Varkey formula, risk factor analysis, target-setting, case load forecasting, service statistics, contraceptive supplies, manpower planning, couple-year of protection, cost-effectiveness, contraceptive use-effectiveness, life table techniques, numerator analysis, fertility pattern method, sampling methods and questionnaire design. These curriculum materials concentrate on imparting through the medium of actual experience a series of specific management techniques of a quantitative nature that will enhance the ability of the trainees to plan, administer and evaluate any family planning programme anywhere in the world. The exercises in this series have been tested in the family planning training programmes at Columbia University and at Downstate Medical Center in New York. They have also been used in WHO workshops in Thailand and Tanzania and in training programmes in France, Kenya and Nicaragua.

  5. [Medical and social considerations of family planning].

    PubMed

    Slocker De Arce, C

    1983-01-01

    The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of

  6. Family planning programs and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Cuca, R

    1980-01-01

    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  7. Funding for international family planning attacked.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1997-08-01

    US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas.

  8. Communication and family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, M R

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of 46 posters from 27 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa allowed the values conveyed by this medium to be defined, the status of the announcer and the recipient to be clarified, and their relationship and the attendant social consequences to be brought out. One of the primary characteristics of this sample was that the vast majority of the posters contained drawings and only a limited number used photos. The family was the theme most commonly represented by the image and the text: information on family planning necessarily involved the family, the synonym of fertility. The majority of posters represented the traditional, nuclear family of the Western world, comprising the father, mother, and children. It was interesting to observe that this image did not necessarily reflect reality in Africa, where traditionally the extended family, including the grandparents, uncles and aunts, is more widespread. The message most commonly conveyed the image of the nuclear family. The number of children shown varied from 1 to 4, with an average of 2. The most widely used message strategies in this sample of posters involved three types of announcer: authoritarian, nonauthoritarian, and character announcer. The authoritarian type announcer was not visually depicted but consisted of messages that were written orders or threats. The nonauthoritarian announcer, also not depicted, gave messages that contained no orders or threats. The character announcer was one the characters portrayed in the picture. PMID:12319939

  9. Integrating family planning education: the realistic alternative.

    PubMed

    1976-10-17

    In the past few years, it has begun to be understood that family planning involves more than making supplies available. It is important to build family planning concepts into an access network. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in its effort to have a new concept accepted by rural societies, has begun to use more modern methods of communication - agricultural extension agents, maternal and child health personnel, nutrition specialists, radios, and advertising. It is also recognized that an educational experience is often essential in that for many people acceptance of family planning concepts and subsequent behavior change is also a process that inherently involves problem solving. Part of the present task is to legitimize a new approzch to a very old need. Family planning is not primarily a medical problem, but rather a personal, social, and educational issue, and information and services need to be brought to the people where they live, work, and gather for social and leisure time activities. Along with new community communication approaches, there needs to be new initiatives in the field of distribution. Linking family planning to other developmental programs is both a logical and a necessary step for the IPPF. There is no 1 approach for integrating family planning into the whole process of social change and development. Many associations have, however, taken action to link their activities to those of others. 1 of the secondary effects of the integrated approach is the opening up of new horizons for the associations. The opportunity arises for a recommitment to social reform. Although in the short term, it is expected that the linking of activies will prove expensive in terms of developing manpower resources, in the long run it is anticipated that the results will prove to be cost-effective.

  10. Integrating family planning education: the realistic alternative.

    PubMed

    1976-10-17

    In the past few years, it has begun to be understood that family planning involves more than making supplies available. It is important to build family planning concepts into an access network. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in its effort to have a new concept accepted by rural societies, has begun to use more modern methods of communication - agricultural extension agents, maternal and child health personnel, nutrition specialists, radios, and advertising. It is also recognized that an educational experience is often essential in that for many people acceptance of family planning concepts and subsequent behavior change is also a process that inherently involves problem solving. Part of the present task is to legitimize a new approzch to a very old need. Family planning is not primarily a medical problem, but rather a personal, social, and educational issue, and information and services need to be brought to the people where they live, work, and gather for social and leisure time activities. Along with new community communication approaches, there needs to be new initiatives in the field of distribution. Linking family planning to other developmental programs is both a logical and a necessary step for the IPPF. There is no 1 approach for integrating family planning into the whole process of social change and development. Many associations have, however, taken action to link their activities to those of others. 1 of the secondary effects of the integrated approach is the opening up of new horizons for the associations. The opportunity arises for a recommitment to social reform. Although in the short term, it is expected that the linking of activies will prove expensive in terms of developing manpower resources, in the long run it is anticipated that the results will prove to be cost-effective. PMID:12334591

  11. Interaction and family planning in the french urban family.

    PubMed

    Michel, A

    1967-06-01

    During the last two years, a survey about interaction in the couple has been conducted among 550 urban families in France by the National Center for Scientific Research, with the assistance of the United States Public Health Service. The data given here are relative to the importance of the couple's interaction in the realization of family planning goals.These data are used to answer the question, are socioeconomic variables (husband's level of education, occupation, and income, for example) more closely correlated with the success of the couple's family planning than are the variables of positive interaction (agreement, communication, and equality in decision-making, for example)?While the Indianapolis study has not answered this question, the Puerto Rican study has shown that freedom of the wife and communication between spouses were more closely connected with the success of family planning than were the husband's level of education or income. But, one might think that this result was linked to the Puerto Rican sample, in which the levels of income and education were generally low.The French survey, undertaken with a random sample stratified according to the socioeconomic level of the husband, shows that this last hypothesis is not true. Just as in the Puerto Rican study, the factors of positive interaction in the couple are more closely associated with the success of family planning-particularly with the eradication of excessive fertility-than with socioeconomic variables. These results show the importance of the couple's education as a determining factor in a successful family planning program.

  12. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  13. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  14. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  15. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  16. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  17. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  18. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  19. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    PubMed

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J

    1973-07-01

    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.

  20. Serving the people stressed in family planning.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    There are 9 districts and 7 townships under the jurisdiction of Yuxi City in the Yunnan Province with a population of more than 280,000. The agricultrual population accounts for 85.3% and minority nationalities represent 11.6%. In the past few years, family planning has been carried out in an earnest way in Yuxi City. The natural population growth rate dropped from 17.5 per 1000 in the 1970s to 9 per 1000 in 1984 and the proportion of the 3rd or higher parity births dropped from 34% in 1979 to 2.14% in 1984. The workers of the Family Planning Committee of the Yuxi City program provide good service for family planning in 7 aspects; 1) publicity service; 2) economic aid for single-children households; 3) technical service for birth control; 4) welfare service; 5) health service; 6) service for infertile couples; and 7) nurseries, kindergartens and homes for the aged.

  1. Family planning for women with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.

  2. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy. PMID:12295519

  3. Population and family planning in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J

    1994-01-01

    As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys.

  4. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B

    1983-12-01

    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by

  5. A new and promising agenda. Substantial family planning cooperation among countries and regions under the Islamic culture and religion will be developed.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1996-01-01

    The two-day Family Health and Family Planning in Islam Conference was held in Ankara, Turkey, during November 1995 to charge family planning promotion in countries and regions of Islamic culture by discussing all matters related to family planning based upon the authentic and authoritative interpretation of family planning in Islam. In his speech before 300 religious and family planning leaders of countries and regions under Islamic culture and religion, Dr. Mohammed S. Tantawi, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, stressed that Islam is a religion supportive of family planning. Tantawi stressed the lack of a contradiction between family planning and Muslims' faith and belief in destiny. His timely message was welcomed by all conference attendants because of its clear endorsement of family planning. Religious support has been very important in promoting family planning in Islamic countries and regions. PMID:12347303

  6. Family planning programmes in other countries.

    PubMed

    Schweigart, D

    1974-10-01

    The relatively rapid growth of the populations of some countries and of the world as a whole has emphasized the problem of the interrelationship between demographic growth and change and economic and social development and the need for family planning programs. Since World War 2 family planning programs with either major or minimal government involvement have been initiated. The target populations of these programs are usually women or couples in the fertile age groups. Offering contraception, sterilization, and in some instances abortion, the aim is to assist and/or influence this population to adopt the small family norm. Although the family planning programs differ depending upon the level of socioeconomic development and size of the specific country, some or all of the following actions are in operation: 1) acquisition and maintenance of buildings and equipment; 2) staffing of clinics and administrative offices and recruitment and training of personnel; 3) setting of targets as to the number of persons to be reached by the program and their recruitment; 4) provision of medical, social, and other services related to the use of contraceptives or other methods of birth control; 5) provision for supply and distribution of contraceptives to be used; 6) development of effective communications to spread information and develop motivation; 7) distribution of financial and other resources at local, regional, and national levels; 8) record-keeping; 9) processing, publishing, and feeding back of information to personnel; 10) evaluation of staff performance and of the program. In type the programs are either the conventional family planning model, typically used around the world, that integrates family planning with other health services or operates as an independent unit, or the extended model that has as its core the maternal child health unit combining family planning with other maternal and child health services. Success of these programs depends on the activities

  7. [What can be expected of family planning?].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1989-04-01

    Growing concern over Rwanda's rapid demographic growth and the development of a family planning program beginning around 1981 have so far had little practical effect on the number of births. Significant mortality reductions resulting from vaccination programs and other development projects may mean that population growth has actually accelerated instead of slowing. Most Rwandans still have the strongly pronatalist attitudes appropriate to an environment with high infant and general mortality rates, small populations, abundant land resources, and a need for manpower and old age security. Lack of services, fear of side effects, and rumors have also hampered acceptance of family planning. Rwanda is 95% rural, but rapid population growth is outstripping agricultural resources. Already in 1984 the average family plot was only .88 hectare, and by the year 2000 it will be half that size. Young people denied employment in agriculture will seek jobs in industry and commerce, but there too the possibilities of absorption are limited. The best employment opportunities will probably be available to the best educated. Between 1962-85, the rate of school enrollment of children aged 7-14 increased from 55-60%, but the total enrollment increased by 150% because of the increased number of children. Acceptance of family planning by substantial numbers of couples will mean significant savings in education. The savings in primary education alone would significantly offset expenditures for family planning. A large part of the funding for family planning in Rwanda is contributed as foreign aid, which could not easily be converted to other development projects, as some critics demand. A more moderate rate of population growth would also mean less expenditure on imports of food and other goods, on health care, on housing, and in all areas where population size is a factor in determining needs. Less reliance on imported food will enable Rwanda to preserve its autonomy. The rising pregnancy

  8. A call for a family planning surge

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

  9. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  10. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  11. Career and Family Plans of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Susan B.

    Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

  12. New family planning priorities in Russia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, F

    1994-01-01

    October 1991 to May 1994 in Russia was a period of significant political, social, and economic change. Over this period, however, administrators recognized the importance of sexual health issues in the health and fertility of women and decided to encourage family planning. Family planning services are organized at the city level by the Ministry of Health and are generally managed by gynecologists. Doctors are taught by lecture. Further, contraceptive supplies are extremely limited in many areas. The first priority of the country's family planning program is to improve the availability of reliable, safe contraceptives. Sex education must then be provided to young people and adults, the media should be used to disseminate information, the role of nurses in family planning should be expanded, and practitioners should be made more aware of methods of postcoital birth control. Much has been achieved over the three years. Donors and foreign advisors must continue to provide support in training and ideas, share experiences, and provide necessary supplies until Russia's contraception production capacity and industry can go it alone.

  13. [The challenges of the family planning program].

    PubMed

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

    1991-01-01

    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  14. [The challenges of the family planning program].

    PubMed

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

    1991-01-01

    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  15. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  16. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  17. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  18. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  19. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  20. Planning Ahead: College Seniors' Concerns about Work-Family Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Steele, Jennifer

    Recent research suggests that working men experience as much work-family conflict as women do. More men are doing housework and childcare, and feel that family is as important as their work. An attempt was made to determine how college seniors view their potential for managing work-family conflict. College students (N=324) attending a private…

  1. China's first family planning publicity month.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1983-05-01

    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  2. Integrating family planning with other social services.

    PubMed

    Bernales, E H

    1982-01-01

    Family planning outreach workers in the 43 municipalities of Iloilo Province, Western Visayas, the Philippines, have provided their communities with health, nutrition, educational, and agricultural services since 1973, when the Provincial Development Staff (PDS) began attempting to integrate services. The early work of the PDS was aided by the launching of the National Population and Family Planning Outreach Project in rural areas in 1976 and the creation of the Provincial Population Office (PPO) in 1977. 43% of the Outreach Project cost is borne by the local government, with the Commission on Population covering the rest. It is anticipated that the local goverment will eventually absorb the full cost. The Outreach officers have become an integral part of the planning body of the provincial government, largely due to the creation of the Provincial Consultative Committee on Population (PCCP) in 1979. The PCCP, composed of 22 governmental and private agencies involved in population-related activities, is charged with implementing the national population program in order to utilize all possible resources for provincial development. Its Integrated Provincial Population Plan has become part of the total provincial development plan. The Municipal Population Planning Actions Teams, whose functions are patterned on those of the PCCPs, further strengthen local planning at the municipal level. Full-Time Outreach Workers participate as well in planning at the barangay level. The various community-based projects initiated by the Outreach staff in Iloilo demonstrate a concern with making the population program responsive to the immediate needs of the provincial population. Organizations which teach better farming methods and undertake community projects emphasize local initiative and solutions to problems, and demonstrate the committment of population workers to broader development efforts. Outreach workers are involved in primary health care, social service delivery, income

  3. 76 FR 49764 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit and Entegry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5...

  4. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam.

  5. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

  6. Family planning: a human right for women.

    PubMed

    Ogbuagu, S C

    1990-01-01

    Cultural factors determining the low rate of contraceptive practice in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined, using data concerning 164 women in Cross-River State, Nigeria. Results indicate that cultural mores prevent these women from exercising their rights to education, employment, and community participation and keep them from an awareness of family planning options. The author suggests that this is accomplished in part by placing the entire burden of child rearing upon the mother. (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  7. Guns or butter, family planning or widgets?

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-02-01

    In January 1992 Congress returned from its Christmas recess to begin wrestling with the upcoming year's federal budget. The Budget Enforcement Act places absolute limits on the amounts Congress can appropriate for domestic programs, international assistance, and defense spending. Unless the president declares an emergency, Congress has no flexibility to adjust the $293 billion defense allocation in favor of domestic or international assistance. For the next few years, spending for the military would account for about 55% of all discretionary spending. The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations subcommittee has a predetermined slice of the $222 billion domestic allocation. The subcommittee must then decide how to subdivide its slice among employment programs, education assistance, and health care, which includes domestic family planning programs. Similarly, the foreign operations subcommittee slices up a small $20 billion for international assistance. Some will go for economic aid, some for development assistance, including international family planning programs. And, about 30% of the international aid budget will go to military assistance to foreign governments. The massive shifts on the international scene and an uncertain domestic economy are forcing a reconsideration of this iron-clad budget agreement. Consequently, efforts to nullify the budget agreement are underway. Over 100 organizations and church groups have formed a coalition calling on Congress and the administration to reorder fiscal priorities so that resources can be redirected toward worthwhile domestic and international programs. Worldwide, the demand for contraceptive services is increasing, yet the US spends only about $300 million for population assistance per year, about the same as it was 20 years ago. But policy makers are finally beginning to understand that the costs of Title X, international family planning, and providing quality family planning services are far less

  8. Developing family planning nurse practitioner protocols.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J W; Roberto, D

    1984-01-01

    This article focuses on the process of development of protocols for family planning nurse practitioners. A rationale for the use of protocols, a definition of the types and examples, and the pros and cons of practice with protocols are presented. A how-to description for the development process follows, including methods and a suggested tool for critique and evaluation. The aim of the article is to assist nurse practitioners in developing protocols for their practice.

  9. The Indonesian national family planning program.

    PubMed

    Reese, T H

    1975-11-01

    With a change in the Indonesian government in 1965 there came a change in government policy from pronatalist to limiting the birthrate. In January 1970 the government National Family Planning Cordinating Body was established. During the initial phase of the program family planning efforts have been limited to the islands of Java and Bali where family planning services are integrated into health service clinics. By the beginning of 1975 there were some 2400 clinics on Java and Bali. Family planning acceptors increased from 53,100 in 1969 to 1.5 million in 1974. The 1st phase of the program aimed at consolidating government support, winning local formal and informal leader support, introducing services into public clinic health systems, and building a viable administrative organization. The 2nd phase of the program has quantified the goal of the program, shifted from an emphasis on new acceptors to continuing users, broadened the participation of various government and nongovernmental groups, expanded the program into the private sector, and initiated a research and development program to stimulate local problem identification and resolution. By mid-1975 over 4.7 million women, or 34% of the married women between the ages of 15 and 44, had been recruited into the program. The East Java program has consistently been the most cost effective in terms of recruiting new acceptors. In terms of cost per couple year of protection, the trend has been steadily downward over the 3 years of study in the provinces of Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali where there are programs. The program needs to develop new approaches for those individuals who are not yet acceptors. Additionally, the program must concentrate on user continuation.

  10. Guns or butter, family planning or widgets?

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-02-01

    In January 1992 Congress returned from its Christmas recess to begin wrestling with the upcoming year's federal budget. The Budget Enforcement Act places absolute limits on the amounts Congress can appropriate for domestic programs, international assistance, and defense spending. Unless the president declares an emergency, Congress has no flexibility to adjust the $293 billion defense allocation in favor of domestic or international assistance. For the next few years, spending for the military would account for about 55% of all discretionary spending. The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations subcommittee has a predetermined slice of the $222 billion domestic allocation. The subcommittee must then decide how to subdivide its slice among employment programs, education assistance, and health care, which includes domestic family planning programs. Similarly, the foreign operations subcommittee slices up a small $20 billion for international assistance. Some will go for economic aid, some for development assistance, including international family planning programs. And, about 30% of the international aid budget will go to military assistance to foreign governments. The massive shifts on the international scene and an uncertain domestic economy are forcing a reconsideration of this iron-clad budget agreement. Consequently, efforts to nullify the budget agreement are underway. Over 100 organizations and church groups have formed a coalition calling on Congress and the administration to reorder fiscal priorities so that resources can be redirected toward worthwhile domestic and international programs. Worldwide, the demand for contraceptive services is increasing, yet the US spends only about $300 million for population assistance per year, about the same as it was 20 years ago. But policy makers are finally beginning to understand that the costs of Title X, international family planning, and providing quality family planning services are far less

  11. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted.

  12. Health care reform and family planning services.

    PubMed

    Policar, M

    1993-01-01

    With the reforms expected for US health care, the question remains as to the impact on family planning services. Although the focus is on health care finance reform, the mix of patients seen, the incentives for decision making, and the interactions between health care providers will change. Definition of key concepts is provided for universal access, managed competition, and managed care. The position of the obstetrician/gynecologist (Ob/Gyn) does not fit well within the scheme for managed health care, because Ob/Gyns are both primary care providers and specialists in women's health care. Most managed health care systems presently consider Ob/Gyn to be a specialty. Public family planning clinics, which have a client constituency of primarily uninsured women, may have to compete with traditional private sector providers. "Ambulatory health care providers" have developed a reputation for high quality, cost effective preventive health care services; this record should place providers with a range of services in a successful position. Family planning providers in a managed competition system will be at a disadvantage. 3 scenarios possible under managed competition are identified as the best case, out of the mainstream, and most likely. The best case is when primary reproductive health care services, contraception, sexually transmitted disease screening and management, and preventive services are all obtained directly from reproductive health care providers. Under managed care, this means allowing for an additional entry gatekeeper to specialized services. The benefits are to clients who prefer seeing reproductive health care providers first; reproductive services would be separated from medical services. The out of the mainstream scenario would place contraceptive services and other preventive services as outside the mandated benefits. The government would still provide Title X type programs for the indigent. The most likely scenario is one where primary care providers

  13. Research needs in family planning program promotion.

    PubMed

    Cernada, G P

    1984-09-01

    Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is

  14. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  15. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  16. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  17. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  18. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  19. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  20. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  1. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  2. Population problems and family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Uche, C

    1972-01-01

    Focus is on the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about these problems. The position of this writer is that there is definitely a population problem in Africa. Those who take the opposing view support their arguments by looking at the following indicators: population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue by external forces. Few governments have population control policies and/or national family planning programs. These countries include Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic. Currently, governments of black African countries for the greater part either support family planning programs or allow such efforts to exist under private auspices. Of the 35 African countries and territories covered by the United States Agency for International Development report, only the governments of Cameroon, Malagasy, and Malawi have stated explicitly that they want to encourage population growth. In all surveys in East Africa, the ideal family size was more than 5 and generally 6 children. In Ghana and Nigeria, the ideal size was 7 or more. Generally, the ideal family size in Black Africa ranges from 6-8 children, but the influences of urbanization and education in West Africa reduced the ideal family size to between 4 and 6. Abstinence, herbs, and withdrawal are widely known in traditional African society though withdrawal was little used as a contraceptive method. Regarding modern contraceptive methods, the most knowledgeable group is the urban elites. Below the elite, the knowledge level is very low. There is little contraceptive practice in Africa.

  3. Why some family planning program fail.

    PubMed

    1976-04-01

    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355

  4. The Palliative Treatment Plan as a Bone of Contention between Attending Physicians and Nurses.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Wolfgang; Graube, Stefanie; Feichtner, Angelika; Medicus, Elisabeth

    2015-10-16

    Acute vital crisis in end-of-life situations may result in hospitalization and intensive care without recognizable benefit in many cases. Advance directives regarding indications for resuscitation, hospitalization, and symptomatic treatment help ensure that acute complications can be managed quickly and satisfactorily in the patient's customary surroundings. A plan was designed and implemented in Austrian nursing homes to provide emergency physicians with rapidly obtainable information on the patient's current situation, and whether resuscitation attempts and hospitalization are advised or not. This palliative treatment plan is arranged by a physician together with caregivers, close relatives, and the patient or his court-appointed health care guardian or holder of power of attorney. Four years after implementation of the plan, a user satisfaction survey was carried out. The majority of participating nurses, emergency physicians and family doctors judged application and design of the palliative treatment plan positively. However, the low response rate of family doctors indicates nonconformity. In particular, the delegation of symptomatic treatment to nurses proved to be controversial. There is still a need to provide up-to-date information and training for health professionals in order for them to understand advance directives as extended autonomy for patients who have lost their ability to make their own decisions.

