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Sample records for attenuates secondary inflammatory

  1. Calpeptin Attenuated Apoptosis and Intracellular Inflammatory Changes in Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kenkichi; Das, Arabinda; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    In idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), extracellular inflammatory stimulation is considered to induce secondary intracellular inflammatory changes including expression of major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) and to produce self-sustaining loop of inflammation. We hypothesize that activation of calpain, a Ca2+-sensitive protease, bridges between these extracellular inflammatory stress and intracellular secondary inflammatory changes in muscle cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of rat L6 myoblast cells with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) caused expression of MHC-I and inflammation related transcription factors (phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B). We also demonstrated that treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced apoptotic changes and activation of calpain and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, we found that post-treatment with calpeptin attenuated the intracellular changes induced by IFN-γ or TNF-α. Our results indicate that calpain inhibition attenuates apoptosis and secondary inflammatory changes induced by extracellular inflammatory stimulation in the muscle cells. These results suggest calpain as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of IIMs. PMID:21290412

  2. Probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice via suppression of dysbiosis-related secondary inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hamouda, Nahla; Kano, Yoshitaro; Oikawa, Yousuke; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Amagase, Kikuko; Shimakawa, Masaki

    2017-10-01

    Bifidobacterium, a major component of the intestinal microbiota, has been clinically used for the treatment of diarrhoea and constipation. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), widely used for cancer chemotherapy, is known to frequently induce intestinal mucositis accompanied by severe diarrhoea. The present study examined the effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced by repeated administration of 5-FU for 6 days. BBG9-1 was administered orally once daily for 9 days, beginning 3 days before the onset of 5-FU treatment. Repeated administration of 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis, characterised by shortening of villi and destruction of crypts, accompanied by increases in intestinal myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokine expression, body weight loss, and diarrhoea on day 6. Daily administration of BBG9-1 significantly reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis and inflammatory responses and tended to attenuate clinical symptoms. In contrast, BBG9-1 failed to prevent apoptosis induction on day 1 after the first 5-FU administration. The structure of the intestinal microbiota, as analysed by weighted UniFrac distance, was largely altered by 5-FU treatment, but this change was mitigated by daily administration of BBG9-1. Moreover, 5-FU treatment decreased the abundance of Firmicutes and increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes, but these responses were also significantly inhibited by daily administration of BBG9-1. These results suggest that BBG9-1 has an ameliorative effect against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis through the attenuation of inflammatory responses via improve dysbiosis. BBG9-1 could be useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Carvacrol attenuates mechanical hypernociception and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Adriana G; Xavier, Maria A; de Santana, Marília T; Camargo, Enilton A; Santos, Cliomar A; Brito, Fabíola A; Barreto, Emiliano O; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Oliveira, Rita C M; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2012-03-01

    Carvacrol is a phenolic monoterpene present in the essential oil of the family Lamiaceae, as in the genera Origanum and Thymus. We previously reported that carvacrol is effective as an analgesic compound in various nociceptive models, probably by inhibition of peripheral mediators that could be related with its strong antioxidant effect observed in vitro. In this study, the anti-hypernociceptive activity of carvacrol was tested in mice through models of mechanical hypernociception induced by carrageenan, and the involvement of important mediators of its signaling cascade, as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and dopamine, were assessed. We also investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of carvacrol on the model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and mouse paw edema, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite production in murine macrophages was observed. Systemic pretreatment with carvacrol (50 or 100 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited the development of mechanical hypernociception and edema induced by carrageenan and TNF-α; however, no effect was observed on hypernociception induced by PGE(2) and dopamine. Besides this, carvacrol significantly decreased TNF-α levels in pleural lavage and suppressed the recruitment of leukocytes without altering the morphological profile of these cells. Carvacrol (1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the LPS-induced nitrite production in vitro and did not produce citotoxicity in the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The spontaneous locomotor activity of mice was not affected by carvacrol. This study adds information about the beneficial effects of carvacrol on mechanical hypernociception and inflammation. It also indicates that this monoterpene might be potentially interesting in the development of novel tools for management and/or treatment of painful conditions, including those related to inflammatory and prooxidant states.

  4. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  5. Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    Landis, R. Clive; Brown, Jeremiah R.; Fitzgerald, David; Likosky, Donald S.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A.; Hammon, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A wide range of pharmacological, surgical, and mechanical pump approaches have been studied to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, yet no systematically based review exists to cover the scope of anti-inflammatory interventions deployed. We therefore conducted an evidence-based review to capture “self-identified” anti-inflammatory interventions among adult cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. To be included, trials had to measure at least one inflammatory mediator and one clinical outcome, specified in the “Outcomes 2010” consensus statement. Ninety-eight papers satisfied inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the review. The review identified 33 different interventions and approaches to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response. However, only a minority of papers (35 of 98 [35.7%]) demonstrated any clinical improvement to one or more of the predefined outcome measures (most frequently myocardial protection or length of intensive care unit stay). No single intervention was supported by strong level A evidence (multiple randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or meta-analysis) for clinical benefit. Interventions at level A evidence included off-pump surgery, minimized circuits, biocompatible circuit coatings, leukocyte filtration, complement C5 inhibition, preoperative aspirin, and corticosteroid prophylaxis. Interventions at level B evidence (single RCT) for minimizing inflammation included nitric oxide donors, C1 esterase inhibition, neutrophil elastase inhibition, propofol, propionyl-L-carnitine, and intensive insulin therapy. A secondary analysis revealed that suppression of at least one inflammatory marker was necessary but not sufficient to confer clinical benefit. The most effective interventions were those that targeted multiple inflammatory pathways. These observations are consistent with a “multiple hit” hypothesis, whereby clinically effective suppression of the systemic inflammatory response

  6. Arsenic Cycling in Hydrocarbon Plumes: Secondary Effects of Natural Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Schreiber, Madeline E; Erickson, Melinda L; Ziegler, Brady A

    2016-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation is widely applied as a remediation strategy at hydrocarbon spill sites. Natural attenuation relies on biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with reduction of electron acceptors, including solid phase ferric iron (Fe(III)). Because arsenic (As) adsorbs to Fe-hydroxides, a potential secondary effect of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons coupled with Fe(III) reduction is a release of naturally occurring As to groundwater. At a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled to Fe(III) reduction has been well documented. We collected groundwater samples at the site annually from 2009 to 2013 to examine if As is released to groundwater and, if so, to document relationships between As and Fe inside and outside of the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the plume reached 230 µg/L, whereas groundwater outside the plume contained less than 5 µg/L As. Combined with previous data from the Bemidji site, our results suggest that (1) naturally occurring As is associated with Fe-hydroxides present in the glacially derived aquifer sediments; (2) introduction of hydrocarbons results in reduction of Fe-hydroxides, releasing As and Fe to groundwater; (3) at the leading edge of the plume, As and Fe are removed from groundwater and retained on sediments; and (4) downgradient from the plume, patterns of As and Fe in groundwater are similar to background. We develop a conceptual model of secondary As release due to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons that can be applied to other sites where an influx of biodegradable organic carbon promotes Fe(III) reduction.

  7. Arsenic cycling in hydrocarbon plumes: secondary effects of natural attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Ziegler, Brady A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation is widely applied as a remediation strategy at hydrocarbon spill sites. Natural attenuation relies on biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with reduction of electron acceptors, including solid phase ferric iron (Fe(III)). Because arsenic (As) adsorbs to Fe-hydroxides, a potential secondary effect of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons coupled with Fe(III) reduction is a release of naturally occurring As to groundwater. At a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled to Fe(III) reduction has been well documented. We collected groundwater samples at the site annually from 2009 to 2013 to examine if As is released to groundwater and, if so, to document relationships between As and Fe inside and outside of the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the plume reached 230 µg/L, whereas groundwater outside the plume contained less than 5 µg/L As. Combined with previous data from the Bemidji site, our results suggest that (1) naturally occurring As is associated with Fe-hydroxides present in the glacially derived aquifer sediments; (2) introduction of hydrocarbons results in reduction of Fe-hydroxides, releasing As and Fe to groundwater; (3) at the leading edge of the plume, As and Fe are removed from groundwater and retained on sediments; and (4) downgradient from the plume, patterns of As and Fe in groundwater are similar to background. We develop a conceptual model of secondary As release due to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons that can be applied to other sites where an influx of biodegradable organic carbon promotes Fe(III) reduction.

  8. Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Fillon, Sophie A; Hosford, Lindsay; Harris, Rachel; Fernando, Shahan D; Jedlicka, Paul; Iwamoto, Ryo; Jacobsen, Elizabeth; Protheroe, Cheryl; Eltzschig, Holger K; Colgan, Sean P; Arita, Makoto; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice. Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy. Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration. Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  9. Selective inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 attenuates secondary damage resulting from severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hadass, Orr; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Gooyit, Major; Chen, Shanyan; Purdy, Justin J; Walker, Jennifer M; Zhang, Chunyang; Giritharan, Andrew B; Purnell, Whitley; Robinson, Christopher R; Shin, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Valerie A; Suckow, Mark A; Simonyi, Agnes; Sun, Grace Y; Mobashery, Shahriar; Cui, Jiankun; Chang, Mayland; Gu, Zezong

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Following the initial insult, severe TBI progresses to a secondary injury phase associated with biochemical and cellular changes. The secondary injury is thought to be responsible for the development of many of the neurological deficits observed after TBI and also provides a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B) expression is elevated in neurological diseases and its activation is an important factor in detrimental outcomes including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, and increases in inflammatory responses and astrogliosis. In this study, we used an experimental mouse model of TBI to examine the role of MMP-9 and the therapeutic potential of SB-3CT, a mechanism-based gelatinase selective inhibitor, in ameliorating the secondary injury. We observed that activation of MMP-9 occurred within one day following TBI, and remained elevated for 7 days after the initial insult. SB-3CT effectively attenuated MMP-9 activity, reduced brain lesion volumes and prevented neuronal loss and dendritic degeneration. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that SB-3CT and its active metabolite, p-OH SB-3CT, were rapidly absorbed and distributed to the brain. Moreover, SB-3CT treatment mitigated microglial activation and astrogliosis after TBI. Importantly, SB-3CT treatment improved long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, including sensorimotor function, and hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory. These results demonstrate that MMP-9 is a key target for therapy to attenuate secondary injury cascades and that this class of mechanism-based gelatinase inhibitor-with such desirable pharmacokinetic properties-holds considerable promise as a potential pharmacological treatment of TBI.

  10. Benfotiamine Attenuates Inflammatory Response in LPS Stimulated BV-2 Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Laketa, Danijela; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Milenkovic, Ivan; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), recognized as key elements in the regulation of neural homeostasis and the response to injury and repair. As excessive activation of microglia may lead to neurodegeneration, therapeutic strategies targeting its inhibition were shown to improve treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Benfotiamine is a synthetic vitamin B1 (thiamine) derivate exerting potentially anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the encouraging results regarding benfotiamine potential to alleviate diabetic microangiopathy, neuropathy and other oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglia. We determined that benfotiamine remodels activated microglia to acquire the shape that is characteristic of non-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, benfotiamine significantly decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor alpha α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas it increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in LPS stimulated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, benfotiamine suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and protein kinase B Akt/PKB. Treatment with specific inhibitors revealed that benfotiamine-mediated suppression of NO production was via JNK1/2 and Akt pathway, while the cytokine suppression includes ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt pathways. Finally, the potentially protective effect is mediated by the suppression of translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus. Therefore, benfotiamine may

  11. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Abdourahman; Bansal, Mayank; Banda, Himanshu K; Kwon, Young; Tlucek, Paul S; Bassuk, Alexander G; Tsang, Stephen H; Sobol, Warren M; Folk, James C; Yeh, Steven; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV), a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT) were also analyzed. Results Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5) required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. Patient 4 had both hypotony and elevated IOP that required periodic antiglaucoma medication in the FA-implanted eye. Patient 3 did not develop steroid-response glaucoma in either eye. Optic disk examinations were obscured by fibrosis and better assessed with OCT. Conclusion ADNIV patients show combined mechanism secondary glaucoma best assessed by OCT of the optic disk. The FA implants have reduced uveitic and neovascular glaucoma. Nevertheless, IOP management remains complex due to steroid-response glaucoma, angle closure glaucoma, and hypotony. PMID:27390515

  12. Prolactin promotes cartilage survival and attenuates inflammation in inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adán, Norma; Guzmán-Morales, Jessica; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G.; Perales-Canales, Sonia I.; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; López-Barrera, Fernando; Méndez, Isabel; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Triebel, Jakob; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Thebault, Stéphanie; Clapp, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the only cells in cartilage, and their death by apoptosis contributes to cartilage loss in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A putative therapeutic intervention for RA is the inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cartilage degradation. The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease activity is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of cultured chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) by preventing the induction of p53 and decreasing the BAX/BCL-2 ratio through a NO-independent, JAK2/STAT3–dependent pathway. Local treatment with PRL or increasing PRL circulating levels also prevented chondrocyte apoptosis evoked by injecting cytokines into the knee joints of rats, whereas the proapoptotic effect of cytokines was enhanced in PRL receptor–null (Prlr–/–) mice. Moreover, eliciting hyperprolactinemia in rats before or after inducing the adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis reduced chondrocyte apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine expression, pannus formation, bone erosion, joint swelling, and pain. These results reveal the protective effect of PRL against inflammation-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the therapeutic potential of hyperprolactinemia to reduce permanent joint damage and inflammation in RA. PMID:23908112

  13. Inflammatory Response to Burn Trauma: Nicotine Attenuates Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Papst, S.; Reimers, K.; Stukenborg-Colsman, C.; Steinstraesser, L.; Vogt, P. M.; Kraft, T.; Niederbichler, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The immune response to an inflammatory stimulus is balanced and orchestrated by stimulatory and inhibitory factors. After a thermal trauma, this balance is disturbed and an excessive immune reaction with increased production and release of proinflammatory cytokines results. The nicotine-stimulated anti-inflammatory reflex offsets this. The goal of this study was to verify that transdermal administration of nicotine downregulates proinflammatory cytokine release after burn trauma. Methods: A 30% total body surface area full-thickness rat burn model was used in Sprague Dawley rats (n = 35, male). The experimental animals were divided into a control group, a burn trauma group, a burn trauma group with additional nicotine treatment, and a sham + nicotine group with 5 experimental animals per group. The last 2 groups received a transdermal nicotine administration of 1.75 mg. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6 were determined in homogenates of hearts, livers, and spleens 12 or 24 hours after burn trauma. Results: Experimental burn trauma resulted in a significant increase in cytokine levels in hearts, livers, and spleens. Nicotine treatment led to a decrease of the effect of the burn trauma with significantly lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6 compared to the trauma group. Conclusions: This study confirms in a standardized burn model that stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in the regulation of effectory molecules of the immune response. Looking at the results of our study, further experiments designed to explore and evaluate the potency and mechanisms of the immunomodulating effects of this receptor system are warranted. PMID:25671045

  14. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S.; Alencar, Severino M.; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1) and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5), which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26660901

  15. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S; Alencar, Severino M; Rosalen, Pedro L; Mayer, Marcia P A

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1) and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5), which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases.

  16. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  17. Artemisia dracunculus L. extract ameliorates insulin sensitivity by attenuating inflammatory signalling in human skeletal muscle culture

    PubMed Central

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R.; Wicks, Shawna E.; Bermudez, Estrellita M.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI 5011) have been shown to improve insulin action by increasing insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. However, it has not known if PMI 5011’s effects are retained during an inflammatory condition. We examined the attenuation of insulin action and whether PMI 5011 enhances insulin signalling in the inflammatory environment with elevated cytokines. Methods Muscle cell cultures derived from lean, overweight and diabetic obese subjects were used. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inflammatory response of human myotubes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Insulin signalling and activation of inflammatory pathways in human myotubes were evaluated by Multiplex protein assays. Results We found increased gene expression of MCP1 and TNFα, and basal activity of the NFkB pathway in myotubes derived from diabetic-obese subjects as compared to myotubes derived from normal-lean subjects. In line with this, basal Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) was significantly higher, while insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) was lower in myotubes from normal-overweight and diabetic-obese subjects compared to normal-lean subjects. PMI 5011 treatment reduced basal phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in the presence of cytokines in human myotubes. PMI 5011 treatment led to an inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Erk1/2 and IkBα-NFkB and moreover, NFkB target gene expression, possibly by preventing further propagation of the inflammatory response within muscle tissue. Conclusions PMI 5011 improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic-obese myotubes to the level of normal-lean myotubes despite the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24521217

  18. Deletion of calponin 2 in macrophages attenuates the severity of inflammatory arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Hossain, M Moazzem; Sun, Wen; Xing, Lianping; Pope, Richard M; Jin, J-P

    2016-10-01

    Calponin is an actin cytoskeleton-associated protein that regulates motility-based cellular functions. Three isoforms of calponin are present in vertebrates, among which calponin 2 encoded by the Cnn2 gene is expressed in multiple types of cells, including blood cells from the myeloid lineage. Our previous studies demonstrated that macrophages from Cnn2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit increased migration and phagocytosis. Intrigued by an observation that monocytes and macrophages from patients with rheumatoid arthritis had increased calponin 2, we investigated anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase serum-induced arthritis in Cnn2-KO mice for the effect of calponin 2 deletion on the pathogenesis and pathology of inflammatory arthritis. The results showed that the development of arthritis was attenuated in systemic Cnn2-KO mice with significantly reduced inflammation and bone erosion than that in age- and stain background-matched C57BL/6 wild-type mice. In vitro differentiation of calponin 2-null mouse bone marrow cells produced fewer osteoclasts with decreased bone resorption. The attenuation of inflammatory arthritis was confirmed in conditional myeloid cell-specific Cnn2-KO mice. The increased phagocytotic activity of calponin 2-null macrophages may facilitate the clearance of autoimmune complexes and the resolution of inflammation, whereas the decreased substrate adhesion may reduce osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The data suggest that calponin 2 regulation of cytoskeleton function plays a novel role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis, implicating a potentially therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Caffeine protects against alcoholic liver injury by attenuating inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiongwen; Chen, Zhen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hongfeng; Huang, Cheng; Zhu, Pengli

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine the effects of caffeine on alcohol-induced hepatic injury in mice. Five groups of mice (8 each) were used. The mice treated with different doses of caffeine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The degree of alcoholic liver injury was evaluated biochemically by measuring serum markers and pathological examination. Real time PCR and ELISA methods were used to check the expression of cytokines and CYP 450. Treatment with caffeine significantly attenuated the elevated serum aminotransferase enzymes and reduced the severe extent of hepatic cell damage, steatosis and the immigration of inflammatory cells. Interestingly, caffeine decreased hepatic mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, while it had no effect on protein expression of hepatic CYP2E1. Furthermore, caffeine decreased serum and tissue inflammatory cytokines levels, tissue lipid peroxidation and inhibited the necrosis of hepatocytes. Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed mice produced high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas Kupffer cells from caffeine treatment mice produced less ROS and TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that caffeine may represent a novel, protective strategy against alcoholic liver injury by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  20. Beauveria attenuates asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response and inducing lymphocytic cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingying; Zhou, Xianmei; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of beauveria (BEA) in asthma. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of BEA on the proliferation of inflammatory cells and secretion of inflammatory mediators both in-vitro and in-vivo. In in-vitro studies, BEA inhibited lymphocytic cell proliferation and the proliferation of lymphocytic cells induced by Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We used ELISA to test the effects of BEA on the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the influence of BEA on cell apoptosis. The effect of BEA on the cell numbers of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and other cells in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also evaluated. The expression of apoptosis related molecules Bax, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 was examined by Western blotting analysis. Our results indicated that BEA played a protective role in asthma. BEA inhibited lymphocytic cell proliferation and secretion of inflammatory mediators. BEA promoted cell apoptosis, stimulated the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. In in-vivo experiments, BEA reduced the cell number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and other cells in mouse BALF. BEA inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators, stimulated expression of Bax and Caspase-3, and inhibited expression of Bcl-2 in mouse lung tissue dose-dependently. All together, our results indicated that BEA could attenuate asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response and induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells. PMID:27801673

  1. Silencing MR-1 attenuates inflammatory damage in mice heart induced by AngII

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Wenjian; Chen, Haiyang; Jiang, Jiandong; Kong, Weijia; Wang, Yiguang

    2010-01-15

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1(MR-1) can aggravate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin(Ang) II in mice through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway, and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1(AP-1) regulate inflammatory and immune responses by increasing the expression of specific inflammatory genes in various tissues including heart. Whether inhibition of MR-1 expression will attenuate AngII-induced inflammatory injury in mice heart has not been explored. Herein, we monitored the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1, together with expression of pro-inflammatory of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-{alpha}, vascular-cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), and inflammatory cell infiltration in heart of mice which are induced firstly by AngII (PBS),then received MR-1-siRNA or control-siRNA injecting. We found that the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 was inhibited significantly, together with the decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, VCAM-1, and PECAM in AngII-induced mice myocardium in MR-1-siRNA injection groups compared with control-siRNA injecting groups. However, the expression level of MR-1 was not an apparent change in PBS-infused groups than in unoperation groups, and MR-1-siRNA do not affect the expression of MR-1 in PBS-infused mice. Our findings suggest that silencing MR-1 protected mice myocardium against inflammatory injury induced by AngII by suppression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 signaling pathway.

  2. Hyperosmolarity attenuates TNFα–mediated pro-inflammatory activation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anirban; Moore, Ernest E.; McLaughlin, Nathan J.; Lee, Luis; Jones, Wilbert L.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Nydam, Trevor L.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Firm neutrophil (PMN)-endothelial (EC) adhesion is crucial to the PMN-mediated hyperinflammation observed in acute lung injury. Hypertonic saline (HTS) used for resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock has been associated with a decreased incidence of PMN-mediated lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize that physiologically accessible hypertonic incubation (170mM vs. 140mM, osmolarity ranging from 360-300 mOsm/L) inhibits pro-inflammatory activation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Pro-inflammatory activation of HMVECs was investigated in response to TNFα including IL-8 release, ICAM-1 surface expression, PMN adhesion, and signaling mechanisms under both isotonic (control) and hypertonic conditions. Hyperosmolarity alone had no effect on either basal IL-8 release or ICAM-1 surface expression, but did lead to concentration-dependent decreases in TNFα–induced IL-8 release, ICAM-1 surface expression, and PMN:HMVEC adhesion. Conversely, HTS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and enhanced TNFα activation of p38 MAPK. Despite this basal activation, hyperosmolar incubation attenuated TNFα stimulated IL-8 release and ICAM-1 surface expression and subsequent PMN adherence, while p38 MAPK inhibition did not further influence the effects of hyperosmolar conditions on ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, TNFα induced NF-kB DNA binding, but HTS conditions attenuated this by 31% (p<0.01). In conclusion, HTS reduces PMN:HMVEC adhesion as well as TNFα-induced pro-inflammatory activation of primary HMVECs via attenuation of NF-kB signaling. PMID:23364439

  3. Systemic pregabalin attenuates sensorimotor responses and medullary glutamate release in inflammatory tooth pain model.

    PubMed

    Narita, N; Kumar, N; Cherkas, P S; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Coderre, T J; Sessle, B J

    2012-08-30

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0-1.2%), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial

  4. Systemic Pregabalin Attenuates Sensorimotor Responses and Medullary Glutamate Release in Inflammatory Tooth Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Noriyuki; Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Coderre, Terence J.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application to the tooth pulp of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0~1.2 %), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (ANOVA, p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states

  5. Appearance of attenuated intestinal polyposis during chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2012-12-06

    Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may prevent sporadic colonic neoplasia and reduce the polyp burden in familial adenomatous polyposis. A 41-year-old pharmacologist with no family history of intestinal polyps or cancer chronically consumed daily aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for decades despite recurrent and multiple gastric ulcers. A cancerous polyp in the colon was endoscopically resected. Over the next 2 decades, almost 50 adenomatous polyps were removed from the rest of his colon and duodenum, typical of an attenuated form of adenomatous polyposis. Chronic and habitual use of aspirin or NSAIDS may have important significance in delaying the appearance of adenomas. The observations here emphasize the important implications for clinical risk assessment in screening programs designed to detect or prevent colon cancer.

  6. Myrrh attenuates oxidative and inflammatory processes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Amal Jamil; Alrojayee, Fatima Salih; Parmar, Mihir Yogeshkumar; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Mahboobuddin; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been associated with a weakened antioxidant capacity and increased inflammatory processes. Myrrh is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of myrrh on an experimental rat model of UC. UC was induced in rats using acetic acid (AA) after pre-treatment with myrrh (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) or mesalazine (MES; 300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. The levels of various inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rat colon tissues were assessed. In addition, the colonic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were estimated. Furthermore, total protein (TP) contents and the levels of DNA and RNA were measured, and histopathological changes in colonic tissues were analyzed. The results indicated that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2, NO and TBARS were markedly increased. By contrast, the levels of interleukin-10, NP-SH, TP and nucleic acids, and the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased in the AA model group. In addition, pretreatment with myrrh and MES was able to attenuate the impaired oxidative stress response and upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Furthermore, the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were near to normal in the myrrh and MES pretreated groups. The ability of myrrh to protect against UC was further confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the high dose of myrrh exerted an effect comparable to MES. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that myrrh has potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and improving endogenous antioxidative activities. PMID

  7. Iron Supplementation Attenuates the Inflammatory Status of Anemic Piglets by Regulating Hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yutian; Guo, Bingxiu; Liu, Dan; Xiong, Haitao; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency is common throughout the world and has been linked to immunity impairments. Using piglets to model human infants, we assessed the impact of systemic iron homeostasis on proinflammatory status. Artificially reared piglets were parenterally supplied with iron dextran by intramuscular administration at the age of 3 days. Relative to no iron supplementation (control), iron dextran-treated (FeDex) piglets increased hematological parameters as well as iron levels in serum and tissues from days 21 to 49. High expression of hepcidin was observed in FeDex-treated piglets, which correlated with suppressed expression of ferroportin in duodenum. Lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) transcripts were detected in ileum of FeDex-treated piglets, which indicated that iron supplementation could attenuate the increase of inflammatory cytokines caused by iron deficiency. Histopathological analysis of liver and duodenum proved the less inflammatory responses after iron supplementation. Hepcidin was highly stimulated by FeDex supplementation and attenuated the inflammation of anemia, which implied that hepcidin might had antiinflammatory function and is a candidate regulator of the cross-talk between iron regulation and inflammation.

  8. Oligomannan Prebiotic Attenuates Immunological, Clinical and Behavioral Symptoms in Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, Szilamér; Szegi, Krisztián; Winkler, Zsuzsanna; Barna, Teréz; Kovács, Krisztina J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease shows increasing prevalence, however its pathomechanism and treatment is not fully resolved. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which might provide an alternative to treat inflammatory conditions in the gut due to their positive effects either on the microbiome or through their direct effect on macrophages and mucosa. To test the protective effects of an oligomannan prebiotic, yeast cell wall mannooligosaccharide (MOS) was administered in dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. MOS reduced DSS-induced clinical- (weight loss, diarrhea) and histological scores (mucosal damage) as well as sickness-related anxiety. DSS treatment resulted in changes in colon microbiome with selective increase of Coliform bacteria. MOS administration attenuated colitis-related increase of Coliforms, normalized colonic muc2 expression and attenuated local expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1a, IL1b, IL6, KC, G-CSF and MCP1 as well as toll-like receptor TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome. Some of the protective effects of MOS were likely be mediated directly through local macrophages because MOS dose-dependently inhibited IL-1b and G-CSF induction following in vitro DSS challenge and IL1a, IL1b, G-SCF-, and IL6 increases after LPS treatment in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. These results highlight oligomannan prebiotics as therapeutic functional food for testing in clinical trials. PMID:27658624

  9. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI. PMID:27478307

  10. Knockout of toll-like receptor-4 attenuates the pro-inflammatory state of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Tobias, Peter; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2011-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with increased vascular complications and is a pro-inflammatory state. Recent findings have shown increased TLR2 and 4 expression, signaling, ligands, and functional activation in T1DM subjects compared to controls and further accentuated in T1DM with microvascular complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if genetic deficiency of TLR4 attenuates the increased inflammation associated with T1DM using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6 and TLR4(-/-) mice were obtained and studied in the native state and following induction of diabetes using streptozotocin. Diabetic (WT+STZ) mice had increased expression of both TLR2 and TLR4, while TLR4(-/-) STZ mice had increased expression only of TLR2, but not TLR4 compared to the non-diabetic mice TLR2 expression was significantly increased with STZ-induced diabetes and was unaffected by knockout of TLR4. Also, levels of MyD88, IRAK-1 protein phosphorylation, Trif, IRF3, and NF-κB activity were significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) +STZ mice compared to the WT+STZ mice. WT+STZ mice exhibited significantly increased levels of serum and macrophage IL-1β, IL-6, KC/IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, IFN beta and TNF-α compared to WT mice and this was significantly attenuated in TLR4(-/-) +STZ mice (P<0.01). Thus, TLR4 contributes to the pro-inflammatory state and TLR4KO attenuates inflammation in diabetes.

  11. Delayed topical p38 MAPK inhibition attenuates full-thickness burn wound inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Carter, Damien; Warsen, Adelaide; Mandell, Katherine; Cuschieri, Joseph; Maier, Ronald V; Arbabi, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) play a central role in host responses to injury. In previous studies by the authors, topical p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively attenuated inflammatory signaling in a partial-thickness scald burn model, when applied to the burn wound immediately after injury. However, clinically relevant full-thickness scald burn wounds may act as a barrier to topical immune modulators, and delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors may not be effective. In this study, the authors evaluate the efficacy of topical p38 MAPK inhibition on full-thickness scald burns with immediate and delayed treatment. C57/BL6 mice received "Sham" or 30% TBSA full-thickness scald burn injury. After injury, the burn wounds were treated with a topical p38 MAPK inhibitor or vehicle. The treatment group received topical p38 MAPK inhibitor either immediately after burn or 4 hours (delayed) after injury. All animals were killed at 12 or 24 hours. Burn wounds underwent histological analyses. Skin and plasma were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for cytokine expression. Full-thickness scald burns resulted from immersion in 62°C water for 25 seconds. Topical p38 MAPK inhibitor attenuated dermal interleukin (IL)-6, MIP-2, and IL-1β expression and plasma IL-6 and MIP-2 cytokine expression. In addition, delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced dermal and plasma cytokine expression compared with vehicle control. Topical p38 MAPK inhibitors remain potent in reducing full-thickness burn wound inflammatory signaling, even when treatment is delayed by several hours postinjury. Topical application of p38 MAPK inhibitor may be a clinically viable treatment after burn injury.

  12. DELAYED TOPICAL p38 MAPK INHIBITION ATTENUATES FULL-THICKNESS BURN WOUND INFLAMMATORY SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Damien; Warsen, Adelaide; Mandell, Katherine; Cuschieri, Joseph; Maier, Ronald V.; Arbabi, Saman

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inflammatory signaling pathways, such as p38 MAPK play a central role in host responses to injury. In our previous studies, topical p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively attenuated inflammatory signaling in a partial-thickness scald burn model, when applied to the burn wound immediately after injury. However, clinically relevant full-thickness scald burn wounds may act as a barrier to topical immune modulators and delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors may not be effective. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of topical p38 MAPK inhibition on full-thickness scald burns with immediate and delayed treatment. Methods C57/BL6 mice received `Sham' or 30% TBSA full-thickness scald burn injury. After injury, the burn wounds were treated with a topical p38 MAPK inhibitor or vehicle. The treatment group received topical p38 MAPK inhibitor either immediately after burn or 4 hours (delayed) after injury. All animals were sacrificed at 12 or 24 h. Burn wounds underwent histological analyses. Skin and plasma were analyzed by ELISA or RT-qPCR for cytokine expression. Results Full-thickness scald burns resulted from immersion in 62°C water for 25 s. Topical p38 MAPK inhibitor attenuated dermal IL-6, MIP-2, and IL-1β expression and plasma IL-6 and MIP-2 cytokine expression. In addition, delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced dermal and plasma cytokine expression compared to vehicle control. Conclusion Topical p38 MAPK inhibitors remain potent in reducing full-thickness burn wound inflammatory signaling, even when treatment is delayed by several hours post injury. Topical application of p38 MAPK inhibitor may be a clinically viable treatment after burn injury. PMID:23666384

  13. Psychotropic drugs attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia by altering hypothalamic levels of inflammatory mediators in rats.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Ahmad; Sharon-Granit, Yael; Azab, Abed N

    2016-07-28

    Recent evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of mental disorders and that psychotropic drugs exert various effects on brain inflammation. The administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to mammals is associated with robust production of inflammatory mediators and pathological changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of four different psychotropic drugs on LPS-induced hypothermia and production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and phosphorylated-p65 (P-p65) levels in hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. Rats were treated once daily with lithium (100mg/kg), carbamazepine (40mg/kg), haloperidol (2mg/kg), imipramine (20mg/kg) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for 29 days. On day 29, rats were injected with LPS (1mg/kg) or saline. At 1.5h post LPS injection body temperature was measured, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected and their hypothalami were excised, homogenized and centrifuged. PGE2, TNF-α and nuclear P-p65 levels were determined by specific ELISA kits. We found that lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine significantly attenuated LPS-induced hypothermia, resembling the effect of classic anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine differently but significantly affected the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and P-p65 in plasma and hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. The results suggest that psychotropic drugs attenuate LPS-induced hypothermia by reducing hypothalamic production of inflammatory constituents, particularly PGE2. The effects of psychotropic drugs on brain inflammation may contribute to their therapeutic mechanism but also to their toxicological profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PEDF inhibits pancreatic tumorigenesis by attenuating the fibro-inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Principe, Daniel R; DeCant, Brian; Diaz, Andrew M; Mangan, Riley J; Hwang, Rosa; Lowy, Andrew; Shetuni, Brandon B; Sreekumar, Bharath K; Chung, Chuhan; Bentrem, David J; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Jung, Barbara; Grippo, Paul J; Bishehsari, Faraz

    2016-05-10

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a pronounced fibro-inflammatory reaction that has been shown to contribute to cancer progression. Previous reports have demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has potent tumor suppressive effects in pancreatic cancer, though little is known about the mechanisms by which PEDF limits pancreatic tumorigenesis. We therefore employed human specimens, as well as mouse and in vitro models, to explore the effects of PEDF upon the pancreatic microenvironment. We found that PEDF expression is decreased in human pancreatic cancer samples compared to non-malignant tissue. Furthermore, PEDF-deficient patients displayed increased intratumoral inflammation/fibrosis. In mice, genetic ablation of PEDF increased cerulein-induced inflammation and fibrosis, and similarly enhanced these events in the background of oncogenic KRAS. In vitro, recombinant PEDF neutralized macrophage migration as well as inhibited macrophage-induced proliferation of tumor cells. Additionally, recombinant PEDF suppressed the synthesis of pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokines both in vivo and in vitro, and reduced collagen I deposition and TGFβ synthesis by pancreatic stellate cells, consistent with reduced fibrosis. Combined, our results demonstrate that PEDF limits pancreatic cancer progression by attenuating the fibro-inflammatory reaction, and makes restoration of PEDF signaling a potential therapeutic approach to study in pancreatic cancer.

  15. PEDF inhibits pancreatic tumorigenesis by attenuating the fibro-inflammatory reaction

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Daniel R.; DeCant, Brian; Diaz, Andrew M.; Mangan, Riley J.; Hwang, Rosa; Lowy, Andrew; Shetuni, Brandon B.; Sreekumar, Bharath K.; Chung, Chuhan; Bentrem, David J.; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.; Jung, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a pronounced fibro-inflammatory reaction that has been shown to contribute to cancer progression. Previous reports have demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has potent tumor suppressive effects in pancreatic cancer, though little is known about the mechanisms by which PEDF limits pancreatic tumorigenesis. We therefore employed human specimens, as well as mouse and in vitro models, to explore the effects of PEDF upon the pancreatic microenvironment. We found that PEDF expression is decreased in human pancreatic cancer samples compared to non-malignant tissue. Furthermore, PEDF-deficient patients displayed increased intratumoral inflammation/fibrosis. In mice, genetic ablation of PEDF increased cerulein-induced inflammation and fibrosis, and similarly enhanced these events in the background of oncogenic KRAS. In vitro, recombinant PEDF neutralized macrophage migration as well as inhibited macrophage-induced proliferation of tumor cells. Additionally, recombinant PEDF suppressed the synthesis of pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokines both in vivo and in vitro, and reduced collagen I deposition and TGFβ synthesis by pancreatic stellate cells, consistent with reduced fibrosis. Combined, our results demonstrate that PEDF limits pancreatic cancer progression by attenuating the fibro-inflammatory reaction, and makes restoration of PEDF signaling a potential therapeutic approach to study in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27058416

  16. Stanniocalcin-1 attenuates ischemic cardiac injury and response of differentiating monocytes/macrophages to inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mohammadipoor, Arezoo; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Prockop, Darwin J; Bartosh, Thomas J

    2016-11-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Ischemic myocardial necrosis generates "danger" signals that perpetuate detrimental inflammatory reactions often involving monocyte recruitment and their subsequent differentiation into proinflammatory macrophages. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of recombinant STC-1 (rSTC-1) on monocyte phenotype and in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. Using an established protocol to differentiate human monocytes into macrophages, we demonstrated that rSTC-1 did not alter morphology of the differentiated cells, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression, or expression of the myeloid cell marker CD11b. However, rSTC-1 treatment before differentiation attenuated the rise in the expression of CD14, a TLR4 coreceptor and pathogen sensor that propagates innate immune responses, and suppressed levels of inflammatory cytokines produced by the differentiated cells in response to the CD14-TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, rSTC-1 treatment reduced CD14 expression in monocytes stimulated with endogenous danger signals. Interestingly, the effects of rSTC-1 on CD14 expression were not reproduced by a superoxide dismutase mimetic. In mice with induced myocardial infarcts, intravenous administration of rSTC-1 decreased CD14 expression in the heart as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-X-C motif ligand 2, interleukin 1 beta, and myeloperoxidase. It also suppressed the formation of scar tissue while enhancing cardiac function. The data suggests that one of the beneficial effects of STC-1 might be attributed to suppression of CD14 on recruited monocytes and macrophages that limits their inflammatory response. STC-1 may be a promising therapy to protect the heart and other tissues from ischemic injury.