  5. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    PubMed

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  6. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  7. Family planning: general practice and clinic services.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, S

    1985-04-01

    The growing trend in the UK toward family planning provision by general practitioners rather than physicians at community family planning clinics has been accompanied by a lack of cooperation and communication--even competition--between these 2 services. In general, clinics provide a wider range of contraceptive methods and personnel are more likely to have special training in counseling for psychosexual problems, abortion, and sterilization. On the other hand, general practitioners are often preferred because of their knowledge of a woman's medical history and longer office hours. Courses to update knowledge about contraception are an important asset for general practitioners. At times, however, it is in the best interests of the patient to be referred to a clinic by a general practitioner. If community clinics are to remain open, they must provide modern contraceptive technology and be able to deal with difficult problems. Pregnancy testing facilities should be available on the premises. Bureaucratic rules that make it difficult for individual clinic physicians to prescribe Depo-Provera, postcoital pills, or IUDs should be abolished. In addition, men should be welcomed. The future of the clinics is further dependent on the establishment of a proper career structure in community health. It is concluded that professionals working in both clinics and general practice should seek to improve their standards and work in greater cooperation.

  8. The Impact of Desired Family Size Upon Family Planning Practices in Rural East Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosena, Patricia Wimberley

    1971-01-01

    Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)

  9. The transition to sustainable family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    USAID, through the matching grant project, provided International Planned Parenthood Federation's Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) funds to increase and strengthen family planning (FP) services in Latin America. Family planning associations (FPAs) were to match any USAID-awarded funds with other funds, supporting efforts to promote sustainability of service delivery. The matching grant was an extremely effective and efficient means to expand access to good quality, voluntary FP services to low income, underserved people. Local income funded about 33% of Matching Grant FPA budgets. USAID and IPPF or other donors shared the other 66%. The Matching Grant FPAs reached the original target of 2.8 million new acceptors. The project was so successful that USAID awarded IPPF/WHR a new 5-year (1992-97) Transition Project. In Latin America and the Caribbean, its goals are to increase people's freedom to choose the number and spacing of their children and to promote a population growth rate appropriate to each country's socioeconomic development goals by helping some FPAs to become sustainable without USAID funding. Strengthening the institutional capacity of FP programs and evaluation of their performance and impact are 2 ways to achieve these goals. BEMFAM/Brazil, PROFAMILIA/Colombia, MEXFAM/Mexico, INPPARES/Peru, APROFA/Chile, CEPEP/Paraguay, AUPFIRH/Uruguay, FPATT/Trinidad and Tobago, PLAFAM/Venezuela, and BFLA/Belize have received matching subcontracts for FP service delivery and sustainability. IPPF/WHR considers Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico to be high-priority countries, largely because they have more than 60% of the population of Latin America. About 81% of Transition Project funds will go to in-country sub-grants and on regional activities, matched on a 1-to-1 basis. 86% of subcontracts will go to Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Technical assistance and funding are also targeted to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention.

  10. The Role of Living-Learning Programs in Women's Plans to Attend Graduate School in STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of living-learning (L/L) programs in undergraduate women's plans to attend graduate school in STEM fields. Using data from the 2004-2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs (NSLLP), the only existing multi-institutional, longitudinal dataset examining L/L program outcomes, the findings show that women's…

  11. Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Female Adolescents in Rural Uganda: The effects of family structure and school attendance

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda; and to determine if the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by adolescents’ school attendance status. Methods The sample consisted of 2,337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Results Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but was significantly associated with outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  12. [Promotion of family planning services: experience of Ruhengeri].

    PubMed

    Binyange, M

    1990-12-01

    The entire population of the prefecture of Ruhengeri has by now been sensitized to the sociodemographic problems of Rwanda. Outstanding results in acceptance of family planning methods have been obtained as a result of promotional efforts: the number of family planning users increased from 7876 in January 1990 to 18,152 the following August. Among the reasons for the success of the family planning program was the decision of the prefect to include integration of the population variable in all communal development programs. In meetings with community officials, the prefect urged that they individually practice family planning and displayed his own family planning consultation card. The prefect met with local groups to discuss reasons for failure of family planning programs and introduced the topic of family planning in specialized groups discussing development topics. Teachers were urged to inform their students of the benefits of family planning both in and outside of schools and to set a good example by adopting family planning. The regional National Office of Population (ONAPO) team composed a song about the objectives of family planning and distributed it in all schools. A day of reflection about family planning was held in May. Some 140,000 parents, teachers, and students exchanged ideas and views about family planning. Meetings at different levels organized in Ruhengeri by ONAPO guaranteed an informal circulation of family planning information. 60 teachers from 3 communes became part of a more formal family planning information network. 6 secondary health posts were created to provide family planning services to couples living too farm from existing facilities and those served by Catholic health centers where family planning was unavailable. In 1 commune, personnel from the sole health center made family planning visits to the population in distant areas. The commune had a contraceptive prevalence of 16% in September 1990. A program to promote contraception

  13. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  14. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  15. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  16. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  17. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  18. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  19. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...

  20. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  1. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in

  2. Main points for 1991 family planning work.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  3. Action now in family planning: the role of nurse.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, A K; Kapur, S

    1984-02-01

    In India, nurses at all organizational levels can play a vital role in the national family planning program. Family planning is an integral component of family welfare, and the control of population growth is crucial for the economic and social development of the country. The goals of the family planning program are to promote the small family ideal, to disseminate family planning information, and to ensure that contraceptive supplies and services are available to all couples. Administrative nurses at the national level can further these goals by 1) advocating appropriate policies and influencing budget allocations, 2) preparing family planning guidelines for state directors of nursing, and 3) ensuring that all senior nurses are provided with in-service family planning education. Administrators in training facilities can ensure that an effective and up-to-date family planning component is a part of all nurses' training programs and that students receive clinical experience in family planning. In hospitals, nursing superintendents can develop family planning seminars and discussion sessions for the nursing staff and provide incentives for nurses to motivate couples toward family planning. Nurses working in pediatric and gynecology wards are in an ideal position to alert mothers to the health problems associated with repeated and closely spaced pregnancies. They can arrange to show family planning films to the mothers, display posters on the ward halls, and organize family planning discussion groups among the patients. Nurses working in prenatal and postpartum clinics can inform the mothers, as well as the factors who frequently accompany their wives to the clinics, about the advantages of family planning. School nurses can familiarize students with the advantages of small family size. Children can sometimes motivate their parents to limit family size. Community health nurses generally play a major role in disseminating contraceptive information and in providing

  4. [Peru: reproductive health, abortion and family planning].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, D

    1994-01-01

    The average number of children per woman in Peru declined from 7 to 3.5 between 1960-65 and 1990-95, but the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey indicates that ideal family size was 2.7. Significant socioeconomic and regional fertility differentials persist. Despite the desire for smaller families, 59% of reproductive-age women use no contraceptive method. The most widely used method in Peru is rhythm. Around 34% of women 15-44 years old, some 2 million women, can be considered insufficiently protected against risks of unwanted pregnancy. The 1991 survey found that 1/3 of women using contraceptive methods had experienced failure of their method, with proportions ranging from 32% for rhythm to 1.2% for IUD. Abortion is illegal in Peru, as in most of Latin America, but is known to be widespread. The recurring public debates about abortion are hampered by lack of reliable data. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) estimate for Peru was based on data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey, official hospital discharge statistics, and a survey of 197 professionals and nonprofessionals. The AGI study reveals that a wide variety of techniques are used to induce abortion. There are the safe, modern methods, such as vacuum aspiration or dilatation and curettage, but the most common methods include inserting a probe or catheter, sometimes pouring toxic fluids into the uterus. Women also insert metal objects into the uterus or herbal suppositories into the vagina. They jump, fall, exercise violently, and take injections. 84% of rural women and 64% of poor urban women attempt to induce the abortion themselves or seek the aid of untrained midwives. 95% of wealthier urban women are attended by health professionals. An estimated 1 in 5 illegal abortions in Peru result in hospitalization. Applying this ratio to the estimated 54,230 hospitalizations for induced abortion in 1989 results in an estimate of 271,150 induced abortions in that year, equivalent to 43% of live births.

  5. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-10-27

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  6. Family planning and AIDS on Yokohama agenda.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    The 10th International Conference on AIDS/International Conference on STD in Yokohama August 7-12, 1994, attracted 12,000 people from 130 countries to consider the expanding AIDS pandemic. A satellite symposium was held the day before the opening of the conference, August 6, also in Yokohama, to bring participants together to focus upon the importance of providing access to oral contraceptives and the necessity of condoms. This symposium was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association. Speakers called for the authorization of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill for Japanese women; greater condom use against HIV and other STDs; expanding the concept of reproductive health to include maternal and child health, the prevention of STDs, and infertility; clinical approaches and care for HIV-infected individuals during pregnancy and labor; and counseling to pregnant HIV-infected women. PMID:12318906

  7. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success.

  8. Men targeted for family planning in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, K

    1992-08-01

    80% of women using contraception in Zambia use oral contraceptives (OCs), yet they often complain about side effects. 66% of people polled at family planning (FP) clinics prefer OCs and 30% chose condoms. Nevertheless only 10% of the 60% of married couples familiar with FP use contraception. This contributes to Zambia having 1 of the highest annual population growth rates in the world (3.4%). The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) thinks that if males become more knowledgeable about FP, the population growth would slow down. At least 60% of men in Zambia approve of their wives using FP, yet they are slow to use male contraception. They say condoms reduce sensation and wives often consider condoms a nuisance. The AIDS epidemic forces men to rethink their views toward condom use, however. Those 30% of men who do use condoms are more likely to use them with their girlfriends or women with whom they are unfamiliar. So they are not using them for FP purposes. Men fear vasectomy because they perceive it to cause impotence. Considerable education to counter this myth is needed to increase the number of vasectomies. Besides some men prefer their wives be sterilized rather than themselves because if the men lose all their children they can have other children with other wives. PPAZ aims programs at men in order to expand their participation and nurture their influence in FP matters. It has a male counseling program serving rural villages along the railroad lines which begin in the northern copper belt and end in urban areas in the south to promote birth spacing. It is working with companies to include FP services in their clinics so men can learn more about FP. FP specialists in Zambia foresee an increase in male support of FP as they realize the difficulty of supporting large families during the economic crises.

  9. Family planning: a basic development need.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century. PMID:12345955

  10. Charging fees for family planning services.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    As the demand for family planning services expands, governments and international donor agencies are finding it increasingly difficult to subsidize the costs of these services and are examining the feasibility of client fees. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" evaluates the pros and cons of charging for services and outlines steps for instituting such a program. This process should be preceded by an assessment of the objective in introducing user fees, the ability and willingness of clients to pay for services, client perceptions of the quality of services, possible regulatory and political restrictions to charging fees, and the actual cost of each service provided. Registration, membership, service, and contraception fees are among the approaches to revenue generation. Fee determination can be based on ability to pay, fees charged for comparable services at benchmark clinics, in relation to the price of common household commodities (e.g., annual membership equivalent to the cost of 12 soft drinks), or specific cost recovery objectives (e.g., 25% of operating costs). The introduction of client fees requires a system for collecting and checking fees at service sites, exemption policies or waivers for those not able to afford the cost of services, internal financial controls, and regular financial reporting procedures. The community has a right to be informed about the fees that will be charged for each service, how the fees are being used, and whether the organization is making a profit. It is important to emphasize that revenue from fees will be used to enhance the quality of clinic services.

  11. The Health Effects of Attending College for Latina Undergraduate Students and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Jill Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective. Latinos are the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. and by 2050 they are estimated to become one quarter of the population, yet only one in ten has a college degree. More Latino women (Latinas) are currently attending college than Latino men. To date research has focused on their experiences and where they obtain support…

  12. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  13. Costs can influence family planning decisions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses research in Cebu, Philippines, that examines the relationship between costs and income and family planning (FP) decisions. Clients weigh the costs and benefits of obtaining FP services. Costs may include the time to purchase supplies, travel to clinics, child care, and lost work time. Women should consider the costs of having more children. Family Health International's Women's Studies Project explored couple's FP decision-making. In Cebu, women play a decisive role in household expenditure decisions. 64% of women made sole decisions about children's shoes and clothing. 43% made decisions about taking children to the doctor. Women consulted husbands for larger expenditures, such as land purchases, hiring household help, and travel outside Cebu. If conflicts arose, 82% reported a mutual final decision, while 12% accepted the husband's judgment. Only 12% of women made sole decisions about FP. About 20% of the sample of women discussed FP with adult females. 25% of the women who consulted their husbands about FP made the final decision when there was conflict. Only 7% reported that the husband's decision was final. A recent follow-up study to a 1983 study finds that price is only one among many factors that affect contraceptive decision-making. Rural women in Cebu reported that the time needed to obtain contraceptives was an important factor in determining their use. A study of 64 women in rural southern India finds that contraceptive prevalence was influenced by women's autonomy rather than income. Women's and children's ages, family size, and birth order affected women's autonomy and access to money. In another related study, Pakistani women had lower fertility rates when wives' unearned income was high. An increase by 25% in unearned income among rural women decreased fertility by one child.

  14. Women need skills, income and family planning.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, K

    1990-01-01

    The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

  15. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vimala Thambypillai

    1982-12-01

    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning.

  16. Unmet need of contraception: a critical juncture toward family planning goals.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Dibakar; Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is the first country in the world to implement a family planning program, and this program has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. In spite of this, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods reflecting an unmet need for contraception. Different communication channels used to disseminate knowledge like television, radio, and newspapers aim to change the family planning methods. Being a didactic method, these have the least potential to change the attitudes of the people. This article represents the tip of the iceberg of the fate arising out of incomplete information provided through mass media not supported by a formal family planning program. One primipara woman after getting pregnant took an emergency contraceptive pill and attended a clinic with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and pallor. Ultimately she underwent suction evacuation and survived. This indicates that mass media should not be a substitute, but rather a supplement to the routine program of the health worker to promote contraception.

  17. The experience of family carers attending a joint reminiscence group with people with dementia: A thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers’ experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending ‘Remembering Yesterday Caring Today’ groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia’s experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers’ experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. PMID:24381218

  18. Contraceptive development and better family planning.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J

    1996-01-01

    Contraception helps many people achieve their desired fertility. Pharmacological or mechanical contraceptive methods by themselves do not lead to successful contraception. Once empowered through education or improved socioeconomic status to realize their ability to limit their family size, women's options are abstinence (including delaying the marriage age), contraception (including surgical sterilization and natural family planning methods), or abortion. Most people in the US trying to avoid pregnancy use surgical sterilization. The reversible methods most used, in order of frequency, are the pill, the condom, and the diaphragm. The 10% of couples who use no method make up slightly more than 50% of unplanned pregnancies, while the 90% of those who use contraception make up the remaining 50% (i.e., contraceptive failures). If used properly, modern contraceptives are very effective. Methods with low failure rates (IUDs, implants, and injectables) are used by only 2% or fewer of US contraceptive users but are more widely used elsewhere. More than 50% of pregnancies in the US are unplanned. Most adolescent pregnancies are unplanned. Contraceptive users account for about 50% of induced abortions. Reducing unwanted pregnancies has helped people achieve their desired fertility and greatly reduces the induced abortion rate. The US has the highest adolescent pregnancy rate in the Western world, partly due to the time lag between initiating sexual activity and initiating contraceptive use. Reasons for unplanned pregnancies among youth include lack of counseling and contraceptive failure. Contraceptive development should focus on improving use-effectiveness. The implant is the newest contraceptive method. A variety of male and female contraceptive methods are currently under study (e.g., immunological methods, postcoital pills, skin methods [patches, creams, and gels], improved IUDs, and improved male condoms). Leaders should consider unplanned pregnancy as a serious public

  19. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems.

  20. A study on immunisation status of children in 1,000 family planning adopted families.

    PubMed

    Bai, K I; Nagabhushanam, B; Sagar, S L

    1978-06-01

    In a survey, conducted in Tirupati, India, information on the immunization status of the children of a random sample of 1000 family planning acceptors were obtained. The children of all the acceptors were protected against smallpox; however, only 81.5% were protected against polio, 57.2% against tuberculosis, and 10.7% against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus. 863 of the family planning acceptors had adopted temporary family planning methods and 137 had chosen sterilization. 750 of the acceptors had 1-3 children and 250 had 4 or more children. Additional efforts should be made to encourage family planning acceptors to have their children immunized. This would help reduce child morbidity and mortality rates in those families in which the parents have decided to limit family size. Tables showed 1) the number and % of acceptors whose children were immunized for each disease by type of family planning method and 2) the distribution of acceptors by income and by parity.

  1. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

  2. Reports on Population/Family Planning, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of empirical findings from postpartum research undertaken to date, particularly in respect to the International Postpartum Family Planning Program established by the Population Council in 1966. It is related to a forthcoming report summarizing findings in the field of family planning evaluation. The…

  3. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  4. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments during 1969 and 1970 in Morocco and Tunisia, and then sets forth 12 criteria that are utilized to evaluate the overall progress of the family planning programs in the two countries. These criteria serve to measure the readiness and prospects for the development of viable family…

  5. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  6. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

  7. Family Planning Services: A Guide for Client Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Regional Family Planning Council, CA.

    This guidebook is designed to assist health workers in the delivery of information and education regarding reproductive health and fertility control to family planning clients. Aspects of services that might be provided by various staff members are suggested. Initially, family planning philosophy from which general operating principles are derived…

  8. Epidemiological studies of natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Gray, R H; Kambic, R T

    1988-07-01

    The prevalence of the use of natural family planning (NFP) can be estimated from sample surveys of married women in the reproductive ages (MWRA). Surveys in developed and developing countries during the past decade indicate that the prevalence of NFP use varies from 0 to 11%. In addition, if one considers NFP use in relation to other contraceptive methods, the percentage of all current contraceptors who use NFP varies from 1 to 35%. This suggests that NFP is an important method in certain countries. Pregnancy rates for NFP vary widely, but most reliable studies report 1-year life-table pregnancy rates between 10 and 25/100 woman-years. The Billings ovulation method consistently has higher pregnancy rates than the sympto-thermal method and NFP users generally have among the highest pregnancy rates compared to other methods. The major safety issue concerning NFP is the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with aged gametes. There are suggestions from a number of investigations that conceptions distant from ovulation have a higher risk of spontaneous abortion and a higher proportion of male births. The findings with respect to birth defects or multiple pregnancies are less consistent, although some studies have reported an increased risk of chromosomal anomalies.

  9. House battles over UN family planning funds.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    The House International Relations Subcommittee on Operations and Human Rights approved HR 1253 by voice vote on April 10, 1997. HR 1253 is a reauthorization of State Department programs for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Republican anti-choice subcommittee chair Chris Smith inserted language which prohibits the State Department from funding the UNFPA, the UN family planning program. The restriction would only be lifted if President Clinton certifies that the UNFPA has ended all activities in China or that no government-coerced abortions have taken place in China during the previous 12 months. Since neither change is likely, the Smith provision would effectively bar the US from funding the UNFPA, even though the agency does not support abortion services. The State Department authorization was then taken up by the full House International Relations Committee as part of HR 1486, a bill which would reorganize foreign policy operations. By a 23-16 vote on May 6, the committee approved an amendment which deleted the Smith provision and instead stipulated that US funds cannot be used for UNFPA programs in China. Pro-choice representative Tom Campbell sponsored the amendment which deleted the Smith provision. President Clinton's proposed budget for fiscal year 1998 also includes the Campbell provision. PMID:12292412

  10. Attending to the Role of Race/Ethnicity in Family Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential…

  11. Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, M A

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the Male Attitude Survey of 1985, this paper shows that Sudanese men play a major role in family planning decision-making. Attitudes regarding family planning issues are presented for 1,500 men aged 18 years and over, living in urban areas of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The decision not to practice family planning is found to be male-dominated, and husbands are responsible for providing contraceptives when family planning is practiced. Widespread misconceptions about vasectomy, along with a very low acceptance rate, exist among the men in the sample. It is concluded that the involvement of men in family planning programs will give these programs a better chance of success in the future. PMID:3176096

  12. The agricultural approach to rural family planning in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Flavier, J M

    1990-12-01

    Overly technical terminology and excessive use of lectures impede effective communication and teaching of family planning in the philippines. To achieve better results in information dissemination, especially in rural areas, the author provides a simple, effective, and interactive approach. The clearly-defined objective of identifying what family planning is and how it works is achieved through the use of analogies between farming and human sexual development. These analogies are jointly-developed in the field by groups of family planning workers and 8-10 men and women from the community. The farmers begin the group process by educating the family planning workers about their local farming practices. The workers then develop parallels between farming and the desired family planning messages. Once initiated, farmers are encouraged to develop and share their own parallels, by they with plants, farm animals, beliefs, or household articles. Better understanding, acceptance, and continuation rates will result from this voluntary, interactive approach.

  13. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.

  14. Promotion of family planning services in practice leaflets.

    PubMed

    Marshall, M N; Gray, D J; Pearson, V; Phillips, D R; Owen, M

    1994-10-01

    Providing 75% of family planning services in the United Kingdom, general practitioners are required to produce leaflets which describe the contraceptive services they provide. The authors analyzed information about family planning provided to clients through practice leaflets. 88% of practice leaflets from the 198 practices in Devon were available from the Devon Family Health Services Authority for analysis. It was determined that the leaflets are not being best used to advertise the range and potential of family planning services. Although all practices in Devon offer contraceptive services, only 90% of leaflets mentioned that the services are available. Reference to postcoital contraception and information about services outside the practice for people who might not want to see their family doctor are also sorely lacking. A clear need exists to provide patients with more information. Finally, the authors found that group practices and those with female partners are most likely to give high priority to family planning issues in their leaflets.