  17. DJ-1 deficiency attenuates expansion of liver progenitor cells through modulating the inflammatory and fibrogenic niches

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Luo, M; Sun, X; Qin, J; Yu, C; Wen, Y; Zhang, Q; Gu, J; Xia, Q; Kong, X

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study suggested that DJ-1 has a critical role in initiating an inflammatory response, but its role in the liver progenitor cell (LPC) expansion, a process highly dependent on the inflammatory niche, remains elusive. The objective of this study is to determine the role of DJ-1 in LPC expansion. The correlation of DJ-1 expression with LPC markers was examined in the liver of patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. The role of DJ-1 in LPC expansion and the formation of LPC-associated fibrosis and inflammation was examined in a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet-induced liver injury murine model. We also determined the ability of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in recruiting macrophages in DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice. The expression levels of DJ-1 were upregulated in the liver of HBV, HCV, PBC and PSC patients and DDC-fed mice. Additionally, DJ-1 expression was positively correlated with LPC proliferation in patients with liver injury and mice with DDC exposure. DJ-1 has no direct effect on LPC proliferation. Reduced activation of HSCs and collagen deposition were observed in DJ-1 KO mice. Furthermore, infiltrated CD11b+Gr-1low macrophages and pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, TNF-α) were attenuated in DJ-1 KO mice. Mechanistically, we found that HSCs isolated from DJ-1 KO mice had decreased secretion of macrophage-mobilizing chemokines, such as CCL2 and CX3CL1, resulting in impaired macrophage infiltration. DJ-1 positively correlates with LPC expansion during liver injury. DJ-1 deficiency negatively regulates LPC proliferation by impairing the formation of LPC-associated fibrosis and inflammatory niches. PMID:27277679

  18. Decreased Secondary Lesion Growth and Attenuated Immune Response after Traumatic Brain Injury in Tlr2/4(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sandro M; Voigt, Florian; Knuefermann, Pascal; Kirschning, Carsten Jürgen; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Ringel, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Danger-associated molecular patterns are released by damaged cells and trigger neuroinflammation through activation of non-specific pattern recognition receptors, e.g., toll-like receptors (TLRs). Since the role of TLR2 and 4 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unclear, we examined the outcome and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators after experimental TBI in Tlr2/4(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Tlr2/4(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to controlled cortical injury and contusion volume and brain edema formation were assessed 24 h thereafter. Expression of inflammatory markers in brain tissue was measured by quantitative PCR 15 min, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Contusion volume was significantly attenuated in Tlr2/4(-/-) mice (29.7 ± 0.7 mm(3) as compared to 33.5 ± 0.8 mm(3) in WT; p < 0.05) after CCI while brain edema was not affected. Only interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression was increased after CCI in the Tlr2/4(-/-) relative to WT mice. Inducible nitric oxide synthetase, TNF, IL-6, and COX-2 were similar in injured WT and Tlr2/4(-/-) mice, while the increase in high-mobility group box 1 was attenuated at 6 h. TLR2 and 4 are consequently shown to potentially promote secondary brain injury after experimental CCI via neuroinflammation and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of TBI.

  19. Adiponectin treatment attenuates inflammatory response during early sepsis in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XianFeng; Buechler, Nancy L; Yoza, Barbara K; McCall, Charles E; Vachharajani, Vidula

    2016-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity increases the cost of care in critically ill patients. Sepsis is the leading cause of death in noncoronary intensive care units. Circulating cell–endothelial cell interactions in microcirculation are the rate-determining factors in any inflammation; obesity increases these interactions further. Adiponectin deficiency is implicated in increased cardiovascular risk in obese patients. We have shown that adiponectin deficiency increases microvascular dysfunction in early sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin replacement on nutritionally obese mice with early sepsis. Methods We used cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) vs control diet (CTRL), with or without adiponectin treatment. We studied leukocyte/platelet adhesion in the cerebral microcirculation in early sepsis. We also studied the effect of adiponectin on free fatty acid (FFA)-fed and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) for mechanistic studies. Results Leukocyte and platelet adhesion increased in the cerebral microcirculation of DIO and CTRL mice with early sepsis vs. sham; moreover cell adhesion in DIO-sepsis group was significantly higher than in the CTRL-sepsis group. Adiponectin replacement decreased leukocyte/platelet adhesion in CTRL and DIO mice. In FFA-fed BMDM, adiponectin treatment decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression and increased sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. Furthermore, using BMDM from SIRT1 knockout mice, we showed that the adiponectin treatment decreased inflammatory response in FFA-fed BMDM via SIRT1-dependent and -independent pathways. Conclusion Adiponectin replacement attenuates microvascular inflammation in DIO-sepsis mice. Mechanistically, adiponectin treatment in FFA-fed mouse macrophages attenuates inflammatory response via SIRT1-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:27785087

  20. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  1. Rectal inflammatory stenosis secondary to Chlamydia trachomatis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sánchez, Luis Eduardo; Hernández Barroso, Moisés; Hernández Hernández, Guillermo

    2017-09-01

    The rectal inflammatory originated strictures constitute a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. We present a 30-year-old male patient with a history of HIV and protctitis caused by Chalmydia trachomatis and HSV-2, in which develops a low intestinal obstruction refractory to medical treatment. Surgery was performed with good clinical evolution. The medical treatment constitutes the fundamental basis of the therapy in these patients. Despite that, when fibrotic stenoses are not treatable medical or endoscopically, they often require surgical treatment. We must pay attention to the proctitis infectious diseases as a cause of rectal stenosis, especially by Chlamydia trachomatis, and assess surgical option in refractory cases.

  2. Treatment with BX471, a CC chemokine receptor 1 antagonist, attenuates systemic inflammatory response during sepsis.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Horuk, Richard; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Bhatia, Madhav

    2007-04-01

    Sepsis is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from a harmful host inflammatory response to infection. Chemokines and their receptors play a key role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. BX471 is a potent nonpeptide CC chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) antagonist in both human and mouse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with BX471 on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, treatment with BX471 significantly protected mice against lung and liver injury by attenuating MPO activity, an indicator of neutrophil recruitment in lungs and livers and attenuating lung and liver morphological changes in histological sections. Blocking CCR1 by BX471 also downregulated ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin expression at mRNA and protein levels in lungs and livers compared with placebo-treated groups. These findings suggest that blockage of CCR1 by specific antagonist may represent a promising strategy to prevent disease progression in sepsis.

  3. A novel inhibitor of active protein kinase G attenuates chronic inflammatory and osteoarthritic pain.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ying-Ju; Sofoluke, Nelson; Nkamany, Mary; Deng, Shixian; Xie, Yuli; Greenwood, Jeremy; Farid, Ramy; Landry, Donald W; Ambron, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    Activating PKG-1α induces a long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in nociceptive neurons. Since the LTH correlates directly with chronic pain in many animal models, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting PKG-1α would attenuate LTH-mediated pain. We first synthesized and characterized compound N46 (N-((3R,4R)-4-(4-(2-fluoro-3-methoxy-6-propoxybenzoyl)benzamido)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide). N46 inhibits PKG-1α with an IC50 of 7.5 nmol, was highly selective when tested against a panel of 274 kinases, and tissue distribution studies indicate that it does not enter the CNS. To evaluate its antinociceptive potential, we used 2 animal models in which the pain involves both activated PKG-1α and LTH. Injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the rat hind paw causes a thermal hyperalgesia that was significantly attenuated 24 hours after a single intravenous injection of N46. Next, we used a rat model of osteoarthritic knee joint pain and found that a single intra-articular injection of N46 alleviated the pain 14 days after the pain was established and the relief lasted for 7 days. Thermal hyperalgesia and osteoarthritic pain are also associated with the activation of the capsaicin-activated transient receptor protein vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel. We show that capsaicin activates PKG-1α in nerves and that a subcutaneous delivery of N46 attenuated the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity elicited by exposure to capsaicin. Thus, PKG-1α appears to be downstream of the transient receptor protein vanilloid-1. Our studies provide proof of concept in animal models that a PKG-1α antagonist has a powerful antinociceptive effect on persistent, already existing inflammatory pain. They further suggest that N46 is a valid chemotype for the further development of such antagonists.

  4. Glycyrrhizin attenuates rat ischemic spinal cord injury by suppressing inflammatory cytokines and HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gu; Yuan, Li-bang; Hu, Ling; Wu, Wei; Yin, Liang; Hou, Jing-li; Liu, Ying-hai; Zhou, Le-shun

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizin (Gly) against the ischemic injury of rat spinal cord and the possible role of the nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the process. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min aortic occlusion to induce transient lumbar spinal cord ischemia. The motor functions of the animals were assessed according to the modified Tarlov scale. The animals were sacrificed 72 h after reperfusion and the lumbar spinal cord segment (L2–L4) was taken out for histopathological examination and Western blotting analysis. Serum inflammatory cytokine and HMGB1 levels were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Gly (6 mg/kg) administered intravenously 30 min before inducing the transient lumbar spinal cord ischemia significantly improved the hind-limb motor function scores, and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons, which was accompanied by reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the plasma and injured spinal cord. Moreover, the serum HMGB1 level correlated well with the serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels during the time period of reperfusion. Conclusion: The results suggest that Gly can attenuate the transient spinal cord ischemic injury in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the release of HMGB1. PMID:22158106

  5. Hydroxysafflor yellow A attenuates the expression of inflammatory cytokines in acute soft tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fang; Xue, Changjiang; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yadan; Jin, Ming; Zang, Baoxia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the inflammatory response to strike-induced acute soft tissue injury in rats. Soft tissue injury was induced in rat leg muscles using a strike hammer, followed by intraperitoneal administration of HSYA at 16, 32, or 64 mg/kg. After 24 h, the rats were anaesthetized, blood and muscle samples were taken. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-αwere measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total RNA and protein were isolated from muscle tissue to determine the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and the protein level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression was determined by muscle histopathology and immunohistochemistry. HSYA attenuated pathologic changes instrike-induced soft tissue inflammation. Treatment with HSYA also alleviated strike-induced increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1mRNA levels and inhibited the increased activation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in muscle tissue. These findings suggest that HSYA effectively inhibits strike-induced inflammatory signal transduction in rats. PMID:28074914

  6. Ponciretin attenuates ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Poncirin (PO) and isosakuranetin (or ponciretin [PT]) are compounds found in fruits of the genus Citrus. They are frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation and asthma. Therefore, we examined their anti-gastritis effects in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effects of PO and PT were examined using ethanol- or LPS-stimulated KATO III cells. Gastritis was induced in ICR mice via intragastric injection of absolute ethanol. Levels of inflammatory markers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with PT or PO inhibited the secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in ethanol- or LPS-stimulated KATO III cells. They also reduced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Pre-treatment with PT or PO significantly protected against ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastritis, characterized by edema, tissue erosions, and mucosal friability in mice. Treatment with PT or PO suppressed ethanol-induced NF-κB activation and the release of TNF, IL-8, and IFN-γ. The protective effect of PT was greater than that of PO and comparable to ranitidine, a positive control. PT may attenuate ethanol-induced gastritis by inhibiting the infiltration of immune cells, including neutrophils, via the regulation of CXCL4 (or IL-8) secretion and the activation NF-κB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. trans-Lycopene from tomato juice attenuates inflammatory biomarkers in human plasma samples: An intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz-Martínez, Sara; Almanza-Aguilera, Enrique; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2017-07-08

    The effect of carotenoids from tomato juice (TJ) on inflammatory biomarkers was evaluated by performing a 4-week dose-response nutritional trial in a population at high cardiovascular risk. An open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, and controlled clinical trial was carried out with 28 volunteers (mean age 69.7 ± 3.1 years; mean BMI 31.5 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) ) at high cardiovascular risk, which were assigned to consume daily for 4 weeks in random order: 200 mL (LD) or 400 mL (HD) of TJ, or water as a control (C), with a 21-day wash-out period between each intervention. Blood samples were collected at baseline (B) and after each intervention. Endpoints included significant changes in plasmatic carotenoids, and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, as well as a tendency to decrease the chemokine IL-8. Compared to C, concentration of ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were significantly lower (p ˂ 0.001), after each TJ intervention. Decreases were correlated remarkably with the trans-lycopene, while the other carotenoids present in TJ have presented a minor association or no association with changes in these molecules. trans-Lycopene from TJ may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the concentration of important inflammatory molecules related to atherosclerosis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. FTY720 Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Podocyte Damage via Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ke; Zeng, Ping; Liang, Wei; Luo, Zhengyu; Wang, Yiman; Lv, Xifeng; Han, Qi; Yan, Miao

    2017-01-01

    FTY720, a new chemical substance derived from the ascomycete Isaria sinclairii, is used for treating multiple sclerosis, renal cancer, and asthma. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite and exists in red blood cells. FTY720 is a synthetic S1P analog which can block S1P evoking physiological effects. Recently studies show that S1P was participating in activated inflammation cells induced renal injury. The objective of this study was to assess the protective effect of FTY720 on kidney damage and the potential mechanism of FTY720 which alleviate podocyte injury in chronic kidney disease. In this study, we selected 40 patients with IgA nephropathy and examined their clinical characteristics. Ang II-infusion rat renal injury model was established to evaluate the glomeruli and tubulointerstitial lesion. The result showed that the concentration of S1P in serum and urine was positively correlated with IgA nephropathy patients' renal injury. FTY720 could reduce renal histological lesions induced by Ang II-infusion in rats. Moreover, FTY720 decreased S1P synthesis in Ang II-infusion rats via downregulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, FTY720 alleviated exogenous S1P-induced podocyte damage. In conclusion, FTY720 is able to attenuate S1P-induced podocyte damage via reducing inflammatory cytokines. PMID:28270699

  9. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment: a pro-inflammatory pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qi-Hai; Wang, Qian; Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Huang, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2010-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H(2)S donor, on cognitive impairment and neuroinflammatory changes induced by bilateral intracerebroventricular injections of LPS at a dose of 10mug/rat. Rats received 5mg/kg NaHS or volume-matched vehicle administration by intraperitoneal injection 3days before LPS injection then for 9days once daily. Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function. Compared to the sham-treated rats, LPS injection significantly prolonged the mean escape latency in the navigation test (P<0.05) and shortened the adjusted escape latency by approximately 30% (P<0.05). Meanwhile, LPS injection decreased H(2)S level but increased pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-alpha, TNFR1, degradation of IkappaB-alpha and thereafter activation of NF-kappaB) in hippocampus. However, these effects of LPS were significantly ameliorated with NaHS treatment (P<0.05 vs vehicle-treated group). The present data suggest that H(2)S attenuates LPS-induced cognitive impairment through reducing the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators via inhibition of NF-kappaB pathways in rats. This study sets the stage for exploring a novel H(2)S releasing agent for preventing or retarding the development or progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Bone Marrow Stem/Progenitor Cells Attenuate the Inflammatory Milieu Following Substitution Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Sturm, Renea M.; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty. Composite grafts demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects with regards to tissue macrophage and neutrophil density following urethral tissue analyses. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β and further resulted in an earlier transition to tissue remodeling and maturation with a shift in collagen type III to I. Grafted animals demonstrated a progressive maturation and increase in vessel size compared to control animals. Overall, MSC/CD34+ HSPC composite grafts reduce inflammation, enhance an earlier transition to wound remodeling and maturation concurrently increasing neovascularization in the periurethral tissue. We demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of a stem cell-seeded synthetic graft in a rodent substitution urethroplasty model. PMID:27762304

  11. Cyclo-Gly-Pro, a cyclic dipeptide, attenuates nociceptive behaviour and inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Jamylle Nunes de Souza; de Aquino, Fernanda Lima Torres; de Brito, Renan Guedes; dos Santos, Priscila Laíse; Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; de Souza, Lucas Costa; de Araújo, Almair Ferreira; Diaz, Bruno Lourenço; Lucca-Júnior, Waldecy; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the cyclic dipeptide cyclo-Gly-Pro (CGP) in mice. Antinociceptive activity was assessed by employing different pain models, such as formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, in mice. The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was evaluated in CGP-treated mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using paw oedema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and analyzed by plethysmometry. Quantitation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the paw was carried out to analyze the presence of neutrophils in the tissue. Intraperitoneal injection of CGP produced a significant inhibition in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin-induced pain. The antinociceptive effect of CGP, evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, was detected for up to 6 h after treatment. Further, in the hot plate test, antinociceptive behaviour was evoked by CGP, and this response was inhibited by naloxone. Animals treated with CGP did not present changes in motor performance. In CGP-treated mice there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-positive neurons in the periaqueductal gray. In another set of experiments, CGP attenuated the hyperalgesic response induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, CGP also reduced the carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws. In addition, CGP also reduced the paw oedema evoked by compound 48/80, serotonin, and PGE2 . Taken together, these results may support a possible therapeutic application of the cyclic dipeptide cyclo-Gly-Pro toward alleviating nociception and damage caused by inflammation conditions.

  12. Diethylcarbamazine attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Ingrid Tavares; Ribeiro, Edlene Lima; Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira Dos Santos; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares; Oliveira, Amanda Costa O de; Araújo, Shyrlene Meiry da Rocha; Barbosa, Karla Patrícia Sousa; Santos, Laise Aline Martins; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2017-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by extensive neutrophil infiltration, and apoptosis delay considered part of the pathogenesis of the condition. Despite great advances in treatment strategies, few effective therapies are known for ALI. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is used against lymphatic filariasis, a number of studies have described its anti-inflammatory activities and pro-apoptotic effect. These properties have been associated with nuclear factor kappa-B inactivation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DEC on ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. DEC effect was evaluated by histological and ultrastructural analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blot (WB). Also TUNEL assays were performed and as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The results demonstrate that LPS induced histological and ultrastructural changes with tissue damage, intense cell infiltration and pulmonary edema, and also increased levels of MPO and NO. DEC reversed these effects, confirming its anti-inflammatory action. DEC pro-apoptotic activity was also evaluated. The expression of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 was increased in DEC treated group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical and WB analysis showed that DEC increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in both the intrinsic (Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-9) and the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis (Fas, FADD and caspase-8). Additionally, DEC reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Our results suggest that DEC attenuates ALI through the prevention of inflammatory cells accumulation by stimulating apoptosis. DEC accelerates the resolution of inflammation and may be a potential pharmacological treatment for ALI. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Olprinone Attenuates the Acute Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis after Spinal Cord Trauma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Background Olprinone hydrochloride is a newly developed compound that selectively inhibits PDE type III and is characterized by several properties, including positive inotropic effects, peripheral vasodilatory effects, and a bronchodilator effect. In clinical settings, olprinone is commonly used to treat congestive cardiac failure, due to its inotropic and vasodilating effects. The mechanism of these cardiac effects is attributed to increased cellular concentrations of cAMP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacological action of olprinone on the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Traumatic SCI is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time. Although secondary injury should be preventable, no effective treatment options currently exist for patients with SCI. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5–T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, and production of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, apoptosis, and locomotor disturbance. Olprinone treatment (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 and 6 h after the SCI significantly reduced: (1) the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), (3) nitrotyrosine formation, (4) pro-inflammatory cytokines, (5) NF-κB expression, (6) p-ERK1/2 and p38 expression and (7) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, olprinone significantly ameliorated the recovery of hind-limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that olprinone treatment reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID

  14. Function of RNA secondary structures in transcriptional attenuation of the Bacillus subtilis pyr operon

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Turner, Robert J.; Switzer, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis pyr operon is regulated by exogenous pyrimidines by a transcriptional attenuation mechanism. Transcription in vitro from pyr DNA templates specifying attenuation regions yielded terminated and read-through transcripts of the expected lengths. Addition of the PyrR regulatory protein plus UMP led to greatly increased termination. Synthetic antisense deoxyoligonucleotides were used to probe possible secondary structures in the pyr mRNA that were proposed to play roles in controlling attenuation. Oligonucleotides predicted to disrupt terminator structures suppressed termination, whereas oligonucleotides predicted to disrupt the stem of antiterminator stem-loops strongly promoted termination at the usual termination site. Oligonucleotides that disrupt a previously unrecognized stem-loop structure, called the anti-antiterminator, the formation of which interferes with formation of the downstream antiterminator, suppressed termination. We propose that transcriptional attenuation of the pyr operon is governed by switching between alternative antiterminator versus anti-antiterminator plus terminator structures, and that PyrR acts by UMP-dependent binding to and stabilization of the anti-antiterminator. PMID:8962074

  15. Inhibiting IκBβ–NFκB signaling attenuates the expression of select pro-inflammatory genes

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Sarah; Wright, Clyde J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiple mediators of septic shock are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NFκB). However, complete NFκB inhibition can exacerbate disease, necessitating evaluation of targeted strategies to attenuate the pro-inflammatory response. Here, we demonstrate that in murine macrophages, low-dose NFκB inhibitors specifically attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IκBβ degradation and the expression of a select subset of target genes (encoding IL1β, IL6, IL12β). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate the necessary and sufficient role of inhibitor of NFκB family member IκBβ (also known as NFKBIB) in the expression of these genes. Furthermore, both fibroblasts and macrophages isolated from IκBβ overexpressing mice demonstrate attenuated LPS-induced IκBβ–NFκB signaling and IL1β, IL6 and IL12β expression. Further confirming the role of IκBβ and its NFκB subunit binding partner cRel in LPS-induced gene expression, pre-treatment of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a cell-permeable peptide containing the cRel nuclear localization sequence attenuated IL6 expression. We prove that LPS-induced IκBβ–NFκB signaling can be selectively modulated to attenuate the expression of select pro-inflammatory target genes, thus providing therapeutic insights for patients exposed to systemic inflammatory stress. PMID:25908863

  16. Inferior vena cava occlusion secondary to an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Tomoya; Tabuchi, Noriyuki; Makita, Satoru

    2007-02-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs) represent 3% to 10% of all AAAs. However, inferior vena cava occlusion secondary to an IAAA is rarely reported. We report a case of inferior vena cava occlusion secondary to an IAAA presenting deep venous thrombosis. As it is crucial to avoid pulmonary embolism and excessive blood loss during an operation, we pre-operatively implanted a venous filter and minimized intra-operative dissection that allowed successful operative repair.

  17. EGCG attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines production in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaoli; Qian, Yun; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Min

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the acceleration of inflammatory reaction of hepatitis as the second attack. Compounds that can prevent inflammation by targeting LPS have potential therapeutic clinical application. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has potent hepatocyte-protective effect and mild anti-hepatitis virus function. Here, we investigated whether EGCG attenuated the severity of inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocytes. L02 hepatocytes were pretreated with EGCG for 2 h, then stimulated by LPS at 250 ng/ml. The expression levels of chemokine regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (Rantes) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ, adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), oxidant stress molecules nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), p-AKT, total p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), total p65 and phospho-p65 (p-p65), IκBα, phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα) and TNF receptor associated factor 2 were tested by western blot analysis. Our results showed that pre-treatment with EGCG could significantly reduce the production of TNF-α, Rantes, MCP-1, ICAM-1, NO, VEGF, and MMP-2 in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of EGCG may be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by down-regulation of p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, p-p38, p-ERK1/2, and p-AKT. These results indicate that EGCG suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory response and oxidant stress and exerts its hepatocyte-protective activity partially by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  18. HSF-1 is involved in attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS through regulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongyi; Jiang, Bimei; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Yanjuan; Gao, Min; Jiang, Yu; Li, Yuanbin; Lu, Qinglan; Yao, Yongming; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2014-05-01

    Autophagy plays a protective role in endotoxemic mice. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) also plays a crucial protective role in endotoxemic mice by decreasing inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HSF-1 is involved in attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) through regulating autophagy activity. Autophagosome formation in HSF-1(+/+) and HSF-1(-/-) mice and PMs stimulated by LPS was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagy and inflammatory cytokines were examined in HSF-1(+/+) and HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or rapamycin. Results showed that LPS-induced autophagy was elevated transiently at 12 h but declined at 24 h in the livers and lungs of mice. Higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and lower autophagy activity were detected in HSF-1(-/-) mice and PMs compared with HSF-1(+/+) mice and PMs. Interestingly, LPS-induced release of inflammatory cytokines did not further increase in HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-MA but aggravated in HSF-1(+/+) PMs. Lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagy did not decrease in HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-MA but decreased in HSF-1 PMs(+/+). Taken together, our results suggested that HSF-1 attenuated the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS by regulating autophagy activity.

  19. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cyclic AMP attenuates acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Cyclic AMP Attenuates Acute Pyelonephritis in Mice Induced by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  1. Eriodictyol, a plant flavonoid, attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUANG-FA; GUO, HONG-JUAN; HUANG, YAN; WU, CHUN-TING; ZHANG, XIANG-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive inflammatory responses and oxidative injury in the lung tissue. It has been suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidative agents could have therapeutic effects in ALI, and eriodictyol has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eriodictyol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in a mouse model. The mice were divided into four groups: Phosphate-buffered saline-treated healthy control, LPS-induced ALI, vehicle-treated ALI (LPS + vehicle) and eriodictyol-treated ALI (LPS + eriodictyol). Eriodictyol (30 mg/kg) was administered orally once, 2 days before the induction of ALI. The data showed that eriodictyol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the eriodictyol pretreatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the ALI mouse model, which attenuated the oxidative injury and inhibited the inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. In combination, the results of the present study demonstrated that eriodictyol could alleviate the LPS-induced lung injury in mice by regulating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting that eriodictyol could be used as a potential drug for the treatment of LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26668626

  2. Docosahexanoic acid diet supplementation attenuates the peripheral mononuclear cell inflammatory response to exercise following LPS activation.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2014-10-01

    Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNFα, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNFα and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation.

  3. Betahistine attenuates murine collagen-induced arthritis by suppressing both inflammatory and Th17 cell responses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kuo-Tung; Chao, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lim, Yun-Ping; Chen, Yi-Ming; Li, Yi-Rong; Yang, Deng-Ho; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of betahistine dihydrochloride (betahistine) in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CIA was induced in DBA/1 male mice by primary immunization with 100μl of emulsion containing 2mg/ml chicken type II collagen (CII) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in an 1:1 ratio, and booster immunization with 100μl of emulsion containing 2mg/ml CII mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) in an 1:1 ratio. Immunization was performed subcutaneously at the base of the tail. After being boosted on day 21, betahistine (1 and 5mg/kg) was orally administered daily for 2weeks. The severity of CIA was determined by arthritic scores and assessment of histopathological joint destruction. Expression of cytokines in the paw and anti-CII antibodies in the serum was evaluated by ELISA. The proliferative response against CII in the lymph node cells was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation assay. The frequencies of different CII specific CD4(+) T cell subsets in the lymph node were determined by flow-cytometric analysis. Betahistine treatment attenuated the severity of arthritis and reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-17A, in the paw tissues of CIA mice. Lymph node cells from betahistine-treated mice showed a decrease in proliferation, as well as a lower frequency of Th17 cells. In vitro, betahistine suppressed CD4(+) T cell differentiation into Th17 cells. These results indicate that betahistine is effective in suppressing both inflammatory and Th17 responses in mouse CIA and that it may have therapeutic value as an adjunct treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. High-dose insulin therapy attenuates systemic inflammatory response in coronary artery bypass grafting patients.

    PubMed

    Albacker, Turki; Carvalho, George; Schricker, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces an acute phase reaction that is implicated in the pathogenesis of several postoperative complications. Studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines are increased by acute hyperglycemia. Recent evidence suggests that insulin has antiinflammatory properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-dose insulin therapy would attenuate the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass and surgery in coronary artery bypass patients while maintaining normoglycemia. A total of 52 patients who presented for elective coronary artery bypass were randomized to receive intraoperative intravenous insulin infusion, titrated to maintain blood glucose concentrations less than 180 mg/dL (group I, n = 25), or receive intraoperative fixed high dose of intravenous insulin infusion (5 mU/kg/min) with dextrose 20% infused separately to maintain a blood glucose level between 70 and 110 mg/dL (group II, n = 27). Blood samples were collected at different time points to determine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 and 8 (IL6 and IL8), and complement factor 3 and 4 (C3 and C4). Patients in both groups had similar preoperative characteristics. Patients in the high-dose insulin group had higher blood insulin concentrations and tighter blood glucose control. There were lower levels of IL6 (150 pg/dL vs 245 pg/dL, p = 0.03), IL-8 (49 pg/dL vs 74 pg/dL, p = 0.05), and TNFalpha (2.2 pg/dL vs 3.0 pg/dL, p = 0.04) in group II in the early postoperative period. High-dose insulin therapy blunts the early postoperative surge in inflammatory response to CPB as reflected by decreased levels of IL6, IL8, and TNFalpha.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 attenuates the atherosclerotic progression through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Liu, Wenen; Li, Yanming; Luo, San; Liu, Qingxia; Zhong, Yiming; Jian, Zijuan; Bao, Meihua

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apoliprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice and the underlying mechanisms. Eight week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 12 weeks. The wild type (WT) mice or ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group were treated with saline only. Body weights, serum lipid levels, aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and tissue oxidative and inflammatory statuses were examined among the groups. As compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 had no changes in body weights and serum lipid profiles, but showed decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in en face aorta. In comparison with WT mice, ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group showed higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), but lower levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum. Administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 could reverse these trends in a dose-dependent manner in ApoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed an inhibition of translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus, suppression of degradation of aortic IκB-α, and improvements of gut microbiota distribution, as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can attenuate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice through reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcumin prevents high fat diet induced insulin resistance and obesity via attenuating lipogenesis in liver and inflammatory pathway in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijuan; Yu, Zhiwen; Chiang, Yuting; Yang, Yi; Chai, Tuanyao; Foltz, Warren; Lu, Huogen; Fantus, I George; Jin, Tianru

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the attenuation of body weight gain and insulin resistance in response to high fat diet (HFD) by the curry compound curcumin need to be further explored. Although the attenuation of the inflammatory pathway is an accepted mechanism, a recent study suggested that curcumin stimulates Wnt signaling pathway and hence suppresses adipogenic differentiation. This is in contrast with the known repressive effect of curcumin on Wnt signaling in other cell lineages. We conducted the examination on low fat diet, or HFD fed C57BL/6J mice with or without curcumin intervention for 28 weeks. Curcumin significantly attenuated the effect of HFD on glucose disposal, body weight/fat gain, as well as the development of insulin resistance. No stimulatory effect on Wnt activation was observed in the mature fat tissue. In addition, curcumin did not stimulate Wnt signaling in vitro in primary rat adipocytes. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited lipogenic gene expression in the liver and blocked the effects of HFD on macrophage infiltration and the inflammatory pathway in the adipose tissue. We conclude that the beneficial effect of curcumin during HFD consumption is mediated by attenuating lipogenic gene expression in the liver and the inflammatory response in the adipose tissue, in the absence of stimulation of Wnt signaling in mature adipocytes.

  7. Gastrodia elata attenuates inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Min; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Tian, Ke; Gu, Chen-Xi; Li, Zhi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (GE), which belongs to the Orchidaceae family, was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effect of GE on inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) remains largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GE on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in RA-FLS and the underlying molecular mechanism was also explored. Our results demonstrated that GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in RA-FLS. GE also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 expression in RA-FLS. Furthermore, pretreatment with GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced the expression of p-p65 and IκBα degradation in RA-FLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that GE attenuated inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway signaling in RA-FLS. Thus, GE might have a therapeutic potential towards the treatment of RA.

  8. Salidroside attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and improves survival in murine endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shuang; Feng, Haihua; Song, Bocui; Guo, Weixiao; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Guoren; Zhong, Weiting; Huo, Meixia; Chen, Na; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-12-01

    Salidroside is a major component isolated from the Rhodiola rosea. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside on cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro, and the results showed that salidroside reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretions. This inspired us to further study the effects of salidroside in vivo. Salidroside significantly attenuated TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 productions in serum from mice challenged with LPS, and consistent with the results in vitro. In the murine model of endotoxemia, mice were treated with salidroside prior to or after LPS challenge. The results showed that salidroside significantly increased mouse survival. Further studies revealed that salidroside could downregulate LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-қB (NF-қB) DNA-binding activation and ERK/MAPKs signal transduction pathways production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These observations indicated that salidroside modulated early cytokine responses by blocking NF-қB and ERK/MAPKs activation, and thus, increased mouse survival. These effects of salidroside may be of potential usefulness in the treatment of inflammation-mediated endotoxemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Bátkai, Sándor; Haskó, György; Liaudet, Lucas; Drel, Viktor R; Obrosova, Irina G; Pacher, Pál

    2007-07-01

    A nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has recently been reported to lower the incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and to preserve the blood-retinal barrier in experimental diabetes. In this study we have investigated the effects of CBD on high glucose (HG)-induced, mitochondrial superoxide generation, NF-kappaB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and disruption of endothelial barrier function in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HG markedly increased mitochondrial superoxide generation (measured by flow cytometry using MitoSOX), NF-kappaB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, upregulation of iNOS and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion in HCAECs. HG also decreased endothelial barrier function measured by increased permeability and diminished expression of vascular endothelial cadherin in HCAECs. Remarkably, all the above mentioned effects of HG were attenuated by CBD pretreatment. Since a disruption of the endothelial function and integrity by HG is a crucial early event underlying the development of various diabetic complications, our results suggest that CBD, which has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans, may have significant therapeutic benefits against diabetic complications and atherosclerosis.

  10. Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretreatment attenuated Mn and/or LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its activation, and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that melatonin can effectively modulate phagocytosis and expression of proinflammatory mediators, and can prevent neuroinflammatory disorders accompanied by microglial activation.

  11. Cordycepin alleviates airway hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma by attenuating the inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Li, Yanxiang; He, Yanhao; Li, Tingting; Wang, Weirong; Zhang, Jiye; Wei, Jingyuan; Deng, Yanhong; Lin, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Cordycepin (Cor), which is a naturally occurring nucleoside derivative isolated from Cordyceps militaris, has been shown to exert excellent antiinflammatory activity in a murine model of acute lung injury. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antiasthmatic activity of Cor (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) and to investigate the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that Cor attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, and ovalbumin (Ova)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and alleviated lung inflammation with decreased eosinophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Notably, Cor reduced the upregulation of eotaxin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the BAL fluid. Furthermore, Cor markedly blocked p38-MAPK and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signalling pathway activation in the Ova-driven asthmatic mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that some of the antiasthmatic benefits of Cor attributable to diets and/or tonics may result from reductions in inflammatory processes and that these antiasthmatic properties involve the inhibition of Th2-type responses through the suppression of the p38-MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pentraxin-3 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and attenuates liver injury.

    PubMed

    Perea, Luis; Coll, Mar; Sanjurjo, Lucia; Blaya, Delia; Taghdouini, Adil El; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Altamirano, José; Graupera, Isabel; Aguilar-Bravo, Beatriz; Llopis, Marta; Vallverdú, Julia; Caballeria, Joan; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2017-09-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver injury is characterized by an important inflammatory response frequently associated with endotoxemia. In this context, acute-phase proteins such as Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are released; however, little is known about their role in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of PTX3 in liver injury. The role of PTX3 was evaluated in cultured human cells, liver tissue slices, and mice with acute-on-chronic liver injury. PTX3 expression was assessed in tissue and serum samples from 54 patients with alcoholic hepatitis. PTX3 expression was up-regulated in animal models of liver injury and strongly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver cell fractionation showed that macrophages and activated hepatic stellate cells were the main cell types expressing PTX3 in liver injury. Ex vivo and in vivo studies showed that PTX3 treatment attenuated LPS-induced liver injury, inflammation, and cell recruitment. Mechanistically, PTX3 mediated the hepatic stellate cell wound-healing response. Moreover, PTX3 modulated LPS-induced inflammation in human primary liver macrophages and peripheral monocytes by enhancing a TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-dependent response and favoring a macrophage interleukin-10-like phenotype. Additionally, hepatic and plasma PTX3 levels were increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, a prototypic acute-on-chronic condition; and its expression correlated with disease severity scores, endotoxemia, infections, and short-term mortality, thus suggesting that expression of PTX3 found in patients could be a counterregulatory response to injury. Experimental and human evidence suggests that, in addition to being a potential biomarker for alcoholic hepatitis, PTX3 participates in the wound-healing response and attenuates LPS-induced liver injury and inflammation; therefore, administration of PTX3 could be a promising therapeutic strategy in acute-on-chronic conditions, particularly those

  13. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  14. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats. PMID:26261562

  15. Exercise training can attenuate the inflammatory milieu in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Luiz A; Sales-de-Oliveira, Diego; Mello, Suzana B V; Camara, Niels O; Benatti, Fabiana B; Lima, Fernanda R; Borba, Eduardo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Sá-Pinto, Ana L; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study sought to assess the effects of an exercise training program on cytokines and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFRs) in response to acute exercise in SLE women. Eight SLE women and 10 sex-, age-, and body mass index-comparable healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Before and after a 12-wk aerobic exercise training program, cytokines and sTNFRs were assessed at rest and in response to single bouts of acute moderate/intense exercise. HC performed the acute exercise bouts only at baseline. After the exercise training program, there was a decrease in resting TNFR2 levels (P = 0.025) and a tend to reduction interleukin (IL)-10 levels (P = 0.093) in SLE. The resting levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α after the exercise training in SLE reached HC levels (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute moderate exercise, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-10 was significantly reduced after the exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.043), and the AUC of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and sTNFR1 of SLE approached control values (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute intense exercise, the AUC of IL-10 was significantly reduced in SLE (P = 0.015). Furthermore, the AUC of sTNFR2 tended to decrease after exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.084), but it did not reach control values (P = 0.001). An aerobic exercise training program attenuated the inflammatory milieu in SLE women, revealing a novel homeostatic immunomodulatory role of exercise in an autoimmunity condition.

  16. Caval and ureteral obstruction secondary to an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vikram S; Fang, Raymond; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Hagino, Ryan T

    2003-12-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) represent 3% to 10% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms. Obstructive uropathy is a well-described feature of IAAAs, but venous complications are unusual secondary to IAAA. The authors report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and deep venous thrombosis secondary to an IAAA. We believe this represents the first case of an IAAA manifesting as combined inferior vena cava compression and associated obstructive uropathy. Successful operative repair was performed. With resolution of the retroperitoneal inflammation, long-term follow-up revealed spontaneous release of both ureteral and caval compression.

  17. Studying substrate binding to reconstituted secondary transporters by attenuated total reflection infrared difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; León, Xavier; Padrós, Esteve

    2012-01-01

    The determination of protein conformational changes induced by the interaction of substrates with secondary transporters is an important step toward the elucidation of their transport mechanism. Since conformational changes in a protein alter its vibrational patterns, they can be detected with high sensitivity by infrared difference (IR(diff)) spectroscopy without the need for external probes. We describe a general procedure to obtain substrate-induced IR(diff) spectra by alternating perfusion of buffers over an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal containing an adhered film of a membrane protein reconstituted in lipids. As an example, we provide specific protocols to obtain melibiose and Na(+)-induced ATR-IR(diff) spectra of reconstituted melibiose permease, a sodium/melibiose co-transporter from E. coli. The presented methodology is applicable in principle to any membrane protein, provided that it can be purified and reconstituted in functional form, and appropriate substrates are available.

  18. uPA Attenuated LPS-induced Inflammatory Osteoclastogenesis through the Plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yosuke; Ishisaki, Akira; Kawashita, Eri; Kuretake, Hiromi; Ikeda, Kanako; Matsuo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis-caused bone destruction, results from an increase of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) induced by inflammation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated that the effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a potent stimulator of bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We found that the uPA deficiency promoted inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced by LPS. We also showed that LPS induced the expression of uPA, and the uPA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Additionally, we showed that the uPA-attenuated inflammatory osteoclastgenesis is associated with the activation of plasmin/protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 axis by uPA. Moreover, we examined the mechanism underlying the effect of uPA on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis, and found that uPA/plasmin/PAR-1 activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway through Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) activation, and attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that uPA attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through the plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK axis. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach to bone loss caused by inflammatory diseases. PMID:26722218

  19. Shielding data for hadron-therapy ion accelerators: Attenuation of secondary radiation in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Mereghetti, A.; Sagia, E.; Silari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The secondary radiation field produced by seven different ion species (from hydrogen to nitrogen), impinging onto thick targets made of either iron or ICRU tissue, was simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and transported through thick concrete shields: the ambient dose equivalent was estimated and shielding parameters evaluated. The energy for each ion beam was set in order to reach a maximum penetration in ICRU tissue of 290 mm (equivalent to the therapeutic range of 430 MeV/amu carbon ions). Source terms and attenuation lengths are given as a function of emission angle and ion species, along with fits to the Monte Carlo data, for shallow depth and deep penetration in the shield. Trends of source terms and attenuation lengths as a function of neutron emission angle and ion species impinging on target are discussed. A comparison of double differential distributions of neutrons with results from similar simulation works reported in the literature is also included. The aim of this work is to provide shielding data for the design of future light-ion radiation therapy facilities.

  20. Dexmedetomidine attenuates inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yueping; Wang, Yaoqi; Ning, Qiaoqing; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Chunzhi; Zhao, Wenxiang; Jing, Guangjian; Wang, Qianqian

    2016-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that is widely used for sedation in intensive care units and in clinical anesthesia. Dex has also been shown to possess anti-inflammatory benefits. However, the underlying mechanism by which Dex relieves the inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanism of Dex on the sepsis-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Sepsis was induced in mice models through the intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The preemptive administration of Dex substantially abated sepsis-induced pulmonary edema, pulmonary histopathological changes, and NF-κB p65 activity. The production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both the mRNA and protein levels was also reduced. Moreover, these effects were significantly blocked by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt). α-Bgt aggravated pulmonary edema and pulmonary histopathological changes, as well as increased NF-κB p65 activity and TNF-α and IL-6 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The overall results demonstrate that Dex inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice partly through the α7nAChR-dependent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Suppresses TNF-α-Induced Inflammatory Reaction In Vitro and Attenuates Severity of Dermatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Wu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiangling; Wang, Wenhan; Song, Sijia; Liang, Ke; Yang, Min; Guo, Linlin; Zhao, Yunpeng; Li, Ruifeng

    2016-02-01

    Anti-oxidant coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is commonly used in clinic. Recently, Co-Q10 was reported to antagonize TNF-α-induced inflammation and play a protective role in various inflammatory conditions. However, its role in dermatitis is unknown. Herein, RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was cultured with stimulation of TNF-α, and administration of Co-Q10 alleviated TNF-α-mediated inflammatory reaction in vitro. Furthermore, oxazolone-induced dermatitis mice model was established, and treatment of Co-Q10 markedly attenuated dermatitis phenotype in this mice model. Moreover, the protective role of Co-Q10 in vitro and in dermatitis was probably due to its repression on NF-κB signaling. Collectively, Co-Q10 may represent a potential molecular target for prevention and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  2. Social interaction attenuates the extent of secondary neuronal damage following closed head injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Doulames, Vanessa M.; Vilcans, Meghan; Lee, Sangmook; Shea, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can vary tremendously among individuals. Lifestyle following injury, including differential social interactions, may modulate the extent of secondary injury following TBI. To examine this possibility under controlled conditions, closed head injury (CHI) was induced in C57Bl6 mice using a standardized weight drop device after which mice were either housed in isolation or with their original cagemates (“socially-housed”) for 4 weeks. CHI transiently impaired novel object recognition (NOR) in both isolated and social mice, confirming physical and functional injury. By contrast, Y maze navigation was impaired in isolated but not social mice at 1–4 weeks post CHI. CHI increased excitotoxic signaling in hippocampal slices from all mice, which was transiently exacerbated by isolation at 2 weeks post CHI. CHI slightly increased reactive oxygen species and did not alter levels of amyloid beta (Abeta), total or phospho-tau, total or phosphorylated neurofilaments. CHI increased serum corticosterone in both groups, which was exacerbated by isolation. These findings support the hypothesis that socialization may attenuate secondary damage following TBI. In addition, a dominance hierarchy was noted among socially-housed mice, in which the most submissive mouse displayed indices of stress in the above analyses that were statistically identical to those observed for isolated mice. This latter finding underscores that the nature and extent of social interaction may need to vary among individuals to provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:26528156

  3. Resveratrol attenuates neuropathic pain through balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines release in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Ding, Qian; Gao, Changjun; Sun, Xude

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of resveratrol has been widely studied, while its beneficial effect on the management of neuropathic pain, a refractory chronic syndrome with pro-inflammation implicated in, is very little investigated. In the present study, the effects of different doses and various time window of administration of resveratrol were explored in a neuropathic mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. It was demonstrated that pretreatment of resveratrol (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days before CCI did not alleviate neuropathic pain, while it clearly relieved the pain when administrated after CCI and such pain relief effect was more pronounced when administrated right after the peak of pain symptom at day 7 after CCI, as evidenced by the alleviation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Such a beneficial effect of resveratrol was in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic study showed that resveratrol repressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at the same time, which was further confirmed in a cell model of microglia. It was also shown that neuropathic pain inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, but not with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in all experimental mice from Spearman correlation coefficient. Our study reveals that resveratrol displays a significant neuropathic pain relief effect and paved a way for novel treatment of chronic pain.

  4. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  5. Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Attenuates Inflammatory Symptoms of Gastritis, Hepatitis and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Rhee, Man Hee; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Han Gyung; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine prescribed worldwide that is prepared from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Out of ginseng's various components, ginsenosides are regarded as the major ingredients, exhibiting anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Although recent studies have focused on understanding the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, compounds that are major anti-inflammatory components, precisely how these can suppress various inflammatory processes has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to identify inhibitory saponins, to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the saponins, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms. To do this, we employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays. Out of all the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) showed the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], and interferons (IFNs). Similarly, this compound attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also attenuated the increased levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1 but not NF-[Formula: see text]B. In support of this phenomenon, G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that

  6. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates eccentric exercise-inflicted blood inflammatory markers in women.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ryan T; Dickman, Jonathan R; Kang, Choung-Hun; Zhang, Tianou; Chu, Yi-Fang; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous exercise is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflict inflammatory response. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation in humans after an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Young women (age 18-30 years, N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA (AVA) or 0.4 mg AVA (Control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen each group of subjects ran downhill (DR) on a treadmill at -9% grade for 1 h at a speed to elicit 75% of maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 24 h post-DR. Before dietary supplementation plasma creatine kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration were increased immediately after DR (P < 0.05), whereas neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) was elevated 24 h post-DR (P < 0.05). CK and TNF-α response to DR was abolished during post-supplementation tests in both AVA and C groups, whereas NRB was blunted only in AVA but not in C. Plasma interleukin-6 level and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB activity were not affected by DR either before or after dietary supplementation, but were lowered 24 h post-DR in AVA versus C (P < 0.05). Both groups increased plasma total antioxidant activity following 8-week dietary regimen (P < 0.05), whereas only AVA group increased resting plasma glutathione (GSH) concentration (P < 0.05), decreased glutathione disulfide response to DR, and lowered erythrocyte GSH peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Our data of pre- and post-supplementation difference reflect an interaction between repeated measure effect of eccentric exercise and AVA in diet. Long-term AVA supplementation can attenuate blood inflammation markers, decrease ROS generation and NFkB activation, and increased antioxidant capacity during an eccentric exercise

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  8. Attenuation of atherosclerotic complications by modulating inflammatory responses in hypercholesterolemic rats with dietary Njavara rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Pushpan, Chithra K; V, Shalini; G, Sindhu; Rathnam, Parvathy; A, Jayalekshmy; A, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The role of inflammation in atherosclerosis is well established, with all stages of disease progression being assessed as inflammatory response to injury. Preventive treatments and drugs identified so far are based on lipid lowering strategies which also involves functional foods and dietary supplementation. The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of Njavara rice bran oil (NjRBO), extracted from a medicinal rice variety, to high cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats on atherosclerosis by attenuating the inflammatory responses in PBMCs, aortic endothelial cells and macrophages. Adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 100-120g) were grouped into 3 of six rats each. Group I served as control, Group II were fed high cholesterol diet (HCD) and Group III were fed a HCD and NjRBO (100mg/kg body weight). The experimental duration was 60days. Activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase, expression of Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-6, Interferon γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 were found to be decreased on NjRBO supplementation which were increased in HCD fed rats. Expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in aortic endothelial cells was decreased significantly in NjRBO treatment than HCD fed rats. This attenuations were mainly due to inhibition in translocation of NF-κB into nucleus in aortic endothelial cells. Also, NjRBO treatment significantly decreased the gene expressions of TLR-2, TLR-4, and CD36 in both macrophages and endothelial cells than HCD fed rats indicates its anti-inflammatory effect via TLR - NF-κB signaling pathway. NjRBO has thereby shown to possess anti-atherogenic property by effectively modulating inflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  10. Sinomenine protects mice against ischemia reperfusion induced renal injury by attenuating inflammatory response and tubular cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqing; Guan, Rui; Song, Shaohua; Zhang, Mingjian; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Guo, Wenyuan; Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Luding; Wang, Quanxing

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a purified alkaloid from the Chinese herb Sinomenium acutum. Previous studies demonstrated that SIN possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. We thus in the present report conducted studies to examine its impact on ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced renal injury. Precondition of mice with 200 mg/kg of SIN provided significant protection for mice against IR-induced renal injury as manifested by the attenuated serum creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) along with less severity for histological changes and tubular cell apoptosis. In line with these results, treatment of mice with SIN suppressed IR-induced inflammatory infiltration and the expression of chemokine CXCL-10, adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and cytokines TNF-а/IL-6. Mechanistic studies revealed that SIN inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity to suppress IR-induced inflammatory response in the kidney, while it attenuates MAP kinase signaling to prevent tubular cells undergoing apoptosis after IR insult. Altogether, our data support that SIN could be a useful therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of IR-induced renal injury in the clinical settings. PMID:24040435

  11. Sinomenine protects mice against ischemia reperfusion induced renal injury by attenuating inflammatory response and tubular cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqing; Guan, Rui; Song, Shaohua; Zhang, Mingjian; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Guo, Wenyuan; Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Luding; Wang, Quanxing

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a purified alkaloid from the Chinese herb Sinomenium acutum. Previous studies demonstrated that SIN possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. We thus in the present report conducted studies to examine its impact on ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced renal injury. Precondition of mice with 200 mg/kg of SIN provided significant protection for mice against IR-induced renal injury as manifested by the attenuated serum creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) along with less severity for histological changes and tubular cell apoptosis. In line with these results, treatment of mice with SIN suppressed IR-induced inflammatory infiltration and the expression of chemokine CXCL-10, adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and cytokines TNF-а/IL-6. Mechanistic studies revealed that SIN inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity to suppress IR-induced inflammatory response in the kidney, while it attenuates MAP kinase signaling to prevent tubular cells undergoing apoptosis after IR insult. Altogether, our data support that SIN could be a useful therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of IR-induced renal injury in the clinical settings.

  12. MK801 attenuates secondary injury in a mouse experimental compression model of spinal cord trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glutamergic excitotoxicity has been shown to play a deleterious role in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of dizocilpine maleate, MK801 (2 mg/Kg, 30 min and 6 hours after injury) in a mice model of SCI. The spinal cord trauma was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Results Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis. In this study we clearly demonstrated that administration of MK801 attenuated all inflammatory parameters. In fact 24 hours after injury, the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (evaluated as histological score), infiltration of neutrophils, NF-κB activation, iNOS, cytokines levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), neurotrophin expression were markedly reduced by MK801 treatment. Moreover, in a separate set of experiments, we have demonstrated that MK801 treatment significantly improved the recovery of locomotory function. Conclusions Blockade of NMDA by MK801 lends support to the potential importance of NMDA antagonists as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. PMID:21492450

  13. Differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic lesions caused by hemorrhage from inflammatory abscess using CT attenuation in women with acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuko; Kajihara, Takeshi; Miki, Akinori; Hirabayashi, Eriko; Shintani, Daisuke; Niitsu, Mamoru; Ishihara, Osamu; Itakura, Atsuo

    2015-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) attenuation of cystic lesions measured on an image browsing system to distinguish abscess from hematoma in women with acute abdomen. The medical records of female patients of reproductive age with acute abdomen who were treated over a 7-year period in a single center and who had undergone laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery and preoperative pelvic CT scanning were retrospectively analyzed to identify those with hematoma or abscess cyst formation. Nineteen patients with tubo-ovarian abscess (abscess group) and six patients with hematoma (hematoma group) formation in the pelvis were included in the analysis. The preoperative CT images of the tubo-ovarian cyst were retrospectively investigated on the basis of cyst attenuation. CT attenuation of the cyst measured by both two gynecologists could be used to clearly distinguish inflammatory disease with abscess formation from bleeding disease with hematoma. CT attenuation on a picture archiving and communication system can distinguish hematoma from abscess in women with acute abdomen. This may significantly contribute to making differential diagnosis without interpretation by a medical radiologist.

  14. Simvastatin combined with antioxidant attenuates the cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Chen, Han-Jung; Liliang, Po-Chou; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Cho, Chung-Lung; Lu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to important and deleterious neuroinflammation, as evidenced by indicators such as edema, cytokine production, induction of nitric oxide synthase, and leukocyte infiltration. After TBI, cerebral vascular endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. In our previous study, we proved that simvastatin could attenuate cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury. This purpose of this study was to determine whether simvastatin combined with an antioxidant could produce the same effect or greater and to examine affected surrogate biomarkers for the neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury in rat. In our study, cortical contusions were induced, and the effect of acute and continuous treatment of simvastatin and vitamin C on behavior and inflammation in adult rats following experimental TBI was evaluated. The results demonstrated that simvastatin combined with an antioxidant could provide neuroprotection and it may be attributed to a dampening of cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response.

  15. Chongcao-Shencha Attenuates Liver and Kidney Injury through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in D-Galactose-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cailan; Mo, Zhizhun; Xie, Jianhui; Xu, Lieqiang; Tan, Lihua; Luo, Dandan; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Su, Zuqing

    2016-01-01

    The Chongcao-Shencha (CCSC), a Chinese herbal compound formula, has been widely used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. The present study investigated the possible effect of CCSC in alleviating the liver and kidney injury in D-galactose- (D-gal-) treated mice and the underlying mechanism. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally administered CCSC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. Results indicated that CCSC increased the depressed body weight and organ index induced by D-gal, ameliorated the histological deterioration, and decreased the levels of ALT, AST, BUN, and CRE as compared with D-gal group. Furthermore, CCSC not only elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx but also upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1, CAT, and GPx1, while decreasing the MDA level in D-gal-treated mice. Results of western blotting analysis showed that CCSC significantly inhibited the upregulation of expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-p65, p-IκBα, COX2, and iNOS and inhibited the downregulation of IκBα protein expression caused by D-gal. This study demonstrated that CCSC could attenuate the liver and kidney injury in D-gal-treated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:27340415

  16. Oleic Acid Attenuates trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Mediated Inflammatory Gene Expression in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a delta-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 d, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis. PMID:22941440

  17. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  18. Attenuated Inflammatory Response in Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2) Knock-Out Mice following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Martin; Guenther, Madlen; Linnartz-Gerlach, Bettina; Neumann, Harald; Witte, Otto W.; Frahm, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor involved in phagocytosis. Clearance of apoptotic debris after stroke represents an important mechanism to re-attain tissue homeostasis and thereby ensure functional recovery. The role of TREM2 following stroke is currently unclear. Methods and Results As an experimental stroke model, the middle cerebral artery of mice was occluded for 30 minutes with a range of reperfusion times (duration of reperfusion: 6 h/12 h/24 h/2 d/7 d/28 d). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a greatly increased transcription of TREM2 after stroke. We subsequently analyzed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and their receptors in TREM2-knockout (TREM2-KO) mice via qPCR. Microglial activation (CD68, Iba1) and CD3-positive T-cell invasion were analyzed via qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Functional consequences of TREM2 knockout were assessed by infarct volumetry. The acute inflammatory response (12 h reperfusion) was very similar between TREM2-KO mice and their littermate controls. However, in the sub-acute phase (7 d reperfusion) following stroke, TREM2-KO mice showed a decreased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1α and IL-1β, associated with a reduced microglial activity (CD68, Iba1). Furthermore, TREM2-KO mice showed a reduced transcription of chemokines CCL2 (MCP1), CCL3 (MIP1α) and the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, followed by a diminished invasion of CD3-positive T-cells. No effect on the lesion size was observed. Conclusions Although we initially expected an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response following ablation of TREM2, our data support a contradictory scenario that the sub-acute inflammatory reaction after stroke is attenuated in TREM2-KO mice. We therefore conclude that TREM2 appears to sustain a distinct inflammatory response after stroke. PMID:23301011

  19. Recombinant human antithrombin III improves survival and attenuates inflammatory responses in baboons lethally challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Minnema, M C; Chang, A C; Jansen, P M; Lubbers, Y T; Pratt, B M; Whittaker, B G; Taylor, F B; Hack, C E; Friedman, B

    2000-02-15

    Plasma-derived antithrombin III (ATIII) prevents the lethal effects of Escherichia coli infusion in baboons, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not clear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human ATIII (rhATIII) on the clinical course and the inflammatory cytokine and coagulation responses in baboons challenged with lethal dose of E coli. Animals in the treatment group (n = 5) received high doses of rhATIII starting 1 hour before an E coli challenge. Those in the control group were administered saline. Survival was significantly improved in the treatment group (P =.002). Both groups had similar hemodynamic responses to E coli challenge but different coagulation and inflammatory responses. The rhATIII group had an accelerated increase of thrombin-ATIII complexes and significantly less fibrinogen consumption compared to controls. In addition, the rhATIII group had much less severe thrombotic pathology on autopsy and virtually no fibrinolytic response to E coli challenge. Furthermore, the rhATIII group had a significantly attenuated inflammatory response as evidenced by marked reduction of the release of various cytokines. We conclude that the early administration of high doses of rhATIII improves the outcome in baboons lethally challenged with E coli, probably due to the combined anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory effects of this therapy. (Blood. 2000;95:1117-1123)

  20. Lucinactant attenuates pulmonary inflammatory response, preserves lung structure, and improves physiologic outcomes in a preterm lamb model of RDS

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Marla R.; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L.; Gregory, Timothy J.; Mazela, Jan; Shaffer, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute inflammatory responses to supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation have been implicated in the pathophysiological sequelae of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Although surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has contributed to lung stability, the effect on lung inflammation is inconclusive. Lucinactant contains sinapultide (KL4), a novel synthetic peptide that functionally mimics surfactant protein B, a protein with anti-inflammatory properties. We tested the hypothesis that lucinactant may modulate lung inflammatory response to mechanical ventilation in the management of RDS and may confer greater protection than animal-derived surfactants. Methods Preterm lambs (126.8 ± 0.2 SD d gestation) were randomized to receive lucinactant, poractant alfa, beractant, or no surfactant and studied for 4 h. Gas exchange and pulmonary function were assessed serially. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung histology were assessed at termination. Results SRT improved lung compliance relative to no SRT without significant difference between SRT groups. Lucinactant attenuated lung and systemic inflammatory response, supported oxygenation at lower ventilatory requirements, and preserved lung structural integrity to a greater degree than either no SRT or SRT with poractant alfa or beractant. Conclusion These data suggest that early intervention with lucinactant may more effectively mitigate pulmonary pathophysiological sequelae of RDS than the animal-derived surfactants poractant alfa or beractant. PMID:22821059

  1. BZ-26, a novel GW9662 derivate, attenuated inflammation by inhibiting the differentiation and activation of inflammatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bei, Yuncheng; Chen, Jiajia; Zhou, Feifei; Huang, Yahong; Jiang, Nan; Tan, Renxiang; Shen, Pingping

    2016-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is considered to be an important transcriptional factor in regulation of macrophages differentiation and activation. We have synthesized a series of novel structural molecules based on GW9662's structure (named BZ-24, BZ-25 and BZ-26), and interaction activity was calculated by computational docking. BZ-26 had shown stronger interaction with PPARγ and had higher transcriptional inhibitory activity of PPARγ with lower dosage compared with GW9662. BZ-26 was proved to inhibit inflammatory macrophage differentiation. LPS-induced acute inflammation mouse model was applied to demonstrate its anti-inflammatory activity. And the results showed that BZ-26 administration attenuated plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion, which are vital cytokines in acute inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity was examined in THP-1 cell line, and TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, were significantly inhibited. The results of Western blot and luciferase reporter assay indicated that BZ-26 not only inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity, but also abolished LPS-induce nuclear translocation of P65. We also test BZ-26 action in tumor-bearing chronic inflammation mouse model, and BZ-26 was able to alter macrophages phenotype, resulting in antitumor effect. All our data revealed that BZ-26 modulated LPS-induced acute inflammation via inhibiting inflammatory macrophages differentiation and activation, potentially via inhibition of NF-κB signal pathway.

  2. Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia. PMID:25759519

  3. Does Moderate Intensity Exercise Attenuate the Postprandial Lipemic and Airway Inflammatory Response to a High-Fat Meal?

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J.; Teeman, Colby S.; Emerson, Sam R.; Harms, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO2peak) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05,  η2 = 0.36). Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:26000301

  4. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Das, Nando Dulal; Kang, Sung Chul; Lee, Young Seek; Seo, Hyemyung; Chai, Young Gyu

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  5. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the inflammatory response and apoptosis after traumatic injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Yin, Yue; Cao, Fa-Le; Chen, Yu-Fei; Peng, Ye; Hou, Wu-Gang; Sun, Shu-Kai; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p.) after SCI induced significant effects: (1) improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores), (2) reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and the expression of astrocytes, (3) inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, (4) decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and iNOS, (5) reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression) and (6) reversed the redox state imbalance. The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI.

  7. Dexmedetomidine attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in aging rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Zhao, Binjiang; Li, Xue

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of α2 adrenergic receptor agonists, dexmedetomidine generates sedation, anti-anxiety and anesthesia effects by hyperpolarizing noradrenergic nerve cells in locus coeruleus. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective of dexmedetomidine attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment, and the possible underlying mechanism in aging rat. Firstly, we used isoflurane-induced aging rat model to analyze the therapeutical effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive impairment. Next, commercial ELISA kits were used to analyze tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 levels. In addition, Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of P38 MAPK, PTEN and phosphorylation-Akt (p-Akt) expression. Our results showed that the neuroprotective of dexmedetomidine significantly attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aging rat. Moreover, dexmedetomidine significantly inhibited these TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA, SOD and caspase-3 activities in isoflurane-induced aging rat. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment significantly suppressed Bcl-xL/Bad rate, P38 MAPK and PTEN protein expression and activated p-Akt protein expression in aging rat. Collectively, neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in aging rat. PMID:26770320

  8. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Claudia A.; Fievez, Laurence; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Bureau, Fabrice; Vanbever, Rita

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) attenuates the inflammatory response in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Raas, Thomas; Piront, Neil; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Toussaint, Olivier; Larondelle, Yvan; During, Alexandrine

    2011-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate dose effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (0.05-1%) on the intestinal inflammatory response in confluent- and differentiated-Caco-2 cells stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β or a pro-inflammatory cocktail for 24 h. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity was assayed by incubating inflamed cells with arachidonic acid and then measuring prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) produced. Soluble mediators (IL-8, IL-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and COX-2-derived PGE(2)) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays and mRNA expression of 33 proteins by high throughput TaqMan Low Density Array. Data showed that DMSO decreased induced IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), but not IL-8; these effects were cell development- and stimulus- independent. Moreover, in IL-1β-stimulated confluent-cells, DMSO dose-dependently reduced COX-2-derived PGE(2) (P<0.05). DMSO at 0.5% decreased significantly mRNA levels of 14 proteins involved in the inflammatory response (including IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, and COX-2). Thus, DMSO at low concentrations (0.1-0.5%) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model. This point is important to be taken into account when assessing anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds requiring DMSO as vehicle, such as phenolic compounds, in order to avoid miss-interpretation of the results.

  10. EGCG Attenuates Uric Acid-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses by Medicating the NOTCH Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hua; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zong, Min; Li, Shijie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can prevent the UA-induced inflammatory effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the involved mechanisms in vitro. Methods. HUVEC were subjected to uric acid (UA) with or without EGCG treatment. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to determine the level of inflammation marker. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Functional studies of the role of Notch-1 in HUVEC lines were performed using RNA interference analyses. Results. UA significantly increased the expressions of IL-6, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 and the production of ROS in HUVEC. Meanwhile, the expression of Notch-1 and its downstream effects significantly increased. Using siRNA, inhibition of Notch-1 signaling significantly impeded the expressions of inflammatory cytokines under UA treatment. Interestingly, EGCG suppressed the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and the generation of ROS. Western blot analysis of Notch-1 showed that EGCG significantly decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines through Notch-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions. In summary, our findings indicated that Notch-1 plays an important role in the UA-induced inflammatory response, and the downregulation of Notch-1 by EGCG could be an effective approach to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress induced by UA. PMID:26539255

  11. Telmisartan Attenuates Colon Inflammation, Oxidative Perturbations and Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Hany H.; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y.; Abdallah, Dalaal M.; Nassar, Noha N.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated the implication of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) via its proinflammatory features. Telmisartan (TLM) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that mediated its cardio-, reno- and hepatoprotective actions. However, its impact on IBD has not been previously explored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of TLM in tri-nitrobenezene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Pretreatment with TLM (10 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by decrease of disease activity index (DAI), colon weight/length ratio, macroscopic damage, histopathological findings and leukocyte migration. TLM suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration besides restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10). TLM also suppressed mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and mRNA of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proinflammatory genes with concomitant upregulation of PPAR-γ. The alleviation of TLM to colon injury was also associated with inhibition of oxidative stress as evidenced by suppression of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) besides boosting glutathione (GSH), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). With respect to apoptosis, TLM downregulated the increased mRNA, protein expression and activity of caspase-3. It also suppressed the elevation of cytochrome c and Bax mRNA besides the upregulation of Bcl-2. Together, these findings highlight evidences for the beneficial effects of TLM in IBD which are mediated through modulation of colonic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:24831514

  12. Capsaicin attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production by upregulation of LXRα.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Luo, Kang; Li, Yan; Chen, Quan; Tang, Dan; Wang, Deming; Xiao, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Here, we investigated the role of LXRα in capsaicin mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Results revealed that capsaicin inhibits LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, capsaicin increases LXRα expression through PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of LXRα activation by siRNA diminished the inhibitory action of capsaicin on LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production. Additionally, LXRα siRNA abrogated the inhibitory action of capsaicin on p65 NF-κB protein expression. Thus, we propose that the anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin are LXRα dependent, and LXRα may potentially link the capsaicin mediated PPARγ activation and NF-κB inhibition in LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  13. Unfractionated bone marrow cells attenuate paraquat-induced glomerular injury and acute renal failure by modulating the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sing-Yi; Yeh, Ti-Yen; Lin, Shih-Yi; Peng, Fu-Chuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of unfractionated bone marrow cells (BMCs) in attenuating acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by paraquat (PQ) in a mouse model. PQ (55 mg/kg BW) was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6 female mice to induce AKI, including renal function failure, glomerular damage and renal tubule injury. Glomerular podocytes were the first target damaged by PQ, which led to glomerular injury. Upon immunofluorescence staining, podocytes depletion was validated and accompanied by increased urinary podocin levels, measured on days 1 and 6. A total of 5.4 × 106 BMCs obtained from the same strain of male mice were injected into AKI mice through the tail vein at 3, 24, and 48 hours after PQ administration. As a result, renal function increased, tubular and glomerular injury were ameliorated, podocytes loss improved, and recipient mortality decreased. In addition, BMCs co-treatment decreased the extent of neutrophil infiltration and modulated the inflammatory response by shifting from pro-inflammatory Th1 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 profile, where IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels declined and IL-10 and IL-4 levels increased. The present study provides a platform to investigate PQ-induced AKI and repeated BMCs injection represents an efficient therapeutic strategy. PMID:26988026

  14. Telmisartan attenuates myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats: modulation of nitric oxide metabolism and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhu, Die; Guo, Xue-ling; Deng, Yan; Shang, Jin; Liu, Kui; Liu, Hui-guo

    2015-05-01

    NO and NO synthase (NOS) are known to play key roles in the development of myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/hypoxia. Current evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, such as telmisartan, lower blood pressure and produce beneficial regulatory effects on NO and NOS. Here, we examined the protective role of telmisartan in myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8 h of intermittent hypoxia/day, with/without telmisartan for 8 weeks. Myocardial apoptosis, NO and NOS activity, and levels of inflammatory mediators and radical oxygen species were determined. Treatment with telmisartan preserved endothelial NOS expression and inhibited inducible NOS and excessive NO generation, while reducing oxidation/nitration stress and inflammatory responses. Administration of telmisartan before CIH significantly ameliorated the CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis. This study show that pre-CIH telmisartan administration ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH by attenuating CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis via regulation of NOS activity and inhibition of excessive NO generation, oxidation/nitration stress, and inflammatory responses.

  15. Impaired differentiation of macrophage lineage cells attenuates bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis in Ndrg1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Fukunaga, Yuichi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2016-01-18

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a responsible gene for a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D). This is the first study aiming to assess the contribution of NDRG1 to differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, which has important implications for bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. Ndrg1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal curvature of the spine, high trabecular bone mass, and reduced number of osteoclasts. We observed that serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and macrophage-related cytokines were markedly decreased in KO mice. Differentiation of bone marrow (BM) cells into osteoclasts, M1/M2-type macrophages and dendritic cells was all impaired. Furthermore, KO mice also showed reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis by cancer cells, accompanied by decreased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages. The transfer of BM-derived macrophages from KO mice into BM-eradicated wild type (WT) mice induced much less tumor angiogenesis than observed in WT mice. Angiogenesis in corneas in response to inflammatory stimuli was also suppressed with decreased infiltration of macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that NDRG1 deficiency attenuates the differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, suppressing bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. This study strongly suggests the crucial role of NDRG1 in differentiation process for macrophages.

  16. The Inhibitory Receptor B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Controls γδ T cell Homeostasis and Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Matthew G.; Rhode-Kurnow, Antje; Ware, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY γδ T cells rapidly secrete inflammatory cytokines at barrier sites that aid in protection from pathogens, however mechanisms limiting inflammatory damage remain unclear. We found that retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt) and interleukin (IL)-7 influence γδ T cell homeostasis and function by regulating expression of the inhibitory receptor, B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA). The transcription factor RORγt, via its activating function-2 domain, repressed Btla transcription, whereas IL-7 increased BTLA levels on the cell surface. BTLA expression limited γδ T cell numbers and sustained normal γδ T cell subset frequencies by restricting IL-7 responsiveness and expansion of the CD27−RORγt+ population. BTLA also negatively regulated IL-17 and TNF production in CD27− γδ T cells. Consequently, BTLA-deficient mice exhibit enhanced disease in a γδ T cell-dependent model of dermatitis, while BTLA agonism reduced inflammation. Therefore, by coordinating expression of BTLA, RORγt and IL-7 balance suppressive and activation stimuli to regulate γδ T cell homeostasis and inflammatory responses. PMID:24315996

  17. Light-emitting diodes at 940nm attenuate colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice.

    PubMed

    Belém, Mônica O; de Andrade, Giovana M M; Carlos, Thalita M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Fattori, Victor; Toginho Filho, Dari O; Dias, Ivan F L; Verri, Waldiceu A; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents intense inflammatory infiltrate, crypt abscesses, ulceration and even loss of function. Despite the clinical relevance of IBD, its current therapy remains poorly effective. Infrared wavelength phototherapy shows therapeutic potential on inflammation. Our goal was to evaluate whether light-emitting diodes (LED) at 940nm are capable of mitigating the colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice. Forty male Swiss mice were assigned into five groups: control; control treated with LED therapy; colitis without treatment; colitis treated with LED therapy; colitis treated with Prednisolone. Experimental colitis was induced by acetic acid 7.5% (pH2.5) rectal administration. LED therapy was performed with light characterized by wavelength of 940nm, 45nm bandwidth, intensity of 4.05J/cm(2), total power of 270mW and total dose of 64.8J for 4min in a single application. Colitis-induced intestinal transit delay was inhibited by LED therapy. Colitis caused an increase of colon dimensions (length, diameter, total area) and colon weight (edema), which were inhibited by LED therapy. LED therapy also decreased colitis-induced tissue gross lesion, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic tissue damage score and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in all intestinal layers. Furthermore, LED therapy inhibited colitis-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. We conclude LED therapy at 940nm inhibited experimental colitis-induced colon inflammation in mice, therefore, rendering it a promising therapeutic approach that deserves further investigation.

  18. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuated PLGA-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting host DC maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Yang, Fei; Tang, Bo; Li, Xi-Mei; Chu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Shen-Guo; Wu, De-Cheng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) bio-scaffold is a biodegradable scaffold commonly used for tissue repair. However, implanted PLGA scaffolds usually cause serious inflammatory responses around grafts. To improve PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair, it is important to control the PLGA-mediated inflammatory responses. Recent evidence indicated that PLGA induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, which may initiate host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on PLGA-induced DCs (PLGA-DC). We found that mouse MSCs inhibited PLGA-DC dendrite formation, as well as co-stimulatory molecule and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Functionally, MSC-educated PLGA-DCs promoted Th2 and regulatory T cell differentiation but suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we determined that PLGA elicited DC maturation via inducing phosphorylation of p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathway proteins in DCs. Moreover, MSCs suppressed PLGA-DCs by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, we found that the MSCs were capable of suppressing DC maturation and immune function in vivo. Also, the proportion of mature DCs in the mice that received MSC-PLGA constructs greatly decreased compared with that of their PLGA-film implantation counterparts. Additionally, MSCs co-delivery increased regulatory T and Th2 cells but decreased the Th1 and Th17 cell numbers in the host spleens. Histological analysis showed that MSCs alleviated the inflammatory responses around the grafted PLGA scaffolds. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for MSCs in suppressing PLGA-induced host inflammatory response and suggest that DCs are a new cellular target in improving PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair.