  15. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    Kon, Y

    1986-11-01

    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service. PMID:12314468

  16. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    Kon, Y

    1986-11-01

    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  17. Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

    The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

  18. Family planning management in state-owned enterprises: the case of No. 1 Automobile Group Corporation. Urban family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    This brief report indicates the accomplishments in family planning of the Automobile Group Corporation in northeastern Changchun, China. This industry has 130,000 staff and workers. The State Family Planning Commission of the Jilin Provincial Government and the Changchun City Government gave an award to this company for having the most advanced unit in family planning provision. This corporation was successful in creating population awareness and strong leadership among its executives for practicing family planning. Administrative workers signed contracts for human reproduction and production of automobiles. The family planning policy was strictly followed on a day-to-day basis. The company offered IEC, contraceptives, and benefits to acceptors. The company provides about 3.5 million yuan per year for family planning activities and strives to improve its services. Women workers now receive reproductive health services. The facility includes a hospital, a family planning clinic, and a maternal and child health clinic and is fully equipped with modern medical instruments for diagnosing gynecological conditions. The quality control management system for producing automobiles is applied to family planning management and applied research on marriage and childbirth. There is 100% acceptance of the one-child certificate. Over 90% of workers delayed marriage and childbirth. During the 1970s and 1980s, about 30,000 births were averted. PMID:12320695

  19. Meeting Postpartum Women’s Family Planning Needs Through Integrated Family Planning and Immunization Services: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Dulli, Lisa S; Eichleay, Marga; Rademacher, Kate; Sortijas, Steve; Nsengiyumva, Théophile

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating family planning service components into infant immunization services to increase modern contraceptive method use among postpartum women. Methods The study was a separate sample, parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial. Fourteen randomly selected primary health facilities were equally allocated to intervention (integrated family planning and immunization services at the same time and location) and control groups (standard immunization services only). At baseline (May–June 2010), we interviewed postpartum women attending immunization services for their infant aged 6 to 12 months using a structured questionnaire. A separate sample of postpartum women was interviewed 16 months later after implementation of the experimental health service intervention. We used linear mixed regression models to test the study hypothesis that postpartum women attending immunization services for their infants aged 6–12 months in the intervention facilities will be more likely to use a modern contraceptive method than postpartum women attending immunization services for their infants aged 6–12 months in control group facilities. Results We interviewed and analyzed data for 825 women from the intervention group and 829 women from the control group. Results showed the intervention had a statistically significant, positive effect on modern contraceptive method use among intervention group participants compared with control group participants (regression coefficient, 0.15; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.26). Although we conducted a 1-sided significance test, this effect was also significant at the 2-sided test with alpha = .05. Among those women who did not initiate a contraceptive method, awaiting the return of menses was the most common reason cited for non-use of a method. Women in both study groups overwhelmingly supported the concept of integrating family planning

  20. [Conscientious and responsible demographic family planning].

    PubMed

    Bernardo, F

    1997-01-01

    The present age is characterized by real contradictions: a dangerous population explosion in poor countries and the drastic reduction of fertility in developed countries. In Portugal, average fertility equals 1.5 children for married couples. The Catholic Church has developed criteria of conscientious and responsible fertility policies for couples. Some of these aspects are: 1) the service of human life is a conjugal and social responsibility; 2) conscientious and responsible family planning should always occur within the context of an attitude that promotes and restricts the capacity of married couples; 3) the proper regulation of fertility for married couples should avoid the two extremes: egoism and childlessness or lack of concern about the number of children; 4) fertility should be considered in the context of human completeness, which includes health, relative autonomy, access to culture, and a productive life that fits individual aspirations as well as the needs of the community; 5) each couple should resort to certain criteria in terms of maturity and intellectual, affective, social, economic, and educational capacity; 6) ethical criteria apply to contraceptive methods used for married couples; 7) married couples need to respect each other to overcome the risk of infidelity and the breakdown of the marriage; 8) on a regular basis, contraceptive methods should be evaluated and changed for the best compatibility; 9) although natural methods are considered a utopia, tracking the fertile period leads to the use of such methods; 10) married couples need pertinent information for making the right choice; and 11) assistance to single mothers should stress the avoidance of abortion.

  1. The relationship between treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome in a caregiver-mediated intervention for low-resourced families of young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Carr, Themba; Shih, Wendy; Lawton, Kathy; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Rates of participation in intervention research have not been extensively studied within autism spectrum disorder. Such research is important given the benefit of early intervention on long-term prognosis for children with autism spectrum disorder. The goals of this study were to examine how family demographic factors predicted treatment attendance and adherence in a caregiver-mediated randomized controlled trial targeting core deficits of autism spectrum disorder, and whether treatment attendance and adherence predicted outcome. In all, 147 caregiver-child dyads from a low-resourced population were randomized to in-home caregiver-mediated module or group-based caregiver education module treatment. Treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome (time spent in joint engagement) were the primary outcome variables. The majority of families who entered treatment (N = 87) maintained good attendance. Attendance was significantly predicted by socioeconomic status, site, and treatment condition. Families in caregiver-mediated module reported lower levels of treatment adherence, which was significantly predicted by site, condition, caregiver stress, and child nonverbal intelligence quotient. Dyads in caregiver-mediated module had significantly longer interactions of joint engagement, which was significantly predicted by an interaction between treatment attendance and condition. Overall, the results from this study stress the importance of considering demographic variables in research design when considering barriers to treatment attendance and adherence.

  2. [Familial choices and procreative behavior of the clientele of familial planning centers].

    PubMed

    Texier, G

    1972-01-01

    This is the final article in a series on a survey of 710 couples who consulted for family planning in Lyons and Paris in 1968, Agreement before marriage on planned family size was correlated with success in achieving this plan, especially in the young, well educated, and in rightists. The number of children was directly related to desired family size, but a large proportion of those without a plan had uuplanned children. Factors tending toward larger desired family size were religious practice, higher education, and income. Factors associated with larger existing families were lower education and income, religous practice, female unemployment, longer duration of marriage, and use of traditional contrceptive methods. Among those with only elementary education, the proportion with 3 or more children remained constant with rising income, but among those with postsecondary education the proportion of large families was closely correlated with income. Couples who considered their families complete or who considered their family planning successful were overrepresented by the well educated, while couples with incomplete families or characterized by imperfect planning were more often secondary school graduates. Success in family planning was only apparent in many cases, since these results were often achieved by abortion. PMID:4636768

  3. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  4. [How to channel public funds to private family planning programs].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1993-12-01

    Funds available for family planning programs throughout the world are increasingly scarce, but the need for investment in family planning is enormous. Government and private donors must be selective in their assignment of resources. The countries with the most obvious need for family planning investment are usually underdeveloped, while countries whose family planning programs have proven their capacity to utilize investments to the fullest tend to be more developed. Although it may appear that priority should be given to countries with the greatest need, several factors may reduce the return on such investments. The long experience of Profamilia in Colombian family planning suggests some criteria that should help orient decisions on resource allocation. Programs that provide a significant share of their country's family planning services should receive preference. Programs that are able to use the funds in a timely and efficient manner through good administration and elimination of unnecessary expenses, and programs oriented directly to provision of family planning services should be supported. The funds provided to each program should be managed with complete integrity, open and comprehensible in any audit or inspection. An additional criterion is that programs that have demonstrated significant self-sufficiency are deserving of continued support.

  5. Family planning. A most effective preventive health measure.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J

    1984-06-01

    Family planning is widely regarded as among the most effective of preventive health measures and can contribute to break the vicious cycle of infection, malnutrition, and uncontrolled fertility widespread among mothers and children in the Third World. Significant achievements have been scored in the past 2 decades in educating people about the health implications of reproduction and providing contraceptive services to those who want them. Increasing numbers of women in developing countries are aware of the advantages of fewer and better spaced children. However, this awareness is often not reflected in practice. Only 2/% of women in developing countries, compared with 70% in developed countries, practice family planning. This situation is considered serious in view of the fact that the number of couples in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania who require contraceptive protection will double to 1 billion by the year 2000. The gap between awareness and practice reflects numerous factors, including nonavailability of services, inaccurate knowledge about family planning, and women's oppression. Overcoming the cultural, economic, and social barriers to family planning requires sensitive and diverse communication strategies. High-level political support, village-based community programs, a high level of female education, and a well-developed primary health care system have contributed to the success of family planning efforts. Since family planning to a large extent reflects individual decision making, attention should be directed toward the role of fieldworkers and local family planning acceptors in influencing others to adopt contraception. PMID:6469252

  6. A Plan for Improving Student Attendance at Brownsville Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Walter E.

    A project to raise the percentage of student attendance to 95 percent or above was initiated at Brownsville Junior High in Miami, Florida. The school is geographically located in a low socioeconomic area and the students are 80 percent black. The program included the use of community resources and incentives of frisbees, yo-yos, t-shirts,…

  7. Attending to Relationships: Attachment Formation within Families of Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Samantha L.

    2009-01-01

    The child-caregiver relationship has long been recognized as crucial to social-emotional functioning and later development. Specifically, the consistency with which caregivers interact with young children in warm, supportive ways is related to optimal early development. This may be especially critical in the families formed by international…

  8. Zambian population policy and the Integrated Family Planning Project.

    PubMed

    Kaunda, K D

    1989-12-01

    In his speech at the 2nd African Conference on the Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition and Parasite Control Project (PANFRICO) held in Lusaka, Zambia on March 7-13, 1989, Zambian president, Kenneth D. Kaunda stated that rapid increase in population severely affected socio- economic growth in Africa. He also stated that adolescent pregnancies inhibit the contribution of women in Africa to socio-economic development. As adolescents have little knowledge of or access to family planning, this increases the rate of maternal and infant mortality. Lack of data available to young people, in addition to lack of data on the trends of young people, have increased the government's ignorance of present situations and the adolescent ignorance of family planning. Personal and religious beliefs have also interfered with implementing radical programs which would encourage adolescents to seek family planning. In order to overcome these obstacles, attention needs to be focused on the 4 following area: providing family education and family planning counseling; provide educational and employment opportunities as alternatives to adolescent pregnancy; increase population awareness of fertility related problems facing teens; and providing all types of support for programs aimed at young women. Counseling is the most popular and widely accepted service provided by family planning organizations, through counseling and distribution of educational material more couples are expected to be reached. Welfare support and employment opportunities may help women space their births while keeping down infant mortality rates. In Africa, Zambia, as well, population rates have far out grown socio-economic development. Governments have responded by stepping up family planning efforts by integrating family planning organization with health ministries.

  9. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  10. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive people’s clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Results Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). Conclusion HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings

  11. Massive drive to reenergize the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Kakar, V N

    1979-01-01

    A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490

  12. Deworming/family planning project launched on estate.

    PubMed

    Siva, V

    1979-01-01

    A deworming/family planning project funded by JOICFP was successfully initiated in Kerling Estate, Kuala Kubu Bahru, Malaysia. Rapport between estate management, workers, and the National Family Planning Board helped establish the project. A recent Gotong-Royong or community self-help project had encouraged enthusiasm among workers to clean up the estate. Mothers were exhorted to plan their families and devote attention to the health and welfare of the children. The need for parents to understand the causes of infestation and educate their children to wear slippers or shoes and develop good toilet habits was emphasized by Dr. Nor Laily Aziz. Continuing National Family Planning Board and Government support was pledged.

  13. Culture and the management of family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Warwick, D P

    1988-01-01

    Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022

  14. Voluntary, human rights-based family planning: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Hardee, Karen; Kumar, Jan; Newman, Karen; Bakamjian, Lynn; Harris, Shannon; Rodríguez, Mariela; Brown, Win

    2014-03-01

    At the 2012 Family Planning Summit in London, world leaders committed to providing effective family planning information and services to 120 million additional women and girls by the year 2020. Amid positive response, some expressed concern that the numeric goal could signal a retreat from the human rights-centered approach that underpinned the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Achieving the FP2020 goal will take concerted and coordinated efforts among diverse stakeholders and a new programmatic approach supported by the public health and human rights communities. This article presents a new conceptual framework designed to serve as a path toward fulfilling the FP2020 goal. This new unifying framework, which incorporates human rights laws and principles within family-planning-program and quality-of-care frameworks, brings what have been parallel lines of thought together in one construct to make human rights issues related to family planning practical.

  15. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  16. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?

    PubMed

    Stemerding, B

    1992-01-01

    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  17. [A broadcast on family planning in Hefeng County].

    PubMed

    Chen, D

    1985-07-29

    New ideas for the promotion of family planning among distant regions is the objective of this report which states that rural communities lack effective means of communication mainly due to poor transportation facilities, a serious illiteracy problem, and the fact that in certain regions, households are virtually inaccesible because of mountainous terrain. Such is the situation in He Feng County, Hubei Province, in southern central China. It has a population of 180,000 people composed of 3 ethnic groups. The communication barriers mentioned above act to hinder the promotion of effective family planning. In a study carried out in He Feng County, it was found that bad transportation facilities were a contributing factor to the region's backward education. Moreover, the illiteracy and semiilliteracy rates in He Feng County comprise 20% of the population. The problem is compounded by the fact that its 40,000 households are scattered throughout the mountains. In an effort to combat the prevailing situations, the author suggests that an effective means of family planning promotion would be the installation of loudspeakers in almost every household in the county (a total of 25,000 loudspeakers). This would provide suitable family planning education to males and females of different age groups and would foster knowledge of its significance and importance, thereby changing existing rural attitudes about family planning. Furthermore, the government could provide support groups in these regions in order to promote family planning objectives.

  18. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services.

    PubMed

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-11-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  19. Personal and Family Financial Planning: The Need and the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfenbein, Iris M.; And Others

    The first of a series on personal and family financial planning (PFFP) education, this publication presents five papers examining the need for educational programs that emphasize the use of financial resources in ways that contribute to family stability. C. Raymond Anderson discusses the inability of many individuals to realistically manage…

  20. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.

  1. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline. PMID:12280626

  2. Effect of Prepaid Health Plans on a Family Practice Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Don W.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Residents and faculty members completed a survey covering the effect of prepaid health care plans at a family medicine center on the program's practice profile, cost-containment, and education activities over a three-year period. Respondents agreed that prepaid plans increased the number of patient visits. (Author/MLW)

  3. A Selection of Films for Family Planning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This catalog gives an annotated listing of selected films available for use in family planning programs. Films are listed alphabetically, geographically by particular country, and by subject. In most cases information is given concerning length, producer, distributor, cost, and rental conditions from the International Planned Parenthood…

  4. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  5. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  6. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  7. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  8. The health of people classified as lesbian, gay and bisexual attending family practitioners in London: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin

    2006-01-01

    Background The morbidity of gay, lesbian or bisexual people attending family practice has not been previously assessed. We compared health measures of family practice attendees classified as lesbian, gay and bisexual. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, controlled study conducted in 13 London family practices and compared the responses of 26 lesbian and 85 bisexual classified women, with that of 934 heterosexual classified women and 38 gay and 23 bisexual classified men with that of 373 heterosexual classified men. Our outcomes of interest were: General health questionnaire; CAGE questionnaire; short form12; smoking status; sexual experiences during childhood; number of sexual partners and sexual function and satisfaction. Results In comparison to people classified as heterosexuals: men classified as gay reported higher levels of psychological symptoms (OR 2.48, CI 1.05–5.90); women classified as bisexual were more likely to misuse alcohol (OR 2.73, 1.70–4.40); women classified as bisexual (OR 2.53, 1.60–4.00) and lesbian (OR 3.13, 1.41–6.97) and men classified as bisexual (OR 2.48, 1,04, 5.86) were more likely to be smokers and women classified as bisexual (OR 3.27, 1.97–5.43) and men classified as gay (OR 4.86, 2.28–10.34) were much more likely to report childhood sexual experiences in childhood. Psychological distress was associated with reporting sexual experiences in childhood in men classified as gay and bisexual and women classified as heterosexual. Men classified as bisexual (OR 5.00, 1.73–14.51) and women classified as bisexual (OR 2.88, 1.24- 6.56) were more likely than heterosexuals to report more than one sexual partner in the preceding four weeks. Lesbian, gay and bisexual classified people encountered no more sexual function problems than heterosexuals but men classified as bisexual (OR 2.74, 1.12–6.70) were more dissatisfied with their sex lives. Conclusion Bisexual and lesbian classified people attending London general practices

  9. [Maternal and child health and family planning service coverage in the Community Health Practitioner post].

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Oh, Y A

    1985-07-01

    Community health practitioners have been working to provide comprehensive health care for rural residents for the last 2 years. The community health practitioners' activities for providing maternal and child health and family planning services were examined because the maternal and child health and family planning practice rate among the eligible population is known to be very low in rural areas. Therefore, a study of new mothers, infants, and pregnant women was carried out. This study aimed to grasp the utilization pattern of health facilities by the target population for receiving maternal and child health and family planning care, and also, indirectly, to assess the community health practitioners' activities. The major findings are: it appeared that attendance at birth by lay persons was higher than that of health professionals; the eligible women's behaviors were not changed by receiving proper prenatal and postnatal care; the child care rate for children under 2 years of age was very low, but the basic immunization rate, such as B.C.G., D.P.T., and poliomyelitis, was greatly increased compared with the rate before the assignment of community health practitioners (this result is not higher than the nationwide rate); and the family planning practice rate was similar to the nationwide practice rate. In conclusion, maternal and child health and family planning services by community health practitioners were improved. Community health practitioners' activities, however, are still required for more improvement of maternal and child health services. To increase the service coverage, a management system for health care, particularly a team work approach for primary health care personnel at various levels should be improved as soon as possible.

  10. Making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1985-10-01

    The implementation of the Integrated FP/MCH/Parasite Control project by JOICFP in 1984 was envisioned to strengthen international cooperation, promote international exchange of knowledge and expand approaches in the practice of family planning. 2 municipalities in China were selected as pilot project areas. The objectives set in the 3-year plan of the integrated project are: to publicize the advantages of family planning and improve people's knowledge and practice of family planning; to stengthen technical guidance on family planning and control the growth and improve the quality of the population; to improve maternal and child care; and to reduce the infection rate of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Steering committees on the integrated project at the municipal, county, township and village levels were set up in the pilot areas; the significance of the project has been communicated through film and slide presentations. Training courses for the administrative workers and technicians have been held. As a result of the family planning education activities, the contraceptive rates in the 2 pilot areas remained stable at 85%. Neonatal mortality was reduced significantly. Parasite control has benefitted 52,546 people in the pilot areas. An improvement was noted in environmental hygiene, the proper disposal of waste and the provision of safe drinking water. Further improvement can be achieved by intensifying public health education in the project areas, improving working systems and accomplishing all the tasks that the integrated project has set forth.

  11. Teenagers seeking condoms at family planning services. Part II. A provider's perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdool Karim, Q; Abdool Karim, S S; Preston-Whyte, E

    1992-11-01

    This study assessed the ability and preparedness of staff at family planning clinics in Durban to assist in AIDS prevention by promoting condom use among teenagers. Staff at 12 randomly selected clinics were interviewed to assess their attitudes towards teenagers seeking condoms, the information imparted on AIDS and condom use, constraints faced in delivering services, and their perceived role in controlling the spread of AIDS. Despite their awareness of AIDS, those interviewed perceived their role to be that of promoting contraception. Condoms were perceived as a poor choice of contraceptive and their use was discouraged. The pamphlets dispensed along with condoms were thought to provide adequate information about condom use. Information on AIDS was given only if the clinic attender initiated discussion on the subject. Most of the clinic staff were keen to discuss other issues during their consultations, but felt constrained by the large numbers of people they had to attend to and the lack of adequate facilities. If family planning services are to play a role in controlling the spread of AIDS, the first step must be to make this function part of the overall policy. For there to be effective counselling on AIDS prevention, in-service training of current staff is required, as well as more staff and improvements in facilities to ensure greater privacy.

  12. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  13. President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z

    1997-04-01

    Presented in this brief article are excerpts of a speech given by the Chinese State President and Party Secretary-General Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection on March 8, 1997. He states that family planning and environmental policies require long-term considerations. Both family planning and environmental matters are correlated and relate to socioeconomic development in China. Population growth will have negative impacts on the environment, and environmental mismanagement will adversely affect people's health and living conditions. The importance of environmental and family planning policies must be known to every household, and these policies must be effectively implemented as part of socioeconomic development programs. Although China's family planning policy has been successful in reducing China's population size and growth, the task ahead of guaranteeing a population under 1.3 billion by 2000 is enormous. The challenge will be to implement effective programs in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Family planning should be combined with poverty alleviation and income development. Policies should give priority to poor family planning acceptors. China has made "significant progress in environmental protection," but the public is creating "a higher demand on the quality of the environment." By the year 2000, the trends in environmental pollution and ecological destruction must be controlled and the quality of the environment improved. By 2010, there should be evidence of environmental improvements in urban areas, in degraded situations, and in rural areas. Environmental protection will require the cooperation between all departments, the Communist Party, and the Chinese people.

  14. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

    1980-01-01

    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  15. Protocol for process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of family-led rehabilitation post stroke (ATTEND) in India

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hueiming; Lindley, Richard; Alim, Mohammed; Felix, Cynthia; Gandhi, Dorcas B C; Verma, Shweta J; Tugnawat, Deepak Kumar; Syrigapu, Anuradha; Ramamurthy, Ramaprabhu Krishnappa; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Walker, Marion; Forster, Anne; Anderson, Craig S; Langhorne, Peter; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Shamanna, Bindiganavale Ramaswamy; Hackett, Maree L; Maulik, Pallab K; Harvey, Lisa A; Jan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We are undertaking a randomised controlled trial (fAmily led rehabiliTaTion aftEr stroke in INDia, ATTEND) evaluating training a family carer to enable maximal rehabilitation of patients with stroke-related disability; as a potentially affordable, culturally acceptable and effective intervention for use in India. A process evaluation is needed to understand how and why this complex intervention may be effective, and to capture important barriers and facilitators to its implementation. We describe the protocol for our process evaluation to encourage the development of in-process evaluation methodology and transparency in reporting. Methods and analysis The realist and RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) frameworks informed the design. Mixed methods include semistructured interviews with health providers, patients and their carers, analysis of quantitative process data describing fidelity and dose of intervention, observations of trial set up and implementation, and the analysis of the cost data from the patients and their families perspective and programme budgets. These qualitative and quantitative data will be analysed iteratively prior to knowing the quantitative outcomes of the trial, and then triangulated with the results from the primary outcome evaluation. Ethics and dissemination The process evaluation has received ethical approval for all sites in India. In low-income and middle-income countries, the available human capital can form an approach to reducing the evidence practice gap, compared with the high cost alternatives available in established market economies. This process evaluation will provide insights into how such a programme can be implemented in practice and brought to scale. Through local stakeholder engagement and dissemination of findings globally we hope to build on patient-centred, cost-effective and sustainable models of stroke rehabilitation. Trial registration number CTRI/2013

  16. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  17. Family planning since ICPD--how far have we progressed?