  20. Fish oil attenuates persistent inflammatory pain in rats through modulation of TNF-α and resolvins.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Bianca W P; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Teixeira, Monique S; Silva, Natália L C; Takiya, Christina M; Ramos, Mônica F S; Miranda, Ana Luísa P; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil (FO), source of omega-3 fatty acids (FA), has been widely studied in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and inflammatory pain (IP). Omega-3 FA give rise to eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, metabolized to eicosanoids and converted to resolvins with important anti-inflammatory action. This study investigates the effects of oral doses of omega-3 FA from FO and concentrated fish oil (CFO) in a model of sub-chronic IP, induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). IP was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA into the right hind paw of Wistar rats. Three groups were pre-treated with omega-3 FA: two groups received CFO (460mg of EPA/360mg of DHA and 690mg of EPA/540mg of DHA) and one group received natural FO (460mg EPA/300mg DHA), for 7days before IP induction (pre-treatment) and 5days after induction (treatment). TNF-α levels were reduced by CFO 690 (67.9%; p<0.01), CFO 460 (57.7%; p<0.01), FO 460 (26.2%), compared to the augment promoted by CFA (549.7%; p<0.001). Resolvin levels were increased in treated groups with respect to the CFA control group (CFO 690=3196.3%, p<0.01; CFO 460=3347.1%, p<0.01; FO=1653.5%). The results indicate that the tested doses reduced inflammatory pain effectively in a short pre-treatment period, through modulation of TNF-α and resolvins and that CFO presented better results than FO. Therefore, Ω-3 FA from FO can be proposed for use as complementary medicine in the treatment of painful and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calea uniflora Less. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; de Mello, Silvana Virginia Gagliotti Vigil; Vicente, Geison; Moon, Yeo Jim K; Daltoé, Felipe Perozzo; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Jesus Souza, Rafaela; Biavatti, Maique Weber; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Calea uniflora Less. (family Asteraceae), also named "arnica" and "erva-de-lagarto", is a native plant to the South and Southeast of Brazil. This species was used to treat rheumatism, respiratory diseases, and digestive problems in Brazilian folk medicine. In vitro studies have shown the important biological effects of C. uniflora. However no studies have focused on the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory activity of C. uniflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract, its fractions, and isolated compounds obtained from of C. uniflora, using mouse model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. The following inflammatory parameters: leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p-p65 NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) levels were determined. The crude extract of C. uniflora, its fractions and its isolated compounds reduced the leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, MPO and ADA activities, NOx, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-6 levels (p<0.05). The isolated compounds reduced p-p65 NF-κB and p-p38 MAPK levels (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that C. uniflora exhibits a significant anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of the leukocyte influx and degree of exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the levels of several proinflammatory mediators. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of C. uniflora may be, at least in part, via the inhibition of p65 NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation by the isolated compounds.

  2. Probucol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory hyperalgesia: effect on NF-кB activation and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Zucoloto, Amanda Z; Manchope, Marília F; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Saraiva, André L L; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Alves-Filho, José C; Cunha, Thiago M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-08-15

    Probucol 4,4'- (Isopropylidenedithio)bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) is a synthetic molecule clinically used for prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial effects of probucol mainly derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gram-negative bacteria are common infectious agents and their wall components, e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are important elicitors of inflammation. LPS is sensed by tissue resident cells and it triggers a Toll-like receptor 4/MyD88-dependent signaling cascade resulting in endothelial activation, leukocyte recruitment and nociception. Therefore the present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of probucol in models of LPS-induced acute inflammation. Probucol at 0.3-30mg/kg was administrated to male Swiss mice per oral 1h before intraplantar or intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide stimulus. Probucol at 3mg/kg reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. These effects were accompanied by reduced leukocyte influx and cytokine production in both paw skin and peritoneum exudate. Unexpectedly, probucol did not alter lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue oxidative stress at anti-inflammatory /analgesic dose. On the other hand, probucol inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) activation in paw tissue as well as NF-кB activity in cultured macrophages in vitro, reinforcing the inhibitory effect of probucol over the NF-кB signaling pathway. In this sense, we propose that probucol acts on resident immune cells, such as macrophages, targeting the NF-кB pathway. As a result, it prevents the amplification and persistence of the inflammatory response by attenuating NF-кB-dependent cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment explaining its analgesic effects as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fructose downregulates miR-330 to induce renal inflammatory response and insulin signaling impairment: Attenuation by morin.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ting-Ting; Song, Lin; Chen, Tian-Yu; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Ding, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Yan-Zi; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Fructose induces insulin resistance with kidney inflammation and injury. MicroRNAs are emerged as key regulators of insulin signaling. Morin has insulin-mimetic effect with the improvement of insulin resistance and kidney injury. This study investigated the protective mechanisms of morin against fructose-induced kidney injury, with particular focus on miR-330 expression change, inflammatory response, and insulin signaling impairment. miR-330, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR)1/3 signaling, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and insulin signaling were detected in kidney cortex of fructose-fed rats and fructose-exposed HK-2 cells, respectively. Whether miR-330 mediated inflammatory response to affect insulin signaling was examined using SphK1 inhibitor, S1PR1/3 short interfering RNA, or miR-330 mimic/inhibitor, respectively. Fructose was found to downregulate miR-330 expression to increase SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 signaling, and then activate NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome to produce IL-1β, causing insulin signaling impairment. Moreover, morin upregulated miR-330 and partly attenuated inflammatory response and insulin signaling impairment to alleviate kidney injury. These findings suggest that morin protects against fructose-induced kidney insulin signaling impairment by upregulating miR-330 to reduce inflammatory response. Morin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of kidney injury associated with fructose-induced inflammation and insulin signaling impairment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. TSG attenuates LPC-induced endothelial cells inflammatory damage through notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Song, Fan; Xu, Shouzhu; Nian, Lun; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induces inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in chronic EC inflammation, but its functions in LPC-induced endothelial inflammatory damage and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside's (TSG) protective effect during LPC-induced inflammatory damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is largely unknown. We report that Notch signaling activation contributed to LPC-induced injury in HUVECs, and that TSG protected HUVECs from LPC-induced injury by antagonizing Notch signaling activation by LPC. γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to inhibit Notch activity. HUVECs were exposed to LPC in the presence or absence of TSG, DAPT, and Notch1 siRNA. LPC treatment of HUVECs resulted in reduced cell viability, and Notch1 and Hes1 upregulation. Either silencing of Notch1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT prevented the loss of cell viability, and induction of apoptosis, and enhanced expression Notch1, Hes1 and MCP-1 by LPC in HUVECs. Similarly, TSG reduced LPC stimulation of Notch1, Hes1, and MCP-1 expression, prevented the release of IL-6 and CRP and rescued HUVECs from LPC-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that the Notch signaling pathway is a crucial mediator of endothelial inflammatory damage and that TSG protects against endothelial inflammatory damage by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting Notch signaling by natural products such as TSG is a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation associated diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):37-50, 2016.

  5. Bensal HP Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Hair Shaving Associated Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anjana; Mordorski, Breanne; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Friedman, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Shaving is an ubiquitous practice, and cutaneous irritation and inflammation are common sequelae, which may be worsened by underlying skin conditions or poor hair removal techniques. Moisturizing shaving creams and aftershaves are available to help maintain or restore the epidermal barrier; however, many continue to suffer from post-shave redness, itching, and pain. To reduce post-shave inflammation, some products have included botanical and other natural ingredients, which are often favored by consumers. We evaluated Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, which has documented anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, in a murine model of shave irritation to determine whether it would be useful in this clinical setting. Shaving dermatitis was simulated using a depilatory agent and electric clippers, and the shaved area was photographed and treated with Bensal HP daily for four days. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with Bensal HP experienced a visible reduction in skin irritation and inflammation. These findings were mirrored on histology, as Bensal HP-treated areas demonstrated increased epidermal integrity and decreased dermal inflammatory infiltrate compared to untreated skin. Using immunohistochemistry, fewer neutrophils and macrophages were noted, and cytokine analysis also revealed decreased IL-6 in Bensal HP-treated skin at 24 and 96 hours after shaving. These results highlight the potential of Bensal HP as an anti-inflammatory treatment for shave irritation. Given the product's application against a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin disorders, its use against shave irritation may also improve comorbid skin conditions, such as pseudofolliculitis barbae.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):836-840.

  6. Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sadiq; Umar, Khalid; Sarwar, Abu Hasnath Md Golam; Khan, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Sayeed; Katiyar, Chandra Kant; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Khan, Haider A

    2014-05-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of joints. Current treatment modalities for RA either produce symptomatic relief (NSAIDs) or modify the disease process (DMARDs). Though effective, their use is also limited by their side effects. As a result, the interest in alternative, well tolerated anti-inflammatory remedies has re-emerged. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) in collagen induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by collagen induced arthritis (CIA) method. BSE was administered at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days. The effects of treatment in the rats were assessed by biochemical (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO), inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and PGE2), and histological studies in joints. BSE was effective in bringing significant changes on all the parameters (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO) studied. Oral administration of BSE resulted in significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and PGE2), and increased level of IL-10. The protective effects of BSE against RA were also evident from the decrease in arthritis scoring and bone histology. The abilities to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and modulation of antioxidant status suggest that the protective effect of Boswellia serrata extract on arthritis in rats might be mediated via the modulation of immune system.

  7. Annatto carotenoids attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory response after high-calorie meal in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, Miguel; Conte, Lisiane; da Silva, Dariane Trivisiol; Duarte, Thiago; Maurer, Luana Haselein; de Carvalho, José Antonio Mainardi; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto carotenoids intake associated to a single high-calorie meal (high fat and high carbohydrate) in postprandial biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Twelve healthy subjects (6 men, 6 women) were included in this randomised, controlled crossover study. Baseline blood samples were collected from fasting subjects that immediately received high-calorie meal without carotenoid (placebo) or containing 1.2mg/kg bixin (BIX) or 0.06mg/kg norbixin (NBIX). Blood samples were taken 60, 120 and 240min after meal intake. NBIX intake did not affect biochemical blood markers but reduced the postprandial levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid oxidation 60-120min after meal. BIX only partially prevented postprandial-induced lipid oxidation. Results indicate that the intake of NBIX may be an alternative to reduce the postprandial inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to high-calorie meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. St. John's Wort Attenuates Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice through Suppression of Inflammatory Signaling.

    PubMed

    Manna, Soumen K; Golla, Srujana; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Tanaka, Naoki; Cai, Yan; Takahashi, Shogo; Krausz, Kristopher W; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Korboukh, Ilia; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-09-01

    Despite widespread use as well as epidemiologic indications, there have been no investigations into the effect of St. John's wort (SJW) extract on colorectal carcinogenesis in vivo. This study reports a systematic evaluation of the impact of dietary supplementation of SJW extract on azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Mice were fed with either AIN-93G (control) diet or SJW extract-supplemented diet (SJW diet) prior to azoxymethane treatment. SJW diet was found to significantly improve the overall survival of azoxymethane-treated mice. Pretreatment with the SJW diet significantly reduced body weight loss as well as decrease of serum albumin and cholesterol levels associated with azoxymethane-induced colorectal tumorigenesis. SJW diet-fed mice showed a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity along with a decrease in incidence of large tumors and a trend toward decreased total tumor volume in a dose-dependent manner. A short-term study, which examined the effect of SJW prior to rectal bleeding, also showed decrease in colorectal polyps in SJW diet-fed mice. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathways were attenuated by SJW administration. SJW extract resulted in early and continuous attenuation of these pathways in the colon epithelium of SJW diet-fed mice under both short-term and long-term treatment regimens. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the chemopreventive potential of SJW extract against colorectal cancer through attenuation of proinflammatory processes. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites of Marine Pseudomonas sp. in Human Neutrophils Are through Inhibiting P38 MAPK, JNK, and Calcium Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Chin; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Kuo, Jimmy; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2014-01-01

    Activated neutrophils play a significant role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The metabolites of marine microorganisms are increasingly employed as sources for developing new drugs; however, very few marine drugs have been studied in human neutrophils. Herein, we showed that secondary metabolites of marine Pseudomonas sp. (N11) significantly inhibited superoxide anion generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils, with IC50 values of 0.67±0.38 µg/ml and 0.84±0.12 µg/ml, respectively. In cell-free systems, neither superoxide anion-scavenging effect nor inhibition of elastase activity was associated with the suppressive effects of N11. N11 inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK, but not Erk and Akt, in FMLP-induced human neutrophils. Also, N11 dose-dependently attenuated the transient elevation of intracellular calcium concentration in activated neutrophils. In contrast, N11 failed to alter phorbol myristate acetate-induced superoxide anion generation, and the inhibitory effects of N11 were not reversed by protein kinase A inhibitor. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of N11 on superoxide anion generation and elastase release in activated human neutrophils are through inhibiting p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and calcium pathways. Our results suggest that N11 has the potential to be developed to treat neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25474595

  10. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Das, Nando Dulal; Kang, Sung Chul; Lee, Young Seek; Seo, Hyemyung; Chai, Young Gyu

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53(-/-) NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53(-/-) NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53(-/-) NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel microbe-based treatment that attenuates the inflammatory profile in a mouse model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Biala, Agnieszka; Huff, Ryan D.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Gunn, Hal; Kalyan, Shirin; Hirota, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period. 24 hours after the last exposure, lungs were analysed for inflammatory cell infiltrate, gene expression, cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and serum was analysed for allergen-specific serum IgE levels. HDM exposed mice developed goblet cell hyperplasia, elevated allergen-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and a concomitant increase in TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. Treatment with KB attenuated HDM-mediated airway eosinophilia, total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell numbers, BAL TH2 cytokine production, and goblet cell metaplasia. Our prophylactic intervention study illustrates the potential of subcutaneous treatment with bacterial derived biologics as a promising approach for allergic airway disease treatment. PMID:27734946

  12. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Bátkai, Sándor; Patel, Vivek; Saito, Keita; Matsumoto, Shingo; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Becker, Lauren; Haskó, György; Liaudet, Lucas; Wink, David A; Veves, Aristidis; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2010-12-14

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. Cannabidiol, the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models and alleviates pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans. Left ventricular function was measured by the pressure-volume system. Oxidative stress, cell death, and fibrosis markers were evaluated by molecular biology/biochemical techniques, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and flow cytometry. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was characterized by declined diastolic and systolic myocardial performance associated with increased oxidative-nitrative stress, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p-38, p38α) activation, enhanced expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), tumor necrosis factor-α, markers of fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, collagen-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9), enhanced cell death (caspase 3/7 and poly[adenosine diphosphate-ribose] polymerase activity, chromatin fragmentation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), and diminished Akt phosphorylation. Remarkably, CBD attenuated myocardial dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways. Furthermore, CBD also attenuated the high glucose-induced increased reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor-κB activation, and cell death in primary human cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results coupled with the excellent safety and tolerability profile of CBD in humans, strongly

  13. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate proliferation of colonic carcinoma cells by blocking epidermal growth factor-induced Ca++ mobilization.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Miller, T A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that NSAIDs, in human colonic carcinoma cells (Caco-2), attenuate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cellular proliferation through a process independent of their inhibitory effects on prostaglandin synthesis. Furthermore, separate studies have also suggested that NSAIDs inhibit EGF-induced store-operated Ca++ influx. Thus we developed the hypothesis that NSAIDs may limit the activity of EGF by altering intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) mobilization. Serum-deprived Caco-2 cells were employed for all experimentation. [Ca++]i was measured with Fluo-3 and extracellular Ca++ influx was monitored by quenching Fluo-3 fluorescence with Mn++. Proliferation was quantitated with two assays: cellular nucleic acid and total protein content. Caco-2 cells exposed to EGF demonstrated an initial increase in [Ca++]i which was blocked by neomycin, an inhibitor of IPsubscript 3 generation, and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 but not U73343 (inactive control). This was followed by sustained extracellular Ca++ influx, which was attenuated with calcium-free buffer (-Ca++), the store- operated Ca++ channel blocker lanthanum, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and aspirin. In subsequent studies, cells were treated with either serum-free media or EGF +/- the aforementioned inhibitors, and again serum starved. Cells exposed to EGF +/- the inactive phospholipase C inhibitor U73343 demonstrated a significant increase in nucleic acid and protein. However, proliferation induced by EGF was not observed when [Ca++]i elevation was prevented by blocking either internal Ca++ store release via phospholipase C/IPsubscript 3 or sustained Ca++ influx through store-operated Ca++ channels. Sustained [Ca++]i elevation, as induced by EGF, appears to be required for mitogenesis. These data support our premise that one mechanism whereby NSAIDs may attenuate colonic neoplasia is

  14. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  15. mTOR attenuates the inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes and prevents cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoxiao; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Xiao, Chun-Yang; Kinsella, Stuart D.; Rosenberg, Michael A.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Hara, Kenta; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin suppresses myocardial hypertrophy. However, the role of mTOR in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy has not been fully defined. Interestingly, recent reports indicate that the inflammatory response, which plays an important role in the development of heart failure, is enhanced by rapamycin under certain conditions. Our aim in this study was to determine the influence of mTOR on pathological hypertrophy and to assess whether cardiac mTOR regulates the inflammatory response. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of wild-type mTOR (mTOR-Tg). mTOR-Tg mice were protected against cardiac dysfunction following left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (P < 0.01) and had significantly less interstitial fibrosis compared with littermate controls (WT) at 4 wk post-TAC (P < 0.01). In contrast, TAC caused cardiac dysfunction in WT. At 1 wk post-TAC, the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in WT mice but not in mTOR-Tg mice. To further characterize the effects of mTOR activation, we exposed HL-1 cardiomyocytes transfected with mTOR to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). mTOR overexpression suppressed LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 (P < 0.001), and the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and PP242 abolished this inhibitory effect of mTOR. In addition, mTOR overexpression reduced NF-κB-regulated transcription in HL-1 cells. These data suggest that mTOR mitigates adverse outcomes of pressure overload and that this cardioprotective effect of mTOR is mediated by regulation of the inflammatory reaction. PMID:20861467

  16. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate the vascular responses in aging metabolic syndrome rats

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Pavón, Natalia; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, and inflammation is a key component of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon the vascular reactivity in aging MS rats. Methods: MS was induced in young male rats by adding 30% sucrose in drinking water over 6, 12, and 18 months. When the treatment was finished, the blood samples were collected, and aortas were dissected out. The expression of COX isoenzymes and PLA2 in the aortas was analyzed using Western blot analysis. The contractile responses of aortic rings to norepinephrine (1 μmol/L) were measured in the presence or absence of different NSAIDs (10 μmol/L for each). Results: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) in control rats were remained stable during the aging process, whereas serum IL-6 in MS rats were significantly increased at 12 and 18 months. The levels of COX isoenzyme and PLA2 in aortas from control rats increased with the aging, whereas those in aortas from MS rats were irregularly increased with the highest levels at 6 months. Pretreatment with acetylsalicylic acid (a COX-1 preferential inhibitor), indomethacin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) or meloxicam (a COX-2 preferential inhibitor) decreased NE-induced contractions of aortic rings from MS rats at all the ages, with meloxicam being the most potent. Acetylsalicylic acid also significantly reduced the maximum responses of ACh-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from MS rats, but indomethacin and meloxicam had no effect. Conclusion: NSAIDs can directly affect vascular responses in aging MS rats. Understanding the effects of NSAIDs on blood vessels may improve the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and MS in the elders. PMID:25263337

  17. Chalcones from Angelica keiskei attenuate the inflammatory responses by suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hee Ryun; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2014-12-01

    The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from the ethanolic extract of Angelica keiskei showed potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. We identified seven chalcones (1-7) from EtOAc-soluble fractions through the activity-guided separation. Four active principles, identified as 4-hydroxyderrcine (1), xanthoangelol E (2), xanthokeismin A (4), and xanthoangelol B (5), inhibited the production of NO and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, in LPS-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these chalcones attenuated protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, these active compounds suppressed the degradation of inhibitory-κBα (I-κBα) and the translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) into nuclei of LPS-activated macrophages. These data demonstrate that four chalcones (1, 2, 4, and 5) from A. keiskei can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the degradation of I-κBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, four chalcones from A. keiskei may have efficacy as anti-inflammatory agents.

  18. Sulforaphane improves oxidative status without attenuating the inflammatory response or cardiac impairment induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Seolin, Bruna Gazzi de Lima; Müller, Dalvana Daneliza; Teixeira, Rayane Brinck; Araujo, Alex Sander; Vassallo, Dalton; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2016-05-01

    Sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate, demonstrates cardioprotection associated with its capacity to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and to inhibit inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sulforaphane is capable of attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway, and thereby could modulate post-ischemic ventricular function in isolated rat hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats received sulforaphane (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle i.p. for 3 days. Global ischemia was performed using isolated hearts, 24 h after the last injection, by interruption of the perfusion flow. The protocol included a 20 min pre-ischemic period followed by 20 min of ischemia and a 20 min reperfusion. Although no changes in mechanical function were observed, sulforaphane induced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 expression (both 66%) and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels (7%). No differences were observed for catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression or their activities, nor for thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. No differences were found in lipid peroxidation or TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB expression. In conclusion, although sulforaphane was able to stimulate endogenous antioxidants modestly, this result did not impact inflammatory signaling or cardiac function of hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion.

  19. C-type natriuretic peptide prevents kidney injury and attenuates oxidative and inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gan; Song, Xiang; Yin, Yujing; Xia, Sha; Liu, Qingjun; You, Guoxing; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS) initiates a systemic inflammatory response, which leads to subsequent kidney injury. This study assessed the efficacy of c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in attenuating kidney injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent HS induced by the withdrawal of blood to a mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 50 min. Then, the animals received CNP (25 μg/kg) or vehicle (saline) intravenously, followed byresuscitation with 1.5 times the shed blood volume in the form of normal saline. Mean arterial pressure was measured throughout the experiment, and acid-base status, oxidative stress, inflammation, tissue injury and kidney function were evaluated after resuscitation. CNP infusion reduced the malondialdehyde content, lowered the myeloperoxidase activity and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in the kidney. The histologic injury score and the plasma creatinine concentration were also significantly decreased after CNP treatment compared to the vehicle group. CNP treatment ameliorates oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and consequently acute kidney injury after HS/R. Thus, CNP may represent a promising strategy to improve resuscitation for the treatment of HS and deserves further investigation.

  20. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment. PMID:27321991

  1. Attenuated viral hepatitis in Trem1−/− mice is associated with reduced inflammatory activity of neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kozik, Jan-Hendrik; Trautmann, Tanja; Carambia, Antonella; Preti, Max; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Krech, Till; Wiegard, Christiane; Heeren, Joerg; Herkel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    TREM1 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1) is a pro-inflammatory receptor expressed by phagocytes, which can also be released as a soluble molecule (sTREM1). The roles of TREM1 and sTREM1 in liver infection and inflammation are not clear. Here we show that patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection manifest elevated serum levels of sTREM1. In mice, experimental viral hepatitis induced by infection with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)-WE was likewise associated with increased sTREM1 in serum and urine, and with increased TREM1 and its associated adapter molecule DAP12 in the liver. Trem1−/− mice showed accelerated clearance of LCMV-WE and manifested attenuated liver inflammation and injury. TREM1 expression in the liver of wild-type mice was mostly confined to infiltrating neutrophils, which responded to LCMV by secretion of CCL2 and TNF-α, and release of sTREM1. Accordingly, the production of CCL2 and TNF-α was decreased in the livers of LCMV-infected Trem1−/− mice, as compared to LCMV-infected wildtype mice. These findings indicate that TREM1 plays a role in viral hepatitis, in which it seems to aggravate the immunopathology associated with viral clearance, mainly by increasing the inflammatory activity of neutrophils. PMID:27328755

  2. Attenuation of Folic Acid-Induced Renal Inflammatory Injury in Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Nakao, Akihide; Fujita, Toshiro; Toda, Akiko; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Noiri, Eisei

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator with various biological activities, plays an important role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes. In this study we used platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice to elucidate the role of PAF in inflammatory renal injury induced by folic acid administration. PAFR-deficient mice showed significant amelioration of renal dysfunction and pathological findings such as acute tubular damage with neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation observed with antibody to 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (day 2), and interstitial fibrosis with macrophage infiltration associated with expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the kidney (day 14). Acute tubular damage was attenuated by neutrophil depletion using a monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to acute phase injury. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased when treatment with a PAF antagonist (WEB2086) was started after acute phase. In vitro chemotaxis assay using a Boyden chamber demonstrated that PAF exhibits a strong chemotactic activity for macrophages. These results indicate that PAF is involved in pathogenesis of folic acid-induced renal injury by activating neutrophils in acute phase and macrophages in chronic interstitial fibrosis. Inhibiting the PAF pathway might be therapeutic to kidney injury from inflammatory cells. PMID:16651609

  3. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  4. Celastrol attenuates inflammatory and neuropathic pain mediated by cannabinoid receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longhe; Li, Yanting; Ren, Jie; Zhu, Chenggang; Fu, Jin; Lin, Donghai; Qiu, Yan

    2014-08-06

    Celastrol, a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (thunder god vine), has exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunosuppression. In the present study, we used animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, generated by carrageenan injection and spared nerve injury (SNI), respectively, to evaluate the effect of celastrol and to address the mechanisms underlying pain processing. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of celastrol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis showed that celastrol (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, in carrageenan-injected mice. In SNI mice, pain behavior studies showed that celastrol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) effectively prevented the hypersensitivity of mechanical nociceptive response on the third day post-surgery and the seventh day post-surgery. Furthermore, the anti-hyperalgesic effects of celastrol in carrageenan-injected mice and SNI mice were reversed by SR144528 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a specific cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) receptor antagonist, but not by SR141716 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a specific cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist. Taken together, our results demonstrate the analgesia effects of celastrol through CB2 signaling and propose the potential of exploiting celastrol as a novel candidate for pain relief.

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  6. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-07-21

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  7. IinQ attenuates systemic inflammatory responses via selectively impairing the Myddosome complex formation upon TLR4 ligation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kidong; Won, Minho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Park, Chan-Yong; Byun, Hee Sun; Park, Kyeong Ah; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Young-Goo; Shen, Han-Ming; Lee, Ill Young; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-12-01

    A specific small-molecule inhibitor of the TLR4 signaling complex upstream of the IKK would likely provide therapeutic benefit for NF-κB-mediated inflammatory disease. We previously identified brazilin as a selective upstream IKK inhibitor targeting the Myddosome complex. In this study, using a cell-based ubiquitination assay for IRAK1 and a chemical library comprising a series of structural analogues of brazilin, a novel small molecule, 2-hydroxy-5,6-dihydroisoindolo[1,2-a]isoquinoline-3,8-dione (IinQ), was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor of IRAK1-dependent NF-κB activation upon TLR4 ligation. In RAW264.7 macrophages, IinQ drastically suppressed activation of upstream IKK signaling events including membrane-bound IRAK1 ubiquitination and IKK phosphorylation by the TLR4 ligand, resulting in reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators including IL-6, TNF-α, and nitric oxide. Interestingly, IinQ did not suppress NF-κB activation via the TLR3 ligand, DNA damaging agents, or a protein kinase C activator, indicating IinQ is specific for TLR4 signaling. Analysis of upstream signaling events further confirmed that IinQ disrupts the MyD88-IRAK1-TRAF6 complex formation induced by LPS treatment, without affecting TLR4 oligomerization. Moreover, intravenous administration of IinQ significantly reduced lethality and attenuated systemic inflammatory responses in an in vivo mouse model of endotoxin shock following LPS challenge. Thus, IinQ represents a novel class of brazilin analogues with improved potency and specificity toward disruption of Myddosome complex formation in TLR4 signaling, indicating that IinQ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Ultrafiltration of priming blood before cardiopulmonary bypass attenuates inflammatory response and maintains cardiopulmonary function in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Ugaki, Shinya; Honjo, Osami; Kotani, Yasuhiro; Nakakura, Mahito; Douguchi, Takuma; Oshima, Yu; Yoshizumi, Ko; Kasahara, Shingo; Sano, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    Blood priming is necessary for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in neonates to avoid excessive hemodilution; however, transfusion-related inflammation affects postCPB outcomes in neonatal open-heart surgery. We hypothesized that ultrafiltration of priming blood before CPB may reduce inflammatory mediators in priming blood and postCPB inflammatory responses, thereby improving cardiopulmonary function. Twelve 1-week-old piglets (3.5 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into two groups. Group U (n = 6) employed the priming blood ultrafiltrated before CPB, but group N (n = 6) used the nonultrafiltrated blood. Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed for 2 hours and then modified ultrafiltration (MUF) was conducted. Data were acquired before CPB and after MUF. The values of K+, serotonin, and IL-8 in priming blood was significantly decreased after ultrafiltration (8.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.8 mEq/L, p < 0.01, 234 +/- 96 vs. 74 +/- 42 ng/ml, p < 0.01, 78.4 +/- 5.1 vs. 64.5 +/- 59.1 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Group U after MUF had lower thrombin-antithrombin complex levels (23.9 +/- 5.1 vs. 33.7 +/- 4.6 ng/ml, p < 0.01) and lower IL-8 levels in airway fluid (925 +/- 710 vs. 2495 +/- 1207 pg/ml, p < 0.05) than group N. Cardiac output and arterial PO2 after MUF in group U were also higher (1.13 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.69 +/- 0.22, p < 0.01, 340 +/- 190 vs. 149 +/- 84 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The ultrafiltration of blood priming before CPB attenuated activation of the coagulation pathway and inflammatory responses and preserved cardiopulmonary function in neonatal piglets.

  9. NHERF-1 knockout mice have an attenuated hepatic inflammatory response and are protected from cholestatic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Man; Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J.; Hagey, Lee R.; Ouyang, Xinshou; Weinman, Edward J.; Boyer, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is induced in mouse liver after bile duct ligation (BDL) and plays a key role in neutrophil-mediated liver injury in BDL mice. ICAM-1 has been shown to interact with the cytoskeletal ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins that also interact with the PDZ protein, Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1/EBP50). In NHERF-1−/− mice, ERM proteins are significantly reduced in brush border membranes from kidney and small intestine. ERM knockdown reduces ICAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α. Here we show that NHERF-1 assembles ERM proteins, ICAM-1 and F-actin into a macromolecule complex that is increased in mouse liver after BDL. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both sham-operated and BDL NHERF-1−/− mice have lower levels of activated ERM and ICAM-1 protein in the liver accompanied by significantly reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation, serum ALT, and attenuated liver injury after BDL. However, total bile acid concentrations in the serum and liver of sham and BDL NHERF-1−/− mice were not significantly different from the WT controls, although hepatic tetrahydroxylated bile acids and Cyp3a11 mRNA levels were higher in NHERF-1−/− BDL mice. Conclusion NHERF-1 participates in the inflammatory response that is associated with BDL induced liver injury. Deletion of NHERF-1 in mice leads to disruption of the formation of ICAM-1-ERM-NHERF-1 complex and reduction of hepatic ERM proteins and ICAM-1, molecules that are up-regulated and are essential for neutrophil-mediated liver injury in cholestasis. Further study of the role of NHERF-1 in the inflammatory response in cholestasis and other forms of liver injury should lead to discovery of new therapeutic targets in hepatic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26108984

  10. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and blood-brain barrier dysfunction under inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Servio H; Haskó, János; Skuba, Andrew; Fan, Shongshan; Dykstra, Holly; McCormick, Ryan; Reichenbach, Nancy; Krizbai, Istvan; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhang, Ming; Tuma, Ronald; Son, Young-Jin; Persidsky, Yuri

    2012-03-21

    Previous studies have shown that modulation of the receptor-mediated cannabinoid system during neuroinflammation can produce potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However, in this context, little is known about how selective activation of the cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) affects the activated state of the brain endothelium and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Using human brain tissues and primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), we demonstrate that the CB2R is highly upregulated during inflammatory insult. We then examined whether the CB2R agonists could attenuate inflammatory responses at the BBB using a mouse model of LPS-induced encephalitis and highly selective CB2R agonists. Visualization by intravital microscopy revealed that administration of JWH133 [(6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran] or a novel resorcinol-based compound, O-1966 (1-[4-(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)-2,6-dimethoxy-phenyl]-3-methyl-cyclohexanol), greatly attenuated leukocyte adhesion in surface pial vessels and in deep ascending cortical postcapillary venules. BBB permeability assessments with small and large fluorescent tracers showed that CB2R agonists were effective at preventing barrier leakiness after LPS administration. To determine whether the effects by CB2R agonists on barrier protection are not only due to the CB2R modulation of immune cell function, we tested the agonists in vitro with barrier-forming primary BMVECs. Remarkably, the addition of CB2R agonist increased transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the amount of tight junction protein present in membrane fractions. Furthermore, CB2R agonists decreased the induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 surface expression in BMVECs exposed to various proinflammatory mediators. Together, these results suggest that pharmacological CB2R ligands offer a new strategy for BBB protection

  11. Acute ethanol intake attenuates inflammatory cytokines after brain injury in rats: a possible role for corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Zehava; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2002-03-01

    It has been reported that acute ethanol intoxication exerts dose-dependent effects, both beneficial and detrimental, on the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI), although the mechanism(s) has not been determined. Given that pro-inflammatory cytokines are either neuroprotective or neurotoxic, depending on their tissue levels, ethanol-induced alterations in brain cytokine production may be involved in determining the recovery after TBI. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute ethanol pretreatments (producing blood alcohol concentrations of 100+/-16 mg/dL, and 220+/-10 mg/dL, considered low and intoxicating doses, respectively) on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in discrete brain regions. In addition, serum corticosterone levels were also examined because the hormone is a modulator of cytokine production, its secretion is stimulated by ethanol, and it has been associated with the severity of post-injury neurologic dysfunction. The data presented in this report demonstrate that moderate cortical impact brain injury elicits a marked increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the injured cortex as well as in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury. Ethanol pretreatment lowered cytokine levels in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus in a dose-dependent manner after TBI compared to the untreated injured rats. Serum corticosterone levels were markedly increased in the injured rats, and were further augmented in the ethanol-pretreated injured animals in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that ethanol-induced decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be linked to increased circulating corticosterone, both of which may contribute to the outcome of brain injury.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Han; Lin, An-Hsuan; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Peng, Ruo-Yun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes chronic lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. Our previous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) activates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling resulting in induction of lung inflammation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major type of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is present in significant amounts in marine-based fish and fish oil. EPA has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether EPA has similar beneficial effects against CS-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. Using a murine model, we show that subchronic CS exposure for 4 weeks caused pulmonary inflammatory infiltration (total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), 11.0-fold increase), increased lung vascular permeability (protein level in BALF, 3.1-fold increase), elevated levels of chemokines (11.4–38.2-fold increase) and malondialdehyde (an oxidative stress biomarker; 2.0-fold increase) in the lungs, as well as lung inflammation; all of these CS-induced events were suppressed by daily supplementation with EPA. Using human bronchial epithelial cells, we further show that CS extract (CSE) sequentially activated NADPH oxidase (NADPH oxidase activity, 1.9-fold increase), increased intracellular levels of ROS (3.0-fold increase), activated both MAPKs and NF-κB, and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8; 8.2-fold increase); all these CSE-induced events were inhibited by pretreatment with EPA. Our findings suggest a novel role for EPA in alleviating the oxidative stress and lung inflammation induced by subchronic CS exposure in vivo and in suppressing the CSE-induced IL-8 in vitro via its antioxidant function and by inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB signaling. PMID:25452730

  13. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric hemorrhages in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Nomura, Daniel K; O'Neal, Scott T; Long, Jonathan Z; Mahadevan, Anu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Grider, John R; Lichtman, Aron H

    2011-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used analgesics, but can cause gastric and esophageal hemorrhages, erosion, and ulceration. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid; eCB) system possesses several potential targets to reduce gastric inflammatory states, including cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)), cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB(2)), and enzymes that regulate the eCB ligands 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA). In the presented study, we tested whether 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184), a selective inhibitor of the primary catabolic enzyme of 2-AG, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), would protect against NSAID-induced gastric damage. Food-deprived mice administered the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac sodium displayed gastric hemorrhages and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. JZL184, the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (positive control), or the primary constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), significantly prevented diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhages. JZL184 also increased stomach levels of 2-AG, but had no effect on AEA, arachidonic acid, or the prostaglandins E(2) and D(2). MAGL inhibition fully blocked diclofenac-induced increases in gastric levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, as well as IL-10. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of CB(1) or CB(2) revealed that the gastroprotective effects of JZL184 and THC were mediated via CB(1). The antihemorrhagic effects of JZL184 persisted with repeated administration, indicating a lack of tolerance. These data indicate that increasing 2-AG protects against gastric damage induced by NSAIDs, and its primary catabolic enzyme MAGL offers a promising target for the development of analgesic therapeutics possessing gastroprotective properties.

  14. Low-level laser therapy attenuates the acute inflammatory response induced by muscle traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Glaser, Viviane; Remor, Aline Pertile; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino; Aguiar Junior, Aderbal Silva; Latini, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of early and long-term low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers after acute-traumatic muscle injury in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group (CG), muscle injury group (IG), CG + LLLT, and IG + LLLT: laser treatment with doses of 3 and 5 J/cm(2). Muscle traumatic injury was induced by a single-impact blunt trauma in the rat gastrocnemius. Irradiation for 3 or 5 J/cm(2) was initiated 2, 12, and 24 h after muscle trauma induction, and the treatment was continued for five consecutive days. All the oxidant markers investigated. namely thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were increased as soon as 2 h after muscle injury and remained increased up to 24 h. These alterations were prevented by LLLT at a 3 J/cm(2) dose given 2 h after the trauma. Similarly, LLLT prevented the trauma-induced proinflammatory state characterized by IL-6 and IL-10. In parallel, trauma-induced reduction in BDNF and VEGF, vascular remodeling and fiber-proliferating markers, was prevented by laser irradiation. In order to test whether the preventive effect of LLLT was also reflected in muscle functionality, we tested the locomotor activity, by measuring distance traveled and the number of rearings in the open field test. LLLT was effective in recovering the normal locomotion, indicating that the irradiation induced biostimulatory effects that accelerated or resolved the acute inflammatory response as well as the oxidant state elicited by the muscle trauma.

  15. Metformin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats by reducing the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; Laghmani, El Houari; Salam, Asma; Folkerts, Gert; Pera, Tonio; Wagenaar, Gerry T M

    2015-08-01

    Because therapeutic options are lacking for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), there is an urgent medical need to discover novel targets/drugs to treat this neonatal chronic lung disease. Metformin, a drug commonly used to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and improving vascularization. We investigated the therapeutic potential of daily treatment with 25 and 100 mg/kg metformin, injected subcutaneously in neonatal Wistar rats with severe experimental BPD, induced by continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days. Parameters investigated included survival, lung and heart histopathology, pulmonary fibrin and collagen deposition, vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in BPD pathogenesis, including inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. After daily metformin treatment rat pups with experimental BPD had reduced mortality, alveolar septum thickness, lung inflammation, and fibrosis, demonstrated by a reduced influx of macrophages and neutrophils and hyperoxia-induced collagen III and fibrin deposition (25 mg/kg), as well as improved vascularization (100 mg/kg) compared with control treatment. However, metformin did not ameliorate alveolar enlargement, small arteriole wall thickening, vascular alveolar leakage, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion metformin prolongs survival and attenuates pulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation, coagulation, and fibrosis but does not affect alveolar development or prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal rats with severe hyperoxia-induced experimental BPD.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of emodin via attenuation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Heo, Kang-Hyuk; Kwak, Su-Bin; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-04-10

    Emodin, an active constituent of oriental herbs, is widely used to treat allergy, inflammation, and other symptoms. This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammasome effects of emodin on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of emodin on inflammasome activation by using inflammasome inducers such as ATP, nigericin, and silica crystals. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock model was employed to study the effect of emodin on in vivo efficacy. Emodin treatment attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β secretion via the inhibition of NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation induced by ATP, nigericin, and silica crystals. Further, emodin ameliorated the severity of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated symptoms in LPS-induced endotoxin mouse models. This study is the first to reveal mechanism-based evidence, especially with respect to regulation of inflammasome activation, substantiating traditional claims of emodin in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders.

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  18. Metformin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats by reducing the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J.; Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Salam, Asma; Folkerts, Gert; Pera, Tonio

    2015-01-01

    Because therapeutic options are lacking for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), there is an urgent medical need to discover novel targets/drugs to treat this neonatal chronic lung disease. Metformin, a drug commonly used to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and improving vascularization. We investigated the therapeutic potential of daily treatment with 25 and 100 mg/kg metformin, injected subcutaneously in neonatal Wistar rats with severe experimental BPD, induced by continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days. Parameters investigated included survival, lung and heart histopathology, pulmonary fibrin and collagen deposition, vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in BPD pathogenesis, including inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. After daily metformin treatment rat pups with experimental BPD had reduced mortality, alveolar septum thickness, lung inflammation, and fibrosis, demonstrated by a reduced influx of macrophages and neutrophils and hyperoxia-induced collagen III and fibrin deposition (25 mg/kg), as well as improved vascularization (100 mg/kg) compared with control treatment. However, metformin did not ameliorate alveolar enlargement, small arteriole wall thickening, vascular alveolar leakage, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion metformin prolongs survival and attenuates pulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation, coagulation, and fibrosis but does not affect alveolar development or prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal rats with severe hyperoxia-induced experimental BPD. PMID:26047641

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effect ofEmodin via Attenuation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Heo, Kang-Hyuk; Kwak, Su-Bin; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Emodin, an active constituent of oriental herbs, is widely used to treat allergy, inflammation, and other symptoms. This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammasome effects of emodin on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of emodin on inflammasome activation by using inflammasome inducers such as ATP, nigericin, and silica crystals. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock model was employed to study the effect of emodin on in vivo efficacy. Emodin treatment attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β secretion via the inhibition of NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation induced by ATP, nigericin, and silica crystals. Further, emodin ameliorated the severity of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated symptoms in LPS-induced endotoxin mouse models. This study is the first to reveal mechanism-based evidence, especially with respect to regulation of inflammasome activation, substantiating traditional claims of emodin in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. PMID:25867480

  20. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor attenuates morphine-induced inflammatory responses in activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Fazzi, Debora; Mirandola, Prisco; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Among several pharmacological properties, analgesia is the most common feature shared by either opioid or cannabinoid systems. Cannabinoids and opioids are distinct drug classes that have been historically used separately or in combination to treat different pain states. In the present study, we characterized the signal transduction pathways mediated by cannabinoid CB2 and µ-opioid receptors in quiescent and LPS-stimulated murine microglial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effects of µ-opioid and CB2 receptor stimulation on phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt and on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in primary mouse microglial cells. KEY RESULTS Morphine enhanced release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and of NO via µ-opioid receptor in activated microglial cells. In contrast, CB2 receptor stimulation attenuated morphine-induced microglial proinflammatory mediator increases, interfering with morphine action by acting on the Akt-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Because glial activation opposes opioid analgesia and enhances opioid tolerance and dependence, we suggest that CB2 receptors, by inhibiting microglial activity, may be potential targets to increase clinical efficacy of opioids. PMID:22428664

  1. Inflammatory responses to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuet, Wing Y.; Chen, Yunle; Fok, Shierly; Champion, Julie A.; Ng, Nga L.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary health implications resulting from exposure to secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which comprise a significant fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM), have received increasing interest in recent years. In this study, alveolar macrophages were exposed to SOA generated from the photooxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic precursors (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, pentadecane, m-xylene, and naphthalene) under different formation conditions (RO2 + HO2 vs. RO2 + NO dominant, dry vs. humid). Various cellular responses were measured, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production and secreted levels of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). SOA precursor identity and formation condition affected all measured responses in a hydrocarbon-specific manner. With the exception of naphthalene SOA, cellular responses followed a trend where TNF-α levels reached a plateau with increasing IL-6 levels. ROS/RNS levels were consistent with relative levels of TNF-α and IL-6, due to their respective inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Exposure to naphthalene SOA, whose aromatic-ring-containing products may trigger different cellular pathways, induced higher levels of TNF-α and ROS/RNS than suggested by the trend. Distinct cellular response patterns were identified for hydrocarbons whose photooxidation products shared similar chemical functionalities and structures, which suggests that the chemical structure (carbon chain length and functionalities) of photooxidation products may be important for determining cellular effects. A positive nonlinear correlation was also detected between ROS/RNS levels and previously measured DTT (dithiothreitol) activities for SOA samples. In the context of ambient samples collected during summer and winter in the greater Atlanta area, all laboratory-generated SOA produced similar or higher levels of ROS/RNS and DTT activities. These results suggest that the health

  2. Nobiletin attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammatory in streptozotocin: induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Zheng; Xiang, Shi-Zhao; Jin, Ya-Ge; Wei, Wen-Ying; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Deng, Wei; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by the presence of diastolic and/or systolic myocardial dysfunction, is one of the major causes of heart failure. Nobiletin, which is extracted from the fruit peel of citrus, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hypolipidemic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether nobiletin exerts the therapeutic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in mice. 80 experimental male C57BL mice were randomly assigned into four groups: sham + vehicle (VEH/SH), sham + nobiletin (NOB/SH), DCM + vehicle (VEH/DM), and DCM + nobiletin (NOB/DM). Nobiletin treatment ameliorated cardiac dysfunction in the DCM group, as shown by the result of echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. Nobiletin treatment also blunted the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms p67(phox), p22(phox), and p91(phox), and abated oxidative stress. Although administration of diabetic mice with nobiletin did not significantly effect the level of blood glucose, it decreased the TGF-β1, CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen Iα expressions and blunted cardiac fibrosis. In addition, nobiletin inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), P38, and NF-κB in the cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Collectively, our study indicates that treatment with nobiletin mitigates cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis, and these beneficial of nobiletin may belong to the suppression of JNK, P38, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  3. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohui; Dinan, Tara; Barwood, Joanne M.; De Luca, Simone N.; Soch, Alita; Ziko, Ilvana; Chan, Stanley M. H.; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Li, Songpei; Molero, Juan; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat) and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day) high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects. PMID:25628527

  4. Paeoniflorin attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    TAO, YE; WEN, ZHIHONG; SONG, YINGQIAN; WANG, HUI

    2016-01-01

    During liver surgery, hepatic blood flow needs to be blocked in order to reduce bleeding, which inevitably results in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HI/R). Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine peony, which has been shown to exert anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, a mouse model of HI/R was generated by clamping the hepatoportal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic duct of BALB/c mice with a vascular clamp for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. Six mice in the three PF treatment groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were then injected with PF, via the tail vein. A sham group, consisting of six mice that did not undergo the procedure, and a vehicle group, consisting of 6 mice that underwent the procedure but subsequently received injections of physiological saline only, were used as controls. Liver injury was indicated by serum levels of the enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The activities of oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were also measured. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 was analyzed in hepatic tissue using a commercial kit. Treatment with PF significantly attenuated HI/R injury histologically, as compared with the vehicle group. In addition, significant reductions in the serum levels of ALT and AST were observed in the PF-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, treatment with PF enhanced the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, GSH and GSH-PX, but decreased the MDA content. Treatment of ischemic mice with PF markedly reduced the expression levels of inflammatory mediators, including nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, and decreased the HI/R injury-induced expression of caspase-3. The results of the present study suggest that PF attenuates the HI/R injury of mice via anti

  5. Plant flavonol isorhamnetin attenuates chemically induced inflammatory bowel disease via a PXR-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Kortagere, Sandhya; Sun, Katherine; Ding, Lili; Ren, Gaiyan; Wang, Zhengtao; Mani, Sridhar

    2014-09-01

    Isorhamnetin is an O-methylated flavonol present in fruit and vegetables. We recently reported the identification of isorhamnetin as an activator of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR), a known target for abrogating inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study investigated the role of isorhamnetin as a putative mouse PXR activator in ameliorating chemically induced IBD. Using two different models (ulcerative colitis like and Crohn's disease like) of experimental IBD in mice, we demonstrated that isorhamnetin abrogated inflammation through inhibiting the activity of myeloperoxidase, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, the mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators (iNOS, ICAM-1, COX2, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6) and the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65. PXR gene overexpression inhibited NF-κB luciferase activity, and the inhibition was potentiated by isorhamnetin treatment. PXR knockdown by siRNA demonstrated the necessity for PXR in isorhamnetin-mediated up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. Ligand pocket-filling mutants (S247W/C284W and S247W/C284W/S208W) of human PXR weakened the effect of isorhamnetin on PXR activation. Molecular docking studies and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer competitive binding assays confirmed the ligand (isorhamnetin)-binding affinity. These results clearly demonstrated the ameliorating effect of isorhamnetin on experimental IBD via PXR-mediated up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and down-regulation of NF-κB signaling. The novel findings may contribute to the effective utilization of isorhamnetin or its derivatives as a PXR ligand in the treatment of human IBD.

  6. Salsalate attenuates diet induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by decreasing lipogenic and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen; Verschuren, Lars; Mulder, Petra; van der Hoorn, José W A; Verheij, Joanne; van Dam, Andrea D; Boon, Mariette R; Princen, Hans M G; Havekes, Louis M; Kleemann, Robert; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2015-11-01

    Salsalate (salicylsalicylic acid) is an anti-inflammatory drug that was recently found to exert beneficial metabolic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Although its utility in the prevention and management of a wide range of vascular disorders, including type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome has been suggested before, the potential of salsalate to protect against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to ascertain the effects of salsalate on the development of NASH. Transgenic APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without salsalate for 12 and 20 weeks. The effects on body weight, plasma biochemical variables, liver histology and hepatic gene expression were assessed. Salsalate prevented weight gain, improved dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and ameliorated diet-induced NASH, as shown by decreased hepatic microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis, reduced hepatic inflammation and reduced development of fibrosis. Salsalate affected lipid metabolism by increasing β-oxidation and decreasing lipogenesis, as shown by the activation of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ co-activator 1β, RXR-α and inhibition of genes controlled by the transcription factor MLXIPL/ChREBP. Inflammation was reduced by down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway, and fibrosis development was prevented by down-regulation of TGF-β signalling. Salsalate exerted a preventive effect on the development of NASH and progression to fibrosis. These data suggest a clinical application of salsalate in preventing NASH. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. TLR7 deficiency contributes to attenuated diabetic retinopathy via inhibition of inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yun-Ru; Li, Zi-Jing; Zeng, Peng; Lan, Yu-Qing

    2017-08-23

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes, resulting in neuronal dysfunction, retinal vascular leakage, and apoptosis within the retina. Innate immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related complications. The toll-like receptors (TLRs), central to innate immunity, are essential participants in the progression and pathogenesis of the disease and its complications. In the study, streptozotocin (STZ) was combined with whole-body hypoxia for quicker induction of early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the wild type (WT) and TLR7-knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice. The effects of TLR7 were also investigated in fructose-treated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In the retinas of WT/DR mice, abnormal a-wave and b-wave activity, hyperfluorescence, and reduced retinal thickness were observed. DR development was associated with enhanced TLR7 expression, whose deletion dramatically reduced VEGF expression levels. And the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-12, was highly reduced by TLR7-deficiency in DR mice. Consistently, WT/DR mice exhibited higher phosphorylation of IκB kinase α (IKKα), inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which were found to be down-regulated in KO/DR mice. Similarly, DR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was blocked by TLR7-knockout. In vitro, fructose incubation-triggered inflammation was reversed by TLR7 knockdown, accompanied with inactivated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. And reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in TLR7-knockdown cells with fructose treatment. Together, inhibiting TLR7 suppressed diabetic retinopathy by reducing inflammation and suggested a potential application in clinics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Disruption of δ-opioid receptor phosphorylation at threonine 161 attenuates morphine tolerance in rats with CFA-induced inflammatory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Jing; Xie, Wei-Yan; Hu, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun

    2012-04-01

    Our previous study identified Threonine 161 (Thr-161), located in the second intracellular loop of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), as the only consensus phosphorylation site for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). The aim of this study was to assess the function of DOR phosphorylation by Cdk5 in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain and morphine tolerance. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain were acutely dissociated and the biotinylation method was used to explore the membrane localization of phosphorylated DOR at Thr-161 (pThr-161-DOR), and paw withdrawal latency was measured after intrathecal delivery of drugs or Tat-peptide, using a radiant heat stimulator in rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Both the total amount and the surface localization of pThr-161-DOR were significantly enhanced in the ipsilateral DRG following CFA injection. Intrathecal delivery of the engineered Tat fusion-interefering peptide corresponding to the second intracellular loop of DOR (Tat-DOR-2L) increased inflammatory hypersensitivity, and inhibited DOR- but not µ-opioid receptor-mediated spinal analgesia in CFA-treated rats. However, intrathecal delivery of Tat-DOR-2L postponed morphine antinociceptive tolerance in rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Phosphorylation of DOR at Thr-161 by Cdk5 attenuates hypersensitivity and potentiates morphine tolerance in rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, while disruption of the phosphorylation of DOR at Thr-161 attenuates morphine tolerance.

  9. Zn/Ga−DFO iron–chelating complex attenuates the inflammatory process in a mouse model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Haim; Vinokur, Vladimir; Waisman, Dan; Elenberg, Yigal; Landesberg, Amir; Faingersh, Anna; Yadid, Moran; Brod, Vera; Pesin, Jimy; Berenshtein, Eduard; Eliashar, Ron; Chevion, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    Background Redox-active iron, a catalyst in the production of hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction, is one of the key participants in ROS-induced tissue injury and general inflammation. According to our recent findings, an excess of tissue iron is involved in several airway-related pathologies such as nasal polyposis and asthma. Objective To examine the anti-inflammatory properties of a newly developed specific iron–chelating complex, Zn/Ga−DFO, in a mouse model of asthma. Materials and methods Asthma was induced in BALBc mice by ovalbumin, using aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Mice were divided into four groups: (i) control, (ii) asthmatic and sham-treated, (iii) asthmatic treated with Zn/Ga−DFO [intra-peritoneally (i/p) and intra-nasally (i/n)], and (iv) asthmatic treated with Zn/Ga−DFO, i/n only. Lung histology and cytology were examined. Biochemical analysis of pulmonary levels of ferritin and iron-saturated ferritin was conducted. Results The amount of neutrophils and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus secretion, and peri-bronchial edema, showed markedly better values in both asthmatic-treated groups compared to the asthmatic non-treated group. The non-treated asthmatic group showed elevated ferritin levels, while in the two treated groups it returned to baseline levels. Interestingly, i/n-treatment demonstrated a more profound effect alone than in a combination with i/p injections. Conclusion In this mouse model of allergic asthma, Zn/Ga−DFO attenuated allergic airway inflammation. The beneficial effects of treatment were in accord with iron overload abatement in asthmatic lungs by Zn/Ga−DFO. The findings in both cellular and tissue levels supported the existence of a significant anti-inflammatory effect of Zn/Ga−DFO. PMID:25009783

  10. Wild bitter gourd protects against alcoholic fatty liver in mice by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Tseng, Hui-Chun; Liu, Chun-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common vegetable grown widely in Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether wild bitter gourd possessed protective effects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Meanwhile, mice were treated with ethanol extracts from four different wild bitter gourd cultivars: Hualien No. 1', Hualien No. 2', Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4'. The results indicated that the daily administration of 500 mg kg body weight(-1) of a Hualien No. 3' extract (H3E) or a Hualien No. 4' extract (H4E) markedly reduced the steatotic alternation of liver histopathology. In addition, the activation of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and the accumulation of hepatic TG content caused by alcohol were ameliorated. The hepatoprotective effects of H3E and H4E involved the enhancement of the antioxidant defence system (GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT and SOD), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the liver. Moreover, H3E and H4E supplementation suppressed the alcohol-induced elevation of CYP2E1, SREBP-1, FAS and ACC protein expression. These results demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4' have beneficial effects against alcoholic fatty liver, in which they attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  11. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory system by nicotine attenuates arthritis via suppression of macrophage migration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Ben; Zhou, Yaou; Zhang, Huali; Li, Tong; Zuo, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), which relies on the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been reported to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in experimental arthritis. To gain more insight regarding the role of the CAP in the pathogenesis of arthritis, the present study focused on the modulation of macrophage infiltration. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), nicotine and vagotomy were used to stimulate and inhibit the CAP, respectively. Subsequently, arthritic scores were measured and histopathological assessment of joint sections was conducted. Cluster of differentiation (CD)11b-positive macrophages in the synovium were studied by immunofluorescence histochemistry. The serum levels of chemokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MIP-2 were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the expression levels of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in the synovium were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that treatment with nicotine significantly attenuated the clinical and histopathological changes associated with arthritis, reduced CD11b-positive macrophages in the synovium, and downregulated the serum expression levels of MIP-1α and MCP-1. Conversely, vagotomy aggravated arthritis and upregulated the expression levels of MCP-1. However, MIP-2 expression did not differ among the control, CIA, vagotomy and nicotine groups. In addition, the expression levels of CCR2 were reduced in the nicotine group; however, they were increased in the vagotomy group compared with in the untreated CIA group. The expression levels of ICAM-1 in the synovium were also influenced by activation of the CAP. Taken together, the present results indicated that nicotine-induced activation of the CAP in mice with CIA may reduce the number of macrophages in the synovium, which may serve a role in alleviating

  12. Dextromethorphan attenuated the higher vulnerability to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia caused by prenatal morphine exposure in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-administration of dextromethorphan (DM) with morphine during pregnancy and throughout lactation has been found to reduce morphine physical dependence and tolerance in rat offspring. No evidence was presented, however, for the effect of DM co-administered with morphine during pregnancy on inflammatory hyperalgesia in morphine-exposed offspring. Therefore, we attempt to investigate the possible effect of prenatal morphine exposure on the vulnerability to hyperalgesia and the possible therapeutic effect of DM in the present study. Methods Fifty μl of carrageenan (20 mg/ml) was injected subcutaneously into the plantar surface of the right hind paw in p18 rats to induce hyperalgesia. Mean paw withdrawal latency was measured in the plantar test to index the severity of hyperalgesia. Using Western blotting and RT-PCR, the quantitative analyses of NMDA receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits were performed in spinal cords from different groups of animals. Results In the carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia model, rat offspring passively exposed to morphine developed a severe hyperalgesia on postnatal day 18 (p18), which also had a more rapid time course than those in the controls. Co-administration of DM with morphine in the dams prevented this adverse effect of morphine in the offspring rats. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of protein and mRNA of NMDA receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits were significantly higher in the lumbar spinal cords of rats (p14) exposed to prenatal morphine; the co-administration of DM could reverse the effect of morphine on NR1 and attenuate the effect on NR2B. Conclusions Thus, DM may have a great potential in the prevention of higher vulnerability to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in the offspring of morphine-addicted mothers. PMID:21861871

  13. Attenuation of CNS inflammatory responses by nicotine involves α7 and non-α7 nicotinic receptors1,2

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R.; Turner, Gregory H.; Wu, Jie; Whiteaker, Paul; Lukas, Ronald J.; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of in vivo studies have demonstrated that the cholinergic system can dampen the peripheral immune response, and it is thought that the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is a key mediator of this process. The goal of the present study was to determine if nicotine modulates immunological mechanisms known to be involved in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for CNS autoimmune disease, via α7-nAChRs. Here we show that nicotine exposure attenuates EAE severity and that this effect is largely abolished in nAChR α7 subunit knock-out mice. However, nicotine exposure partially retains the ability to reduce lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, inhibit auto-reactive T cell proliferation and helper T cell cytokine production, down-regulate co-stimulatory protein expression on myeloid cells, and increase the differentiation and recruitment of regulatory T cells, even in the absence of α7-nAChRs. Diverse effects of nicotine on effector and regulatory T cells, as well as antigen presenting cells, may be linked to differential expression patterns of nAChR subunits across these cell types. Taken together, our data show that although α7-nAChRs indeed seem to play an important role in nicotine-conferred reduction of the CNS inflammatory response and protection against EAE, other nAChR subtypes also are involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of the cholinergic system. PMID:20932827

  14. Maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the renal innate inflammatory response in obese young adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Don; Gardner, David S; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-18, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are important components of the innate immune system mediating inflammatory renal damage. Early to midgestation maternal nutrient restriction appears to protect the kidney from the deleterious effects of early onset obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the combined effects of gestational maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development and early onset obesity on the renal innate immune response in offspring. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to a normal (control, 100%) or nutrient-restricted (NR, 50%) diet from days 30 to 80 gestation and 100% thereafter. Offspring were killed humanely at 7 days or, following rearing in an obesogenic environment, at 1 yr of age, and renal tissues were collected. IL-18 and TLR4 expression were strongly correlated irrespective of intervention. Seven-day NR offspring had significantly lower relative renal mass and IL-18 mRNA expression. At 1 yr of age, obesity resulted in increased mRNA abundance of TLR4, IL-18, and UCP2, coupled with tubular atrophy and greater immunohistological staining of glomerular IL-6 and medullary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. NR obese offspring had a marked reduction of TLR4 abundance and renal IL-6 staining. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the effects of early onset obesity-related nephropathy, in part, through the downregulation of the innate inflammatory response. A better understanding of maternal nutrition and the in utero nutritional environment may offer therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the burden of later kidney disease.

  15. Tylvalosin exhibits anti-inflammatory property and attenuates acute lung injury in different models possibly through suppression of NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanzhong; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhao, Xinghui; Zhang, Minhong; Zhang, Weijian; Hou, Shaohua; Yuan, Weifeng; Zhang, Hongfu; Shi, Lijun; Jia, Hong; Liang, Lin; Lai, Zhi; Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Keyu; Fu, Ling; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Tylvalosin, a new broad-spectrum, third-generation macrolides, may exert a variety of pharmacological activities. Here, we report on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as piglet challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Tylvalosin treatment markedly decreased IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, PGE2, TNF-α and NO levels in vitro and in vivo. LPS and PRRSV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the lipid peroxidation in mice lung tissues reduced after tylvalosin treatments. In mouse acute lung injury model induced by LPS, tylvalosin administration significantly attenuated tissues injury, and reduced the inflammatory cells recruitment and activation. The evaluated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and the increased expressions of cPLA2-IVA, p-cPLA2-IVA and sPLA2-IVE were lowered by tylvalosin. Consistent with the mouse results, tylvalosin pretreatment attenuated piglet lung scores with improved growth performance and normal rectal temperature in piglet model induced by PRRSV. Furthermore, tylvalosin attenuated the IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, and blocked the NF-κB p65 translocation. These results indicate that in addition to its direct antimicrobial effect, tylvalosin exhibits anti-inflammatory property and attenuates acute lung injury through suppression of NF-κB activation.

  16. BZLF1 Attenuates Transmission of Inflammatory Paracrine Senescence in Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Cells by Downregulating Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xubing; Li, Yuqing; Yang, Mengtian; Huang, Lu; Gong, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that inflammatory responses trigger and transmit senescence to neighboring cells and activate the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces increased secretion of several inflammatory factors, whereas lytic infections evade the antiviral inflammatory response. However, the changes in and roles of the inflammatory microenvironment during the switch between EBV life cycles remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that latent EBV infection in EBV-positive cells triggers the SASP in neighboring epithelial cells. In contrast, lytic EBV infection abolishes this phenotype. BZLF1 attenuates the transmission of paracrine senescence during lytic EBV infection by downregulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion. A mutant BZLF1 protein, BZLF1Δ207-210, that cannot inhibit TNF-α secretion while maintaining viral transcription, fails to block paracrine senescence, whereas a neutralizing antibody against TNF-α is sufficient to restore its inhibition. Furthermore, latent EBV infection induces oxidative stress in neighboring cells, while BZLF1-mediated downregulation of TNF-α reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in neighboring cells, and ROS scavengers alleviate paracrine senescence. These results suggest that lytic EBV infection attenuates the transmission of inflammatory paracrine senescence through BZLF1 downregulation of TNF-α secretion and alters the inflammatory microenvironment to allow virus propagation and persistence. IMPORTANCE The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), an important tumorigenic process, is triggered and transmitted by inflammatory factors. The different life cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in EBV-positive cells employ distinct strategies to modulate the inflammatory response and senescence. The elevation of inflammatory factors during latent EBV infection promotes the SASP in uninfected cells. In

  17. Quercetin protects against perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiying; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jianhua; Zou, Ting; Liu, Fangming; Xia, Liping; Zhang, Dalei

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin (Que) against perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanisms of action. Mice were intragastrically administered PFOA (10mg/kg/day) alone or in combination with Que (75 mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days. The hepatic injury was evaluated by measuring morphological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocellular apoptosis. Compared with mice treated with PFOA alone, simultaneous supplementation of Que significantly decreased serum levels of liver injury indicators alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bile acids. Moreover, Que treatment inhibited the production of oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6, cyclooxygenase-2 and C-reactive protein, and decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of PFOA-treated mice. These results combined with liver histopathology demonstrated that Que exhibited a potential protective effect against PFOA-induced liver damage via mechanisms involving the attenuation of oxidative stress, alleviation of inflammation and inhibition of hepatocellular apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Dacic, Sanja; Savic, Danijela; Pantic, Igor; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Pekovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms by which treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) exerts its beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury are still unrevealed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the influence of repetitive HBOT on the reactive astrogliosis and expression of mediators of inflammation after cortical stab injury (CSI). CSI was performed on male Wistar rats, divided into control, sham, and lesioned groups with appropriate HBO. The HBOT protocol was as follows: 10 minutes of slow compression, 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 60 minutes, and 10 minutes of slow decompression, once a day for 10 consecutive days. Data obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that repetitive HBOT applied after the CSI attenuates reactive astrogliosis and glial scarring, and reduces expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), vimentin, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) both at gene and tissue levels. In addition, HBOT prevents expression of CD40 and its ligand CD40L on microglia, neutrophils, cortical neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Accordingly, repetitive HBOT, by prevention of glial scarring and limiting of expression of inflammatory mediators, supports formation of more permissive environment for repair and regeneration. PMID:25972624

  19. Mast Cell and M1 Macrophage Infiltration and Local Pro-Inflammatory Factors Were Attenuated with Incretin-Based Therapies in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Yuan, Geheng; Cheng, Fangxiao; Zhang, Junqing; Guo, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    The global increase of obesity parallels the obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) epidemic. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists were well recognized to attenuate renal injury independent of glucose control in diabetic nephropathy. There are limited studies focusing on their effects on ORG. We explored the effects of incretin-based therapies on early ORG and the inflammatory responses involved mainly concentrated on mast cell (MC) and macrophage (M) infiltration and local pro-inflammatory factors. ORG rat models were induced by high-fat diet and then divided into ORG vehicle, vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day, qd) and liraglutide (200 μg/kg, bid) treated groups. After 8 weeks of treatments, albuminuria, glomerular histology, renal inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory factors were analyzed. Early ORG model was demonstrated by albuminuria, glomerulomegaly, foot process fusion, and mesangial and endothelial mild proliferation. Incretin-based therapies limited body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity. ORG was alleviated, manifested by decreased average glomerular area, attenuated mesangial and endothelial cell proliferation, and revived cell-to-cell propagation of podocytes, which contributed to reduced albuminuria. Compared with ORG vehicle, MC and M1 macrophage (pro-inflammatory) infiltration and M1/M2 ratio were significantly decreased; M2 macrophage (anti-inflammatory) was not significantly increased after incretin-based treatments. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in renal cortex were significantly downregulated, while transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) remained unchanged. Incretin-based treatments could alleviate high-fat diet-induced ORG partly through the systemic insulin sensitivity improvement and the attenuated local inflammation, mainly by the decrease of MC and M1 macrophage infiltration and reduction of TNF-α and IL-6.

  20. Lactulose and neomycin attenuate leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in an animal model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Arndt, H; Schölmerich, J; Palitzsch, K D

    1998-04-01

    The role of intestinal flora in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is under discussion. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lactulose (Lac) and neomycin (Neo), both of which are used clinically for changing or reducing intestinal flora, on leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in an indomethacin (Indo)-induced long-lasting ileitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Two doses of Indo (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) were given 24 h apart. Animals were fed with standard rat chow for 10 days until 12 h prior to the experiment. Solutions of Lac (1.0 mg/kg b.w.) or Neo (0.1 g/kg) were gavaged daily for 10 days between Indo administration and the experiment. Ten mesenteric venules (30 microm diameter) per animal (n = 5 per group) were observed using intravital microscopy, and the following parameters were monitored: number of adherent and emigrated leukocytes, leukocyte rolling velocity, erythrocyte velocity, venular blood flow, and shear rate. Macroscopically visible injury was scored 0 to 5, and faecal pH was measured in the distal 20 cm of ileum. Ten days after Indo treatment leukocyte adherence and emigration were increased (2.2-fold and 3.3-fold vs. control, respectively) while leukocyte rolling velocity and venular wall shear rate were reduced (both parameters to 81% of control). Lac and Neo attenuated microcirculatory parameters to a similar extent while macroscopic damage was prevented only by Neo but not by Lac. The effects of both substances were accompanied by a normalization of faecal pH to control level which had been lowered by Indo. The Indo-induced increase in leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction is blunted by Lac and Neo. At the same time the Indo-induced lowering of faecal pH is normalized by both substances. The reduction of macroscopic injury by Neo but not by Lac in the chronic phase of Indo inflammation might be due to additional effects on other inflammatory cells such as macrophages.

  1. Neuropeptide deficient mice have attenuated nociceptive, vascular, and inflammatory changes in a tibia fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Distal limb fracture in man can induce a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with pain, warmth, edema, and cutaneous inflammation. In the present study substance P (SP, Tac1−/−) and CGRP receptor (RAMP1−/−) deficient mice were used to investigate the contribution of neuropeptide signaling to CRPS-like changes in a tibia fracture mouse model. Wildtype, Tac1−/−, and RAMP1−/− mice underwent tibia fracture and casting for 3 weeks, then the cast was removed and hindpaw mechanical allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were tested over time. Hindpaw skin was collected at 3 weeks post-fracture for immunoassay and femurs were collected for micro-CT analysis. Results Wildtype mice developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− fracture mice allodynia and unweighting were attenuated and there was no warmth and edema. RAMP1−/− fracture mice had a similar presentation, except there was no reduction in hindpaw edema. Hindpaw skin TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and NGF levels were up-regulated in wildtype fracture mice at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice only IL-6 was increased. The epidermal keratinocytes were the cellular source for these inflammatory mediators. An IL-6 receptor antagonist partially reversed post-fracture pain behaviors in wildtype mice. Conclusions In conclusion, both SP and CGRP are critical neuropeptide mediators for the pain behaviors, vascular abnormalities, and up-regulated innate immune responses observed in the fracture hindlimb. We postulate that the residual pain behaviors observed in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice are attributable to the increased IL-6 levels observed in the hindpaw skin after fracture. PMID:23191958

  2. Calorie restriction attenuates LPS-induced sickness behavior and shifts hypothalamic signaling pathways to an anti-inflammatory bias.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Leah; Radler, Morgan; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to alter cytokine levels; however, its potential to modify sickness behavior (fever, anorexia, cachexia) has not. The effect of CR on sickness behavior was examined in male C57BL/6J mice fed ad libitum or restricted 25% (CR25%) or restricted 50% (CR50%) in food intake for 28 days and injected with 50 μg/kg of LPS on day 29. Changes in body temperature, locomotor activity, body weight, and food intake were determined. A separate cohort of mice were fed ad libitum or CR50% for 28 days, and hypothalamic mRNA expression of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), IL-10, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) were determined at 0, 2, and 4 h post-LPS. CR50% mice did not develop fevers, whereas the CR25% mice displayed a fever shorter in duration but with the same peak as the controls. Both CR25% and CR50% mice showed no sign of anorexia and reduced cachexia after LPS administration. Hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY and CRH were both increased by severalfold in CR50% animals preinjection compared with controls. The CR50% mice did not demonstrate the expected rise in hypothalamic mRNA expression of COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, POMC, or CRH 2 h post-LPS, and leptin expression was decreased at this time point. Increases in SOCS3, IL-10, and IκB-α expression in CR50% animals were enhanced compared with ad libitum-fed controls at 4 h post-LPS. CR results in a suppression of sickness behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which may be due to CR attenuating proinflammatory pathways and enhancing anti-inflammatory pathways.

  3. Adenovirus-delivered angiopoietin-1 suppresses NF-κB and p38 MAPK and attenuates inflammatory responses in phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    He, Dai-Kun; Shao, Yi-Ru; Zhang, Lin; Shen, Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Yue; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guoxiong

    2014-02-01

    Animals exposed to phosgene (Psg) result in acute lung injury (ALI). We have recently reported that angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) reduces inflammation and vascular hyperpermeability in ALI animals. In this study, we examined whether the beneficial effects of adenovirus-delivered Ang1 (Ad/Ang1) on inflammatory responses in Psg-induced ALI rats are due to the suppression of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which play crucial roles in inflammatory responses in ALI. We demonstrated that Psg increased Ang2 and inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ALI rats, determined by ELISA. Ang1 inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8) and has no effect on anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-4 and IL-10). Furthermore, the inhibitory action of Ang1 was mediated by the suppression of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, leading to the attenuation of inflammatory responses of ALI. Thus, Ad/Ang1 may provide a useful tool for the effective treatment in Psg-induced ALI.

  4. Attenuation of the macrophage inflammatory activity by TiO₂ nanotubes via inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Patricia; Mazare, Anca; Schmuki, Patrik; Cimpean, Anisoara

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implantation in a living tissue triggers the activation of macrophages in inflammatory events, promoting the transcription of pro-inflammatory mediator genes. The initiation of macrophage inflammatory processes is mainly regulated by signaling proteins of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways. We have previously shown that titania nanotubes modified Ti surfaces (Ti/TiO2) mitigate the immune response, compared with flat Ti surfaces; however, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s) by which this nanotopography attenuates the inflammatory activity of macrophages. Thus, we analyzed the effects of TiO2 nanotubes on the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in standard and lipopolysaccharide-evoked conditions. Results showed that the Ti/TiO2 significantly reduce the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), IKKβ, and IkB-α. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the p65 nuclear accumulation on the nanotubular surface was remarked. Following, by using specific MAPK inhibitors, we observed that lipopolysaccharide-induced production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nitric oxide was significantly inhibited on the Ti/TiO2 surface via p38 and ERK1/2, but not via JNK. However, the selective inhibitor for JNK signaling pathway (SP600125) was effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor alpha release as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nitric oxide production. Altogether, these data suggest that titania nanotubes can attenuate the macrophage inflammatory response via suppression of MAPK and NF-κB pathways providing a potential mechanism for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Attenuation of the macrophage inflammatory activity by TiO2 nanotubes via inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB pathways

    PubMed Central

    Neacsu, Patricia; Mazare, Anca; Schmuki, Patrik; Cimpean, Anisoara

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implantation in a living tissue triggers the activation of macrophages in inflammatory events, promoting the transcription of pro-inflammatory mediator genes. The initiation of macrophage inflammatory processes is mainly regulated by signaling proteins of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways. We have previously shown that titania nanotubes modified Ti surfaces (Ti/TiO2) mitigate the immune response, compared with flat Ti surfaces; however, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s) by which this nanotopography attenuates the inflammatory activity of macrophages. Thus, we analyzed the effects of TiO2 nanotubes on the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in standard and lipopolysaccharide-evoked conditions. Results showed that the Ti/TiO2 significantly reduce the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), IKKβ, and IkB-α. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the p65 nuclear accumulation on the nanotubular surface was remarked. Following, by using specific MAPK inhibitors, we observed that lipopolysaccharide-induced production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nitric oxide was significantly inhibited on the Ti/TiO2 surface via p38 and ERK1/2, but not via JNK. However, the selective inhibitor for JNK signaling pathway (SP600125) was effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor alpha release as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nitric oxide production. Altogether, these data suggest that titania nanotubes can attenuate the macrophage inflammatory response via suppression of MAPK and NF-κB pathways providing a potential mechanism for their anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26491301

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid shows anti-inflammatory effect via GPR120 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and attenuates adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hodaka; Umemoto, Tomio; Kakei, Masafumi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E; Hara, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids have been shown to cause insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation, whereas unsaturated fatty acids suppress inflammation via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in macrophages. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. Hence, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) via GPR120 in adipocytes. We used 250 μM palmitate as a representative saturated fatty acid. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for in vitro studies. We further evaluated the effect of EPA supplementation in a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory mouse model. EPA attenuated palmitate-induced increases in inflammatory gene expression and NF-κB phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Silencing of GPR120 abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of EPA. In GPR120 downstream signal analysis, EPA was found to decrease palmitate-induced increases in TAK1/TAB1 complex expression. EPA supplementation suppressed HFHS-induced crown-like structure formation in epididymal adipose tissue and altered macrophage phenotypes from M1 to M2 in the stromal vascular fraction. Moreover, the EPA-containing diet attenuated increases in adipose p-JNK and phospho-p65 NF-κB levels. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrate that EPA suppresses palmitate-induced inflammation via GPR120 by inhibiting the TAK1/TAB1 interaction in adipocytes. EPA supplementation reduced HFHS diet-induced inflammatory changes in mouse adipose tissues. These results demonstrate adipose GPR120 as a potential therapeutic target for decreasing inflammation.