    PubMed

    Cates, Willard; Maggwa, Baker

    2014-12-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was a pivotal global event. It established voluntary family planning as a fundamental human right. We describe the progress made and challenges faced by the family planning field in the 20 years since ICPD. We present case studies from three African countries to highlight factors affecting the evolution of family planning during the past 2 decades. Measurable progress has been made in the key family planning indicators over this interval. However, improvement has slowed in recent years, and demographic forecasts predict a greater unmet need for effective contraception in the future. With a rights-based lens, we need to better understand the nuances of fertility intentions as we offer women and couples contraceptive choices pertinent to their stage of life. With a public-health lens, we need better metrics to reflect the realities of contraceptive effectiveness. Now is the time to build on two decades of family planning progress after ICPD. PMID:25033749

  18. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the

  19. Promotion of a family planning program: the Taiwan model.

    PubMed

    Sun, T H

    1987-07-01

    Taiwan has been able to reduce its total fertility rate (TFR) from 4.7 (1966) to 1.9 (1985). Demographers have estimated that Taiwan will achieve zero population growth (ZPG) in 70 years if the TFR remains the same, and if the TFR continues to decline, ZPG may be achieved in 40-50 years. Taiwan's 25 year strong family planning program has contributed greatly to this progress. So successful has it been that many family planning researchers and policy makers from around the world have studied the program over its 25 years and it serves as a model for other developing countries. Actual family planning activities include family planning education and promotion to motivate the public to understand the meaning and importance of family planning and subsequently to practice family planning, and the provision of contraceptives to the motivated. Education/promotion consists of home visits, sending congratulatory and informative letters to postpartum parents, establishing a telephone hotline, group education, and using the mass media. The Taiwan program finds that good supervision is a key to a successful program because it links the policy making units to the field and it contributes to maintaining quality fieldwork. Due to a good record system of program inputs, e.g., number of home visits, and outputs, e.g., fertility data, the program can quantitatively evaluate its goals defined in 3-5 year plans. For example, for over 2 decades, it has motivated approximately 90% of fecund women or their husbands to accept at least 1 contraceptive. Researchers hope to soon be able to further evaluate this program by measuring the quality of the program.

  20. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.

  1. Family planning practices in families with children affected by β-thalassemia major in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Preventing the birth of children with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with β-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had β-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with β-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary.

  2. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, S R

    1994-08-01

    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  3. Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-06-01

    The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

  4. Perceptions of family planning among rural Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E; Werner, L H

    1983-02-01

    In this paper, 1981 survey data on the perceptions of family planning, and the family planning program of a sample of 1339 rural Kenyan women are examined. In spite of reasonable levels of family planning knowledge and approval, as well as generally favorable perceptions of family planning program goals, little contraceptive use was observed. High levels of desired fertility (average woman desired 8.00 children, male: 8.66 children) and the success of current noncontraceptive spacing practices were noted as possible explanations. Concern over the safety, availability, and cost of contraceptives was also noted as a contributory factor. The sample found that socioeconomic level correlated positively with approval especially in levels of work and education. Of all the women with any knowledge of family planning, only 30.1% had ever used any method and only 50% of the methods last used were efficient. Only 16.5% of the women who had knowledge of modern methods used them. Other factors in the low usage rates are distance from family planning clinics and lack of contact with any such facilities, their personnel, methods, or clients. In the absence of significant contraceptive practice, total fertility is determined largely by lactation practices. Considering the average number of children desired (8) and that breast feeding lasts for about 20 months, there is little need for modern contraception to achieve the ideal family size. The paper goes on to examine breast feeding duration and corresponding intervals between births to determine total actual fertility; actual levels do not exceed desired fertility levels and for many women actually fall short of desired fertility. Average birth interval was 34.9 months; total fertility level was 6.9 with observed breastfeeding intervals. This analysis shows that in Kenya, until the supply of children exceeds the demand, desired birth intervals are not achieved by current noncontraceptive practices, such as breast feeding, and the

  5. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P < 0.21). Odds ratio analysis indicated that ever having an abortion, sterilization, and/or methods of contraception increased the likelihood of divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce. PMID:26912935

  6. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P < 0.21). Odds ratio analysis indicated that ever having an abortion, sterilization, and/or methods of contraception increased the likelihood of divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce.

  7. Family planning: implications for marital stability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F C; Johnson, M R

    1980-01-01

    In Spring, 1977, a random sample of divorced persons (N=165) in Spokane County was compared to a matched group of people who had not divorced (N=102). It was found that it was not possible to predict marital stability from knowledge of number of children, presence or absence of children, or timing of childbirth in relationship to marriage date. A significant predictor of marital stability was found to be whether or not children were planned. In the past 2 decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. Only 1 paper directly implicates the planning component of fertility, and then only from a theoretical perspective. Over 20% of the North American population will experience at least 1 divorce during their lifetime. Hurley and Palonen (1967) found that the higher the ratio of children per years of marriage, the less satisfactory the marital experience will be. Another study by Luckey (1966) found no relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction. This study found that there was an effect on the stability of womens' marriages if there was a child from a previous marriage in the home. It also found that men did not regard paternity as critical to their marital happiness whereas women often depend on maternity for theirs.

  8. Birth order distribution as a family planning program evaluation indicator.

    PubMed

    Prasartkul, P; Porapakkham, Y; Sittitrai, W

    1988-07-01

    This research aims at deriving a simple indicator for measuring fertility and family planning program output at various administrative levels of the country. The proportion of 1st and 2nd births to total registered births (FSB) is proposed as an ideal measure of family planning performance at the provincial and regional level. The FSB indicator is simple to understand and analyze and it can be obtained in the existing registration system of Thailand. This indicator is highly correlated with the contraceptive prevalence rate, the crude birth rate and the total fertility rate. Based one the findings of this study, it is assured that the FSB is a practical indicator of the family planning program performance at any level of administrative unit in Thailand. It is recommended that the service statistics reporting system should begin including the FSB tabulations for regions, provinces, and districts immediately.

  9. [A sanitation plan for a food distributor attending children and the elderly].

    PubMed

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Correa-Gómez, Maria D C; Ayala-Aponte, Alfredo A

    2009-10-01

    The responsibility for providing healthy food involves all members of the production chain from input supplier to the distributor and consumer of food. Children and older adults represent the most vulnerable consumers for acquiring food-borne illness (FBI), meaning that the risk factors produced in food-processing targeted for this population group must be reduced. A clean-up plan was thus designed and implemented following the guideline laid down in decree 3075/1997 to reduce FBI risk factors in a population of children and older adults. A training plan was also conducted for handling staff involved in receiving, storing, packaging and distributing raw materials in a food distributor. The clean-up plan and training led to a 40 % to 70 % increase in compliance with best manufacturing practices (BPM). These results represent a solid basis for ensuring food safety and reducing the risk of acquiring FBI in the study population. This article also provides an outline for easily acquiring the necessary methodology for implementing a clean-up plan in a food industry.

  10. Do family planning work in a Chinese way.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The demographic and economic characteristics of China make it necessary to do family planning work in China in a Chinese way. Special characteristics of China and corresponding strategies are detailed 1) China is rather underproductive and underdeveloped, with a huge population, whose growth must be curtailed while industrial and agricultural production is enhanced. 2) In the next 10 years, a large number of young people will center childbearing age, prompting a government policy favoring late marriage and one child per couple. 3) China is large and heterogeneous, and regional authorities should have some population policymaking functions to take sociocultural differences into account. 4) Male child preference ideology in rural areas has been gently combated with a resulting increase in family planning rate from 65.1% to 74.2% from 1979 to 1983. Family planning authorities have made considerable progress, as demonstrated by figures such as a drop of women's total fertility rate from 5.68 in the 60s to 2.07 in the 70s. The task at hand remains large: the population at the end of 1983 was 1,024,950,000. However, family planning is an element of state policy, the marriage law, and the constitution, and mored an more, societal ideology. Government policy equates family planning with child wellness and societal welfare and attempts supportiveness of couples showing positive birth limiting attitudes. An ample system of family planning programs and resource persons furnishes education, a variety of high quality methods are available, and contraceptive research is some of the best in the world.

  11. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].

    PubMed

    de Montigny, F

    1992-10-01

    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning

  13. Family development: a functional choice-making approach based on the national family planning program. Summary.

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Cho, A J; Kim, E S

    1990-12-01

    Family planning in Korea has contributed to below replacement level fertility. As a consequence, the direction of family planning needs to be changed to a quality rather than a quantity-oriented system. The emphasis should be on a family development: maternal and child health and family welfare. 3 future directions have been identified in terms of basic program service, focus on overall health, and expansion of scope. The basic objective providing information and affordable contraceptive supplies for new clients -- should remain. The service delivery can be improved and the incidence of induced abortion can be reduced. Focusing on the overall health status of family members contributes to the quality of life of the population. Infectious diseases no longer predominate, but the chronic diseases that do can be prevented with good daily health practices. These practices include sound dietary habits and regular exercise. If housewives are reduced, a comprehensive home health care system can developed. Community health practitioners (CHPs) would support the housewives. Finally, family welfare programs should be added to traditional family planning programs. Changing values and complicated roles create problems in family life. Role development for women and the elderly is another function served by a family welfare program. Therapy and education programs are a viable solution. Mother's clubs, senior citizens' schools, and neighborhood or village meetings are community institutions which could serve as educational forums to prevent family problems. For more entrenched problems, therapy is available through professional counseling services. This expanded and comprehensive health and welfare role of projected family planning programs serves to improve the quality of life as well as improving fertility control. This can be accomplished with the active participation of housewives and CHPs with professional help.

  14. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  15. The Indonesian Family Planning Programme: a success story for women?

    PubMed

    Smyth, I

    1992-01-01

    Many family planning specialists worldwide are praising the success of the family program of Indonesia because fertility rates have fallen considerably in many parts of the country. Yet, others question the reliability of the data collected and distributed by the National Family Co-ordinating Board (BKKBN), whether the publicized fertility rates are real, and whether the program or socioeconomic changes are responsible for the decline. Further, no one has assessed whether the program is sensitive to women's needs and desires. Overall, the program does not meet women's needs or consider women's health. Specifically, it deems population control more important than family planning, uses provider-dependent, long-acting hormonal contraceptives, and delivers poor quality service. The BKKBN is a prestigious group and accountable to Indonesia's president because its primary objective is to reduce population growth so socioeconomic development can occur. Even though the program originally stressed maternal and child health as a means for women to accept family planning methods, it no longer promotes maternal and child health as evidenced by the continuously high maternal mortality rates (lowest rate, 450/100,000 lives births). In fact, the maternal mortality rate for 15-19 year old women (1100) is so very high that it is second only to Ethiopia. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association agrees that the family planning program of Indonesia does not provide means for women to autonomously control their fertility and has taken as assembly line approach. Moreover, the administrative officials coerce subordinates to meet the ambitious targets who then coerce eligible couples and individuals to accept contraceptives. This violates their basic rights. The program has realized the significant role women play in demographic dynamics, but not as leader of socioeconomic development but as tools to rapidly and effectively implement population policies. PMID:12285429

  16. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  17. The Indonesian Family Planning Programme: a success story for women?

    PubMed

    Smyth, I

    1992-01-01

    Many family planning specialists worldwide are praising the success of the family program of Indonesia because fertility rates have fallen considerably in many parts of the country. Yet, others question the reliability of the data collected and distributed by the National Family Co-ordinating Board (BKKBN), whether the publicized fertility rates are real, and whether the program or socioeconomic changes are responsible for the decline. Further, no one has assessed whether the program is sensitive to women's needs and desires. Overall, the program does not meet women's needs or consider women's health. Specifically, it deems population control more important than family planning, uses provider-dependent, long-acting hormonal contraceptives, and delivers poor quality service. The BKKBN is a prestigious group and accountable to Indonesia's president because its primary objective is to reduce population growth so socioeconomic development can occur. Even though the program originally stressed maternal and child health as a means for women to accept family planning methods, it no longer promotes maternal and child health as evidenced by the continuously high maternal mortality rates (lowest rate, 450/100,000 lives births). In fact, the maternal mortality rate for 15-19 year old women (1100) is so very high that it is second only to Ethiopia. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association agrees that the family planning program of Indonesia does not provide means for women to autonomously control their fertility and has taken as assembly line approach. Moreover, the administrative officials coerce subordinates to meet the ambitious targets who then coerce eligible couples and individuals to accept contraceptives. This violates their basic rights. The program has realized the significant role women play in demographic dynamics, but not as leader of socioeconomic development but as tools to rapidly and effectively implement population policies.

  18. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs. PMID:12314467

  19. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects].

    PubMed

    Mbacke, C

    1987-10-01

    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  20. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  1. [Analysis of the demand for family planning].

    PubMed

    Mostajo, P; Foreit, K

    1993-01-01

    Fertility intentions and reproductive risk were used to segment Peru's potential market for contraceptives using data from the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey. The four programmatic groups of fertile-aged women in union included 41.4% not wanting more children and at high risk, 30.5% not wanting more children and at moderate or low risk, 12.8% wanting to space, and 15.4% wanting a child in the near future. 84.6% of fertile-aged married women thus needed a contraceptive method to avoid unwanted pregnancy or high risk pregnancy. A range of appropriate methods was identified for each of the four programmatic groups based on method efficacy, clinical contraindications, and legal restrictions. Projections of the prevalence, method mix, and sources of service took into account the range of appropriate methods, local preferences for particular methods, local availability of health posts and infrastructure, and the rational use of limited resources. The four programmatic groups were disaggregated by age to take into account recommendations for use of oral contraceptives, surgical sterilization, and IUDs. The segmentation by source of supply was done separately for type of method and rural or urban residence. Marital status, proportion of fertile-aged women, socioeconomic status and other factors were heterogeneously distributed within and between the 13 planning regions. An estimated 7% of women were infertile, 23.9% were at low reproductive risk, 25.6% at medium risk, and 50.5% at high risk because of age, parity, or a history of abortion, neonatal death, prematurity, or cesarean delivery. Among women not wanting more children at high and medium or at low risk, respectively, 66.6% and 65.1% were using a method, but only 30.0% and 32.0% were using an appropriate method. The projected method mix and sources of supply are presented for Lima as an illustration of application of the methodology. The projected method mix for Lima eliminates use of natural methods

  2. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning. Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This generously annotated bibliography of books, reports, and journal articles is divided into the following subject areas: 1) Demography and Social Science; 2) Human Reproduction and Fertility Control; 3) Family Planning Programs; 4) Population Policy; and, 5) General. Throughout these areas are works on demography and population control in…

  3. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  4. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

  5. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  6. Personal and Family Financial Planning: Perspectives on Community College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Robert J.; And Others

    After a brief summary of the findings of a 1979 study of Personal and Family Financial Planning (PFFP) programs at member institutions of the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), this two-part monograph provides information on selected PFFP programs. Part I presents in-depth descriptions of the implementation, subject coverage,…

  7. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  8. Family planning clinics: facing higher costs and sicker patients.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1991-01-01

    Family planning clinics throughout the United States are facing a variety of obstacles that threaten their ability to provide necessary contraceptive services to low-income women and teenagers, according to interviews with clinic administrators. In the last few years, the proportion of patients coming to family planning agencies in need of screening or treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has increased dramatically. Many providers report that 10-15 percent of their clients are infected with chlamydia, the most prevalent STD. The increasing costs of Pap tests and contraceptives are also major problems: As a result of recent federal legislation, the price of Pap tests has risen substantially, and that of contraceptives is beginning to increase steeply. Finally, Title X funding for family planning services has decreased 66 percent over the last decade if both cuts and inflation are taken into account. As a result of the squeeze between increased costs and decreased public funding, clinics have been forced to charge higher fees, maintain long waiting lists for appointments and curtail community outreach. In addition, growth of the family planning patient population has slowed dramatically, and even declined, in some places.

  9. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Presented in the principal article, "Planning, Starting, and Operating an Educational Incentives Project," is a summary of activities to date in an educational savings project in Taiwan. The incentive project is designed to reward those couples who limit their family size, by providing funds for their children's secondary and higher education. To…

  10. Parent and Family Attitudes toward Long-Term Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, J. Larry; And Others

    Some of the problems facing parents of handicapped children are considered, and the importance of families planning for the future of their children with chronic disabilities is stressed. In addition to the problems encountered by parents who raise non-handicapped children, parents of a handicapped child must cope with community rejection,…

  11. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of Navajo…

  12. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  13. [Nursing intervention in the family treatment plan for anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Arias-Núñez, Eloisa; Naranjo-Díaz, M Carmen; Palomino-Escrivá, Jezabel; Lorenzo-Capilla, Angel

    2011-01-01

    One of the main nursing interventions in the treatment of eating disorders is family psycho-education, an essential aspect of mental health treatment. This article describes and analyses the difficulties families expressed in the performance of a treatment plan for patients hospitalised for anorexia nervosa (AN) in the adolescent Day Hospital of Mental Health, of the Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, during 2009. Data was also collected data on professional interventions, performed by the nurse assigned to this unit, in order to group and categorise them, and as an aid to nursing intervention. A total of 10 families of the 10 patients admitted with a diagnosis of AN were included in the study period. In all cases, the patients were young women who had received treatment before in an Outpatient Unit, with partial or no response to the treatment. The difficulties expressed by the families were grouped into five categories from content analysis: problems in preparing a balanced diet, problems as they are unable to handle the behaviour and emotions of the patient, problems because as there are no previous family eating habits, problems because there is no family control or supervision, and problems with the established guidelines. Specific individualised interventions are proposed for developing and promoting a nursing care plan, and assessing the results.

  14. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  15. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  16. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  17. [Encouragement of the national family planning program in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Weis, P

    1987-12-01

    Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of

  18. Liberating the shackled half. Family planning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan's national family planning program dates back to 1965. Despite these many years of family planning campaigns, Pakistan still has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Only 12% of Pakistani couples currently use contraceptives, approximately the same percentage as in 1972, and the average total fertility rate per woman is 5.5 children, only 1 less than two decades ago. Average annual per capita income in Pakistan is less than US$400. Were each Pakistani woman to limit her family to just two children, effective immediately, Pakistan's population would still exceed 150 million by 2000. If fertility rates remain at current levels, however, Pakistan's population will surpass 280 million by 2020. The manner in which Islam is interpreted by some religious leaders, a broad preference for sons over daughters, early and almost universal marriage, the low status of women, traditional support for natural fertility, and poor health status are principle reasons why population growth remains high in Pakistan. Poor health and the low status of women play particularly important roles. Health conditions therefore need to be improved and women educated so that birth spacing and birth limiting at lower levels may become realities. The actions of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and that a woman holds her position should go far to help improve women's status in Pakistan. Well-trained health professionals are also needed to become more aware about family planning and to take the lead for change. PMID:12319515

  19. Sex education and family planning messages in Greek school books.

    PubMed

    Frisiras, S; Lagiou, A; Sourtzi, P; Vidalaki, M

    1991-05-01

    The Greek Family Planning Association (GFPA) completed in march 1990 a 3-year effort to evaluate whether sex education was an integral part of the school curricula. It was reported by a representative of the Pedagogical Institute in the Ministry of Education and Religion that important efforts have been made. The findings were presented at the 2nd Sex Education and Health seminar in March, 1990. Greek primary schools have 1 teacher for all lessons; but specialists in various fields of the secondary school curricula. Primary school books have various references and pictures on human reproduction. Equality of the sexes socially and culturally is represented, as well as good health messages on nutrition and hygiene. Noticeably absent, however, is any reference to human sexuality, nude human body or sex organ pictures, or other non-traditional family models. Family planning and contraception are also missing; teacher training or special courses are needed. Secondary school books have clear but limited messages. For example, there is a whole page on the philosophy and aims of family planning, but parenthood is only presented in the context of traditional marriage without contraception. It is recommended that legislative support be engaged to insure that sex education programs are systematic, age-specific, and a continuous activity from the primary level. Another important role in the implementation and curriculum development of sex education is one played by teachers and health professionals, those in touch with young people. GFPA needs to compile basic guidelines for those teaching sex education. PMID:12343171

  20. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lindsay M

    2015-08-01

    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care.

  1. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  2. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth. PMID:12290276

  3. Is the malpractice crisis filtering down to family planning?

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    Evidence now exists that the insurance industry is including contraceptive researchers and family planning clinics in its crackdown on malpractice and liability policies. Family planning practioners have been lumped together with private physicians under the category "Profit-buster" for most major insurers, and the effects are just beginning to show. The liability problems of family planning clinics overlap those of physicians and drug companies. Essentially, they, too, can be held responsible for the products they prescribe and dispense to their clients. When the family planning clinic of NEWCAP, Inc., a community action program in Wisconsin, was abruptly dropped by its insurer in November, the staff was puzzled. NEWCAP had a spotless record and had experienced no previous insurance problems. The insurance company justified its actions by explaining it was getting out of the malpractice field altogether. Although NEWCAP's dilemma seems to be unique at this time, family planning organizations are concerned about the future. The malpractice crackdown also is causing problems for contraceptive researchers. Over the past few years, research and development programs have suffered because of difficulty in obtaining product liability insurance. Due to insurance costs, the Popuation Council's US clinical trials of the promising NORPLANT contraceptive implant were pared down to the minimum number required for Food and Drug Administration approval. Family Planning International's clinical trials of the biodegradable contraceptive implant Capronor have been postponed because an insurer could not be found. Acquiring insurance does not put the researcher over the hurdle, according to Richard Lincoln, senior vice president of the Alan Guttmacher Institute. There are more problems ahead after the research is completed. Dr. Harold Nash, New York's Population Council, has some suggestions for alleviating what seems to be a growing problem. If interest rates increase and insurers

  4. [Family planning as a determinant of individual and community health].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1991-06-01

    The most recent contraceptive prevalence survey in Colombia indicated that over 2/3 of couples at risk of conception used some contraceptive method in 1990. This figure is close to the 80% or over common in developed countries and far exceeds the rates of 10% or even less in sub-Saharan African countries. Colombia's prevalence rate of around 15% in 1965, the 1st year of institutionalized family planning programs, included many users of ineffective traditional methods. Family planning, the possibility of determining the number and spacing of children, can be analyzed from various perspectives including its legal foundation as a human right and the demographic benefits of reproductive moderation. A stable population size would substantially simplify the problems of health, education, housing, and employment faced by developing countries. From a humanitarian perspective, family planning satisfies the ancient desire of human beings to separate reproduction and sex and also opens the door to different techniques of medically assisted conception. Some of the most significant benefits of family planning are those in the area of health. The positive effects on maternal and infant health and survival of avoiding pregnancy at the extremes of the reproductive period as well as pregnancies that are too numerous or closely spaced are now recognized. Colombia's infant mortality rate has fallen from 100/1000 live births in 1965 to 24 in 1990. Many factors besides family planning were involved, and the exact contribution of higher educational levels of mothers, use of oral rehydration therapy, promotion of breastfeedings, greater availability of potable water, and vaccination programs as well as of family planning are difficult to assess. But it is clear that child survival programs that neglect to include modern contraception as a principal component are shortsighted. Infants of adolescent mothers face mortality rates that are 15-40% higher than those of mothers over 20. Beyond

  5. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Archana

    2008-03-01

    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  6. Clinton's Child Care Plan: Helping Families to Secure and Pay for Child Care. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    1998-01-01

    Reviews features of President Bill Clinton's proposed $22 billion child care plan, a set of spending measures and tax credits designed to make child care more affordable, available, and safe for low- and middle-income families. Features noted include Head Start and after-school programs, and business tax credits. (HTH)

  7. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour.