  7. Attenuation of meal-induced inflammatory and thrombotic responses in overweight men and women after 6-week daily strawberry (Fragaria) intake. A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Collin L; Edirisinghe, Indika; Kappagoda, Tissa; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2011-01-01

    A pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory diet can play a causative role in atherosclerotic-cardiovascular diseases. Dietary intervention studies provide insight into their pathophysiological manifestations and opportunities for prevention and management. We previously showed in an acute-meal setting that a beverage containing polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich strawberry (Fragaria) vs placebo attenuated postprandial (fed-state) increases in biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress, and insulin concentrations, induced by a high carbohydrate/fat (HCF) meal. In the present study, we aimed to extend our findings and investigate hypotheses related to the effects of chronic/6-week (wk) strawberry consumption on HCF meal-induced increases in glucose, insulin, and indicators of inflammation and hemostasis. In a crossover design, 14 women and 10 men (mean age, BMI: 50.9±15 years, 29.2±2.3 kg/m(2), respectively), were randomized to a 6-wk strawberry or placebo beverage followed by an HCF meal with assessments for 6-hours (h) postprandially. HCF meal responses after 6-wk strawberry beverage showed significantly attenuated postprandial PAI-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (p =0.002); the difference was most notable at 6 h. The IL-1 β response was attenuated with strawberry compared to the placebo (p =0.05). IL-6 attenuation was apparent but non-significant; IL-6 rose significantly from baseline to 6 h after the HCF meal following a placebo (p ≤0.01), although it remained relatively flat following the strawberry beverage from fasting to 6 h. No significant treatment-related differences were apparent for platelet aggregation, hsCRP, TNF-α, insulin, or glucose. These data are the first to suggest that regular consumption of strawberry, a polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich fruit, may provide protection from HCF meal-induced increases in fibrinolytic and inflammatory factors in at-risk men and women.

  8. The attenuating effects of 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose on inflammatory cytokines release from activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Bauer, David; Cobourne-Duval, Makini; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of neurodegeneration and dementia in the elderly. Dysregulated, chronic activation of microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, induces the release of excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines which has been implicated in the early stages of AD pathology. Therefore, suppressing the expression of these inflammatory mediators may decrease or delay the progression of AD. Many natural compounds derived from plants have shown anti-inflammatory activity. The naturally occurring 1,2,3,4,6 Penta-O-Galloyl-β-d-Glucose (PGG), is a polyphenolic compound highly enriched in Rhus chinensis Millplant. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that act through the inhibition of many cytokines in different experimental models. In the present study, we investigated the role of PGG as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS/IFNγ activated BV-2 microglia cells. Mouse cytokine antibody arrays were used to assess the effect of PGG on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and ELISA experiments were performed to validate the results from the arrays. The results obtained from the cytokine arrays, and ELISA assays showed that PGG decreased the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-5 (MCP-5) 8-fold, and pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Pro MMP-9) 10-fold. Both of these cytokines are upregulated during the inflammatory process and have been shown to be involved in brain injury, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of PGG on activated microglia involving the attenuation of MCP-5 and Pro MMP-9 cytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interleukin-22 ameliorates liver fibrogenesis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation and downregulating the levels of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dong-Hong; Guo, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Shan-Yu; Luo, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Mei; Wang, Jia-Xu; Ma, Shi-Jia; Yang, Xian-Wen; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of interleukin (IL)-22 on hepatic fibrosis in mice and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male BALB/c mice by CCl4. Recombinant IL-22 (rmIL-22) was administered intraperitoneally in CCl4-treated mice. Fibrosis was assessed by histology and Masson staining. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated by analysis of α-smooth muscle actin expression. The frequencies of T helper (Th) 22 cells, Th17 cells and Th1 cells, the expression of inflammatory cytokines [IL-22, IL-17A, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β] and transcription factors [aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), RAR-related orphan receptor (RORγt), T-bet] mRNA in the liver were investigated. In addition, the plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant elevations in circulating Th22 cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, IL-22, IL-17A, and IFN-γ were observed in the hepatic fibrosis group compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Treatment with rmIL-22 in mice with hepatic fibrosis ameliorated the severity of hepatic fibrosis, which was confirmed by lower hepatic fibrosis pathological scores (P < 0.01). RmIL-22 decreased the frequencies of Th22 cells (6.71% ± 0.97% vs 8.09% ± 0.74%, P < 0.01), Th17 cells (4.34% ± 0.37% vs 5.71% ± 0.24%, P < 0.01), Th1 cells (3.09% ± 0.49% vs 4.91% ± 0.73%, P < 0.01), and the levels of IL-22 (56.23 ± 3.08 vs 70.29 ± 3.01, P < 0.01), IL-17A (30.74 ± 2.77 vs 45.68 ± 2.71, P < 0.01), and IFN-γ (74.78 ± 2.61 vs 124.89 ± 2.82, P < 0.01). Down-regulation of IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, AHR RORγt, and T-bet gene expression in the liver was observed in the rmIL-22 group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells are elevated in hepatic fibrosis. RmIL-22 can attenuate HSC activation and down-regulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines, thereby ameliorating

  10. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-03-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future.

  11. Aspirin attenuates the anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline via inhibition of cAMP production in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kim, You-Sun; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong-Sic; Yoon, Chang Min; Jeon, Seong Gyu

    2010-01-01

    Theophylline is commonly used to treat severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by non-eosinophilic inflammation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most widely used medications worldwide, but up to 20% of patients with asthma experience aggravated respiratory symptoms after taking ASA. Here we evaluated the adverse effect of ASA on the therapeutic effect of theophylline in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma. A non-eosinophilic asthma mouse model was induced by airway sensitization with lipopolysaccharide-containing allergen and then challenged with allergen alone. Therapeutic intervention was performed during allergen challenge. Theophylline inhibited lung inflammation partly induced by Th1 immune response. ASA attenuated the beneficial effects of theophylline. However, co-administration of the ASA metabolite salicylic acid (SA) showed no attenuating effect on theophylline treatment. The therapeutic effect of theophylline was associated with increase in cAMP levels, which was blocked by co-treatment of theophylline and ASA. ASA co-treatment also attenuated the anti-inflammatory effects of a specific phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that ASA reverses anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline, and that ASA exerts its adverse effects through the inhibition of cAMP production. Our data suggest that ASA reverses lung inflammation in patients taking theophylline, although clinical evidence will be needed. PMID:19887894

  12. The blocking of uPAR suppresses lipopolysaccharide‐induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and the resultant bone loss through attenuation of integrin β3/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ishisaki, Akira; Miyashita, Mei; Matsuo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, cause the bone destruction by promotion of the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into mature osteoclasts (OCs) with active bone‐resorbing character. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated the role of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in the bone destruction caused by chronic inflammation. Methods We investigated that the effect of uPAR on inflammatory OC formation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in inflammatory diseases. Results We found that the LPS more weakly induced OC formation and the resultant bone loss in uPAR‐deficient mice than in wild‐type mice. Additionally, we demonstrated that uPAR significantly potentiated LPS‐induced OC formation of RAW264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage linage cells in integrin β3/Akt‐dependent manner. Moreover, we showed that the blocking of uPAR function by the administration of anti‐uPAR neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated the LPS‐induced OC formation and the resultant bone loss in mice. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that uPAR negatively regulates the LPS‐induced inflammatory OC formation and the resultant bone loss mediated through the integrin β3/Akt pathway. Our findings partly clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying bone destruction caused by chronic inflammatory diseases, and would benefit research on identifying antibody therapy for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:27621816

  13. A novel imidazopyridine derivative, X22, attenuates sepsis-induced lung and liver injury by inhibiting the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiangting; Feng, Zhiguo; Xu, Tingting; Wu, Beibei; Chen, Hongjin; Xu, Fengli; Fu, Lili; Shan, Xiaoou; Dai, Yuanrong; Zhang, Yali; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite years of extensive research, effective drugs to treat sepsis in the clinic are lacking. In this study, we found a novel imidazopyridine derivative, X22, which has powerful anti-inflammatory activity. X22 dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. X22 also downregulated the LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in vitro. In vivo, X22 exhibited a significant protection against LPS-induced death. Pretreatment or treatment with X22 attenuated the sepsis-induced lung and liver injury by inhibiting the inflammatory response. In addition, X22 showed protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury. We additionally found that pretreatment with X22 reduced the inflammatory pain in the acetic acid and formalin models and reduced the dimethylbenzene-induced ear swelling and acetic acid-increased vascular permeability. Together, these data confirmed that X22 has multiple anti-inflammatory effects and may be a potential therapeutic option in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27390516

  14. Mycotoxin detoxifiers attenuate deoxynivalenol-induced pro-inflammatory barrier insult in porcine enterocytes as an in vitro evaluation model of feed mycotoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Kim, Dongwook; Moon, Yuseok

    2017-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model. DON-induced disruption of the in vitro gut barrier was attenuated by all three mycotoxin detoxifiers in dose-dependent manners. These mycotoxin detoxifiers also suppressed DON-induced pro-inflammatory chemokine expression to different degrees, which was mediated by downregulation of mitogen-activated kinases and early growth response-1. Of note, the mixture-typed detoxifier was the most prominent mitigating agent at the cellular levels whereas the high dose of bentonite clay also had suppressive action against DON-induced pro-inflammatory insult. The in vitro porcine enterocyte-based assessment of intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory signals provides sensitive and simplified alternative bioassay of feed additives such as detoxifiers against enteropathogenic mycotoxins with comprehensive mechanistic confirmation.

  15. Long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids attenuate the IL-1β-induced pro-inflammatory response in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Brenna, JT; Wang, Dong Hao; Zhu, Weishu; Meng, Di; Ganguli, Kriston; Kothapalli, Kumar SD; Requena, Pilar; Innis, Sheila; Walker, WA

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that excessive inflammation of the immature intestine may predispose premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in primary culture. Methods Human fetal IEC in culture were derived from a healthy fetal small intestine (H4) or resected small intestine of a neonate with NEC (NEC-IEC). Intestinal cell lines Caco2 and NCM460 in culture were used as models for mature IEC. IEC in culture were pre-treated with 100µM palmitic acid (PAL), DHA, EPA, ARA or ARA+DHA for 48 hrs and then stimulated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Results DHA significantly attenuated IL-1β induced pro-inflammatory IL-8 and IL-6 protein and mRNA in fetal H4, NEC-IEC and mature Caco2, NCM460 IEC, compared to control and PAL treatment. DHA down regulated IL-1R1 (IL-1β receptor) and NFk β1 mRNA expression in fetal and adult IEC. ARA had potent anti-inflammatory effects with lower IL-8 and IL-6 (protein and mRNA) in fetal H4 but not in NEC-IEC or adult IEC. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that DHA and ARA may have important anti-inflammatory functions for prevention of NEC in premature infants. PMID:26270575

  16. Opioid Self-Administration is Attenuated by Early-Life Experience and Gene Therapy for Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lacagnina, Michael J; Kopec, Ashley M; Cox, Stewart S; Hanamsagar, Richa; Wells, Corinne; Slade, Susan; Grace, Peter M; Watkins, Linda R; Levin, Edward D; Bilbo, Staci D

    2017-01-01

    Early-life conditions can contribute to the propensity for developing neuropsychiatric disease, including substance abuse disorders. However, the long-lasting mechanisms that shape risk or resilience for drug addiction remain unclear. Previous work has shown that a neonatal handling procedure in rats (which promotes enriched maternal care) attenuates morphine conditioning, reduces morphine-induced glial activation, and increases microglial expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). We thus hypothesized that anti-inflammatory signaling may underlie the effects of early-life experience on later-life opioid drug-taking. Here we demonstrate that neonatal handling attenuates intravenous self-administration of the opioid remifentanil in a drug-concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) from handled rats following repeated exposure to remifentanil reveals a suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression, consistent with an anti-inflammatory phenotype. To determine if anti-inflammatory signaling alters drug-taking behavior, we administered intracranial injections of plasmid DNA encoding IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) into the NAc of non-handled rats. We discovered that pDNA-IL-10 treatment reduces remifentanil self-administration in a drug-concentration-dependent manner, similar to the effect of handling. In contrast, neither handling nor pDNA-IL-10 treatment alters self-administration of food or sucrose rewards. These collective observations suggest that neuroimmune signaling mechanisms in the NAc are shaped by early-life experience and may modify motivated behaviors for opioid drugs. Moreover, manipulation of the IL-10 signaling pathway represents a novel approach for influencing opioid reinforcement. PMID:28436446

  17. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Qilu; Zhao, Leping; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali; Li, Zhaoyu; Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao; Li, Dan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  18. Netrin-1 rescues neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in ipsilateral thalamic nucleus following focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, S-J; Gong, Q; Chen, X-R; Ye, L-X; Ding, Q; Zeng, J-S; Yu, J

    2013-02-12

    Neurological deficit following cerebral infarction correlates with not only primary injury, but also secondary neuronal apoptosis in remote loci connected to the infarction. Netrin-1 is crucial for axonal guidance by interacting with its receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and uncoordinated gene 5H (UNC5H). DCC and UNC5H are also dependence receptors inducing cell apoptosis when unbound by netrin-1. The present study is to investigate the role of netrin-1 and its receptors in ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN) injury secondary to stroke in hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of netrin-1 (600 ng/d for 7 days) or vehicle (IgG/Fc) was given 24h after MCAO. Neurological function was evaluated by postural reflex 8 and 14 days after MCAO. Then, immunoreactivity was determined in the ipsilateral VPN for NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein, netrin-1 and its receptors (DCC and UNC5H2), apoptosis was detected with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expressions of caspase-3, netrin-1, DCC, and UNC5H2 were quantified by western blot analysis. MCAO resulted in the impaired postural reflex after 8 and 14 days, with decreased NeuN marked neurons and increased TUNEL-positive cells, as well as an up-regulation in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and UNC5H2 protein in the ipsilateral VPN, without significant change in DCC or netrin-1 expression. By exogenous netrin-1 infusion, the number of neurons was increased in the ipsilateral VPN, and both TUNEL-positive cell number and caspase-3 protein level were reduced, while UNC5H2 expression remained unaffected, simultaneously, the impairment of postural reflex was improved. Taken together, the present study indicates that exogenous netrin-1 could rescue neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in the

  19. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, a high-energy intermediate of glycolysis, attenuates experimental arthritis by activating anti-inflammatory adenosinergic pathway.

    PubMed

    Veras, Flávio P; Peres, Raphael S; Saraiva, André L L; Pinto, Larissa G; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Thiago M; Paschoal, Jonas A R; Cunha, Fernando Q; Alves-Filho, José C

    2015-10-19

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is an endogenous intermediate of the glycolytic pathway. Exogenous administration of FBP has been shown to exert protective effects in a variety of ischemic injury models, which are attributed to its ability to sustain glycolysis and increase ATP production. Here, we demonstrated that a single treatment with FBP markedly attenuated arthritis, assessed by reduction of articular hyperalgesia, joint swelling, neutrophil infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines, TNF and IL-6, while enhancing IL-10 production in two mouse models of arthritis. Our mechanistic studies showed that FBP reduces joint inflammation through the systemic generation of extracellular adenosine and subsequent activation of adenosine receptor A2a (A2aR). Moreover, we showed that FBP-induced adenosine generation requires hydrolysis of extracellular ATP through the activity of the ectonucleosides triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1, also known as CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5NT, also known as CD73). In accordance, inhibition of CD39 and CD73 abolished anti-arthritic effects of FBP. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of FBP, showing that it effectively attenuates experimental arthritis by activating the anti-inflammatory adenosinergic pathway. Therefore, FBP may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  20. Unilateral uterine torsion secondary to an inflammatory endometrial polyp in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ba; Laksito, Ma; Long, F; Yates, Gd

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old bitch was presented because of lethargy and abdominal distension. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an enlarged, fluid-filled uterus and associated mass. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed unilateral uterine torsion involving the mass. Recovery following ovariohysterectomy was uneventful and the histopathological diagnosis was of a benign endometrial inflammatory polyp. Reports of uterine torsion in the English-language literature are reviewed to identify factors associated with the incidence of uterine torsion. The aetiology of the cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex and its possible role in the development of inflammatory polypoid lesions in the bitch is also discussed.

  1. Epicatechin attenuates atherosclerosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet-induced human-CRP and NFκB in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Martine; van der Heijden, Roel; Heeringa, Peter; Kaijzel, Eric; Verschuren, Lars; Blomhoff, Rune; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies investigating flavanol-rich foods provide indications for potential cardioprotective effects of these foods, but the effects of individual flavanols remain unclear. We investigated whether the flavanol epicatechin can reduce diet-induced atherosclerosis, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular risk factors dyslipidaemia and inflammation. ApoE*3-Leiden mice were fed a cholesterol-containing atherogenic diet with or without epicatechin (0.1% w/w) to study effects on early- and late-stage atherosclerosis (8 w and 20 w). In vivo effects of epicatechin on diet-induced inflammation were studied in human-CRP transgenic mice and NFκB-luciferase reporter mice. Epicatechin attenuated atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE*3-Leiden mice by 27%, without affecting plasma lipids. This anti-atherogenic effect of epicatechin was specific to the severe lesion types, with no effect on mild lesions. Epicatechin mitigated diet-induced increases in plasma SAA (in ApoE*3-Leiden mice) and plasma human-CRP (in human-CRP transgenic mice). Microarray analysis of aortic gene expression revealed an attenuating effect of epicatechin on several diet-induced pro-atherogenic inflammatory processes in the aorta (e.g. chemotaxis of cells, matrix remodelling), regulated by NFκB. These findings were confirmed immunohistochemically by reduced lesional neutrophil content in HCE, and by inhibition of diet-induced NFκB activity in epicatechin-treated NFκB-luciferase reporter mice. Epicatechin attenuates development of atherosclerosis and impairs lesion progression from mild to severe lesions in absence of an effect on dyslipidaemia. The observed reduction of circulating inflammatory risk factors by epicatechin (e.g. SAA, human-CRP), as well as its local anti-inflammatory activity in the vessel wall, provide a rationale for epicatechin's anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of safranal in a rat model of traumatic injury to the spinal cord by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and edema-attenuating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ma, Jun; Fan, Lihong; Zou, Yulong; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng; Song, Jinhui

    2015-06-01

    Studies on the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) have focused on inflammation-associated neuronal apoptosis. The traditional Chinese medicine safranal has been studied extensively and found to have various beneficial health effects. However, study of its potential role in neuroprotection and the underlying mechanism of action in SCI models has been limited. We investigated the effect of safranal on neurologic functions and histopathologic changes after SCI and the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effects. First, the most effective safranal dose for SCI was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale and H&E staining: 100mg/kg was the most effective dose of safranal for SCI. Histopathologic changes were evaluated by performing Nissl staining, which indicated an increased number of neurons after safranal administration. In terms of the mechanism of action, anti-apoptotic effect, downregulation of inflammation, and edema-attenuating effects were detected. TUNEL staining and electron microscopy revealed that safranal treatment inhibited injury-induced apoptosis, and affected the expression of the apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2, which indicated an anti-apoptotic role after SCI. Safranal treatment suppressed immunoreactivity and expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and p38 MAPK, and increased expression of IL-10 after SCI, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Safranal treatment suppressed expression of AQP-4, which is related to spinal-cord edema, suggesting an edema-attenuating effect. These data suggest that safranal promotes the recovery of neuronal function after SCI in rats, and that this effect is related to its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and edema-attenuating effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome presenting as secondary syphilis with polymorphous erythema and knee arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brochard, J; Khatchatourian, L; Woaye-Hune, P; Biron, C; Lefebvre, M; Denis-Musquer, M; Grange, P; Dupin, N; Raffi, F

    2017-03-08

    Syphilis and HIV are strongly linked to one another and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation can complicate matters. A 24-years-old homosexual man was hospitalized for fever, cough and headache. HIV infection had been diagnosed 5 years earlier but he discontinued ART for the last 2 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Agaricoglycerides Protect against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress, and Expression of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang-qian; Liang, Bin; Liu, Yang; Huang, Xiao-qiang

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of agaricoglycerides (AG) in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered increases/changes in markers of liver injury, hepatic oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). AG significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation and oxidative stress and also attenuated the NF-κB activation as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Our results indicate that AG may represent a novel protective strategy against I/R-induced injury and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25960746

  5. Epithelial Cholesterol Deficiency Attenuates Human Antigen R-linked Pro-inflammatory Stimulation via an SREBP2-linked Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Yu, Mira; Park, Jae-Hong; Kim, Yong Sik; Moon, Yuseok

    2016-11-18

    Patients with chronic intestinal ulcerative diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, tend to exhibit abnormal lipid profiles, which may affect the gut epithelial integrity. We hypothesized that epithelial cholesterol depletion may trigger inflammation-checking machinery via cholesterol sentinel signaling molecules whose disruption in patients may aggravate inflammation and disease progression. In the present study, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) as the cholesterol sentinel was assessed for its involvement in the epithelial inflammatory responses in cholesterol-depleted enterocytes. Patients and experimental animals with intestinal ulcerative injuries showed suppression in epithelial SREBP2. Moreover, SREBP2-deficient enterocytes showed enhanced pro-inflammatory signals in response to inflammatory insults, indicating regulatory roles of SREBP2 in gut epithelial inflammation. However, epithelial cholesterol depletion transiently induced pro-inflammatory chemokine expression regardless of the well known pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB signals. In contrast, cholesterol depletion also exerts regulatory actions to maintain epithelial homeostasis against excessive inflammation via SREBP2-associated signals in a negative feedback loop. Mechanistically, SREBP2 and its induced target EGR-1 were positively involved in induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a representative anti-inflammatory transcription factor. As a crucial target of the SREBP2-EGR-1-PPARγ-associated signaling pathways, the mRNA stabilizer, human antigen R (HuR) was retained in nuclei, leading to reduced stability of pro-inflammatory chemokine transcripts. This mechanistic investigation provides clinical insights into protective roles of the epithelial cholesterol deficiency against excessive inflammatory responses via the SREBP2-HuR circuit, although the deficiency triggers transient pro-inflammatory signals. © 2016 by The American Society for

  6. Inflammatory reaction versus endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors expression, re-exploring secondary organ complications of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Ke, Yan; Zhu, Chun-yun; Tang, Ning; Tian, Deng-ke; Gao, Yue-hong; Zheng, Jian-pu; Bian, Ka

    2008-11-20

    , increased formation of carbonyl and nitrated proteins were also observed in the most organs of SHR. These findings suggest an enhanced inflammatory response in the organs of SHR, which might play a key role in pathogenesis of hypertension and secondary organ complications. Changes (increases) in PPARs expression may reflect a compensatory mechanism to the inflammatory status of hypertensive rats.

  7. Single-pass attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of protein secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandye M; Oswald, Lisa; Franzen, Stefan

    2002-07-15

    Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to a spectral library of proteins in H2O solution acquired by single-pass attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PCR was used to predict the secondary structure content, principally alpha-helical and the beta-sheet content, of proteins within a spectral library. Quantitation of protein secondary structure content was performed as a proof of principle that use of single-pass ATR-FT-IR is an appropriate method for protein secondary structure analysis. The ATR-FT-IR method permits acquisition of the entire spectral range from 700 to 3900 cm(-1) without significant interference from water bands. An "inside model space" bootstrap and a genetic algorithm (GA) were used to improve prediction results. Specifically, the bootstrap was utilized to increase the number of replicates for adequate training and validation of the PCR model. The GA was used to optimize PCR parameters, particularly wavenumber selection. The use of the bootstrap allowed for adequate representation of variability in the amide A, amide B, and C-H stretching regions due to differing levels of sample hydration. Implementation of the bootstrap improved the robustness of the PCR models significantly; however, the use of a GA only slightly improved prediction results. Two spectral libraries are presented where one was better suited for beta-sheet content prediction and the other for alpha-helix content prediction. The GA-optimized PCR method for alpha-helix content prediction utilized 120 wavenumbers within the amide I, II, A, B, and IV and the C-H stretching regions and 18 factors. For beta-sheet content predictions, 580 wavenumbers within the amide I, II, A, and B and the C-H stretching regions and 18 factors were used. The validation results using these two methods yielded an average absolute error of 1.7% for alpha-helix content prediction and an average absolute error of 2.3% for beta-sheet content prediction

  8. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to

  9. Phakic cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 responsive to topical anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Evan N; Gregori, Ninel Z; Goldhardt, Raquel

    2013-03-01

    To report a 65-year-old male patient with bilateral phakic cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1, with robust response to topical steroidal and non-steroidal agents. Retrospective interventional case report. Chart review. Snellen visual acuity was 20/40 bilaterally. Color fundus photographs showing golden crystalline deposits temporal to the fovea; fluorescein angiography demonstrating telangiectasias with late leakage; and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealing intraretinal and subretinal fluid demonstrated findings consistent with idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 with bilateral cystoid macular edema. The patient was treated with steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drops with complete resolution of edema within two months and improved visual acuity. Over the next two years, edema recurred whenever the drops were stopped and disappeared with reinstitution of topical therapy. Topical steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may lead to long-term resolution of cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1.

  10. Teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, attenuated pro-inflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipose tissue and inhibited atherogenesis in normoglycemic apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Salim, Hotimah Masdan; Fukuda, Daiju; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Hirata, Yoichiro; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2017-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have various cellular effects that are associated with vascular protection. Here, we examined whether teneligliptin alters the pro-inflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and inhibits atherogenesis. Teneligliptin (60mg/kg/day) was administered orally to apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice for 20weeks. Teneligliptin significantly inhibited the development of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch compared with vehicle (P<0.05), without alteration of blood glucose level or blood pressure. Histological analyses demonstrated that teneligliptin decreased lipid deposition and MCP-1 expression (P<0.05, respectively), and tended to decrease macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. The results of quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that teneligliptin reduced the expression of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α and MCP-1 in the abdominal aorta. Furthermore, teneligliptin reduced the expression of a macrophage marker and Nox-4, a major NADPH oxidase subunit in adipocytes, in PVAT around the aortic arch. Administration of teneligliptin for 8weeks ameliorated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and reduced oxidative stress as determined by urinary 8-OHdG excretion (P<0.05) compared with vehicle. In vitro experiments demonstrated that exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 analog, decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules in RAW264.7 cells. Also, Ex-4 decreased Nox4 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Teneligliptin inhibited atherogenesis with attenuation of the inflammatory phenotype in PVAT. A GLP-1 analog suppressed pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages and adipocytes. Suppression of the pro-inflammatory phenotype of PVAT might contribute, at least partially, to the cardioprotective effects of teneligliptin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) almond oil attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucillia R de O; Santana, Fernanda C de; Torres-Leal, Francisco L; Melo, Illana L P de; Yoshime, Luciana T; Matos-Neto, Emidio M; Seelaender, Marília C L; Araújo, Cintia M M; Cogliati, Bruno; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxin, capable of generating free radicals that lead to oxidative stress and the inflammation process. Pequi almond oil (PAO) has been reported to possess unsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant compounds related to beneficial effects on oxidation and inflammatory conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of handmade and coldpressed PAO on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The possible mechanisms underlying the effect on liver injury enzymes, histopathological parameters, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant and detoxification defense systems, as well as inflammatory parameters, were determined. Rats treated with PAO (3 or 6 mL/kg) for 21 days before CCl4 induction (3 mL/kg, 70%) showed significantly decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, milder hepatic lesions and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein compared to CCl4 group. Moreover, PAO enhanced antioxidant capacity by increasing hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities, as well as reducing circulating concentrations of leptin and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6, leukotrienes -4 and -5 and the tumor necrosis factor receptor. In summary, PAO, especially cold-pressed oil, attenuated the CCl4-induced alterations in serum and hepatic tissue in rats due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Niacin attenuates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced mouse alveolar macrophages by HCA2 dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Wei, Zhengkai; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    Niacin has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced acute lung injury. However, the molecular mechanism of niacin has not been fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of niacin on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in LPS-induced mouse alveolar macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Mouse alveolar macrophages were incubated in the presence or absence of various concentrations of niacin (1, 10, 100 μmol/l) 1h before LPS (1 μg/ml) challenge. The results showed that niacin reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in LPS-challenged alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, NF-κB activation was inhibited by niacin through blocking the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα. In addition, silencing HCA2 abrogated the effect of niacin on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggested that niacin attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines possibly mediated by HCA2 in LPS-challenged alveolar macrophages.

  13. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma.

  14. Mechanism of attenuation of pro-inflammatory Ang II-induced NF-κB activation by genistein in the kidneys of male rats during aging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Min; Uehara, Yohei; Choi, Yeon Ja; Ha, Young Mi; Ye, Byeong Hyeok; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2011-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is recognized as a pro-inflammatory mediator on age-related vascular inflammation. Ang II is one of the most important oxidative stress inducer, activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during aging. Genistein, a major component found in isoflavone, has anti-inflammatory activities that are often associated with its anti-oxidative activity. The purpose of this study is to document molecular mechanism of altered Ang II-related NF-κB activation during aging and inhibitory molecular events by genistein regarding to age-related Ang II-induced NF-κB activation. At present, we utilized young (6 months old), old (24 months old), and genistein-treated (2 and 4 mg/kg/day for 10 days) old rats. For our current study, we choose to use the kidney and rat endothelial cell line, YPEN-1 because of its vulnerability to age-related oxidative stress and inflammatory responsiveness. The results of the analysis showed that Ang II and AT1 expression increased during aging and that these increases were blunted by treatment with genistein. Furthermore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of genistein on the Ang II-induced redox imbalance in aged rat kidneys. Genistein reduced age-related increases in NF-κB activity and NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory genes expression. We also determined genistein attenuated Ang II-induced NF-κB activation through its anti-oxidant activity in YPEN-1 cells. Taken together, our present results show that genistein has potent anti-inflammatory effect resulting in the attenuation of the Ang II-induced NF-κB activation during aging. The most significant new finding from this study is that genistein exerts its anti-Ang II action during aging by suppressive effect of NF-κB activation. Based on these data, genistein may be an anti-Ang II agent that may be used in anti-inflammatory therapies.

  15. Nebulized Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Attenuates Coagulation and Exerts Modest Anti-inflammatory Effects in Rat Models of Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hofstra, Jorrit J; Brands, Xanthe; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Zaat, Sebastiaan A J; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-04-01

    Critically ill patients are at a constant risk of direct (e.g., by pneumonia) or indirect lung injury (e.g., by sepsis). Excessive alveolar fibrin deposition is a prominent feature of lung injury, undermining pulmonary integrity and function. We examined the effect of local administration of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI), a natural anticoagulant, in two well-established models of lung injury in rats. Rats received intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing direct lung injury, or they received an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), causing indirect lung injury. Rats were randomized to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo through repeated nebulization. Challenge with P. aeruginosa or LPS was associated with increased coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma. Rh-TFPI levels in BALF increased after nebulization, whereas plasma rh-TFPI levels remained low and systemic TFPI activity was not affected. Nebulization of rh-TFPI attenuated pulmonary and systemic coagulation in both models, without affecting fibrinolysis. Nebulization of rh-TFPI modestly reduced the inflammatory response and bacterial growth of P. aeruginosa in the alveolar compartment. Local treatment with rh-TFPI does not alter systemic TFPI activity; however, it attenuates both pulmonary and systemic coagulopathy. Furthermore, nebulized rh-TFPI modestly reduces the pulmonary inflammatory response and allows increased bacterial clearance in rats with direct lung injury caused by P. aeruginosa.

  16. Standardized Aqueous Tribulus terristris (nerunjil) extract attenuates hyperalgesia in experimentally induced diabetic neuropathic pain model: role of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Ranjithkumar, Ravichandran; Prathab Balaji, S; Balaji, Bhaskar; Ramesh, R V; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate standardized aqueous Tribulus terristris (nerunjil) extract on the pain threshold response in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathic pain model in rats. After a single injection of STZ (40 mg/kg; i.p.), Wistar male rats were tested by the thermal and chemical-induced pain models. Diabetic rats exhibited significant hyperalgesia, and these rats were left untreated for the first four weeks. Thereafter, treatment was initiated and continued up to week-8. All the rats except the vehicle-treated group received insulin 5 IU/kg/day to maintain plasma glucose levels. Treatment with nerunjil (100 and 300 mg/kg; p.o.) for 4 weeks significantly attenuated the nociception in behavioural models. Nerunjil also inhibited the tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 beta levels. The effect of nerunjil (300 mg/kg) is comparable to the standard drug Pregabalin (100 mg/kg). Nerunjil increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and decreased the lipid peroxide levels in dose-dependent manner. Insulin alone-treated rats failed to attenuate hyperalgesic response. In comparison to insulin alone-treated rats, nerunjil exhibited significant increase in the pain threshold response. It could be concluded that in controlled diabetic states, nerunjil attenuated the neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine release.

  17. Oxymatrine attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis via modulation of TLR4-dependent inflammatory and TGF-β1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Fang; Chai, Xuan; Li, Guang-Quan; Cui, He-Rong; Wang, Hong-Bo; Meng, Ya-Kun; Liu, Hui-Min; Wang, Jia-Bo; Li, Rui-Sheng; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-07-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is able to effectively protect against hepatic fibrosis because of its anti-inflammatory property, while the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. In this study, forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, model group (carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) and three OMT treatment groups (30, 60, 120mg/kg). After CCl4 alone, the fibrosis score was 20.2±0.8, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hydroxyproline content, and collagen I expression was elevated, but OMT blunted these parameters. Treatment with OMT prevented CCl4-induced increases in expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, meanwhile OMT promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic factors such as interleukin (IL)-10 and bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (Bambi). Moreover, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis through hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) or Kupffer cells, were significantly decreased by OMT treatment. These results were further supported by in vitro data. First, OMT suppressed the expression of TLR4 and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines, lowered the level of HMGB1, TGF-β1 in macrophages. Then, OMT promoted Bambi expression and thereby inhibited activation of HSCs mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In conclusion, this study showed that OMT could effectively attenuate the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, and this effect may be due to modulation of TLR4-dependent inflammatory and TGF-β1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MicroRNA-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting lipoprotein lipase gene in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    He, Ping-Ping; Ouyang, Xin-Ping; Tang, Yan-Yan; Liao, Li; Wang, Zong-Bao; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Tian, Guo-Ping; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Huang, Liang; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Tang, Yu Lin; Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuan; Wu, Jian-Feng; Peng, Juan; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yin, Wei-Dong; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNA-590 (miR-590) has protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is unknown. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown that macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) might accelerate atherosclerosis by promoting lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. However, the regulation of LPL at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs has not been fully understood. In this study, we explored whether miR-590 affects the expression of LPL and its potential subsequent effects on lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages. Using bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter assays, we found that miR-590 directly inhibited LPL protein and mRNA expression by targeting LPL 3'UTR. LPL Activity Assays showed that miR-590 reduced LPL activity in the culture media. Oil Red O staining and high-performance liquid chromatography assays showed that miR-590 had inhibitory effects on the lipid accumulation in human THP-1 macrophages. We also illustrated that miR-590 alleviated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages as measured by ELISA. With the method of small interfering RNA, we found that LPL siRNA can inhibit the miR-590 inhibitor-induced increase in lipid accumulation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-treated human THP-1 macrophages. MiR-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting LPL gene in human THP-1 macrophages. Therefore, targeting miR-590 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. A rare case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome presenting as secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Asma; Skalweit, Marion J

    2015-09-01

    Immune reconstitution syndrome has rarely been reported in the context of syphilis infection. We report a patient with AIDS (CD4 42 cells/mm(3), viral load 344,000 cp/ml), treated previously for secondary syphilis and started on an integrase inhibitor-based single-tablet antiretroviral treatment regimen. After four weeks of antiretroviral treatment, he presented with non-tender, non-blanching erythematous nodules on his chest, an elevated rapid plasma reagin (1:1024) and immune reconstitution (CD4 154 cells/mm(3), HIV-RNA 130 cp/ml). A detailed workup to exclude opportunistic infections including secondary and neurosyphilis was performed. The patient was continued on antiretroviral treatment and treated empirically for neurosyphilis given cerebrospinal lymphocytosis and dermatopathology suggesting treponemal antigen-driven B-cell hyperplasia. We favour a diagnosis of immune reconstitution in association with prior syphilis infection attributable to rapid and potent immune restoration afforded by integrase inhibitors.