  8. Direct and judgmental measures of family planning program inputs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P; Ross, J A; Kekovole, J; Barkat-e-Khuda; Barkat, A

    1995-01-01

    This report compares two different approaches to measuring the strength of family planning programs in Bangladesh and Kenya. The first approach, the judgmental approach, has been used in a number of studies during the past two decades; scores on the characteristics of family planning programs are derived from the responses knowledgeable persons give to a series of questions. The second approach is to obtain direct measures of each item being considered. In Bangladesh, the total score varied trivially between the direct and the judgmental approaches. In Kenya, the total direct score was substantially higher than the judgmental score. The primary advantage of the judgmental approach is that comparative scores can be obtained for a larger number of countries for the same time period at a much lower cost than would be required by the direct approach.

  9. [Family planning. A survey of United Nations around the world].

    PubMed

    1974-01-01

    Responses to the second worldwide survey of 80 nations on their population policy can be divided into 3 categories. First are countries with large official programs of family planning in existence: Egypt, Kenya, Tunisia, Barbados, Colombia, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, China, India, Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Viet-nam, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia, Canada, and Fiji. Madagascar and New Zealand are starting programs. The second category is countries that encourage private family planning programs: Tanzania, Mexico, Israel, Cambodia, Bahrain, Jordan, Laos, Syria, Austria, France, West Germany, Finland, and Norway. Third are listed countries that do not officially support, or that forbid contraception: Gabon, Malawi, Zambia, Greece, Italy, and Spain. Thus Asia and North Africa have the most ambitious programs, but Europe and North America practice contraception universally.

  10. Japanese system of family planning and MCH services.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The Japanese Family Planning (FP)/Maternal and Child Health (MCH) programs can be devided into 2 major categories: 1) health services or preventive and health promotion programs, and 2) medical care services or curative programs. Health examinations of pregnant women are performed throughout pregnancy. After birth, each child is screened for inbornn metabolism defects. Vaccination programs covers both women and children. Additionally, health promotion services such as health guidance, including guidance for various groups as well as counselling for individuals, are carried out. The FP/MCH programs are conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This division supervises the FP/MCH programs in 47 prefectures and 54 specially-selected cities and wards, makes policy, provides financial aid and oversees administration. The prefectures and wards independently plan and execute family planning and health administration. There are 856 health centers and 3271 local governments directly in charge of executing the programs. Population per prefecture ranges from 600,000 to 12 million for Tokyo. Population per health center varies from 10,000 to 750,000 with an average of about 140,000. Center staff includes doctors, public health nurses, veterinarians, pharmacists, x-ray specialists, nutritionists, hygiene inspectors and specialists in inspecting environmental contamination. Local governments coordinate programs with the centers to prevent program overlap. The Maternal and Child Health Promoter System, established in 1971, links public health nurses with families and is staffed by housewife volunteers appointed by local government heads. They play an especially important role in spreading family planning. PMID:12279991

  11. A cost analysis of family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L; Day, L M

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a step-down cost analysis using secondary data sources from 26 Bangladesh non-government organizations (NGOs) providing family planning services under a US Agency for International Development-funded umbrella organization. The unit costs of the NGOs' Maternal-Child Health (MCH) clinics and community-based distribution (CBD) systems were calculated and found to be minimally different. Several simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of alternative cost-reduction measures. The more general financial analysis proved more insightful than the unit cost analysis in terms of identifying means by which to improve the efficiency of the family planning operations of these NGOs. The analysis revealed that 56 per cent of total expenditures in the two-tiered umbrella's organizational structure are incurred in management operations and overheads. Of the remaining 44 per cent of project expenditures, 39 per cent is spent on the CBD program and 5 per cent on the MCH clinics. Within the CBD program, most resources are spent providing 4 million contacts (two-thirds of the annual total) which do not involve contraceptive re-supply. The clinics devote more resources to providing MCH services than to providing family planning services. The findings suggest that significant savings could be generated by containing administrative costs, improving operational efficiency, and reducing unnecessary or redundant fieldworker contacts. The magnitude of the potential savings raises a fundamental question about the continued viability and sustainability of this supply-driven CBD strategy.

  12. State administration and financing of family planning services.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, D

    1972-04-01

    A 1971 survey by the Center for Family Planning Program Development consisted of a questionnaire mailed to health and welfare directors in 50 states and 5 federal jurisdictions concerning their family planning policies and administrative practices. 52 agencies responded; Guam, Mississippi, and Louisiana did not. The major funding for state health agencies was allocated by HEW and by maternal and child health (MCH) formula grants under Title 5 of the Social Security Act. 11 states made additional expenditures of $1.7 million for a variety of purposes. 21 states required local welfare departments to purchase services under the Medicaid program established by Title 19 of the Social Security Act. Administration was assigned to specific organizations within the state health agencies. 31 states reported a total of 128 full-time professional personnel, with 90 assigned at state headquarters level. In general, on a state-by-state basis, the full-time staff does not correspond to the size of the appropriations. Survey findings were useful measures of resource commitments to family planning services by state health and welfare agencies and provided data on future levels of resource requirements. PMID:5052570

  13. Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A I

    1989-12-01

    Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's.

  14. [The perceived quality of service at a family planning clinic: a marketing focus].

    PubMed

    Moliner Tena, M A; Moliner Tena, J

    1996-04-15

    183 women attending the family planning clinic in Burriana, Castellon, were interviewed for this survey of the perceived quality of family planning services. The anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was adapted from two existing questionnaires, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, developed for commercial marketing. Attitudes were measured using a 7-part Likert type scale. The first 20 items referred to different aspects of quality, the second 4 measured satisfaction, total quality, the importance of the service, and reported use, and the final 6 examined respondent characteristics. 28 incompletely completed questionnaires were eliminated, leaving 155. The results indicate that perceived quality and client satisfaction were both high. Using factorial analysis of principal components, 6 factors were identified that explained 63.3% of the variance. The components were high personal attention of services, limited bureaucracy, modern facilities and equipment, professionalism and competence of the staff, accessibility and easy transportation, and reputation and layout. The Cronbach alpha coefficients, which measure internal consistency, were not acceptable for 3 factors. The overall results suggest that marketing tools can be adapted to the needs of health services.

  15. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers

  16. Main results of recent Hungarian family planning studies.

    PubMed

    Klinger, A

    1975-01-01

    The demographic situation in Hungary is analyzed by presenting results of 5 different surveys on family planning carried out between 1958-1974. During those 16 years the practice of planning the number of children desired grew. In 1958 only 63 out of 100 women planned the number of children at marriage, and in 1974 98% gave an affirmative reply. The number of children planned by women declined from 2.25 in 1958 to 2.05 in 1966, and then increased to 2.19 in 1974. More and more childless married women want to give birth to a child. In early studies, 66-67% desired a child, and in 1974 83% desired a child. The idea of a family size with 2 children has become the rule in Hungary. In 1958 only 76% of the women used birth control; by 1966 the percentage was 84. 37% in 1958, 44% in 1966, and 26% in 1969 used both contraception and induced abortion. By 1972, 42% of the women interviewed had had an abortion. The use of contraception has increased considerably from 58% in 1958 to 75% in 1974. In 1974, 36% of the women using contraception were taking oral pills and only 7% were using the IUD.

  17. [Rate and reasons of desertion of patients who visit the family planning clinics].

    PubMed

    Correu, S; Keller, A

    1974-12-01

    The frequency and reasons for women abandoning family planning program were studies in 84 clinics in Mexico in terms of the ages, the number of children, the educational level, the method or methods utilized during her attendance at the clinic, the total number of months attended, and birth control measures employed after terminating the program. Women who used oral contraceptives were more inclined toward terminating the program than those who were using an IUD or a trimestral injection. Younger women with less children were more inclined to quit than women with more children. The majority of women who used the pills and the injections abandoned contraceptive measures within a short time after their last visit to the clinic, and the frequency of pregnancy was significant. The ones who had used the IUD, however, tended to continue with the same method and usually kept the same IUD. Among women who were using the IUD, the most common reasons for quitting the program were: no problems with the method ( so no reasons to go back), the necessity to leave town, and the lack of time. None of these reasons were directly related to the use of the method.

  18. The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, M.; Kidula, N.; Tyndall, M.; Rukaria-Kaumbutho, R.; Muchiri, L.; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions. 


 PMID:9849556

  19. [ABPF / SEATS project: to increase information on family planning and to satisfy the demand in Cotonou].

    PubMed

    Ayivi, J

    1993-01-01

    In Benin, the project of community-based distribution of nonmedical contraceptives launched in May 1992 is moving ahead. After training and implementation of a core of 15 trainers, 50 external collaborators were chosen. During December 7-19, the collaborators attended a training course on IEC (Information, Education, and Communication) for Family Planning. Since December 21, 1992, the Family Promotion Association of Benin (ABPF) sent them out to 24 communes of Cotonou to inform and sensitize the people through home visits and, especially, to promote responsible parenthood and birth spacing. Thus, maternal and child health will be protected for survival of social and family balance in this area where promiscuity and shortage of housing are crucial with a series of disastrous consequences on the education of children. Also unwanted pregnancies leading to illegal abortion, a source of danger and infertility, would be avoided. The 50 IEC technicians are responsible for meeting the information needs of Cotonou's citizens and for offering minimal family planning service. All nonprescription contraceptives (various spermicides and condoms) are distributed to this population immediately after information and even during home visits. The collaborators are trained to refer the needy to selected clinics equipped with qualified personnel and with adequate materials and other products to assure clinic payment. Five medical centers of the OMS Solidarity of Cotonou and the maternal and child health center of Bethesda Hospital are located in heavily populated quarters and zones. They are the reference centers for persons wanting a clinical contraceptive method. The large clinic of ABPF directly collaborates with these centers. It also guarantees all gynecologic services and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The project will end in May 1994. PMID:12318556

  20. Ethical issues in U.S. family planning policy.

    PubMed

    Benshoof, J

    1983-08-01

    2 concepts are central to the ethics of government family planning policies in the US: the goal of equality for women depends on control over their reproductive lives; and the Constitution protects liberty and privacy. Both of these considerations are grounded on constitutional principles that recognize the primacy of individual decision making, particularly when that decision making involves religious, ethical, or moral choices about private areas of one's life. The guarantee of individual liberty requires that both privacy and personal choice prevail over the mandatory imposition of a family planning policy for either demographic, religious, or ideological reasons. The Supreme Court, when it overturned restrictive abortion laws in 1973, based its decision on the constitutional right of privacy. Poor women and minors are particularly vulnerable to restrictions in the areas of family planning and reproductive health. For both of these classes of women, the ability to make choices has been diminished by such legal requirements as mandatory parental involvement or by the withdrawal of public funds for contraceptive or abortion services. For those persons who must depend on public assistance for medical care, legal restrictions on how public money is spent can be as effective as outright prohibitions. Nor are physicians exempt from financial restrictions. If doctors who counseled patients about family planning or provided them with contraceptives were rendered ineligible from government benefits, the effect would be similar to that of making the activities illegal. In 1976 Congress virtually ended public funding for abortion services, although it continues to fund all other legal and medically necessary services. Through financial restrictions, the US family planning policy treats poor women in a discriminatory manner. Although the Supreme Court has stated that minors have a right to both contraceptives and abortion, minors as a class enjoy less constitutional

  1. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were

  2. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  3. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  4. [Obtaining a change in attitude toward family planning].

    PubMed

    Carron, J M

    1990-12-01

    The Paraguayan Center for Population Studies (CEPEP) has always carefully planned its activities, but a process of strategic planning beginning in 1989 allowed several shortcomings in the planning process to be identified and corrected. The planning strategy had previously been strongly vertical, with only departmental directors and the executive director fully involved. Other office personnel and clinic directors were prevented from contributing in any meaningful way by bureaucratic obstacles and their lack of an overall vision of the organization's mission. Although CEPEP had devoted considerable effort to diagnosis and evaluation prior to developing its plans, the type of evaluation conducted was not appropriate for analyzing medium and longterm trends and needs. Improved planning required continuous analysis of the organization as a whole, rather then evaluation of specific projects, and it required a frank and realistic analysis of the internal organization in relation to CEPEP's goals and its short, medium, and longterm strategies. CEPEP planning suffered from overly general objectives and failed to prioritize goals. Assignment of human and financial resources tended to reproduce the distribution of resources of the preceding year rather than being guided by the plan. New and innovative programs were not funded immediately; available funds were assigned almost exclusively to existing programs. New projects tended to be implemented only because an international donor appeared with the idea and a disposition to fund it. Such projects were often unrelated to planned activities, of short duration, and of dubious relevance to CEPEP goals. The plenary meetings, committee work, and seminars for CEPEP's strategic planning were time consuming but productive. They provided a foundation for CEPEP to redefine its goals and strategies. New plans call for a strong component of activities designed to change the attitude of the government toward family planning, and open the

  5. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

  6. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

  7. Fathers' and Mothers' Work and Family Issues as Related to Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior of Children Attending Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Margaret S.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between work and family variables and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior are examined in 132 dual-earner couples of preschool-age children. Mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and mothers' work-family conflict predict children's internalizing behavior; mothers' work-family conflict, mothers' and fathers' parenting…

  8. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  9. Family planning in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    1971-02-01

    China's goal is to reduce the current growth rate of 2 to 1% per annum by the year 2000. To do so all methods of family limitation are encouraged, such as raising the age of marriage, distribution of contraception, and induced abortion. The paramedical barefoot doctors have helped the spread of family planning by their ability to prescribe pills and insert IUDs. Sterilizations are performed, and there are monitary incentives for vasectomy of 20% of the mans monthly salary. Abortion is permitted during the first 3 months of gestation. The optimum age of marriage is considered 30 for men and 22 for women, and is promoted by propoganda means. The program began in the late 1950s and has been administered through the Ministries of Health, Propaganda, Culture, Commerce and the China Medical Association.

  10. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population.

  11. Community Education for Family Planning in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Marion W.; Tregear, Michelle L.; Moskosky, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Context Community education may involve activities that seek to raise awareness and promote behavior change, using mass media, social media, and other media or interpersonal methods in community settings. This systematic review evaluated the evidence of the effects of community education on select short- and medium-term family planning outcomes. Evidence acquisition Using an analytic approach drawn from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, multiple databases were searched for articles published from January 1985 through February 2011 describing studies of community education related to family planning in the U.S. Included articles were reviewed and assessed for potential bias using a standardized process in 2011. An updated, targeted review for the 2011–2014 period was conducted in early 2015. Evidence synthesis Seventeen papers were identified. Most (nine) related to mass media interventions; three involved targeted print media, two involved text messaging or e-mail, two described outcome workers conducting community education, and one involved community theater. Study designs, strength of evidence, and levels of possible bias varied widely. Twelve of 15 studies that addressed outcomes such as increased awareness found positive associations with those outcomes, with six also reporting null findings. Seven of eight studies that addressed use of services reported positive associations, with two also reporting null findings. The targeted, additional review identified two other studies. Conclusions Evidence related to community education for family planning purposes is limited and highly variable. As goals of community education are usually limited to shorter-term outcomes, the evidence suggests that a range of approaches may be effective. PMID:26190841

  12. Systematic Review Evidence Methodology: Providing Quality Family Planning Services.

    PubMed

    Tregear, Stephen J; Gavin, Loretta E; Williams, Jessica R

    2015-08-01

    From 2010 to 2014, CDC and the Office of Population Affairs at the USDHHS collaborated on the development of clinical recommendations for providing quality family planning services. A high priority was placed on the use of existing scientific evidence in developing the recommendations, in accordance with IOM guidelines for how to develop "trustworthy" clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, a series of systematic reviews were developed using a transparent and reproducible methodology aimed at ensuring that the clinical practice guidelines would be based on evidence collected in the most unbiased manner possible. This article describes the methodology used in conducting these systematic reviews, which occurred from mid-2011 through 2012. PMID:26190844

  13. Family planning in Brazil: why not tubal sterilisation during childbirth?

    PubMed

    Soares, Leila Cristina; Brollo, Jorge Luiz Alves

    2013-11-01

    Sterilisation is the most desired method of contraception worldwide. In 1996, the Brazilian Congress approved a family planning law that legitimised female and male sterilisation, but forbade sterilisation during childbirth. As a result of this law, procedures currently occur in a clandestine nature upon payment. Despite the law, sterilisations continue to be performed during caesarean sections. The permanence of the method is an important consideration; therefore, information about other methods must be made available. Tubal sterilisation must not be the only choice. We argue that review of this restriction will not contribute to the increase in caesarean sections but will allow for greater sterilisation choice for men and women.

  14. Reproductive rights, family planning: a cornerstone of control.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    The main objective of the action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development is to assure access to high quality information and reproductive health care services in a manner that is affordable, acceptable, and convenient. Informed choice should be voluntary for childbearing and fertility control decisions. Services must be sensitive to the cultural, economic, and demographic diversity of local communities. The target date for countries to implement family planning (FP) and reproductive health programs that are available to all is 2015. Programs must involve women in all phases of planning, management, and delivery of services; outreach programs must be developed to involve men. Public and private FP programs should be directed to removing all obstacles to method use by the year 2005 by redesigning and expanding information and services. IEC (information, education, and communication) should also focus on sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Programs should provide high quality condoms from stock on hand. About 55% of couples in developing countries use some form of contraception. The increase in contraceptive use has contributed to the decline in total fertility from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7 in the 1990s. At least 350 million couples still lack access to modern FP methods. The draft plan emphasizes that couples must be given the freedom and responsibility to decide on the number and spacing of their children. PMID:12289933

  15. Not contradicting the religion. Islam has been putting on emphasis on family planning for 14 centuries.

    PubMed

    Berker, F

    1996-01-01

    Family planning did not historically and does not in modern times contradict the cultural and religious beliefs of Islamic nations. Family planning services should therefore be made available to people who need them. Family planning should not, however, be forced. It is imperative that couples' fundamental right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children is respected. Couples must be informed and educated to exercise that freedom consciously. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, a 10-year-old private social organization, actively promotes family planning projects with the goal of reducing the demand for abortion and the related maternal and child mortality. Family remains at the heart of both Turkey and Islam. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation hopes that future generations of families will be happy in their work, well-fed, well-clothed, and well-sheltered, with high levels of educational achievement and ethical and moral values. PMID:12347309

  16. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  17. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  18. Cabinet decision creating a family planning section in the Ministry of Manpower, 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    As of April 1, 1989, the Indonesian Ministry of Manpower will contain a family planning section within its regular structure. It will be part of a newly created Subdirectorate for Workers Welfare, which also contains sections for health facilities/services and for nutrition and other welfare services. The family planning section is to be staffed by 8 full-time officials who are responsible for population, family welfare, and family planning programs in the Ministry of Manpower.

  19. Cabinet decision creating a family planning section in the Ministry of Manpower.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    As of April 1, 1989 the Indonesian Ministry of Manpower will contain a family planning section within its regular structure. It will be part of a newly created Sub-directorate for Workers Welfare, which also contains sections for health facilities/services and for nutrition and other welfare services. The family planning section is to be staffed by 8 full-time officials who are responsible for population, family welfare, and family planning programs in the Ministry of Manpower.

  20. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.

  2. President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z

    1998-06-01

    This article is an excerpt of a speech delivered by the Party General-Secretary and President of China, Jiang Zemin, on March 15, 1998. The occasion was the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection. It is stated that the link between family planning (FP) and environmental protection is related to sustainable social and economic development and future survival. Basic FP and environmental policies are national policies that must be carried out effectively and resolutely. New progress has been made in cleaning up pollution, especially in the Huaihe River. Effort is needed to effectively curb population growth in poor, rural areas and to reduce environmental pollution and ecological disruption. The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party has endorsed the goals of the FP program by 2000 and 2050. FP will be improved in poor areas, among the floating population, and according to the Three Stresses. The population policy aims to improve the quality of life. Emphasis should be placed on poverty stricken rural areas and those with ethnic minorities. Forceful measures to protect the environment are needed. Short term economic development should not compromise the environment. Environmental priorities should focus on the immediate problems that are a risk to public health. By the year 2000, all provinces should meet the standards for controlling industrial pollutants. Environmental deterioration must stop within the next 15 years. Restructuring of government and organizational reform should be conducive to FP and environmental protection.

  3. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    PubMed

    Hauser, P M

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering.

  4. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    PubMed

    Hauser, P M

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

  5. A profile of the adolescent male family planning client.

    PubMed

    Brindis, C; Boggess, J; Katsuranis, F; Mantell, M; McCarter, V; Wolfe, A

    1998-01-01

    Findings are reported from 1780 young male clients of the California Office of Family Planning's Expanded Teen Counseling Program's (ETCP) family planning clinics during 1992-94 on their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, pregnancy and parenting history, and psychosocial characteristics. 37% were Hispanic, 30% White, 18% Black, 12% Asian, and 6% members of other racial or ethnic groups. 14% were aged 14 years or younger, 50% were aged 15-17, and 36% were aged 18-19. 9% reported having Medicaid insurance and 3% received Aid to Families with Dependent Children. 31% of the young men reported going to the clinic in search of a birth control method, 27% to determine whether they were infected with an STD, 26% for a physical exam, 22% because their partner or girlfriend wanted them to, and 15% for information or someone to talk to. 88% reported recent episodes or symptoms of depression and 23% were having problems in school. 86% were currently sexually active, with 48% of those sexually active being age 14 or younger when they had their first sexual encounter. 73% reported using a condom at first sexual intercourse, while 12% had never used a contraceptive method. 50% reported using a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse, 71% of condom users reported being comfortable with the method, 21% had impregnated a partner and 8% were parents, and 25% reported having 4 or more sex partners during the past 6 months. 9% reported ever having an STD, 31% reported being always or sometimes high on alcohol or drugs during sex, and 6% reported having been forced or tricked into having sex. The odds were reduced that a client had used an effective method at last intercourse if he was uncomfortable with that method. The likelihood of contraceptive use at last intercourse was increased among males who agreed with their partner about their method and those who had never impregnated a partner.

  6. On financial management of population and family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1976-03-01

    In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting. PMID:12334205

  7. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need.

  8. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. PMID:27517867

  9. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1984-01-01

    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954

  10. Evaluation of Family Planning Programmes, An Example from Botswana. Research for Action No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sheila

    Since 1969 the International Planned Parenthood Federation has worked with the government of Botswana in setting up family planning services. An evaluation of the family planning aspects of the program were carried out. This is a summary of three research studies and some general comments. Included is: (1) an introduction to Botswana and the…

  11. Linking HIV & family planning services to improve dual methods of contraception among women infected with HIV in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Beena; Velhal, Gajanan; Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Preventing unintended pregnancies among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is one of the strategies of WHO for preventing parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT). Given the limitation of only condom use, the objective of this study was to improve use of dual contraceptive methods among HIV infected women. Methods: An experimental study among HIV positive women was conducted at two tertiary care level hospitals in Mumbai. Linking HIV with family planning services was the focus of intervention at one site and standard level of care was maintained at the control site. At each site, 150 HIV+ve women attending counselling and testing centres, who did not intend to get pregnant in the next one year and were eligible to use dual methods, were enrolled and followed up to one year. Results: At the end of one year, 60 per cent women in the intervention group reached Family Planning Centres compared to eight per cent in the control group. There was three times more acceptance and continuation of use of dual methods along with increase in consistent use of condoms and less number of unplanned pregnancies in the intervention group than the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings demonstrate that linking HIV and family planning services may facilitate the uptake of dual methods of contraception without reducing consistent condom use among HIV infected women. The PPTCT programmes need to focus on the component of Prong 2 of PPTCT which aims to prevent unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women. PMID:27377503

  12. [Contraception in young girls. A survey conducted in the MFPF Family Planning Center, Strasbourg in 1985].

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, C; Engel, D; Jans, N; Clauss, S

    1987-05-01

    513 adolescent females attending a family planning center administered by the French Movement for Family Planning in Strasburg completed anonymous questionnaires between December 1984-June 1985 to identify the sociological and clinical characteristics of the clinic users. About 80% were 16-19 years old. 314 came unaccompanied to the center, 149 came with a friend, and 25 came with their partner. It was the 1st consultation for 278 respondents. 126 had been coming for less than 1 year, 67 for 1-2 years, 31 for 2-3 years, and 11 for more than 3 years. 83% were students. 312 resided in Strasburg or its suburbs and 201 resided elsewhere. Anonymity was the principal reason why clients travelled long distances to attend the center. 372 knew of the center through friends or sisters, 44 through the media, 40 through school, 11 through parents, and 7 through a doctor. 121 reported that their parents knew they used contraception and 382 that they did not know. 318 preferred a woman doctor for a contraceptive consultation, 180 did not care, and 6 preferred a man. Over half had their 1st menstrual period between the ages of 12 and 13. 172 were virgins at the time of their 1st consultation. The age of 1st intercourse was 14-17 years old for 81% and 15 or 16 for 48%. 155 used no contraception before visiting the center, 114 used withdrawal, 73 used condoms, 20 used spermicides, 38 used oral contraceptives (OCs) prescribed elsewhere, and 9 used other methods. 66% of prescriptions were for standard dosed pills because less than 2 years had passed since menarche, the cycles were irregular, or the client had acne or feared forgetting a pill. At the 3-month follow-up the prescription was changed to a lowdose pill in 43 cases because of side effects, while a low dose pill was changed to standard dose in 20 cases because of acne or forgetting. 24 girls came for a morning after pill and 31 for a pregnancy test. 9 reported they had already had abortions. 163 did not smoke, 152 smoked

  13. The effect of maternal and child health and family planning services on mortality: is prevention enough?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, V; Wojtyniak, B; Chakraborty, J; Sarder, A M; Briend, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh. INTERVENTIONS--In the intervention area community health workers provided advice on contraception and on feeding and weaning babies; distributed oral rehydration solution, vitamin A tablets for children under 5, and ferrous fumarate and folic acid during pregnancy; immunised children; trained birth attendants in safe delivery and when to refer; treated minor ailments; and referred seriously ill people and malnourished children to a central clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall and age and cause specific death rates, obtained by a multiple step "verbal autopsy" process. RESULTS--During the two years covered by the study overall mortality was 17% lower among neonates, 9% lower among infants aged 1-5 months, 30% lower among children aged 6-35 months, and 19% lower among women living in the study area than in those living in the control area. These differences were mainly due to fewer deaths from neonatal tetanus, measles, persistent diarrhoea with severe malnutrition among children, and fewer abortions among women. CONCLUSIONS--The programme was effective in preventing some deaths. In addition to preventive components such as tetanus and measles immunisation, health and nutrition education, and family planning, curative services are needed to reduce mortality further. PMID:2390566

  14. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution. PMID:27353621

  15. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  16. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    PubMed

    Chen, E C

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  17. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  18. Measuring Access to Family Planning: Conceptual Frameworks and DHS Data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425

  19. Family Planning Services for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, William L.; Weiss, Robert C.; Lowther, Laura; Shonick, Helen; Heidbreder, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    If we are to influence the numerical trends of venereal disease and of unwanted pregnancies in the young, family planning services should be made easily available to them. To encourage the widest possible and most effective use of such services requires that health professionals openly endorse their ready availability. They must foster non-judgmental attitudes, however unorthodox patient life styles may be, and provide the young with opportunities to explore their own sexual behavior. The Youth Clinics of the Department of Community Health Services in Los Angeles are designed to meet both the immediate therapeutic and preventive health needs of our patients. Contraceptive services, abortion counseling and referrals as well as individual, group and community education are the primary pillars of our program. There is an enormous task for all of us who are concerned with adolescents to press for sex education programs, in or out of the school system, that will include adults as well as our children. PMID:4813794

  20. Empowerment in family planning as viewed by Iranian women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

    2012-03-01

    Women carry the primary responsibility for family planning in most parts of the world, and should be afforded the power of decision-making and control over their fertility. This study seeks to gain insight into Iranian women's perception of the meaning of empowerment in family planning. Using a qualitative study, seven focus group discussions and five individual interviews were conducted with 35 married Iranian women of reproductive age. The data were analysed using a conventional content analysis approach, in which themes and categories were explored to reveal women's experiences of empowerment in family planning. The results demonstrated four main categories: control over fertility plan, participative family planning, maintaining health and access to optimal family planning services. They viewed knowledge of family planning and autonomy of decision-making in fertility issues as essential elements for control of their fertility plan. Participants felt more empowered when joint family planning decisions were made with their partners in an atmosphere of agreement. Therefore, family planning policymakers should plan services with new approaches that focus on women's health and empowerment. PMID:22047779

  1. Integrating family planning and HIV services in western Kenya: the impact on HIV-infected patients' knowledge of family planning and male attitudes toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Onono, Maricianah; Guzé, Mary A; Grossman, Daniel; Steinfeld, Rachel; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Shade, Starley; Cohen, Craig R; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on the impact of integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care and treatment on patients' familiarity with and attitudes toward FP. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in 18 public HIV clinics with 12 randomized to integrated FP and HIV services and 6 to the standard referral-based system where patients are referred to an FP clinic. Serial cross-sectional surveys were done before (n = 488 women, 486 men) and after (n = 479 women, 481 men) the intervention to compare changes in familiarity with FP methods and attitudes toward FP between integrated and nonintegrated (NI) sites. We created an FP familiarity score based on the number of more effective FP methods patients could identify (score range: 0-6). Generalized estimating equations were used to control for clustering within sites. An increase in mean familiarity score between baseline (mean = 5.16) and post-intervention (mean = 5.46) occurred with an overall mean change of 0.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.09, 0.45; p = 0.003) across all sites. At end line, there was no difference in increase of mean FP familiarity scores at intervention versus control sites (mean = 5.41 vs. 5.49, p = 0.94). We observed a relative decrease in the proportion of males agreeing that FP was "women's business" at integrated sites (baseline 42% to end line 30%; reduction of 12%) compared to males at NI sites (baseline 35% to end line 42%; increase of 7%; adjusted odds ration [aOR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.85). Following FP-HIV integration, familiarity with FP methods increased but did not differ by study arm. Integration was associated with a decrease in negative attitudes toward FP among men.

  2. [Family planning and community development: an indissoluble partnership].

    PubMed

    Butera, G

    1988-12-01

    Local publications about population in Rwanda over the past 3 years have tended either to view population growth and high density as advantageous because they lead to more intensive use of resources and hence development, or to view Rwanda as regressing economically and socially because of its very rapid population growth. It is questionable whether Rwanda's development goals can be attained without bringing down the rate of population growth. Population pressure in some rural areas has become catastrophic, yet parents do not see their large families as a problem because they expect their children once grown to make their living elsewhere. Local authorities should help to communicate the concept that only demographic stability will allow achievement of communal development goals. The advantages of smaller families should be discussed. Rwanda's policy of increasing agricultural production has encountered numerous obstacles. Subdivision of plots through inheritance, sale, or sharecropping is a problem in itself and also tends to increase erosion. None of the methods of increasing plot size by collectivization or resettling the population is without serious drawbacks. The best solution appears to be encouragement of better cultivation techniques through extension agents and demonstration projects at the local level. Artisanal activities and manual labor should be promoted to provide employment at the communal level. Community development projects should be decentralized and carefully planned to meet local needs.

  3. [Changes in midwifery practice. 26. Postwar legislative guideline concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1987-09-01

    Yoshio Furuya, who authored the 1951 legislative guidelines for family planning in Japan, designated 3 villages to model family planning upon his return from the United States in 1950. The instructors were public health nurses, midwives and regular nurses who had been trained and certified by the National Public Health Institute. They showed film strips and slides, and distributed contraceptives and medication. Population Research Group also embarked on the New Life Style Movement among Japanese industries in 1951. The new life style was said to have 3 pillars: family planning, career planning, and family morals. The idea of family planning was welcomed at the beginning by industries because it would mean less dependents of employees to provide financial aid for. The movement lasted only several years. In 1955, the International Family Planning Federation and the Japan Family Planning Federation co-sponsored the Fifth International Family Planning Conference in Tokyo. 572 participants including Margaret Sanger delivered 91 papers on techniques and practices of family planning. Soon after the conference, the Family Planning Study Committee was organized, and they met once a month to discuss socio-cultural implications of family planning, theory and practice of contraception, maternal and child health. Many of the committee members were idealistic/feminist public health officials but there were no women among them. A post-war family planning movement approved by the Japanese government resulted in the dramatic reduction in the birth rate from 34.3% in 1947 to 17.2% in 1957. Midwives played an important role in enforcing the policy but they were excluded from policy making.

  4. Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

    2014-09-01

    Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed.

  5. STD / AIDS prevention: new challenges for family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N; Townsend, S

    1991-12-01

    Family planning (FP) professionals and programs are increasingly called upon to respond to increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. While structural and ideological readjustment to meet these demands may seem problematic for some programs, the AIDS epidemic allows the opportunity for programs to expand into preventive health activities. Dr. Nancy Williamson, Director of Family Health International's Division of Program Evaluation and 1 of the authors of the World Health Organization's guidelines on family planning and AIDS, responds to questions most frequently posed by FP providers considering the need for and process of FP program restructuring. She holds that programmatic expansion for the prevention of HIV infection enhances the capability to provide good contraceptive services. FP programs are not expected to abandon their central missions of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but to engage in both the prevention of STD infection and unwanted pregnancies where possible. Sharing responsible sex behavior and the condom as common means of prevention, these 2 missions are far from mutually exclusive. The AIDS epidemic has impacted upon FP programs in a number of ways. Increased demand for condoms has been observed in countries with high levels of HIV seropositivity, greater concern has been placed upon counseling and sterile procedures, view have been altered to accept this dual role of contraception, and universal precautions for the protection of both client and workers from infection are of greater importance. Promoting the consistent use of condoms for the prevention of STDs has proved more challenging than promoting for contraceptive uses. Gaining the legitimacy of condoms among married couples while they are also promoted among high-risk groups also remains difficult. On other issues, promoting the routine use of 2 temporary methods is not recommended, questions must be posed to determine clients' risk status for infection, counseling

  6. Women’s experience regarding the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed on 37 married women who were volunteer and eligible for contraception as well as 8 staffs and directors of family planning services. They were selected useing purposeful sampling method in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by recording discussions of focused group in 7 sessions and 5 individual interviews. Conventional content analysis was used for coding and classification of data. Findings: Participants descriptions about the role of health centers in empowering the family planning was classified into 4 main categories including: encouraging male’s participation in family planning, providing comprehensive reproductive health services, expanding free services for family planning and appropriate technology for public awareness. Conclusions: Accessibility to health centers and offering free services for family planning are not sufficient for empowering women in terms of their fertility desires. The health centers should offer comprehensive reproductive health services and provide family planning services with a new approach for helping women and men to consciously and freely make a responsible decision in order to have more control over their fertility. PMID:23833598

  7. Breast-feeding and family planning: a review of the relationships between breast-feeding and family planning.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated factors must be considered when breast-feeding is introduced as a concern for family planning programs: the number of pregnancies and births experienced, age at each pregnancy and birth, duration of the intervals between conceptions, lactation including duration and type, health and nutritional services available to meet the demands of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care. The dietary intake of the mother and her health and disease status have an effect on the duration of breast-feeding, and lactation has an effect on her ovulation and birth spacing. Those at particularly high risk include adolescent girls, older grand-multipara women, and families living in poverty. An historical relationship between the reduction in infant and childhood mortality and the falling off of births can be documented. The straightforward benefits on nutritional status of breast-fed infants, the conjunction with the antibody protection afforded by breast milk, served to reduce infant mortality and indirectly served to reduce birth rates. In addition, the prolongation of postpartum anovulatory cycles in breast-feeding women, coupled with sexual mores that postpone sexual relations while a women is breast-feeding in certain groups, will serve to prolong the interbirth intervals. Populations where breast-feeding is customary have been shown to have fewer births than populations where the women do not breast-fed and where infants are artificially fed. PMID:7039292

  8. "We don't have a back-up plan": an exploration of family contingency planning for emergencies following stroke.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Tracey; Ghazzawi, Andrea; Stanek, Agatha; Lemyre, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Little research has explored emergency preparedness among families coping with stroke. In this longitudinal qualitative study, we explored contingency caregiving planning by interviewing (N = 18) family caregivers providing care for a stroke survivor at home during the first 6 months post-discharge from the hospital. Emergent themes showed most families did not have a concrete "back-up plan" for a crisis or disaster situation involving the primary caregiver being unable to provide care. Furthermore, they assumed formal respite services or long-term care would be available should the need arise. Despite increased awareness over time, most caregivers had not devised contingency plans at 6 months.

  9. Defining Family Health Needs, Standards of Care and Priorities with Particular Reference to Family Planning. Occasional Essay Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Fred T.

    This essay discusses family health needs in the developing world, their priorities, and the standards of health required, with particular reference to family planning. The author takes into account medical, social, and economic factors that influence those concerns. Some of the material presented in this essay first appeared in other international…

  10. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  11. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.

  12. Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi District, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Apanga, Paschal Awingura; Adam, Matthew Ayamba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it's usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 280 residents aged 15-49 years and data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0. Results The study revealed that 89% (249/280), of respondents were aware of family planning services, 18% (50/280) of respondents had used family planning services in the past. Parity and educational level of respondents were positively associated with usage of family planning services (P<0.05). Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, 83% (191/230). Conclusion Although most women were aware of family planning services in the Talensi district, the uptake of the service was low. Thus, there is the need for the office of the district health directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The government should also scale up family planning services in the district to make it more accessible. PMID:25995807

  13. Family planning for seasonal migrant workers in Adana Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaser, Y

    1990-10-01

    A new project supported by the Pathfinder Fund to serve migrant farm workers has been developed in Adana Province, a populous region in southern Turkey. The economy their is primarily agricultural, with some heavy industry. As estimated 100,000 migrant workers are needed to planting and harvesting in this region. They make between $55-$60 a month, which is about 1/3 of the minimum age. Most migrant workers travel long distances to Adana where they live in tents. Living conditions are poor, with no running water or toilets. Malaria, gastroenteritis and intestinal parasites are endemic. Unofficial figures show that over 75% of school children have intestinal parasites. UNICEF has helped with vaccinations, maternal and health care, and powdered milk distribution. Most Turkish workers are covered by social security laws that provide health care for them. Almost non of the migrant workers are covered by social security. Surveys show that 80% of migrant workers desire 4 or more children, usually due to economic conditions, (i.e. labor for increased family income). The rates of miscarriage, morbidity and mortality are very high in August and September because pregnant women try to work until the very last day of the term. The pilot program in Adana increased the number of health centers per workers, as well as offering extended evening hours. Health clinic trailers were rotated as needed within the region. The program provided general health care, vaccinations, pre natal and post natal maternity care and a sharp focus on family planning. The year long pilot program was considered wildly successful. This was attributed, in large part, to the extended evening hours of the clinics as well as mobility of the trailers. Also, finances provided by the Fund were also crucial for implementation.

  14. Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1991-09-01

    Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices.

  15. Family planning needs and costs: Nepal, 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Tsui, A O

    1990-06-01

    Achievement of the Government of Nepal's goal of a total fertility rate of 2.5 by the year 2000 requires careful consideration of the levels of contraceptive prevalence required to meet this target, the optimal contraceptive method mix, and program costs. The scenario envisioned by government planners is for the fertility rate to fall from 5.8 in 1985 to 4.0 by 1990 and finally to 2.5 by the end of the century. The 2.5 target is 54% lower than what the United Nations regards as a plausible course of fertility decline and will require a 4-fold increase in contraceptive prevalence, form 15% in 1985 to 62% in 2000, given no change in method mix and high discontinuation rates, and a rise in the number of contraceptive users form a half-million to 2.8-2.9 million over a 15-year period. If no change of method mix occurs, the 2.5 fertility rate target requires that sterilization use increase from 13% to 53%. An alternative contraceptive mix for the year 2000 is pill use, 13%; IUD use, 19%; and sterilization, 13%. In terms of cost, achievement of the government's target will require a 5-fold increase in annual spending for contraception, from US$2.74 million in 1985 to US$16.39 million in 2000, and a 24-fold increase, to US$67.76 million, in total family planning expenditures. These projections suggest that the government may need to reassess its target; the United Nations has suggested that a fertility rate of 4.6 by the year 2000 is more realistic. Such a goal would require a contraceptive prevalence rate of 34%, 1.6 million users, and annual family planning costs of US$38.54 million. Regardless of the scenario selected, there is a need for the government to examine carefully the cost-benefit ratios for contraceptives such as improved IUD's and subdermal implants.

  16. Importance of male fertility control in family planning.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, Daulat R P; Abou-Haila, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The world population, currently estimated to be almost seven billion, is expected to double in less than four decades. The projected population growth will cause severe competition for existing resources, not to mention the issue of overcrowding of the planet and additional greenhouse gases that will have an adverse effect on the ecological health of the planet. A recent survey conducted by the United Nations Population Control Division shows that the majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to participate in family planning by taking full control of their fertility, an important global health issue. However, the contraceptive needs of tens of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. Ever since the approval of the birth control pill by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1960, scientists have been hoping for a male equivalent. It has, however, been a difficult road, in part because of the complicated science of the male reproductive system. It is easier to control a monthly event of ovulation in women than to regulate the production of millions of fertile spermatozoa every day in men. Thus, the contraceptive options for men have not changed in decades and are still limited to the use of condoms, a timely withdrawal/pulling out (coitus interruptus) or vasectomy, a minor surgical procedure in which the vas deferens is occluded to prevent the release of spermatozoa during ejaculation. The first two approaches have a relatively higher failure rate, whereas the last approach is largely irreversible and not suitable for younger men. In this article, we will discuss various approaches currently available for men to take control of their fertility. Our intention is to discuss the details of three similar approaches that will provide safe, affordable and reversible contraception for men and are close to being approved for use by millions of men around the globe. The availability of safe

  17. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students.

    PubMed

    Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J

    1999-10-01

    To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided. PMID:10640169

  18. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1977-03-01

    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  19. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1977-03-01

    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  20. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module

  1. Successful Family Planning Programs. Draper World Population Fund Report, No. 4, Summer 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    This publication describes successful family planning programs throughout the world. Discussed in detail are programs in Colombia, Mauritius, Maharashtra, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Photographs illustrate the articles and, in some cases, family planning vital statistics are given. The Draper World Population…

  2. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  3. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  4. A GUIDE FOR TEACHING PERSONAL AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, A BOOK OF TEACHING PLANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERETTI, GENEVIEVE

    UNIT PLANS AND TEACHING SUGGESTIONS IN THIS GUIDE ARE FOR USE BY JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL HOMEMAKING TEACHERS IN PLANNING LESSONS ON FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS FOR GRADES 8-12. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS IN A 2-WEEK COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA. THE UNITS ARE--(1) INCREASING UNDERSTANDING OF SELF, FAMILY, AND…

  5. Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speert, Kathryn H.; Wishik, Samuel M.