  20. Acute inflammatory response secondary to intrapleural administration of two types of talc.

    PubMed

    Rossi, V F; Vargas, F S; Marchi, E; Acencio, M M P; Genofre, E H; Capelozzi, V L; Antonangelo, L

    2010-02-01

    Intrapleural instillation of talc has been used in the treatment of recurrent pleural effusions but can, in rare instances, result in respiratory failure. Side-effects seem to be related to composition, size and inflammatory power of talc particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to intrapleural injection of talc containing small particles (ST) or talc containing particles of mixed size (MT). 100 rabbits received intrapleural talc, 50 with ST (median 6.41 mum) and 50 with MT (median 21.15 mum); the control group was composed of 35 rabbits. Cells, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were evaluated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage at 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Lung histology and the presence of talc were also analysed. Statistics were performed using ANOVA and an unpaired t-test. Most of the parameters showed greater levels in the animals injected with talc than in the controls, suggesting a systemic and pulmonary response. Higher serum levels of CRP and IL-8 were observed in the animals injected with ST. Talc particles were observed in both lungs with no differences between groups. Lung cell infiltrate was more evident in the ST group. In conclusion, talc with larger particles should be the preferred choice in clinical practice in order to induce safer pleurodesis.

  1. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  2. Inflammatory pseudotumor of liver secondary to migrated fishbone - a rare cause with an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ulagendra Perumal; Duraisamy, Appasamy Benet; Ilango, Sethu; Rathinasamy, Arunachalam; Chandramohan, Servarayan Murugesan

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman presented with a history of vague epigastric pain which lasted for one day. She had no other gastrointestinal symptoms and had an unremarkable past history and physical examination. An ultrasound scan abdomen showed a 3×3.5 cm mass in the left lobe of liver. A CT scan showed an abnormal hypodense lesion with mild enhancement in the arterial phase, with a central calcification. Complete blood count, liver function test and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. A left lateral segmentectomy was performed after adequate pre-operative assessment. The specimen contained a 3 cm long fishbone. The post-operative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination revealed chronic non-specific inflammation with fibrosis. Inflammatory pseudotumor of liver is a rare benign tumor with uncertain etiopathogenesis. Suggested etiologies include a septic or a viral origin and it can occur after migration of sharp objects, including migrated fishbone. Inflammatory pseudotumor of liver can be a diagnostic challenge and may end up in major resection.

  3. The beneficial role of anti-inflammatory dietary ingredients in attenuating markers of chronic low-grade inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Kiran S; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-08-01

    Aging in humans is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic), and this condition is sometimes referred to as "inflammaging". In general, canines also age similarly to humans, and such aging is associated with a decline in mobility, joint problems, weakened muscles and bones, reduced lean body mass, cancer, increased dermatological problems, decline in cognitive ability, reduced energy, decreased immune function, decreased renal function, and urinary incontinence. Each of these conditions is also associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. An inflammatory state characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory markers including but not restricted to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is believed to contribute to or worsen a general decline in biological mechanisms responsible for physical function with aging. Nutritional management of inflammation in aging dogs is important in maintaining health. In particular, natural botanicals have bioactive components that appear to have robust anti-inflammatory effects and, when included in the diet, may contribute to a reduction in inflammation. While there are scientific data to support the anti-inflammatory effects and the efficacy of such bioactive molecules from botanicals, the clinical data are limited and more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these ingredients. This review will summarize the role of dietary ingredients in reducing inflammatory molecules as well as review the evidence available to support the role of diet and nutrition in reducing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in animal and human studies with a special reference to canines, where possible.

  4. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  5. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by interfering toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijin; Mo, Xiaodong; Yu, Jinlong; Huang, Zonghai

    2013-09-01

    Alpinetin, a novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of alpinetin on mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of alpinetin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. In the present study, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and an LPS-induced mouse mastitis model were used to investigate the effect of alpinetin on mastitis and the possible mechanism. In vivo, we observed that alpinetin significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase; down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4, caused by LPS. In vitro, we also observed that alpinetin inhibited the expression of TLR4 and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. However, alpinetin could not inhibit the production of IL-1β and IL-6 in TNF-α-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of alpinetin against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Alpinetin may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  6. Therapeutic treatment with ascorbate rescues mice from heat stroke-induced death by attenuating systemic inflammatory response and hypothalamic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-04-01

    The impact of ascorbate on oxidative stress-related diseases is moderate because of its limited oral bioavailability and rapid clearance. However, recent evidence of the clinical benefit of parenteral vitamin C administration has emerged, especially in critical care. Heatstroke is defined as a form of excessive hyperthermia associated with a systemic inflammatory response that results in multiple organ dysfunctions in which central nervous system disorders such as delirium, convulsions, and coma are predominant. The thermoregulatory, immune, coagulation and tissue injury responses of heatstroke closely resemble those observed during sepsis and are likely mediated by similar cellular mechanisms. This study was performed by using the characteristic high lethality rate and sepsis-mimic systemic inflammatory response of a murine model of heat stroke to test our hypothesis that supra-physiological doses of ascorbate may have therapeutic use in critical care. We demonstrated that parenteral administration of ascorbate abrogated the lethality and thermoregulatory dysfunction in murine model of heat stroke by attenuating heat stroke-induced accelerated systemic inflammatory, coagulation responses and the resultant multiple organ injury, especially in hypothalamus. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis and notion that supra-physiological doses of ascorbate may have therapeutic use in critical care.

  7. Preventive rather than therapeutic treatment with high fiber diet attenuates clinical and inflammatory markers of acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Ana Letícia Malheiros; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; da Cunha Sousa, Larissa Fonseca; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Vieira, Angelica Thomaz; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with important impact on global health. Prebiotic and probiotic strategies are thought to be useful in the context of experimental IBD. Here, we compared the effects of preventive versus therapeutic treatment with a high fiber diet (prebiotic) in combination or not with Bifidobacterium longum (probiotic) in a murine model of chronic colitis. Colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to drinking water for 6 days (acute colitis) or for 5 cycles of DSS (chronic colitis). Administration of the high fiber diet protected from acute colitis. Protection was optimal when diet was started 20 days prior to DSS. A 5-day pretreatment with acetate, a short-chain fatty acid, provided partial protection against acute colitis. In chronic colitis, pretreatment with the high fiber diet attenuated clinical and inflammatory parameters of disease. However, when the treatment with the high fiber diet started after disease had been established, overall protection was minimal. Similarly, delayed treatment with acetate or B. longum did not provide any protection even when the probiotic was associated with the high fiber diet. Preventive use of a high fiber diet or acetate clearly protects mice against acute and chronic damage induced by DSS in mice. However, protection is lost when therapies are initiated after disease has been established. These results suggest that any therapy aimed at modifying the gut environment (e.g., prebiotic or probiotic strategies) should be given early in the course of disease.

  8. Rebamipide attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) induced lipid peroxidation by the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression in gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Matsui, H; Shimokawa, O; Hirayama, A; Tamura, M; Nakamura, Y; Kaneko, T; Rai, K; Indo, H P; Majima, H J; Hyodo, I

    2012-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause gastrointestinal complications such as gastric ulcers and erosions. Recent studies on the pathogenesis have revealed that NSAIDs induce lipid peroxidation in gastric epithelial cells by generating superoxide anion in mitochondria, independently with cyclooxygenase-inhibition and the subsequent prostaglandin deficiency. Although not clearly elucidated, the impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, or uncoupling, by NSAIDs is associated with the generation of superoxide anion. Physiologically, superoxide is immediately transformed into hydrogen peroxide and diatomic oxygen with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Rebamipide is an antiulcer agent that showed protective effects against NSAID-induced lipid peroxidation in gastrointestinal tracts. We hypothesized that rebamipide may attenuate lipid peroxidation by increasing the expression of MnSOD protein in mitochondria and decreasing the leakage of superoxide anion in NSAID-treated gastric and small intestinal epithelial cells. Firstly, to examine rebamipide increases the expression of MnSOD proteins in mitochondria of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, we underwent Western blotting analysis against anti-MnSOD antibody in gastric RGM1 cells and small intestinal IEC6 cells. Secondly, to examine whether the pretreatment of rebamipide decreases NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation, we treated these cells with NSAIDs with or without rebamipide pretreatment, and examined with specific fluorescent indicators. Finally, to examine whether pretreatment of rebamipide attenuates NSAID-induced superoxide anion leakage from mitochondria, we examined the mitochondria from indomethacin-treated RGM1 cells with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using a specific spin-trapping reagent, CYPMPO. Rebamipide increased the expression of MnSOD protein, and attenuated NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation in RGM1

  9. Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Obstruction of the Left Main: Treated With Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, James; Sethi, Salil; Ahmed, Hinan; Prasad, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare tumor that can cause potentially fatal outcomes. Case Presentation We describe a case where the tumor originated on the mitral valve and extended through the left ventricular outflow tract and aortic valve and into the left main artery obstructing it. Due to the hemodynamic instability of the patient, we proceeded for cardiac catheterization with the intention to aspirate the mass but were forced to do percutaneous intervention to stabilize the patient and bridge him to surgery. Conclusions The patient underwent surgery several days later with complete resection of the tumor and coronary stent retrieval but his left ventricular ejection fraction remained poor after several months and he was referred for cardiac transplantation. PMID:27800457

  10. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril) on inflammatory markers in secondary prevention patients: RAICES Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez Santi, Ricardo G; Valeff, Eduardo C; Duymovich, Claudio R; Mazziotta, Daniel; Mijailovsky, Norma E; Filippa, Gerardo C; Maltez, Raúl; Hernandez, Violeta A; Monroy, Alejandro Gomez; Borzi, Jorge G; Acheme, Rosana A; Etchegoyen, María C

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy with ramipril reduces baseline levels of C-reactive protein in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Secondary prevention patients were screened for eligibility and treated with ramipril for 6 month. Baseline and 6-month highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels were determined. A total of 77 patients were analyzed. The median highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration at baseline was 2.17 mg/l (interquartile interval 0.97-4.54); whereas in post-treatment, the median was 1.70 mg/l (interquartile interval 0.88-3.41), P=0.0009. Patients were stratified according to risk level determined by baseline highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels: low-risk (<1 mg/l), intermediate risk (1-3 mg/l) and high risk (>3 mg/l) The reduction in highly sensitive C-reactive protein occurred at the expense of the high-risk group (baseline 5.02 mg/l, post-treatment 3.3 mg/l, P<0.0001), with no differences in the other groups. In multiple regression analysis, the reduction observed in the high-risk group could not be explained by baseline treatment or change in any of the variables analyzed. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels were reduced after a 6-month ramipril therapy in secondary prevention patients, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Future investigations will be done to confirm these results, and to investigate how angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment elicits anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers.

  12. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers. PMID:28640922

  13. Lophirones B and C Attenuate Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Mice: Studies on Hepatic, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2016-10-01

    Lophirones B and C are chalcone dimers with proven chemopreventive activity. This study evaluates the hepatoprotective effect lophirones B and C in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice using biomarkers of hepatocellular indices, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation. Oral administrations of lophirones B and C significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated acetaminophen-mediated alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and total bilirubin. Similarly, acetaminophen-mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated in the liver of mice. Increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly lowered by lophirones B and C. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and 8 were significantly lowered in serum of acetaminophen treated mice by the chalcone dimers. Overall, results of this study show that lophirones B and C halted acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity.

  14. Acai Juice Attenuates Atherosclerosis Through Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in ApoE Deficient Mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been shown to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of acai pulp or acai juices have been studied in human, animal and cell culture models. However, their potential effects on atheroscl...

  15. Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical allodynia by suppressing the spinal JNK1/2 pathway in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has a substantial analgesic effect on inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signal transduction pathway in the spinal cord is associated with inflammatory pain. However, the relationship between EA's analgesic effect and the JNK1/2 signal transduction pathway in the inflammatory pain remain unclear. In the present study, we used the established rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory pain to investigate the role of the spinal JNK1/2 pathway in EA-mediated analgesia. We observed a decrease in paw withdrawal thresholds and an increase in paw edema at 1 and 3 days after injecting CFA into the right hindpaw. CFA, 3 days after injection, upregulated expression of phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 (p-JNK1/2) protein and its downstream targets, the transcriptional regulators p-c-Jun and activator protein-1 (AP-1), as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). EA significantly alleviated CFA-induced inflammatory pain. In addition, EA reduced p-JNK1/2 protein levels and COX-2 mRNA expressions, a degree of down-regulated p-c-Jun protein level and AP-1 DNA binding activity in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA-administered animals, but it had no effect on TRPV1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, EA and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 synergistically inhibited CFA-induced hyperalgesia and suppressed the COX-2 mRNA expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Our findings indicate that EA alleviates inflammatory pain behavior, at least in part, by reducing COX-2 expression in the spinal cord via the JNK1/2 signaling pathway. Inactivation of the spinal JNK1/2 signal transduction pathway maybe the potential mechanism of EA's antinociception in the inflammatory pain model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Ablation of MicroRNA-33 Attenuates Inflammation and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation via Several Anti-Inflammatory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tetsushi; Horie, Takahiro; Baba, Osamu; Nishiga, Masataka; Nishino, Tomohiro; Izuhara, Masayasu; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Nishi, Hitoo; Usami, Shunsuke; Nakazeki, Fumiko; Ide, Yuya; Koyama, Satoshi; Kimura, Masahiro; Sowa, Naoya; Ohno, Satoko; Aoki, Hiroki; Hasagawa, Koji; Sakamoto, Kazuhisa; Minatoya, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi; Ono, Koh

    2017-09-07

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an increasingly prevalent and ultimately fatal disease with no effective pharmacological treatment. Because matrix degradation induced by vascular inflammation is the major pathophysiology of AAA, attenuation of this inflammation may improve its outcome. Previous studies suggested that microRNA-33 inhibition and genetic ablation of microRNA-33 increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and attenuated atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-33a-5p expression in central zone of human AAA was higher than marginal zone. MicroRNA-33 deletion attenuated AAA formation in both mouse models of angiotensin II- and calcium chloride-induced AAA. Reduced macrophage accumulation and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression were observed in calcium chloride-induced AAA walls in microRNA-33(-/-) mice. In vitro experiments revealed that peritoneal macrophages from microRNA-33(-/-) mice showed reduced matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression levels via c-Jun N-terminal kinase inactivation. Primary aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from microRNA-33(-/-) mice showed reduced monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuation. Both of the inactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were possibly because of the increase of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 that is a well-known target of microRNA-33. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol derived from microRNA-33(-/-) mice reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in macrophages and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that microRNA-33-deficient bone marrow cells ameliorated AAA formation in wild-type recipients. MicroRNA-33 deficiency in recipient mice was also shown to contribute the inhibition of AAA formation. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of microRNA-33 will be effective as a novel strategy for treating AAA. © 2017

  17. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Wei; Wu, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. PMID:27529233

  18. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway.

  19. Modest weight loss through a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modification seems to attenuate inflammatory responses in young obese Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, AeJin; Jeon, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Han, Sung Nim

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been reported to impair immune functions and lead to low-grade long-term inflammation; however, studies that have investigated the impact of weight loss on these among the young and slightly obese are limited. Thus, we investigated the effect of a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modifications on cell-mediated immune functions and inflammatory responses in young obese participants. Our hypothesis was that weight loss would result in improved immune functions and decreased inflammatory responses. Sixty-four participants (45 obese and 19 normal weight) finished the program. Obese (body mass index ≥25) participants took part in 5 group education and 6 individual counseling sessions. Normal-weight (body mass index 18.5-23) participants only attended 6 individual sessions. The goal for the obese was to lose 0.5 kg/wk by reducing their intake by 300 to 500 kcal/d and increasing their physical activity. Program participation resulted in a modest but significant decrease in weight (2.7 ± 0.4 kg, P < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1β production (from 0.85 ± 0.07 to 0.67 ± 0.07 ng/mL, P < .05) in the obese. In the obese group, increase in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated interleukin-10 production, a TH2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine, approached significance after program participation (from 6181 ± 475 to 6970 ± 632 pg/mL, P = .06). No significant changes in proliferative responses to the optimal concentration of concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin were observed in the obese after program participation. Collectively, modest weight loss did not change the cell-mediated immune functions significantly but did attenuate the inflammatory response in young and otherwise healthy obese adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral nanotherapeutics: Redox nanoparticles attenuate ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin inflammatory disorders in Kud:Hr- hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Chitho P; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    The active participation of an anti-inflammatory drug in the biological pathways of inflammation is crucial for the achievement of beneficial and therapeutic effects. This study demonstrated the development of redox nanoparticles that can circulate in the blood at significantly high levels, thus increasing their efficacy as an oral treatment against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an in vivo inflammatory skin model. To confirm the blood bioavailability of the nanoparticles, mice were injected with the nanoparticles solution (RNP(N)) via oral gavage. Using electron spin resonance and radioactive labeling techniques, the blood circulation of the redox polymer that forms the nanoparticles was confirmed 24 h after oral administration. This contrasted with its low molecular weight counterpart (NH2-TEMPO), which peaked 15 min post injection and was found to be cleared rapidly within minutes after the peak. We then tested its efficacy in the inflammatory skin model. Kud:Hr-hairless mice were irradiated with UVB (302 nm) to induce skin damage and inflammation. Throughout the entire period of UVB irradiation, RNP(N) was administered to mice by free drinking. NH2-TEMPO was used as the control. The results showed that oral supplementation of RNP(N) significantly improved the therapeutic effects of the core nitroxide radical compared with its low molecular weight counterpart. Furthermore, RNP(N) significantly reduced UVB-induced skin aging, epidermal thickening, edema, erythema, skin lesions, and various pathological skin inflammatory disorders in vivo. From the obtained data, we concluded that the use of long-circulating redox nanoparticles (RNP(N)) provided an effective treatment against the damaging effects of excessive ROS in the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Escin attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal injury after transient global cerebral ischemia in mice via regulating certain inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiming; Fu, Fenghua; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhu, Mei; Wang, Tian; Fan, Huaying

    2010-09-01

    Considerable evidence has been accumulated demonstrating an important role for inflammation in ischemic brain injury and its contribution to greater cerebral damage after ischemia. Blocking the inflammatory reaction promotes neuroprotection and shows therapeutic potential for clinical treatment of ischemic brain injury. Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, demonstrates antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effects. Here we assessed neuroprotective effects of escin with a transient global cerebral ischemia model. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries and withdrawing 0.3ml of blood from the tail vein in mice. Treatment with escin was initiated 0.5h after ischemia induction and given once a day for three consecutive days. Then animals were assessed using the Morris water-maze test and step-down passive avoidance test. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, histological pathology, and expression of inflammatory genes in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed escin significantly improved learning and memory recovery and reduced hippocampal damage in the cerebral ischemic mice. However, donepezil merely improved learning and memory recovery but did not ameliorate hippocampal damage in the cerebral ischemic mice. Furthermore, we found escin significantly downregulated certain inflammatory gene expression and upregulated expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which was recently reported as a neuroprotective protein in the brain. Our results indicate that inhibition of inflammation and protection of hippocampal neurons by escin may be a potentially useful therapy for ischemic brain injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of omega 6 inflammatory pathway by sodium metabisulfite in rat liver and its attenuation by ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sevim; Kencebay, Ceren; Basaranlar, Goksun; Ozcan, Filiz; Derin, Narin; Aslan, Mutay

    2015-02-17

    Sodium metabisulfite is commonly used as preservative in foods but can oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating molecular oxidation. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone primarily produced in the stomach and has anti-inflammatory effects in many organs. This study aimed to assess endogenous omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in rat peripheral organs following sodium metabisulfite treatment and determine the possible effect of ghrelin on changes in n-6 inflammatory pathway. Male Wistar rats included in the study were allowed free access to standard rat chow. Sodium metabisulfite was given by gastric gavage and ghrelin was administered intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) in liver, heart and kidney tissues were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in tissue samples to evaluate changes in n-6 inflammatory pathway. Omega-6 PUFA levels, AA/DHA and AA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in liver tissue following sodium metabisulfite treatment compared to controls. No significant change was observed in heart and kidney PUFA levels. Tissue activity of COX and PGE2 levels were also significantly increased in liver tissue of sodium metabisulfite treated rats compared to controls. Ghrelin treatment decreased n-6 PUFA levels and reduced COX and PGE2 levels in liver tissue of sodium metabisulfite treated rats. Current results suggest that ghrelin exerts anti-inflammatory action through modulation of n-6 PUFA levels in hepatic tissue.

  3. Apigenin attenuates acute myocardial infarction of rats via the inhibitions of matrix metalloprotease-9 and inflammatory reactions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; Hao, Jie; Liu, Fan; Lu, Jingchao; Yang, Xiuchun

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the myocardial necrosis caused by coronary artery acute and persistent ischemia and hypoxia. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in a series of process of occurrence and development of AMI. Inflammatory reaction plays the key role in all kinds of damage factors in AMI. Apigenin (API) has effectively restrained the activity of MMP-9, anti-inflammatory and hepatic fat oxidizing properties. API significantly improved AMI of rats through inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions in a few recent studies. Our investigation detected the infarct size of AMI rats, casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in AMI rats were also analyzed with commercial kits. Additionally, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels of whole bloods of AMI rats were also detected using commercial kits. Next, MMP-9 protein of cardiac in AMI rats was measured with gelatin zymography assays. Finally, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in AMI rats were analyzed with commercial kits. In the present study, our work indicated API might significantly reduce the infarction size of AMI rat. It was shown that the treatment of API could decrease the expression of MMP-9 level and reduce the activities of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in AMI rats. Next, API treatment could reduce caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities and decrease cellular apoptosis of AMI rats. Our findings concluded that API ameliorates acute myocardial infarction of rats via inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions. PMID:26309539

  4. 2-phenylethynesulfonamide Prevents Induction of Pro-inflammatory Factors and Attenuates LPS-induced Liver Injury by Targeting NHE1-Hsp70 Complex in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Wang, Jia; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The endotoxin-mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver disorders. Heat shock protein (Hsp70) overexpression has established functions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory response. However, little is known about the role of Hsp70 activity in LPS signaling. We hypothesized that inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity can ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing induction of pro-inflammatory factors. In this study, C57/BL6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with LPS and 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES), an inhibitor of Hsp70 substrate binding activity. We found that i. PES prevented LPS-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and liver cell apoptosis; ii. PES reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression as well as serum nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) content in LPS-stimulated mice; iii. PES reduced the mRNA level of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated liver. iiii. PES attenuated the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α) as well as the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in LPS-stimulated liver. Similar changes in the protein expression of inflammatory markers, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were observed in RAW 264.7 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that PES remarkably reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i and intracellular pH value (pHi) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, PES significantly reduced the increase in Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) association to Hsp70 in LPS-stimulated macrophages and liver, suggesting that NHE1-Hsp70 interaction is required for the involvement of NHE1 in the inflammation response. In conclusion, inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity in vivo reduces the induction of

  5. 2-phenylethynesulfonamide Prevents Induction of Pro-inflammatory Factors and Attenuates LPS-induced Liver Injury by Targeting NHE1-Hsp70 Complex in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Wang, Jia; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The endotoxin-mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver disorders. Heat shock protein (Hsp70) overexpression has established functions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory response. However, little is known about the role of Hsp70 activity in LPS signaling. We hypothesized that inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity can ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing induction of pro-inflammatory factors. In this study, C57/BL6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with LPS and 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES), an inhibitor of Hsp70 substrate binding activity. We found that i. PES prevented LPS-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and liver cell apoptosis; ii. PES reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression as well as serum nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) content in LPS-stimulated mice; iii. PES reduced the mRNA level of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated liver. iiii. PES attenuated the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α) as well as the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in LPS-stimulated liver. Similar changes in the protein expression of inflammatory markers, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were observed in RAW 264.7 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that PES remarkably reduced the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular pH value (pHi) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, PES significantly reduced the increase in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) association to Hsp70 in LPS-stimulated macrophages and liver, suggesting that NHE1-Hsp70 interaction is required for the involvement of NHE1 in the inflammation response. In conclusion, inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity in vivo reduces the

  6. A Survey of Psychological Support Provision for People with Inflammatory Arthritis in Secondary Care in England

    PubMed Central

    Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients’ quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. Methods A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Results Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as ‘inadequate’ and only 4% rated it as ‘good’. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive–behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Conclusions Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians’ training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24753071

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis induces anti-inflammatory effect in human macrophages by attenuation of immune mediators in Jurkat T-cells.

    PubMed

    Azenabor, Anthony A; Cintrón-Cuevas, Jenniffer; Schmitt, Heather; Bumah, Violet

    2011-12-01

    The chronic course of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is subtle with no obvious unusual inflammatory change. The reason for this is not clear. The data reported here explain how macrophage usual inflammatory response switches to anti-inflammatory response during C. trachomatis infection of mixed culture of macrophages and Jurkat T-cells. We assessed the establishment of productive infection in individual or mixed cell culture models, determined the status of C. trachomatis in the cells by monitoring HSP-60:MOMP or the proportions of the estimated IFUs that shed HSP-60 or MOMP. Also, the specific time-course expression of IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ or IL-12R, IL-10R, and IFN-γ-R during infection of cell models was assessed. Finally, the early events in cytokine elaboration in circumstances of varying intracellular Ca²⁺ levels were determined. There was evidence of productive infection in all individual and mixed cell culture models. The shedding of HSP-60 was highest in THP-1/Jurkat mixed cell culture model. The proportions of IFU that shed HSP-60 was heightened in infected THP-1/Jurkat mixed culture model, while the proportion of IFU that shed MOMP was higher in infected macrophage/Jurkat mixed culture and infected macrophages only. There was profound early elaboration of IL-10, varying significantly from IL-12 and IFN-γ in all infected individual or mixed cell culture models except in the case of Jurkat; where all cytokine elaboration was downregulated. The receptor to IL-10 was upregulated in infected macrophage/Jurkat cells and THP-1/Jurkat cells compared with other models in which IL-12 and IFN-γ receptors were more expressed. There was no observed significant change in cytokine in any model following the impairment of intracellular Ca²⁺ except in the case of macrophage/Jurkat cell model in which IL-12 and IL-10 were upregulated in 1h or 3 h, respectively. The implication of these findings is that C. trachomatis mediates a switch from inflammatory to anti-inflammatory

  8. Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Horváth, Béla; Bátkai, Sándor; Park, Ogyi; Tanashian, Galin; Gao, Rachel Y; Patel, Vivek; Wink, David A.; Liaudet, Lucas; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a pivotal mechanism of liver damage following liver transplantation or hepatic surgery. We have investigated the effects of cannabidiol(CBD), the non-psychotropic constituent of marijuana, in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered time-dependent increases/changes in markers of liver injury (serum transaminases), hepatic oxidative/nitrative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine content/staining, gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased complex I activity), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA levels, tissue neutrophil infiltration, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) activation), stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK) and cell death (DNA fragmentation, PARP activity, and TUNEL). CBD significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death, and also attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-KB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells, likewise the adhesion molecules expression in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α, and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium. These protective effects were preserved in CB2 knockout mice and were not prevented by CB1/2 antagonists in vitro. Thus, CBD may represent a novel, protective strategy against I/R injury by attenuating key inflammatory pathways and oxidative/nitrative tissue injury, independent from classical CB1/2 receptors. PMID:21362471

  9. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced alterations to reward behavior and corticosterone release.

    PubMed

    De La Garza, Richard; Fabrizio, Kevin R; Radoi, Gina Elena; Vlad, Tudor; Asnis, Gregory M

    2004-02-04

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to counteract stress hormone and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation. To extend these findings, we tested whether the NSAID diclofenac sodium would attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reductions in reward behavior. In the first experiment, male, Wistar rats pressed a lever for food reward and subsequently received 10 days treatment of saline (1 ml/kg, s.c.) or diclofenac (2.5mg/kg, s.c.). On the subsequent test day, rats were given a final injection of saline or diclofenac 30 min prior to LPS (20 micrograms/kg, i.p.). LPS significantly reduced rate of food self-administration and total reinforcers obtained and increased corticosterone levels in saline-treated rats, while these effects were significantly attenuated in diclofenac-treated rats. In the second experiment, rats pressed a lever for sweetened milk. In contrast to food self-administration, acute LPS exposure did not reduce rate of responding or total reinforcers obtained in either saline- or diclofenac-treated rats. In the third experiment, rats trained to press a lever for sweetened milk were pre-exposed to a high dose of LPS (250 micrograms/kg, i.p.) 2 weeks prior to a challenge injection of LPS. In this case, LPS challenge significantly reduced rate of sweetened milk self-administration, but not total reinforcers obtained, in saline-treated rats. Rats treated with diclofenac did not exhibit reductions in rate of responding or total reinforcers obtained. Overall, the data indicate that the NSAID diclofenac sodium counteracts LPS-induced reductions in reward behavior and corticosterone release, and may therefore have therapeutic potential for specific components of endotoxin-induced sickness behavior, including anhedonia.

  10. Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Abdenour; Bitam, Arezki; Bouazza, Asma; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups. The first group served as normal control (distilled water, 7 mL/kg bw), and the remaining groups were respectively treated with distilled water (7 mL/kg bw), acetic acid (0.5% w/v, 7 mL/kg bw) and vinegars of pomegranate, apple or prickly pear (at doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 mL/kg bw, acetic acid content as mentioned above) along with a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of the oral administration of FV for 18 weeks on the body and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weights, plasma inflammatory and cardiac enzymes biomarkers, and in heart tissue were evaluated. Vinegars treatments significantly (p < .05) attenuated the HFD-induced increase in bw (0.2-0.5-fold) and VAT mass (0.7-1.8-fold), as well as increase in plasma levels of CRP (0.1-0.3-fold), fibrinogen (0.2-0.3-fold), leptin (1.7-3.7-fold), TNF-α (0.1-0.6-fold), AST (0.9-1.4-fold), CK-MB (0.3-1.4-fold) and LDH (2.7-6.7-fold). Moreover, vinegar treatments preserved myocardial architecture and attenuated cardiac fibrosis. These findings suggest that pomegranate, apple and prickly pear vinegars may prevent HFD-induced obesity and obesity-related cardiac complications, and that this prevention may result from the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity properties of these vinegars.

  11. Targeting oxidative stress attenuates trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced inflammatory bowel disease like symptoms in rats: Role of quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Dodda, Dilip; Chhajed, Ruchi; Mishra, Jitendriya; Padhy, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of quercetin (QCT) against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced clinical, morphological, and biochemical alterations in rats. Materials and Methods: Colitis in rats was induced by administration of TNBS (25 mg dissolved in 0.25 ml of 30% ethanol) 8 cm into the rectum of the rat using a catheter. The animals were divided into six experimental groups (n = 6); naive (saline only without TNBS administration), control (saline + TNBS), standard (sulfasalazine 25 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (25) (QCT 25 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (50) (QCT 50 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (100) (QCT 100 mg/kg + TNBS). Sulfasalazine (25 mg/kg) and QCT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered per oral for 11 days and the colonic damage was evaluated in terms of macroscopical (body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, and ulcer index) and biochemical parameters (myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and glutathione). Results: Treatment with QCT (50, 100 mg/kg) for 10 days following TNBS administration significantly attenuated the clinical, morphological, and biochemical alterations induced by TNBS, whereas it was found to be not effective at its lower dose (25 mg/kg) throughout the experimental protocol. Conclusion: QCT attenuates the clinical, morphological and biochemical alterations induced by TNBS possibly via its antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24987175

  12. Total flavonoids of Mosla scabra leaves attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via down-regulation of inflammatory signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Jing-Bo; Yu, Chen-Huan; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Pan; Yu, Wen-Ying

    2013-07-30

    Mosla scabra (Thunb.) C.Y. Wu, belonging to the Labiatae family, is a tomentose and aromatic plant, which is widely used as an antipyretic and antiviral drug for pulmonary diseases and famous for its efficiency in treating colds, fever, pneumonia and chronic bronchitis. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of Mosla scabra flavonoids (MF) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were orally administrated with MF once (30 mg/kg or 90 mg/kg) 1 h before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analyses 6 h after LPS challenge. Pretreatment with MF could decrease significantly lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio, lower myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and total protein concentrations in the BALF, reduce serum levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in ALI model. Additionally, MF attenuated lung histopathological changes and significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and translocation of NF-κB p65. These results showed MF significantly attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury and production of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB activation, indicating it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kan, Juntao; Hood, Molly; Burns, Charlie; Scholten, Jeff; Chuang, Jennifer; Tian, Feng; Pan, Xingchang; Du, Jun; Gui, Min

    2017-09-06

    Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF), was prepared to treat male Sprague Dawley rats for 30 days before gastric mucosal damage was induced by oral administration of ethanol. The serum levels of biomarkers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomarkers in stomach tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used to investigate protein expression by Western blot. WPF could attenuate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with both ulcer index and pathological index improved. WPF increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased malondialdehyde level. WPF also decreased the levels of interleukin-8, platelet-activating factor, and Caspase 3, while increasing the levels of prostaglandin E-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases was induced by WPF in GES-1 cells. In conclusion, the novel combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival mechanisms.

  14. Optimization and Pharmacological Validation of a Leukocyte Migration Assay in Zebrafish Larvae for the Rapid In Vivo Bioactivity Analysis of Anti-Inflammatory Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Vicet-Muro, Liliana; Wilches-Arizábala, Isabel María; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.; Crawford, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as an attractive model for in vivo drug discovery. In this study, we explore the suitability of zebrafish larvae to rapidly evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of natural products (NPs) and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. First, we optimized a zebrafish assay for leukocyte migration. Inflammation was induced in four days post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae by tail transection and co-incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), resulting in a robust recruitment of leukocytes to the zone of injury. Migrating zebrafish leukocytes were detected in situ by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining, and anti-inflammatory activity was semi-quantitatively scored using a standardized scale of relative leukocyte migration (RLM). Pharmacological validation of this optimized assay was performed with a panel of anti-inflammatory drugs, demonstrating a concentration-responsive inhibition of leukocyte migration for both steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs and NSAIDs). Subsequently, we evaluated the bioactivity of structurally diverse NPs with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, we further used this zebrafish-based assay to quantify the anti-inflammatory activity in the aqueous and methanolic extracts of several medicinal plants. Our results indicate the suitability of this LPS-enhanced leukocyte migration assay in zebrafish larvae as a front-line screening platform in NP discovery, including for the bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory secondary metabolites from complex NP extracts. PMID:24124487

  15. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler S; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H; Chen, Chun-Chia; Pierzchala, Anna V; Paul, Jose A; Kao, John Y

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological data have recently emerged to suggest Helicobacter pylori may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H pylori and IBD has not been described. The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) was analysed by cytokine production. The effect of H pylori DNA on Escherichia coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in-vivo significance of H pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H pylori-colonised and non-colonised patients. H pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In-vitro experiments revealed the inability of H pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDC or human plasmacytoid DC. H pylori DNA was also able to suppress E coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. The administration of H pylori DNA before the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis compared with E coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H pylori-colonised patients than non-colonised controls. This study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to downregulate pro-inflammatory responses from DC and this may partly explain the inverse association between H pylori and IBD.

  16. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Recently there has been emerging epidemiological data to suggest Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H. pylori and IBD has not been described. Methods The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was analyzed by cytokine production. The effect of H. pylori DNA on E. coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in vivo significance of H. pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a DSS-model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H. pylori-colonized and non-colonized patients. Results We showed that H. pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In vitro experiments revealed the inability of H. pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDCs or human pDCs. Additionally, H. pylori DNA was able to suppress E. coli-DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. Administration of H. pylori DNA prior to the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis as compared to E. coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H. pylori-colonized patients versus non-colonized controls. Conclusions Overall, our study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory responses from DCs and this may in part explain the inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. PMID:21471567

  17. Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa, José C; Caris, Aline V; Pinheiro, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-05-01

    To clarify the effects of natural dietary components on the metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of yerba mate extract Ilex paraguariensis on both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity and correlated the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level with adipose depot weight. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group (CTL) fed with chow diet, a second group fed with chow diet plus yerba mate extract (CTL+E), a third group fed with a high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD) and a fourth group fed with HFD plus yerba mate extract (HFD+E). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, colorimetric method and treatment by gavage were utilized as materials and methods. The HFD groups showed a significant increase in food intake (kcal), body weight, adipose tissue and leptin level in comparison to CTL and CTL+E. HFD leads to increase of both central and peripheral inflammatory effects, and deregulation of insulin pathway. In addition, yerba mate extract intake blunted the proinflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats by reducing the phosphorylation of hypothalamic IKK and NFκBp65 expression and increasing the phosphorylation of IκBα, the expression of adiponectin receptor-1 and consequently the amount of IRS-2. Moreover, the increase in interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the liver and muscle and of the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in groups that received yerba mate extract showed the anti-inflammatory effects of this natural substance. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of yerba mate extract may be useful for reducing low-grade obesity-associated inflammation.