    The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesaurus should prove of direct use to the indexer of documents describing family planning program…

  6. Concurrent Planning and beyond: Family-Centered Services for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative…

  7. Regulations on family planning management of the floating population.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This document reprints China's "Regulations on Family Planning (FP) Management of the Floating Population" that went into effect on January 1, 1999. The regulations, which apply to married labor migrants of reproductive age, call on all levels of the government to include FP management of this group in the target population of each administrative area. In addition to assigning governmental responsibilities, the regulations require adults to acquire certificates of marriage and childbearing at their local FP departments before they migrate. The adults should present these certificates to the proper authorities upon arrival at their destination. Efforts should be made to educate migrants about population and FP requirements; reach migrants with contraceptive services; and link approval of temporary residence permits, business licenses, and work permits with proper certification of marriage and childbearing. Employers will be responsible for the FP management of labor migrants, and landlords should assist local officials in this FP management. Incentives for adhering to the one child policy will be awarded by the migrants' place of household registration, but the cost of contraceptive operations will be born by employers if applicable or by the place of household registration. Penalties for violating the FP regulations will be meted out by the government of the place of current residence or of household registration (with only one penalty given for a single violation). Fines will be instituted for fabricating, selling, or acquiring fake certificates of marriage and childbearing or for failing to follow these regulations. PMID:12321927

  8. The debate on family planning and reproductive rights in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, M

    1991-01-01

    Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights.

  9. Family planning in the service of human development.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1984-01-01

    In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, the author identifies human development as the common theme underlying health, family planning, and economic progress. National policies should seek to stimulate people to develop their own material, intellectual, and spiritual potential. Attempts to force fertility control practices on populations can be expected to be met with resentment, resistance, and rejection. The World Health Organization's health for all by the year 2000 strategy views people as both the subject and object of their development. It goes beyond the struggle to remain alive to support people in adopting measures that will make their life progressively more pleasant. It is a strategy to support people in taking action, in ways understandable and acceptable to them, to assume growing responsibility for their own health destiny and thus contribute to their socioeconomic destiny. In addition, this strategy aims to ensure that each child is born truly wanted. The central condition for the success of population policies is their placement of the physical, social, and spiritual well-being of people at the highest rung of the developmental ladder.

  10. Intermediate objectives for the monitoring of family planning services.

    PubMed

    Corzantes, C A

    1978-01-01

    Since progress during the early stages of a program cannot easily be measured in terms of the ultimate objectives, there is need to develop a set of intermediate indicators for purposes of necessary evaluation and monitoring. Family planning programs suggest a series of useful intermediate objectives that have a clear cause-and-effect relationship with regard to their ultimate goals. It is important that they be expressed as specific targets. They should provide for a numerical definition of the target population; a given time frame; a service design which takes into account patient load, personnel performance, and service capacities; and a record system that can readily retrieve information about service utilization and also identify each patient individually. At the same time, allowance should be made for periodic review and adjustments in light of modifications that are bound to occur in the composition of the target population as well as possible changes of a sociopolitical nature that might affect the program's scope. PMID:667409

  11. Reassessing Unmet Need for Family Planning in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Bradley, Sarah E K; Ross, John; Winfrey, William

    2015-12-01

    Despite renewed interest in postpartum family planning programs, the question of the time at which women should be expected to start contraception after a birth remains unanswered. Three indicators of postpartum unmet need consider women to be fully exposed to the risk of pregnancy at different times: right after delivery (prospective indicator), after six months of amenorrhea (intermediate indicator), and at the end of amenorrhea (classic indicator). DHS data from 57 countries in 2005-13 indicate that 62 percent (prospective), 43 percent (intermediate), and 32 percent (classic) of women in the first year after a birth have an unmet need for contraception (40 percent when including abstinence). While the protection afforded by postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea lowers unmet need, further analysis shows that women also often rely on these methods without being actually protected. Programs should acknowledge these methods' widespread use and inform women about their limits. Also, the respective advantages of targeting the postnatal period, the end of six months of amenorrhea/exclusive breastfeeding, or the resumption of sexual intercourse to offer contraceptive services should be tested. PMID:26643487

  12. [Addition to "Chen Muhua Speaks" at family planning meeting].

    PubMed

    1980-02-14

    The following addition supplied from Beijing Renmin Ribao in Chinese of February 3, 1980 from page 1 should be made to the article "Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo Speak at Family Planning Meeting," published in the February 4 People's Republic of China Daily Report on page L2: Page L2, 1st paragraph, line 3: "...in due course, so that the total population of China will be controlled at about 1.2 billion by the end of this century, in order to insure greater and faster economic development in the country and improvements in the people's living standards, and to raise the cultural level of the Chinese nation." "Chen Muhua made this calculation: If young people marry at age 20, there will be 5 generations in a century; but if they marry at age 25, there will be only 4. The reduction by a whole generation of people is a matter of great importance in controlling population growth. Besides, in his prime a youth should be wholeheartedly devoted to his study and work in order to make greater contributions to the 4 modernizations. For this reason, for both the nation and the indivduals concerned it is profitable for citizens to delay marriages and childbirth and exercise birth control." She was speaking...

  13. The Fallopian Dilemma: African Bodies, Citizenship and Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Pussetti, Chiara Gemma

    2015-03-01

    In the recent context of the European Union governmental activity-in particular in this time of crisis-immigration-related issues became of pivotal importance. Social healthcare programmes targeting deprived immigrant populations equate reducing social problems with guiding their conduct towards more responsible, healthier habits and life projects. Building upon a set of debates on governing the body and health under advanced liberalism, this paper, focusing on the Portuguese context and on family planning, suggests ideas towards a new research agenda on immigration and public health, claiming that social care interventions are inherently racialized. The insecurities, threats and overall concerns in a time of global crisis create a state of exception, which justifies the deployment of illiberal practices in order to secure collective well-being. In particular, I am interested in how the dominant discourses of the health and social care sectors influence [1] the ways in which "the right thing to do" is constructed and debated and the material effects of these decisions on immigrants lives; [2] the ongoing strategies, micronegotiations of power and truth between different actors; [3] the fading borders of the subject of medical knowledge, which becomes no longer to govern the body merely according to a medical logic, but rather to seek social well-being. PMID:26863238

  14. The impact of reproductive health legislation on family planning clinic services in Texas.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R A; Stevenson, Amanda; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    We examined the impact of legislation in Texas that dramatically cut and restricted participation in the state's family planning program in 2011 using surveys and interviews with leaders at organizations that received family planning funding. Overall, 25% of family planning clinics in Texas closed. In 2011, 71% of organizations widely offered long-acting reversible contraception; in 2012-2013, only 46% did so. Organizations served 54% fewer clients than they had in the previous period. Specialized family planning providers, which were the targets of the legislation, experienced the largest reductions in services, but other agencies were also adversely affected. The Texas experience provides valuable insight into the potential effects that legislation proposed in other states may have on low-income women's access to family planning services.

  15. Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

  16. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

  18. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  19. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  20. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  1. Family planning programs in industrial establishments: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Cabigon, J; Magsino, E

    1993-01-01

    An operations research study in the Philippines sought to uncover determinants of the sustainability of employment-based family planning (FP) programs offered in industrial settings where the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD) had provided assistance in implementing Responsible Parenthood/FP-Maternal Health (RP/FP-MH) Programs. Qualitative data were gathered through observations and interviews with the target population and with company management and program implementers. Based on this study, the following recommendations were made: 1) training outputs should be echoed to employees immediately; 2) RP/FP-MCH team members should be recruited from each level of the work force; 3) an appropriate IEC (information, education, and communication) strategy should be devised to respond to the short time-frame in which employees can participate; 4) team-building training should be incorporated as a regular activity early in the contract period; 5) sectoral targeting should be used within a given company; 6) training programs should be designed for each of the three types of team members and should overlap the basic topics; 7) teamwork and mutual assistance should be encouraged; 8) the work of the teams should be rewarded; 9) commendable initiative of liaison officers should be sustained; 10) representatives of the PCPD should maintain a close relationship with the teams through PCPD staff visits to the companies; 11) management requires more intensive orientation on the RP/FP-MH program; 12) PCPD support should be withdrawn gradually until the companies are able to sustain the program themselves; 13) it may be helpful to require a company to meet rigid criteria in order to take part in the PCPD project; 14) OR should be continued; and 15) the concept and practice of quality of care should be introduced to service delivery and training of staff and motivators.

  2. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.

  3. Family planning education as an integral part of day care services in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, K T

    1978-04-01

    The Integrated Day Care Program (IDCP) in Korea provices family planning classes as an integral part of comprehensive day care services for low-income families. The program was initiated by CARE in 1973, with support from the Korean government, and has received important inputs from national family planning agencies. A review of the first two years' accomplishments shows that mothers participating in the IDCP knew more about, were more favorable toward, and were more likely to practice family planning than mothers using day care centers that were not a part of the program. Findings also demonstrate the potential for program expansion: the substantial numbers of friends and relatives brought by mothers to the classes, and the number of IDCP and non-IDCP mothers indicating a willingness to use family planning clinic services in the day care setting. PMID:663990

  4. Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

    2013-09-01

    Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans.

  5. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    PubMed

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  6. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  7. A social marketing approach to quality improvement in family planning services: a case study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Jamshaid; Ali, Moazzam; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2008-02-01

    In the 1990s, social marketing approach was introduced in Pakistan to improve the quality and accessibility of family planning methods involving private practitioners. This study measured six quality elements using a Bruce-Jain framework. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 29 randomly selected Green Star clinics. The study's four components were 1) an inventory of each outlet (infrastructure, equipment, and supplies); 2) an observation guide for interaction between family planning clients and service providers; 3) exit interviews with clients attending the outlet; and 4) interviews with providers at the outlet. Of the 29 clients participating in the exit interviews, 72% were new users of family planning. The clients' mean age was 32 years; all clients were married; 93% had received formal education. Housework was the principal activity of 93% of clients. The mean number of children reported was three. Both hormonal and intrauterine contraceptives (IUCDs) were available in all facilities; 86% of the clients reported being able to obtain their contraceptive of choice. Most facilities had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service outlets emphasized mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a shortage of information on alternative methods, contraindications, and side-effect management, as well as a dearth of registration records. In conclusion, this is a good example of public-private partnership involving private practitioners using a social marketing approach. The quality components of a Bruce-Jain framework were achieved, resulting in a satisfied clientele. Involvement of private service outlets increased the accessibility and enhanced the use of services. Social marketing may be expanded to improve quality and access by involving further components of health care. PMID:20103894

  8. A social marketing approach to quality improvement in family planning services: a case study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Jamshaid; Ali, Moazzam; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2008-02-01

    In the 1990s, social marketing approach was introduced in Pakistan to improve the quality and accessibility of family planning methods involving private practitioners. This study measured six quality elements using a Bruce-Jain framework. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 29 randomly selected Green Star clinics. The study's four components were 1) an inventory of each outlet (infrastructure, equipment, and supplies); 2) an observation guide for interaction between family planning clients and service providers; 3) exit interviews with clients attending the outlet; and 4) interviews with providers at the outlet. Of the 29 clients participating in the exit interviews, 72% were new users of family planning. The clients' mean age was 32 years; all clients were married; 93% had received formal education. Housework was the principal activity of 93% of clients. The mean number of children reported was three. Both hormonal and intrauterine contraceptives (IUCDs) were available in all facilities; 86% of the clients reported being able to obtain their contraceptive of choice. Most facilities had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service outlets emphasized mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a shortage of information on alternative methods, contraindications, and side-effect management, as well as a dearth of registration records. In conclusion, this is a good example of public-private partnership involving private practitioners using a social marketing approach. The quality components of a Bruce-Jain framework were achieved, resulting in a satisfied clientele. Involvement of private service outlets increased the accessibility and enhanced the use of services. Social marketing may be expanded to improve quality and access by involving further components of health care.

  9. Meeting the family planning needs of women living with HIV in US government global health programs.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya

    2013-10-01

    The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships. PMID:24088678

  10. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  11. AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J H; Aruffo, J F

    1992-02-01

    Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with only 25% of patients. This lack of communication was confirmed by patients' own reports. Factors which might relate to this lack of communication are explored.

  12. Demographic study of port wine stain patients attending a laser clinic: family history, prevalence of naevus anaemicus and results of prior treatment.

    PubMed

    Mills, C M; Lanigan, S W; Hughes, J; Anstey, A V

    1997-07-01

    All patients with port wine stains (PWS) attending a tunable dye laser clinic were examined by one author (SWL), forming a large group which has allowed study of the demographic data of such patients. Two hundred and eighty-three patients, 217 females (median age 24 years, range 0.5-73) and 66 males (median age 20 years, range 0.75-72), were examined. The PWS were on the face in 226, neck in 69, trunk in 36, upper limb in 35 and lower limb in 29. The commonest lesional colour was purple (63 patients), while 39 naevi were pink/red, 35 pink/ purple and 35 pink. The naevus was flat in 255 patients, cobblestoned in 28, associated with hypertrophy in 31 and with scarring in 22. Seventy-two patients (25.4%) had a positive family history of birthmarks, 20 strawberry haemangiomas and 22 PWS, the family history of PWS being higher than expected for the prevalence of this naevus in the population. One hundred and forty-six patients were also examined for naevus anaemicus which was noted in 12 (8.2%), confirming an association between these two naevi. Ninety-four patients had received previous treatment, most commonly with the argon laser (56 patients), of whom only five reported a good result, and 17 of 22 patients with treatment-related scarring had been treated with this laser. Cosmetic camouflage was used in 109 (38.5%) of patients, who usually had PWS on the face (94%), of whom only 46 (16%) had received advice of its use. PMID:9499604

  13. Use of a patient-entered family health history tool with decision support in primary care: impact of identification of increased risk patients on genetic counseling attendance.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Adam H; Christianson, Carol A; Himmel, Tiffany; Powell, Karen P; Agbaje, Astrid; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Henrich, Vincent C; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-02-01

    Several barriers inhibit collection and use of detailed family health history (FHH) in primary care. MeTree, a computer-based FHH intake and risk assessment tool with clinical decision support, was developed to overcome these barriers. Here, we describe the impact of MeTree on genetic counseling (GC) referrals and attendance. Non-adopted, English speaking adults scheduled for a well-visit in two community-based primary-care clinics were invited to participate in an Implementation-Effectiveness study of MeTree. Participants' demographic characteristics and beliefs were assessed at baseline. Immediately after an appointment with a patient for whom GC was recommended, clinicians indicated whether they referred the patient and, if not, why. The study genetic counselor kept a database of patients with a GC recommendation and contacted those with a referral. Of 542 patients completing MeTree, 156 (29 %) received a GC recommendation. Of these, 46 % (n = 72) were referred and 21 % (n = 33) underwent counseling. Patient preferences, additional clinical information unavailable to MeTree, and an incomplete clinician evaluation of the FHH accounted for the 85 patients clinicians chose not to refer. Although MeTree identified a significant proportion of patients for whom GC was recommended, persistent barriers indicate the need for improved referral processes and patient and physician education about the benefits of GC.

  14. Perceived factors of family planning clinic performance and service quality.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger operations research project, this 1990 study analyzed the performance of the Philippine Department of Health's (DOH) family planning (FP) clinics. Specific study objectives were 1) to measure acceptor targets, servicing capacity utilization, outreach, and costs; 2) to determine what providers believed affected performance; 3) to record which quality indicator providers use; and 4) to determine the perceptions of acceptors about clinic personnel, the clinic as a FP outlet, FP service processing, and FP service quality. Data were gathered from clinic records and from sample surveys in 25 clinics in four specified locations. Eight clients were sampled from each of the 100 clinics. It was found that clinic staff accepted low attainment of FP acceptor targets and that clinic capacity utilization levels were at 25% of capacity. Providers were unaware of the number of potential FP acceptors in their areas and had no information about the costs of running their clinics. The FP clinic managers identified 34 major determinants of clinic performance, but more than half reported that they had very little control over these determinants. The providers described quality service from the point of view of the acceptors and described the quality of a clinic in terms of the minimal physical characteristics required. The acceptor survey revealed that acceptor satisfaction depends upon 1) clinic accessibility and lay-out, 2) intensive personal contact, and 3) clinic infrastructure. The study uncovered a need for the DOH to institute management training programs for clinic managers and to provide managers with the resources and personnel to shift priorities in favor of FP coverage and prevalence. Managers, who are resource allocators, must also receive information about the costs of FP services in their clinics. In addition, the DOH's determination that its FP program would be facility- rather than community-based should be modified to incorporate community outreach

  15. Planning Now for College Costs: A Guide for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopers & Lybrand, Washington, DC.

    Guidance on how to make college affordable, especially for middle-income families, is provided. Although college tuition and fees have more than doubled over the past 10 years and will continue to increase, traditional student aid programs have not kept pace with inflation and are earmarked chiefly for students from low-income families. The…

  16. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  17. The Behavioral Ecology of Family Planning : Two Ethnic Groups in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S

    2007-09-01

    Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide.

  18. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  19. [Emphasizing ideological education, implementing birth control measures and carrying out family planning in an appropriate way].

    PubMed

    Lu, L

    1982-07-29

    Since the establishment of responsible production system, certain existing measures for family planning have lost their original effectiveness. At the same time, some changes in the peasants' minds concerning family planning have also taken place. Many peasant families, especially those which have no male child, wish to have more children. In order to solve this problem, family planning work should be done all over again from the lowest administrative level. Through correct population and ideological education, the general public may understand that there is a surplus of agricultural labor and a shortage of arable land at the present time. Secondly, birth control measures, family planning techniques, and training of medical personnel should be improved in order to serve the people better. A full-time working staff for family planning work should be increased so that they may work closely with local people and solve practical problems. In addition, nursing homes should be established and managed well in each commune. All such nursing homes should receive financial support from the State. In the this way, childless aging people may receive proper care after retirement. The worries of those single-child households may also be greatly reduced. The overall resistance met by family planning personnel is thus eliminated.

  20. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khowaja, Yasmin; Karmaliani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Rafique, Ghazala; McFarlane, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs) in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods: A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control) participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS) was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results: A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control) completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17%) in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2%) in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over-reactivity. Conclusion

  1. Granny midwives can help with family planning in developing lands; in Iran they insert, remove IUDs.

    PubMed

    1975-12-01

    Traditional midwives are active in most villages and many urban areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. They deliver babies, provide prenatal and postpartum care, teach folk methods of birth control, treat infertility, and enjoy the confidence of many women. Most official family planning programs make little or no use of these traditional midwives. Research should be conducted into the most effective ways of recruiting and rewarding midwives in family planning programs. They seem to function best when provided with adequate training, supervision, and incentives. Traditional midwives are participating in the national family planning programs in Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Only in Iran do they participate in the medical aspects of family planning. Midwives in Iran do IUD insertions and their performance compares favorably with that of medical personnel.

  2. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  3. Community Dialogue to Shift Social Norms and Enable Family Planning: An Evaluation of the Family Planning Results Initiative in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its

  4. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.

  5. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use. PMID:26032620

  6. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    PubMed

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality.

  7. The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2002-04-01

    Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each.

  8. [Socio-demographic impact of 15 years of family planning].

    PubMed

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2005-08-01

    Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.

  9. Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

  10. Unmet Need for Family Planning in Nepal during the First Two Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Dariang, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

  11. Family Planning for Migrant Farmworkers of Mexican Culture: A Framework for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Carla N.; And Others

    This guide, written for health managers and clinicians, provides information to meet the family planning needs of migrant farmworkers of Mexican culture. The promotion of maternal and child health for migrant farmworker families has brought attention to the incidence of high risk pregnancies among this population. Research indicates that a need…

  12. Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the Mid-Continent Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.

    The information in this directory is designed to promote continuity in family planning services for migrant families in mid-continent streams. It provides professional personnel with a new tool to help meet the distinctive needs of individual migrants. Names, addresses, schedules, methods, and fee information of service agencies (health…

  13. Personal and Family Financial Planning: A Resource Manual for Community College Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Norb; And Others

    This resource manual was designed to improve community college instructors' understanding of personal and family financial planning (PFFP) and to provide them with guidelines for developing and implementing PFFP programs. After introductory material, the manual presents a five-part teaching guide, "Teaching Personal and Family Financial Planning…

  14. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.75 Section 286.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  15. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.75 Section 286.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  16. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.75 Section 286.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  17. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.75 Section 286.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  18. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.75 Section 286.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  19. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resolutions from all participating Tribes that demonstrate each individual Tribe's support of the consortium... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY...

  20. Counseling a Client Whose Family Member Is Planning a Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses planned suicide as a topic that receives much attention both in the popular press and the scholarly literature. Provides a case scenario followed with a discussion of pertinent legal and ethical issues for counselors. (Author/GCP)

  1. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  2. A Population-Family Planning Resource Center: A Community Educational Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berde, Carol

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses a multi-media library and information center in population and family planning which is associated with a Planned Parenthood affiliate and provides many segments of the community with educational materials and services and strengthens the affiliate's programs. (Author)

  3. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  4. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans.

    PubMed

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  5. Minister Peng reports on the population status and family planning programme in 1993.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1994-04-01

    Madame Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission addressed the National Family Planning Conference in March 1994. The topics of discussion were program activities in 1993, justification of the program, and aims for 1994. Future activities of the family planning programs will be devoted to program improvement and to promotion of awareness of the importance of family planning. Improvements will also be made in the responsibility system for target management. Population plans have been successful in reducing fertility. The level of socioeconomic development should determine the quotas set in the population plan. Competitiveness between areas and impractically high targets should be avoided. Fulfillment of targets is expected as well as the enforcement of guidelines. Family planning implementation should be evaluated in terms of the methods used to achieve targets and the relationship between Party organizations and the public and between cadres and the people. This form of evaluation was recommended by General-Secretary Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning Work in March 1993. The "three stresses" should be implemented with the highest priority at all levels: IEC, contraception, and regular management and services. An emphasis on these "stresses" can improve the economic and social status of women and can contribute to a "rational socialist civilization." An integrated approach combining production, living standards, and human reproduction should also be forthcoming. The ultimate goal is to develop production, establish happy, more civilized families, and have fewer, but healthier babies. Grassroots implementation must be strengthened. Funding must be increased. The major goals of the Development of Children Program in the 1990s must be fulfilled. The unbalanced sex ratio should be given attention at all levels.

  6. Religious Attendance as Reproductive Support

    PubMed Central

    Weeden, Jason; Cohen, Adam B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that a central function of religious attendance in the contemporary U.S. is to support a high-fertility, monogamous mating strategy. Although religious attendance is correlated with many demographic, personality, moral, and behavioral variables, we propose that sexual and family variables are at the core of many of these relationships. Numerous researchers have assumed that religious socialization causes people to feel moral reactions and engage in behaviors promoted by religious groups. On our view, mating preferences are centrally involved in individual differences in attraction to religious groups. In a sample of 21,131 individuals who participated in the U.S. General Social Survey, sexual behaviors were the relatively strongest predictors of religious attendance, even after controlling for age and gender. Effects of age and gender on religious attendance were weaker, and substantially reduced when controlling for sexual and family patterns. A sample of 902 college students provided more detailed information on religious, moral, and sexual variables. Results suggest that 1) moral views about sexual behavior are more strongly linked to religious attendance than other moral issues, and 2) mating strategy is more powerful than standard personality variables in predicting religious attendance. These findings suggest that reproductive strategies are at the heart of variations in religious attendance. PMID:21874105

  7. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  8. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  9. Group action planning as a support strategy for Hispanic families: parent and professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Blue-Banning, M J; Turnbull, A P; Pereira, L

    2000-06-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to obtain participants' preliminary reactions to the responsiveness of group action planning, a person-centered planning approach, as a support strategy for Hispanic families of individuals with disabilities. Focus group participants were 38 Hispanic parents of youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and 22 professionals who provided support services to Hispanic youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and their families. Both constituency groups identified advantages and disadvantages of group action planning. We focus our key recommendations on the implications of this information for education and human service systems as well as directions for future research. PMID:10900934

  10. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family...) Policies and procedures to ensure that— (1) To the maximum extent appropriate, early intervention...

  11. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

    1990-01-01

    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  12. Profile: the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning of India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    In 1974, the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning was founded at India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare with funds from the government and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) to provide reliable population information to policy makers, planners, administrators for program development as well as to academics, researchers, students, and social workers engaged in population issues. Data collected from states and districts by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare are disseminated through publications. The Centre receives documents from other Indian research entities and from foreign bodies. The existing collection consists of 40,000 books and monographs, 10,000 periodicals and journals, 450 current journals, 2000 institutional publications, 1000 annual reports, and 5000 fugitive material items. A data base containing this collected material has the purpose of generating various publications, and full copies of originals are provided at request. WHO designated the Centre a resource center for primary health care information. It is a linchpin of the Asia-Pacific POPIN network. Requests are frequent for information on family welfare program management. Dissemination includes information packages, annotated bibliographies, synthesized information, case studies, and field experience reports. The staff includes subject specialists, communication experts, and software and management specialists. 54 health and family welfare training centers have been involved in information activities since 1985. Exchange of information with population research centers has started by means of computer networking. Local area networks are developed with science libraries of major cities. DELNET (Delhi Library Network) launched a resource-sharing effort of health and family planning libraries. The creation of a National Population Information Database is also planned by the establishment of POPIN-India. PMID:12286547

  13. Creating options in family planning for the private sector in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Gribble, James N; Menotti, Elaine P

    2005-07-01

    The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are facing the gradual phase-out of international-donor support of contraceptive commodities and technical and management assistance, as well as an increased reliance on limited public sector resources and a limited private sector role in providing contraceptives to the public. Therefore, those nations must develop multisectoral strategies to achieve contraceptive security. The countries need to consider information about the market for family planning commodities and services in order to define and promote complementary roles for the public sector, the commercial sector, and the nongovernmental-organization sector, as well as to better identify which segments of the population each of those sectors should serve. While it is unable to mandate private sector participation, the public sector can create conditions that support and promote a greater role for the private sector in meeting the growing needs of family planning users. Taking steps to actively involve and expand the private sector's market share is a critical strategy for achieving a more equitable distribution of available resources, addressing unmet need, and creating a more sustainable future for family planning commodities and services. This paper also discusses in detail the experiences of two countries, Paraguay and Peru. Paraguay's family planning market illustrates a vibrant private sector, but with limited access to family planning commodities and services for those who cannot afford private sector prices. In Peru a 1995 policy change that sought to increase family planning coverage had the effect of restricting access for the poor and leaving the Ministry of Health unable to pay for the growing need for family planning commodities and services.

  14. Women’s Experiences Seeking Publicly Funded Family Planning Services in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Kristine; White, Kari; Linkin, Fran; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Little is known about low-income women’s and teenagers’ experiences accessing publicly funded family planning services, particularly after policy changes are made that affect the cost of and access to such services. METHODS Eleven focus groups were conducted with 92 adult women and 15 teenagers in nine Texas metropolitan areas in July–October 2012, a year after legislation that reduced access to subsidized family planning was enacted. Participants were recruited through organizations that serve low-income populations. At least two researchers independently coded the transcripts of the discussions and identified main themes. RESULTS Although most women were not aware of the legislative changes, they reported that in the past year, they had had to pay more for previously free or low-cost services, use less effective contraceptive methods or forgo care. They also indicated that accessing affordable family planning services had long been difficult, that applying and qualifying for programs was a challenge and that obtaining family planning care was harder than obtaining pregnancy-related care. As a result of an inadequate reproductive health safety net, women experienced unplanned pregnancies and were unable to access screening services and follow-up care. Teenagers experienced an additional barrier, the need to obtain parental consent. Some women preferred to receive family planning services from specialized providers, while others preferred more comprehensive care. CONCLUSION Women in Texas have long faced challenges in obtaining subsidized family planning services. Legislation that reduced access to family planning services for low-income women and teenagers appears to have added to those challenges. PMID:25639913

  15. Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

    Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

  16. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  17. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  18. Family planning: fertility and parenting ideals in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chipman, Abigail; Morrison, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Previous research on contemporary childbearing has identified a strong relationship between environmental conditions, such as economic deprivation, and early fertility. Less is known, however, about the social-psychological mechanisms that mediate these environmental predictors of early fertility at the individual level and the extent to which they are consistent with life history theory. The aim of this research was to determine how kin networks, mating and reproductive risk taking, discount preference, and perceptions of environmental risk predict individual differences in fertility preferences in a socioeconomically diverse sample of adolescents. Questionnaires were administered to 333 adolescents (245 female) between the ages of 13 and 19 years, attending schools in urban neighborhoods in Hampshire, United Kingdom. Individuals' subjective life expectancy and perception of their environment better predicted fertility intentions than did structural measures of environmental quality. This suggests that by the time individuals reach adolescence they are monitoring the morbidity and mortality risk of their environment and are adjusting their reproductive ideals accordingly. Levels of grandparental investment also predicted parenting preferences, suggesting cooperative breeding may play a role in reproductive decision making. There was also evidence that patterns of risk taking behaviors could be adaptive to environmental conditions and some evidence that pro-natal attitudes, as opposed to knowledge of safe sexual practice, predict adolescents' reproductive strategies. These findings suggest that studying individuals' psychology from a life history perspective adds to my understanding of the persistently high rates of early reproduction within developed countries, such as the United Kingdom.

  19. [Research on the planning of family size (1985), Part 2].

    PubMed

    Kraus, J

    1987-01-01

    This is the second of two articles containing results of the 1985 demographic survey of Czechoslovakia. In the present article, the author examines attitudes of young couples toward population policy and toward possible future policy measures, women's return to work after having a child, and contraception. The results indicate the importance couples place on socioeconomic factors such as the financial conditions of the family and housing. Changes since a similar survey undertaken in 1981 are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  20. [Quality of care in family planning clinical services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Diaz, J; Halbe, H

    1990-12-01

    Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are

  1. [Quality of care in family planning clinical services in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Diaz, J; Halbe, H

    1990-12-01

    Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are

  2. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  3. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  4. Men's perceptions of and participation in family planning in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, A M; Malkawi, A O; Sato, T; Hamaideh, S H; Hanouneh, S I

    2016-02-01

    Men's participation in family planning has become a cornerstone in women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning of Jordanian men in southern Jordan. In a cross-sectional descriptive study in 2012, structured interviews were made with 104 married men in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates. Although 93.5% of the men had heard about family planning-most commonly the intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptives-only 45.1% reported that they and their wife currently used it. Most men agreed about a minimum 2 years' child spacing (93.3%) and starting contraception after childbirth (71.2%) and that husband and wife should share decisions about family planning (90.2%) and the number of children (89.5%). Level of education significantly affected current use of contraception, while number of children significantly affected previous use of contraception. Although married men had positive attitudes and good knowledge about family planning, this did not translate into practice of contraceptive use. PMID:27180740

  5. The dilemma of past success: insiders' views on the future of the international family planning movement.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Ann K; Tsui, Amy O

    2005-12-01

    Many observers believe that the international family planning movement has played a significant role in reducing fertility levels and slowing population growth in the developing world. Yet the perceived success of family planning programs recently has led some researchers to formulate questions about their relevance and future place on the development policy agenda. Within a framework derived from the sociological literature on social movements, we use interviews and focus-group discussions with insiders in the field of population studies to examine current perspectives on the status and future of the family planning movement, factors contributing to its declining international visibility, and possible responses from the family planning field. Informants cited four possible courses of action for the movement: (1) forming strategic alliances with other movements, specifically HIV/AIDS prevention; (2) redefining the family planning message to mobilize and strengthen support; (3) improving service delivery to broaden public acceptance and contraceptive method use; and (4) nurturing new leadership. The future course of the movement--whether it be one of cooptation by overlapping movements or revitalization--requires waiting until its full history can be written. PMID:16395944

  6. Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment.

  7. The role of family planning in elimination of new pediatric HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilcher, Rose; Petruney, Tricia; Cates, Willard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We reviewed recent literature on the role of family planning in eliminating new pediatric HIV infections. Recent findings Global commitments to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections recognize that preventing unintended pregnancies among women with HIV is essential to achieving this goal. However, substantial shortcomings exist in translating this policy support into widespread practice. Programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV continue to be implemented and evaluated as a narrow set of interventions that typically begins in antenatal care, after a woman is already pregnant. In addition, data suggest that women living with HIV experience high rates of unmet need for family planning and unintended pregnancies. Evidence is growing that integrating family planning and HIV services is an effective strategy for increasing access to contraception among women with HIV who do not wish to become pregnant. A number of health systems obstacles must be resolved to achieve effective, sustained delivery of integrated services at scale. Summary Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women with HIV must be elevated as a programmatic priority. By strengthening family planning programs for all women, and better integrating family planning and HIV services, progress toward ending new pediatric HIV infections will be accelerated. PMID:23743790

  8. Family planning management of the floating population in Xi'an city.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    This article describes the population of migrants living in Xincheng District of Xi'an City, China. Xincheng district is a commercial center that includes the largest wholesale market in northwest China, Kangfulu Market in Sanfuwan village. The resident population of the district amounts to about 450,000 people. 72,000 additional population are the floating population of migrants, of whom about 50% are women of childbearing age. The district established stringent family planning policies in order to limit unplanned childbearing. Family planning policies were the collaborative work among staff members from departments of industry and commerce, labor, education, finance, public health, civil affairs, family planning, and other related agencies. Management of family planning is based on subdistrict committees, resident committees, and local permanent population. These individuals and groups provide registration for temporary residence, verify birth certificates, establish contraceptive status, and encourage landlords to disseminate birth control information among their tenants. The population around Kangfulu Market includes about 800 permanent residents and about 3000- 6000 migrants. The village authorities provide family planning and medical services free of charge to migrants. Villagers register migrant children in schools and offer business help to the newcomers. These efforts have contributed to fewer births among migrants. PMID:12320649

  9. Determinants of family planning use among Turkish married men who live in South East Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Kısa, Sezer Kısa; DelibaŞ, Leyla

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses the determinants of family planning methods use by Turkish married men in South East Anatolia. A descriptive and cross-sectional survey research design was used among 1,352 men aged 20 to 52 years who lived in South East Turkey. A pilot-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate regression analysis were used. The rate of nonusage of contraceptive methods among the participants was 60.4%. Within the nonusers, 34.9% reported a religious prohibition and 9.4% had misconceptions about family planning. Chi-square analysis determined four factors that were significantly related to the men's usage of contraception. These factors are the following: the men's age, educational level, number of existing children, and their perception of their household income level. These four factors were also subjected to multivariate regression analysis, the results of which were used to compute odds ratios for each value of each factor indicating the likelihood for using contraception by men within each group. Male-specific family planning programs can make an important contribution to the overall efforts to improve the usage of contraceptives by men. It is important to note that family planning services and education programs related to family planning should be appropriate for men.

  10. Family planning management of the floating population in Xi'an city.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    This article describes the population of migrants living in Xincheng District of Xi'an City, China. Xincheng district is a commercial center that includes the largest wholesale market in northwest China, Kangfulu Market in Sanfuwan village. The resident population of the district amounts to about 450,000 people. 72,000 additional population are the floating population of migrants, of whom about 50% are women of childbearing age. The district established stringent family planning policies in order to limit unplanned childbearing. Family planning policies were the collaborative work among staff members from departments of industry and commerce, labor, education, finance, public health, civil affairs, family planning, and other related agencies. Management of family planning is based on subdistrict committees, resident committees, and local permanent population. These individuals and groups provide registration for temporary residence, verify birth certificates, establish contraceptive status, and encourage landlords to disseminate birth control information among their tenants. The population around Kangfulu Market includes about 800 permanent residents and about 3000- 6000 migrants. The village authorities provide family planning and medical services free of charge to migrants. Villagers register migrant children in schools and offer business help to the newcomers. These efforts have contributed to fewer births among migrants.

  11. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  12. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  13. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors.

  14. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    PubMed

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  15. Urban family physician plan in Iran: challenges of implementation in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Kalantari, Ali Reza; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Family Physician Plan has recently been implemented in three provinces of Iran on a pilot basis and is going to be implemented throughout Iran in the future. Through a qualitative design, this study aims to determine probable implementation challenges of Family Physician Plan in Kerman. Methods: This study was conducted in Kerman in 2013. Data were collected through interviews with 21 experts in the field. Sampling continued until data saturation level was achieved. All interviews were recorded and then analyzed, and main themes and subgroups were extracted from them based on a framework analysis model. Results: most prevalent establishment challenges of Family Physician Plan were classified into policy-making, financial supply, laws and resources. Conclusion: The urban Family Physician Plan can be carried out more effectively by implementing this plan step by step, highlighting the relationships between the related organizations, using new payment mechanisms e.g Per Capita, DRG, make national commitment and proper educational programs for providers, development the health electronic Record, justifying providers and community about advantages of this plan, clarifying regulatory status about providers' Duties and most importantly considering a specific funding source. PMID:26913266

  16. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more

  17. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays

    2016-09-01

    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  18. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    PubMed

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila

    2003-03-01

    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  19. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays

    2016-09-01

    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation. PMID:27611319

  20. [20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].

    PubMed

    Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

    1992-02-28

    The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.

  1. Fragmentation and reproductive freedom: federally subsidized family planning services, 1960-80.

    PubMed Central

    Aries, N

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the federal family planning program from 1960 to 1980. Political pressure to offer family planning raised the question how best to organize services. Long-standing providers preferred a categorical approach in order to maintain a diverse political coalition for an historically invisible service. In addition, categorical funding meant financial support for non-traditional providers. A compelling argument was also made for service integration. Given an expanded definition of health and the medicalization of contraceptive technology, the health delivery system presented itself as the appropriate service provider. Neither group prevailed. By 1980, federally supported family planning services were provided in autonomous clinics but also were integrated into existing maternal and child health programs. The debate continues but, under the Reagan Administration, terms and motivations differ from those of the past. PMID:3310673

  2. Family planning needs of women experiencing severe maternal morbidity in Accra, Ghana: another missed opportunity?

    PubMed

    Tunçalp, Ozge; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Adanu, Richard M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2014-06-01

    Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery experience at a tertiary teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana. Our results show that despite higher educational attainment, longer hospital stays and intention to limit or stop childbearing among women, there is a missed opportunity for family planning among women with severe maternal morbidity in this urban African hospital setting. Integrating postpartum family planning consultations by linking available services such as reproductive health clinics at the facilities rather than including additional tasks for the midwives and the doctors in the wards could be a sustainable solution in such urban, high-volume settings.

  3. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  4. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Married Couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. Result The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001), in particular among women (aORwomen = 2.77 vs. aORmen = 1.49; p<0.001). In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. Conclusion The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning) and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning activities

  5. A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

  6. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

  7. Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach. PMID:25276531

  8. [A gold key to initiate a new situation in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Du, S; Yuan, Z; Fang, X

    1983-05-29

    Because of the popularization of a responsible agricultural production system, the livilihood of peasants has been improving greatly, while the demands and needs of the general public are also increasing at the same time. Still under the influence of the traditional belief of carrying on one's family line and emphasis on having male children, married people prefer to have more childre, and the birth rate is now rising again. In order to solve this new problem, we need to teach the peasants national policies on population, land utilization, and food supply. In order to initiate a new situation in family planning work, we need to control this "gold key" of ideological education and propaganda. The emphasis should be placed on ideological education for cadres at all levels as well as the general public in order that they may understand the Party's strategy. Education on the national strategy should be combined with material interests of the peasants, and reward and punishment in production should also be linked up with that of family planning. Social measures are needed to reduce economic burdens of the peasants, offer better treatment for single-child households, and provide adequate care for old and retired people. Family planning projects should be consolidated and improved. Scientific management, facilities and techniques for birth control, compensation for working personnel in family planning, and other practical problems deserve immediate attention and solution.

  9. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda

  10. Influences on family planning acceptance: an analysis of background and program factors in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Which factors have the greater influence on family planning performance: fixed background variables such as racial composition, urbanization, and mortality, which are affected by level of development, or program inputs such as assignment of personnel and location of clinics, which are subject to manipulation by administrators? An analysis of differences in family planning acceptance among 70 districts of Malaysia shows that two main program-manipulable variables--level of personnel deployment and accessibility of clinics--have the largest direct effect upon acceptance levels. Variations in background factors explain a smaller proportion.

  11. [A review of the family planning program in the third stage of the Korean population transition].

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Cho, A J

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss the role of family planning in the fertility decline of the Republic of Korea. Age-specific fertility rates are presented for the years 1960-1985. Population projections for selected demographic indicators such as life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, and total fertility rate are projected up to the year 2020. The authors are concerned with below-replacement fertility, demographic aging, spatial distribution, population density, and implications for population policy and the direction of family planning programs. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  13. A cast of 40: population and family planning agencies at work in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A A

    1975-09-01

    This is a compilation of 42 agencies, both government and private, participating in the Philippine population program. Each listing includes: the purpose of the organization; a summary of its activities for fiscal year 1974-1975; the name of the project director; and the address. A large number of these agencies are engaged primarily in population or family planning work. Others, such as the medical schools at the University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas, have family planning programs as part of a broader effort.

  14. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    PubMed

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  15. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    PubMed

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  16. The effectiveness of family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. METHODS: Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r between program and effect variables ranged from -.08 to .09 and averaged .08. CONCLUSIONS: The programs evaluated in the studies considered have had, on average, smaller effects than many would assume and desire. PMID:9146451

  17. Quality in Individualized Family Service Plans: Guidelines for Practitioners, Programs, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatmaitan, Michelle; Brown, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The IFSP is both a document and process for developing, implementing, and evaluating the supports and services delivered to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families eligible under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA; 2004). Recently, researchers have defined IFSP quality based on five…

  18. Family planning funding through four federal-state programs, FY 1997.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B; Sonfield, A

    1999-01-01

    The health and social services agencies in all US states, the District of Columbia, and 5 federal jurisdictions were asked about their family planning expenditures and activities through the maternal and child health (MCH) and social services block grants and the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program in FY 1997. The states' Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plans were also examined following their approval by the federal government. In FY 1997, 42 states, the District of Columbia, and 2 federal jurisdictions spent $41 million on family planning through the MCH program, while 15 states reported spending $27 million through the social services block grant. Most jurisdictions indicated that they provide direct patient care services, most often contraceptive services and supplies. Indirect services were reported to have been provided more often through the MCH program than through the social services program. MCH block grant funds were more likely to go to local health departments, while social services block grant funds were more likely to be channelled through Planned Parenthood affiliates. Supporters of family planning services increasingly need to look beyond the traditional sources of support, Title X and Medicaid.

  19. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Thi Thanh, Luu Huong; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Thi Thu, Ha Phan; Vail, Janet G

    2010-11-01

    Viet Nam has high modern contraceptive prevalence (68%), with most services received through the public sector. As the country transitions to middle-income status, Viet Nam's donors have ceased donations of contraceptive supplies, causing a large projected shortfall in the family planning budget. In response, the Ministry of Health has decided to prioritize free or subsidized contraceptives for poor and vulnerable groups, while enhancing social marketing and sales of contraceptives in the free market. To support planning for this "total market approach", a descriptive exploratory study was conducted with 38 public and private sector family planning stakeholders to gain their perceptions of the proposals. There was a high level of support for government leadership of public-private coordination and stewardship of the entire family planning system. Key information gaps were identified regarding how the reforms can promote equitable access to family planning and financial sustainability in pricing. The government's experience with this transition may yield valuable guidance for other settings. PMID:21111350

  20. Medical education and family planning-II. Implementation of administrative recommendations for the Third Conference of Deans and Principals.

    PubMed

    Rice, D T

    1969-09-01

    In 1967 recommendation were made by the Deans and Principals of Medical Colleges on the teaching of population dynamics and family welfare planning in India. A survey was made in 1969 to determine to what extent the recommendations were implemented. 80 percent of the medical colleges returned the questionnaire. 30 percent of those responding had a special committee to promote family planning teaching, research, and service. 30 percent had instituted block teaching of 1 to 4 weeks for family planning during the final year. 80 percent claimed to devote at least 1 month of the internship to maternal and child health and family planning in rural areas. 76 percent utilitzed an urban family planning clinic and 56 percent used a rural family planning clinic in their training. 77 percent of the urban clinics and 56 percent of the rural clinics were under the complete control of the college concerned. Only a few had implemented the resolutions about: 1) staff assignment to rural center (8); 2) prerequisite of rural service before portgraduate study (3); 3) conducting refresher courses (8); and 4) organizing mobile family planning units (13). A number of colleges were concerned about the lack of coordination between departments teaching family planning and shortage of staff to conduct adequate teaching. Many colleges indicated that they were involved in a wide variety of family planning activities both within and outside the campus. Although some colleges did take steps toward the implementation of the recommendation, many did not act.