  18. Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender; Arunraja, S

    2015-12-04

    In traditional medicine, Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a chief ingredient of many formulation for the treatment of inflammatory and bone disorders.. The study was carried out to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of C. quadrangularis hydroalcoholic extract (CQHE) and to explore the plausible mechanism of action. Arthritis was induced by sub plantar administration of formaldehyde (2% v/v) and 0.1ml of complete Freund's adjuvant. Joint swelling was measured on days 8, 9 and 10 in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and on 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) respectively. Serum and ankle joints of AIA rats were used for estimation of serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress markers and synovial expression of proinflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1), angiogenesis marker (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3& 9). An acute and 28-day oral toxicity was carried out to evaluate the safety of the test drug. CQHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling in both formaldehyde-induced and adjuvant induced arthritis. CQHE treatment also reduced serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress and synovial expression of inflammatory and angiogenesis marker. In sub acute toxicity study of CQHE, chronic administration of CQHE did not produce any physiological and pathological changes as compared to normal rats. Our study demonstrated the anti-arthritic potential of C. quadrangularis and it validates its traditional use for the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Palmatine from Mahonia bealei attenuates gut tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    MA, WEI-KUN; LI, HUI; DONG, CUI-LAN; HE, XIN; GUO, CHANG-RUN; ZHANG, CHUN-FENG; YU, CHUN-HAO; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2016-01-01

    Mahonia bealei is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat various ailments, in particular gastrointestinal inflammation-related illnesses, and palmatine is one of its active constituents. In this study, ApcMin/+ mice, a genetically engineered model, were used to investigate the effects of palmatine on the initiation and progression of gut inflammation and tumorigenesis enhanced by a high-fat diet. The in vitro antiproliferation and anti-inflammation effects of palmatine were evaluated on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cell lines. The concentration-related antiproliferative effects of palmatine on both cell lines (P<0.01) were observed. Palmatine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 levels in the HT-29 cells (P<0.01). In the in vivo studies with ApcMin/+ mice, after 10 or 20 mg/kg/day oral palmatine treatment, tumor numbers were significantly reduced in the small intestine and colon in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01 compared with the model group). The results were supported by tumor distribution data, body weight changes and organ index. The effect on survival was also dose-dependent. Both the low- and high-dose palmatine treatments significantly increased the life span of the mice (P<0.01). The gut histology from the model group showed a prominent adenomatous change along with inflammatory lesions. With palmatine treatment, however, the dysplastic changes were greatly reduced in the small intestine and colon tissue. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL1-β, IL-8, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the gut tissue showed that these inflammatory cytokines were reduced significantly following treatment (all P<0.01); serum cytokine levels were also decreased. Data suggests that palmatine has a clinical value in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and this action is likely linked to the

  20. α-TLR2 antibody attenuates the Aβ-mediated inflammatory response in microglia through enhanced expression of SIGIRR.

    PubMed

    Costello, Derek A; Carney, Dónal G; Lynch, Marina A

    2015-05-01

    The immunoregulatory function of single-Ig-interleukin-1 related receptor (SIGIRR) is derived from its ability to constrain the inflammatory consequences of interleukin (IL)-1R and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 activation. This role extends to the brain, where SIGIRR deficiency increases the synaptic and cognitive dysfunction associated with IL-1R- and TLR4-mediated signalling. The current study set out to investigate the interaction between SIGIRR and TLR2 in brain tissue and the data demonstrate that the response to the TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4 (Pam3Cys4), is enhanced in glial cells from SIGIRR(-/-) animals. Consistent with the view that β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) signals through activation of TLR2, the data also show that Aβ-induced changes are exaggerated in glia from SIGIRR(-/-) animals. We report that microglia, rather than astrocytes, are the primary glial cell expressing both TLR2 and SIGIRR. While Aβ increased TLR2 expression, it decreased SIGIRR expression in microglia. This was mimicked by direct activation of TLR2 with Pam3Cys4. We investigated the effect of an anti-TLR2 antibody (αTLR2) on the Aβ-induced inflammatory responses and demonstrate that it prevented the expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 from microglia. In addition, application of αTLR2 alleviated the Aβ-mediated impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal synaptic activity. The protective effects of αTLR2 were accompanied by an up-regulation in SIGIRR expression. We propose that a mechanism involving activation of PI3 kinase/Akt and the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ may facilitate this increase in SIGIRR. These findings highlight a novel role of SIGIRR as a negative regulator of TLR2-mediated inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbocisteine attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells via NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shao-Xuan; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2015-02-01

    Carbocisteine is a mucolytic drug with anti-oxidative effect, we had previously proved that carbocisteine remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, very little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A549 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with H2O2 as damaged cell models, carbocisteine was administered 24h prior to or after H2O2 exposure, and the protective effects of carbocisteine were determined by MTT, qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that carbocisteine could increase cell viability and decrease LDH, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the supernatant. Additionally, carbocisteine decreased IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IP-10 and MIP-1β mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, carbocisteine could attenuate phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 and inhibit the nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 induced by H2O2. In conclusion, carbocisteine inhibited H2O2-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells, NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK were the target pathways.

  2. Phytic acid attenuates inflammatory responses and the levels of NF-κB and p-ERK in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model of mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zheng; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, Cun; Xu, Pingping; Liu, Lu; Gai, Xiaoying; Lu, Tingxiu

    2015-06-15

    Phytic acid (PA) is a naturally occurring constituent which exhibits protective action in Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is strongly associated with neuronal death in PD. However, the molecular mechanism of the protective effect of PA in PD has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we tried to testify the protection of PA on neuron and inflammatory responses in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model of mice and investigated the mechanism involved in them. Motor behavior test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry method showed PA significantly inhibited MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, using immunohistochemistry method and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), microglial activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were found to be markedly repressed by PA. Via western blot assay, expressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were significantly attenuated by PA. In conclusion, it is suggested that PA has a neuroprotective effect in MPTP-induced PD model and the neuroprotection is correlated with its anti-inflammatory effect which may be associated with suppression of pathways that involved in NF-κB and p-ERK.

  3. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

  4. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  5. The Sirt1 activator SRT1720 attenuates angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis in apoE{sup −/−} mice through inhibiting vascular inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi xi; Zhang, Man; Cai, Yuehua; Zhao, Qihui; Dai, Wenjian

    2015-10-02

    Activation of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) has been shown consistent antiinflammatory function. However, little information is available on the function of SIRT1 during Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced atherosclerosis. Here we report atheroprotective effects of sirt1 activation in a model of AngII-accelerated atherosclerosis, characterized by suppression pro-inflammatory transcription factors Nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription. (STAT) signaling pathway, and atherosclerotic lesion macrophage content. In this model, administration of the SIRT1 agonist SRT1720 substantially attenuated AngII-accelerated atherosclerosis with decreasing blood pressure and inhibited NF-κB and STAT3 activation, which was associated with suppression of inflammatory factor and atherogenic gene expression in the artery. In vitro studies demonstrated similar changes in AngII-treated VSMCs and macrophages: SIRT1 activation inhibited the expression levels of proinflammatory factor. These studies uncover crucial proinflammatory mechanisms of AngII and highlight actions of SIRT1 activation to inhibit AngII signaling, which is atheroprotective. - Highlights: • SRT1720 reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in aortic arches and atherosclerotic lesion macrophage content. • SRT1720 could inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT3 and p65 phosphorylation and translocation. • SRT1720 could inhibit the expression of proinflammatory factor.

  6. Attenuation of monocyte chemotaxis--a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for the cardio-protective hormone B-type natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Glezeva, Nadezhda; Collier, Patrick; Voon, Victor; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris; Baugh, John

    2013-08-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a prognostic and diagnostic marker for heart failure (HF). An anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective role for BNP was proposed. In cardiovascular diseases including pressure overload-induced HF, perivascular inflammation and cardiac fibrosis are, in part, mediated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1-driven monocyte migration. We aimed to determine the role of BNP in monocyte motility to MCP1. A functional BNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) was identified in human monocytes. BNP treatment inhibited MCP1-induced THP1 (monocytic leukemia cells) and primary monocyte chemotaxis (70 and 50 %, respectively). BNP did not interfere with MCP1 receptor expression or with calcium. BNP inhibited activation of the cytoskeletal protein RhoA in MCP1-stimulated THP1 (70 %). Finally, BNP failed to inhibit MCP1-directed motility of monocytes from patients with hypertension (n = 10) and HF (n = 6) suggesting attenuation of this anti-inflammatory mechanism in chronic heart disease. We provide novel evidence for a direct role of BNP/NPRA in opposing human monocyte migration and support a role for BNP as a cardio-protective hormone up-regulated as part of an adaptive compensatory response to combat excess inflammation.

  7. Benznidazole, the trypanocidal drug used for Chagas disease, induces hepatic NRF2 activation and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Flavia; Motiño, Omar; Villar, Silvina; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; de Luján Alvarez, María; Catania, Viviana A; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Quiroga, Ariel Darío; Francés, Daniel Eleazar; Ronco, María Teresa

    2017-01-15

    Molecular mechanisms on sepsis progression are linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular antioxidant capacity. Previous studies demonstrated that benznidazole (BZL), known for its antiparasitic action on Trypanosoma cruzi, has immunomodulatory effects, increasing survival in C57BL/6 mice in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mechanism by which BZL inhibits inflammatory response in sepsis is poorly understood. Also, our group recently reported that BZL is able to activate the nuclear factor erytroide-derived 2-Like 2 (NRF2) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to delineate the beneficial role of BZL during sepsis, analyzing its effects on the cellular redox status and the possible link to the innate immunity receptor TLR4. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of BZL on Nrf2 regulation and TLR4 expression in liver of mice 24hours post-CLP. BZL was able to induce NRF2 nuclear protein localization in CLP mice. Also, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NRF2 nuclear accumulation and induction of its target genes. In addition, BZL prompted a reduction in hepatic CLP-induced TLR4 protein membrane localization, evidencing its immunomodulatory effects. Together, our results demonstrate that BZL induces hepatic NRF2 activation with the concomitant increase in the antioxidant defenses, and the attenuation of inflammatory response, in part, by inhibiting TLR4 expression in a murine model of sepsis.

  8. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates the inflammatory response via modulating p38 and JNK signaling pathways in rats with TNBS-induced relapsing colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Lai; Guo, Tian-Kang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hui; Liu, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wan; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Li-Ping; Yan, Shuai; Wu, Di; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects and the protective mechanism of ginsenoside Rd (GRd) which has been identified as one of the effective compounds from ginseng on relapsing colitis model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. After inducing relapsing colitis in experimental rats on two occasions by intracolonic injection of TNBS, GRd (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) was administered to experimental colitis rats for 7 days. The inflammatory degree was assessed by macroscopic score, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was analyzed by western blotting method. The results showed that GRd markedly attenuates the inflammatory response to TNBS-induced relapsing colitis, as evidenced by improved signs, increased body weight, decreased colonic weight/length ratio, reduced colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, inhibited the activity of MPO, lowered proinflammatory cytokine levels and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. The possible mechanism of protection on experimental colitis after GRd administration was that it could reduce the accumulation of leukocytes and down-regulate multiple proinflammatory cytokines through modulation of JNK and p38 activation.

  9. Lipoxygenase directed anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous secondary metabolites: ADMET-based screening, molecular docking and dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Awasthi, Manika; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2017-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs), key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, are well known to participate in the inflammatory and immune responses. With the recent reports of involvement of 5-LOX (one of the isozymes of LOX in human) in cancer, there is a need to find out selective inhibitors of 5-LOX for their therapeutic application. In the present study, plant-derived 300 anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous secondary metabolites (100 each of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids) have been screened for their pharmacokinetic properties and subsequently docked for identification of potent inhibitors of 5-LOX. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that only 18 alkaloids, 26 flavonoids, and 9 terpenoids were found to fulfill all the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity descriptors as well as those of Lipinski's Rule of Five. Docking analyses of pharmacokinetically screened metabolites and their comparison with a known inhibitor (drug), namely zileuton revealed that only three alkaloids, six flavonoids and three terpenoids were found to dock successfully with 5-LOX with the flavonoid, velutin being the most potent inhibitor among all. The results of the docking analyses were further validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation and binding energy calculations for the complexes of 5-LOX with velutin, galangin, chrysin (in order of LibDock scores), and zileuton. The data revealed stabilization of all the complexes within 15 ns of simulation with velutin complex exhibiting least root-mean-square deviation value (.285 ± .007 nm) as well as least binding energy (ΔGbind = -203.169 kJ/mol) as compared to others during the stabilization phase of simulation.

  10. Forsythiaside attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by downregulating the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guangdong; Zhao, Yulian; Li, He; Wu, Yue; Li, Xianxian; Han, Qiang; Dai, Chongshan; Li, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Forsythiaside, a phenylethanoside product isolated from air-dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa, has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. However, its mechanism and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of forsythiaside on LPS-induced acute inflammation. In addition, the potential molecular mechanisms of forsythiaside were analyzed in the BF, a special immune organ in chickens. Forty 15-day-old chickens were randomly divided into control, LPS and LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups (n=10 for each group). In the LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups, the chickens were orally administered with forsythiaside at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg for seven days. At 21 days old, the chickens were intravenously injected with 200 μg/kg body weight LPS. Chickens in the control and LPS groups were only administered with vehicle or LPS, respectively, at day 21. At 3 h post-injection, the body temperature and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analyzed. In addition, the levels and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were examined in the BFs isolated from the chickens. The results revealed that forsythiaside was able to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the BFs of the chickens. The mechanisms by which forsythiaside exerted its anti-inflammatory effect were found to correlate with the inhibition of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 production, via the inactivation of NF-κB, indicating that the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway may be important in this process.

  11. Lunasin attenuates obesity-related inflammation in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Mei-Jia; Wang, Chih-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has become a major threat to public health and is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which leads to various pathological developments. Lunasin, a natural seed peptide, exhibits several biological activities, such as anti-carcinogenesis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the mechanism of action of lunasin in obesity-related inflammation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether lunasin could reduce the inflammation induced by obesity-related mediators in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it could attenuate the crosstalk between the two cell lines. RAW264.7 cells were cultured in leptin-containing medium, adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), or co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells to mimic the physiology of obesity. The data showed that the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was inhibited by lunasin after leptin activation of RAW264.7 cells. In addition, lunasin decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1β secretions in the Ad-CM model. Cytokine MCP-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β secretions were significantly decreased by leptin or Ad-CM plus lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Subsequently, the co-culture of the two cells refined the direct relation between them, resulting in apparently increased MCP-1, and decreased IL-6 levels after lunasin treatment. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, lunasin also exhibited anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting MCP-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and leptin productions stimulated by (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide, or RAW264.7 cell-conditioned medium. This result revealed that lunasin acts as a potential anti-inflammatory agent not only in macrophages but also in adipocytes, disrupting the crosstalk between these two cells. Therefore, this study suggests the intake of lunasin from diet or as a supplement, for auxiliary prevention or therapy in obesity-related inflammatory applications. PMID

  12. Shizukaol B, an active sesquiterpene from Chloranthus henryi, attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Long; Xu, Peng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Hu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xin-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of shizukaol B, a lindenane-type dimeric sesquiterpene isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus henryi, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of BV2 microglial cells in vitro. Our data showed that shizukaol B concentration-dependently suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Meanwhile, shizukaol B concentration- and time-dependently inhibited LPS-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK) activation, but had little effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 or p38 phosphorylation. Furthermore, shizukaol B significantly blocked LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, evidenced by reduced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1. Taken together, our findings suggest that shizukaol B exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-activated microglia partly by modulating JNK-AP-1 signaling pathway.

  13. A static magnetic field attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuro-inflammatory response via IL-6-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Kuo; Huang, Haw-Ming; Yang, Po-Chieh; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wang, Peter Da-Yun; Leung, Ting-Kai; Chen, Chi-Jen; Chang, Wei-Jen

    2014-06-01

    An effective method for controlling brain damage and neurodegeneration caused by inflammation remains elusive. Down-expression of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines resulting in endotoxin tolerance is reported as an alternative anti-infection treatment. Nonetheless, because the dosage and action site are hard to control, endotoxin tolerance caused by low-dose LPS injection in brain tissue may induce side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that static magnetic fields (SMF) stimulate endotoxin tolerance in brain tissue. In this study, survival rate and pathological changes in brain tissues of LPS-challenged mice were examined with and without SMF treatment. In addition, the effects of SMF exposure on growth rate and cytokine expression of LPS-challenged BV-2 microglia cells were monitored. Our results showed that SMF pre-exposure had positive effects on the survival rate and histological outcomes of LPS-treated mice. Furthermore, SMF exposure significantly decreased IL-6 expression in BV-2 cells (p < 0.05) by a phenomenon similar to endotoxin tolerance. We suggest that SMF has potential as an alternative simulation source for controlling LPS-induced excess neuro-inflammatory response.

  14. The anti-inflammatory properties of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil attenuate the effects of traumatic brain injuries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbasloo, Elham; Dehghan, Fatemeh; Khaksari, Mohammad; Najafipour, Hamid; Vahidi, Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Asadikaram, Golamreza

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern affecting the general public as well as military personnel. However, there is no FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of TBIs. In this work, we investigated the neurotherapeutic effects of the well-known natural Iranian medicine Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil (SKEO) on the outcomes of diffused experimental TBI, with particular attention paid to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i.p) SKEO after induction of diffused TBIs. The results showed that injecting SKEO (200 mg/kg) 30 minutes after TBI significantly reduced brain oedema and damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and limited the post-TBI increase in intracranial pressure. The veterinary coma scale (VCS) scores significantly improved in the treatment group. Also, inflammatory marker assays showed reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and increased IL-10 in the treated groups. Moreover, the immunohistochemical results indicated that SKEO not only reduced neuronal death and BBB permeability but also affected astrocytic activation. Overall, our data indicate potential clinical neurological applications for SKEO. PMID:27535591

  15. Attenuation of stress induced memory deficits by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats: Role of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Emad, Shaista; Qadeer, Sara; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira

    2017-04-01

    Repeated stress paradigms have been shown to cause devastating alterations on memory functions. Stress is linked with inflammation. Psychological and certain physical stressors could lead to neuroinflammation. Inflammatory process may occur by release of mediators and stimulate the production of prostaglandins through cyclooxygenase (COX). Treatment with COX inhibitors, which restrain prostaglandin production, has enhanced memory in a number of neuroinflammatory states showing a potential function for raised prostaglandins in these memory shortfalls. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of indomethacin and diclofenac sodium on memory in both unrestraint and restraint rats were observed. Two components, long term memory and short term memory were examined by Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively. The present study also demonstrated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes along with the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of MWM and EPM showed significant effects of drugs in both unrestraint and restraint rats as escape latency and transfer latency, in respective behavioral models were decreased as compared to that of control. This study also showed NSAIDs administration decreased LPO and increased antioxidant enzymes activity and decreased AChE activity in rats exposed to repeated stress. In conclusion this study suggests a therapeutic potential of indomethacin and diclofenac against repeated stress-induced memory deficits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    PubMed Central

    Bhawamai, Sassy; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Hou, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice. PMID:27652685

  17. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Choul; Park, Sang Mi; Hwangbo, Min; Byun, Sung Hui; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Jee, Seon Young

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH) on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL) had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:24250718

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Acetone Extract of Saraca asoca Seeds on Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Attenuating Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Sasmal, Saumyakanti; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Saraca asoca has been traditionally used in Indian system for treatment of uterine, genital, and other reproductive disorders in women, fever, pain, and inflammation. The hypothesis of this study is that acetone extract of Saraca asoca seeds is an effective anti-inflammatory treatment for arthritis in animal experiments. The antiarthritic effect of its oral administration on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis has been studied in Wistar albino rats after acute and subacute toxicities. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of high concentrations of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins, while no mortality or morbidity was observed up to 1000 mg/kg dose during acute and subacute toxicity assessments. Regular treatment up to 21 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with Saraca asoca acetone extract (at 300 and 500 mg/kg doses) increases RBC and Hb, decreases WBC, ESR, and prostaglandin levels in blood, and restores body weight when compared with control (normal saline) and standard (Indomethacin) groups. Significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect was observed especially at higher dose on paw edema, ankle joint inflammation, and hydroxyproline and glucosamine concentrations in urine. Normal radiological images of joint and histopathological analysis of joint, liver, stomach, and kidney also confirmed its significant nontoxic, antiarthritic, and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24729890

  19. Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT1R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT1R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21383952

  20. Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, attenuates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced endothelial cell injury through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Mao, Ping; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Chang-Hou

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockers protect against brain ischemia by mechanisms dependent on and independent of arterial blood pressure. However, the effects of AT1-R blockers on brain endothelial cell injury and detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study is to investigate whether azilsartan, an AT1-R blocker, could attenuate oxidative injury in endothelial cells via regulating mitochondrial function and inflammatory responses. We found that treatment with azilsartan suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) by increasing cell viability, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Azilsartan significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on antioxidant system. We also detected preserved mitochondrial function after azilsartan treatment, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, preserved ATP synthesis and inhibited mitochondrial swelling. In addition, azilsartan differently regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Pretreatment with eNOS inhibitor L-NIO partially prevented the azilsartan-induced regulation of cytokines and protection. Furthermore, azilsartan-induced protection in our in vitro model was shown to be associated with protein stability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Overall, our data suggest that the AT1-R blocker azilsartan may have therapeutic values in treating endothelial dysfunction associated neurological disorders through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A deficiency of Herp, an endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, suppresses atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice by attenuating inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Shohei; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Eiji; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Herp was originally identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein in vascular endothelial cells. ER stress is induced in atherosclerotic lesions, but it is not known whether Herp plays any role in the development of atherosclerosis. To address this question, we generated Herp- and apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice (Herp(-/-); apoE(-/-) mice) by crossbreeding Herp(-/-) mice and apoE(-/-) mice. Herp was expressed in the endothelial cells and medial smooth muscle cells of the aorta, as well as in a subset of macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesions in apoE(-/-) mice, while there was no expression of Herp in the Herp(-/-); apoE(-/-) mice. The doubly deficient mice developed significantly fewer atherosclerotic lesions than the apoE(-/-) mice at 36 and 72 weeks of age, whereas the plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different between the strains. The plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acids were significantly lower in the Herp(-/-); apoE(-/-) mice when they were eight and 16 weeks old. The gene expression levels of ER stress response proteins (GRP78 and CHOP) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1) in the aorta were significantly lower in Herp(-/-); apoE(-/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) mice, suggesting that Herp mediated ER stress-induced inflammation. In fact, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Herp-deficient mice and RAW264.7 macrophages in which Herp was eliminated with a siRNA expressed lower levels of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines when they were treated with tunicamycin. Herp deficiency affected the major mediators of the unfolded protein response, including IRE1 and PERK, but not ATF6. These findings suggest that a deficiency of Herp suppressed the development of atherosclerosis by attenuating the ER stress-induced inflammatory reactions.

  2. Olmesartan, an AT1 antagonist, attenuates oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiac inflammatory mediators in rats with heart failure induced by experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-02-11

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT(1)R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT(1)R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Luteolin is a bioflavonoid that attenuates adipocyte-derived inflammatory responses via suppression of nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nepali, Sarmila; Son, Ji-Seon; Poudel, Barun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Dae-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inflammation of adipocytes has been a therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders which cause insulin resistance and hence lead to type II diabetes. Luteolin is a bioflavonoid with many beneficial properties such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-cancer. Objectives: To elucidate the potential anti-inflammatory response and the underlying mechanism of luteolin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Materials and Methods: We stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the mixture of tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide, and interferon-γ (TLI) in the presence or absence of luteolin. We performed Griess’ method for nitric oxide (NO) production and measure mRNA and protein expressions by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Results: Luteolin opposed the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and NO production by simultaneous treatment of adipocytes with TLI. Furthermore, it reduced the pro-inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, resistin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Furthermore, luteolin improved the insulin sensitivity by enhancing the expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS1/2) and glucose transporter-4 via phosphatidylinositol-3K signaling pathway. This inhibition was associated with suppression of Iκ-B-α degradation and subsequent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation to the nucleus. In addition, luteolin blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal Kinases and also p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Conclusions: These results illustrate that luteolin attenuates inflammatory responses in the adipocytes through suppression of NF-κB and MAPKs activation, and also improves insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting that luteolin may represent a therapeutic agent to prevent obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26246742

  4. Thiol-based antioxidant supplementation alters human skeletal muscle signaling and attenuates its inflammatory response and recovery after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Yannis; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Terzis, Gerasimos; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Spengos, Kontantinos; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mandalidis, Dimitrios; Stefanetti, Renae J; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Spyros; Hawley, John A; Russell, Aaron P; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2013-07-01

    The major thiol-disulfide couple of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione is a key regulator of major transcriptional pathways regulating aseptic inflammation and recovery of skeletal muscle after aseptic injury. Antioxidant supplementation may hamper exercise-induced cellular adaptations. The objective was to examine how thiol-based antioxidant supplementation affects skeletal muscle's performance and redox-sensitive signaling during the inflammatory and repair phases associated with exercise-induced microtrauma. In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 men received placebo or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 20 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) after muscle-damaging exercise (300 eccentric contractions). In each trial, muscle performance was measured at baseline, after exercise, 2 h after exercise, and daily for 8 consecutive days. Muscle biopsy samples from vastus lateralis and blood samples were collected before exercise and 2 h, 2 d, and 8 d after exercise. NAC attenuated the elevation of inflammatory markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines), nuclear factor κB phosphorylation, and the decrease in strength during the first 2 d of recovery. NAC also blunted the increase in phosphorylation of protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, ribosomal protein S6, and mitogen activated protein kinase p38 at 2 and 8 d after exercise. NAC also abolished the increase in myogenic determination factor and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α 8 d after exercise. Performance was completely recovered only in the placebo group. Although thiol-based antioxidant supplementation enhances GSH availability in skeletal muscle, it disrupts the skeletal muscle inflammatory response and repair capability, potentially because of a blunted activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01778309.

  5. Fluoxetine stimulates anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine production and attenuates sensory deficits in a rat model of decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; de Maistre, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Abraini, Jacques; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Despite "gold standard" hyperbaric oxygen treatment, 30% of patients suffering from neurological decompression sickness still exhibit incomplete recovery, including sensory impairments. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory effects in the setting of cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the assessment of sensory neurological deficits and measurement of circulating cytokines after decompression in rats treated or not with fluoxetine. Seventy-eight rats were divided into a clinical (n = 38) and a cytokine (n = 40) group. In both groups, the rats were treated with fluoxetine (30 mg/kg po, 6 h beforehand) or with a saccharine solution. All of the rats were exposed to 90 m seawater for 45 min before staged decompression. In the clinical group, paw withdrawal force after mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latency after thermal stimulation were evaluated before and 1 and 48 h after surfacing. At 48 h, a dynamic weight-bearing device was used to assess postural stability, depending on the time spent on three or four paws. For cytokine analysis, blood samples were collected from the vena cava 1 h after surfacing. Paw withdrawal force and latency were increased after surfacing in the controls, but not in the fluoxetine group. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment highlighted a better stability on three paws for the fluoxetine group. IL-10 levels were significantly decreased after decompression in the controls, but maintained at baseline level with fluoxetine. This study suggests that fluoxetine has a beneficial effect on sensory neurological recovery. We hypothesize that the observed effect is mediated through maintained anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production.

  6. Methane Attenuates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats Through Antiapoptotic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhouheng; Chen, Ouyang; Zhang, Rongjia; Nakao, Atsunori; Fan, Danfeng; Zhang, Ting; Gu, Zhengyong; Tao, Hengyi; Sun, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which occurs in various diseases, introduces severe tissue damage and liver dysfunction. However, no promising therapies for such a significant condition currently exist. Methane has been suggested to exert a protective effect against intestinal I/R injury. In this study, we introduced methane to treat hepatic I/R injury to show its promising protective effect. Also, intraperitoneal injection with methane-rich saline, which could have potential clinical applications, was applied as a new method. Partial liver warm ischemia was applied in Sprague-Dawley rats for 60 min followed by succedent reperfusion. In the test for effective dosage, methane-rich saline was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats at doses of 1, 5, 20, or 40 mL/kg at onset of reperfusion. In the test for protective effect, rats received methane-rich saline intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mL/kg before the initiation of reperfusion. We found that methane-rich saline significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and the occurrence of necrosis. Moreover, methane-rich saline reduced the amount of caspase-3 and the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, methane-rich saline increased the level of superoxide dismutase and decreased the level of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxyguanosine. Furthermore, research indicated that methane-rich saline markedly decreased gene expression and content of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Also, reduced CD68-positive cells showed decreased inflammatory cells in the liver. Our results suggest that methane protects the liver against I/R injury through antiapoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. Activation of KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels attenuates enhanced calcium influx and inflammatory cytokine production in activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Dolga, Amalia M; Letsche, Till; Gold, Maike; Doti, Nunzianna; Bacher, Michael; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Dodel, Richard; Culmsee, Carsten

    2012-12-01

    In neurons, small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2) channels maintain calcium homeostasis after N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, thereby preventing excitotoxic neuronal death. So far, little is known about the function of KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels in non-neuronal cells, such as microglial cells. In this study, we addressed the question whether KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels activation affected inflammatory responses of primary mouse microglial cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. We found that N-cyclohexyl-N-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine (CyPPA), a positive pharmacological activator of KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channels, significantly reduced LPS-stimulated activation of microglia in a concentration-dependent manner. The general KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel blocker apamin reverted these effects of CyPPA on microglial proliferation. Since calcium plays a central role in microglial activation, we further addressed whether KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel activation affected the changes of intracellular calcium levels, [Ca(2+)](i), in microglial cells. Our data show that LPS-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) was attenuated following activation of KCNN2/3/K(Ca)2.2/K(Ca)2.3 channels by CyPPA. Furthermore, CyPPA reduced downstream events including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 cytokine production and nitric oxide release in activated microglia. Further, we applied specific peptide inhibitors of the KCNN/SK/K(Ca)2 channel subtypes to identify which particular channel subtype mediated the observed anti-inflammatory effects. Only inhibitory peptides targeting KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels, but not KCNN2/SK2/K(Ca)2.2 channel inhibition, reversed the CyPPA-effects on LPS-induced microglial proliferation. These findings revealed that KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels can modulate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Thus, KCNN3/SK3/K(Ca)2.3 channels may serve as a therapeutic target for reducing microglial

  8. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate amyloid-β protein-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization through Rho signaling modulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Patricia; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda

    2017-01-25

    Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) neurotoxicity occurs along with the reorganization of the actin-cytoskeleton through the activation of the Rho GTPase pathway. In addition to the classical mode of action of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin, and ibuprofen have Rho-inhibiting effects. In order to evaluate the role of the Rho GTPase pathway on Aβ-induced neuronal death and on neuronal morphological modifications in the actin cytoskeleton, we explored the role of NSAIDS in human-differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ. We found that Aβ induced neurite retraction and promoted the formation of different actin-dependent structures such as stress fibers, filopodia, lamellipodia, and ruffles. In the presence of Aβ, both NSAIDs prevented neurite collapse and formation of stress fibers without affecting the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. Similar results were obtained when the downstream effector, Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, was applied in the presence of Aβ. These results demonstrate the potential benefits of the Rho-inhibiting NSAIDs in reducing Aβ-induced effects on neuronal structural alterations.

  9. Lunasin Attenuates Obesity-Associated Metastasis of 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell through Anti-Inflammatory Property.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Shan

    2016-12-15

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation with macrophage infiltration, which is linked with a poorer breast cancer prognosis. Lunasin is a natural seed peptide with chemopreventive properties and multiple bioactivities. This is the first study to explore the chemopreventive effects of lunasin in the obesity-related breast cancer condition using 4T1 breast cancer cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and conditioned media. An obesity-related environment, such as leptin-treatment or adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), promoted 4T1 cell proliferation and metastasis. Lunasin treatment inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells, partially through modestly inhibiting production of the angiogenesis-mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and significantly by inhibiting secretion in the Ad-CM condition. Subsequently, two adipocytes inflammation models, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and RAW 264.7 cell-conditioned medium (RAW-CM) was used to mimic the obese microenvironment. Lunasin significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 secretion by TNF-α stimulation, and MCP-1 secretion in the RAW-CM model. This study highlights that lunasin suppressed 3T3-L1 adipocyte inflammation and inhibited 4T1 breast cancer cell migration. Interestingly, lunasin exerted more effective anti-metastasis activity in the obesity-related condition models, indicating that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties and blocks adipocyte-cancer cell cross-talk.

  10. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    XU, WEI; HUANG, MINGQING; ZHANG, YUQIN; LI, HUANG; ZHENG, HAIYIN; YU, LISHUANG; CHU, KEDAN; LIN, YU; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE-treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27035125

  11. Ultrafiltration of the priming blood before cardiopulmonary bypass attenuates inflammatory response and improves postoperative clinical course in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Shimpo, H; Shimamoto, A; Sawamura, Y; Fujinaga, K; Kanemitsu, S; Onoda, K; Takao, M; Mitani, Y; Yada, I

    2001-01-01

    The priming solution using in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for infants undergoing cardiac surgery includes considerable amounts of stored blood. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ultrafiltration (UF) of the stored blood before CPB reduces the unfavorable effects of stored blood and the production of inflammatory cytokines. Fifty pediatric patients with congenital heart defects took part in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the UF (27 pediatric patients who received UF) and control (23 pediatric patients who did not receive UF) groups. UF was performed with a polysulphone ultrafiltrator before CPB. Blood samples were collected immediately before, during, and 1 h after CPB. The levels of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8), NH3, and bradykinin were determined. The serum concentrations of NH3 and bradykinin decreased significantly after UF. Compared with the control group, the UF group had significantly lower cytokine production. Water balance in UF group was better than that of control group. The UF group received significantly less inotropic support and shorter duration of ventilator support and ICU stay. We conclude that removal of bradykinin and a decrease in the levels of NH3, potassium, and pH play a significant role in reducing water retention and postoperative lung injury. UF of the blood used to prime the circuit for CPB is a safe and efficient method for use in open heart surgery in small pediatric patients.

  12. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production by gene silencing attenuates inflammatory activity of LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Badiei, Alireza; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Ang, Abel Damien; Bhatia, Madhav

    2013-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an inflammatory mediator and is produced by the activity of the enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in macrophages. Previously, pharmacological inhibition of CSE has been reported to have conflicting results, and this may be due to the lack of specificity of the pharmacological agents. Therefore, this study used a very specific approach of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the production of the CSE in an in vitro setting. We found that the activation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in higher levels of CSE mRNA and protein as well as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). We successfully used siRNA to specifically reduce the levels of CSE mRNA and protein in activated macrophages. Furthermore, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated macrophages were significantly lower in siRNA-transfected cells compared to those in untransfected controls. However, the production levels of NO by the transfected cells were higher, suggesting that CSE activity has an inhibitory effect on NO production. These findings suggest that the CSE enzyme has a crucial role in the activation of macrophages, and its activity has an inhibitory effect on NO production by these cells.

  13. 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives with T-type calcium channel blocking activity attenuate inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Bladen, Chris; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Gündüz, Miyase G; Berger, N Daniel; Şimşek, Rahime; Şafak, Cihat; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-06-01

    We have recently identified a class of dihydropyridine (DHP) analogues with 30-fold selectivity for T-type over L-type calcium channels that could be attributed to a modification of a key ester moiety. Based on these results, we examined a second series of compounds with similar attributes to determine if they had enhanced affinity for T-type channels. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments in transfected tsA-201 cells were used to screen these DHP derivatives for high affinity and selectivity for Cav3.2 over Cav1.2 L-type channels. The effects of the two lead compounds, termed N10 and N12, on Cav3.2 channel activity and gating were characterized in detail. When delivered intrathecally or intraperitoneally, these compounds mediated analgesia in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. The best compound from the initial screening, N12, was also able to reverse mechanical hyperalgesia produced by nerve injury. The compounds were ineffective in Cav3.2 null mice. Altogether, our data reveal a novel class of T-type channel blocking DHPs for potential pain therapies.

  14. Inhibition of JAK2 attenuates the increase in inflammatory markers in microglia from APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Raasay S; Minogue, Aedín M; Fitzpatrick, Orla; Lynch, Marina A

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence indicating that macrophages adopt distinct phenotypes when exposed to specific stimuli and, in the past few years, accumulating data suggest that microglia behave somewhat similarly. Therefore, microglia can adopt the so-called M1 or M2 phenotypes in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4, respectively. Although it has yet to be unequivocally proven in the context of microglia, acutely activated M1 cells are probably protective, although a persistent M1 state is likely to be damaging, whereas M2 cells may be reparative and restorative. In this case, particularly because the current evidence suggests the development of a predominantly M1 state with age and in neurodegenerative diseases, it is important to identify mechanisms by which polarization of microglia can be modulated. The present findings indicate that exposure of cultured microglia to IFNγ increased expressions of the archetypal markers of the M1 phenotype, tumour necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and preexposure of cells to amyloid-β (Aβ) sensitized microglia to subsequent stimulation with IFNγ. Importantly, this synergy was also evident in microglia prepared from the brains of transgenic mice that overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1, APP/PS1 mice) and are exposed to a combination of increasing concentrations of endogenous Aβ from 4 or 5 months of age and an age-related increase in IFNγ. Significantly, the JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, attenuated the IFNγ-induced changes in cultured microglia and in isolated microglia prepared from APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that targeting JAK2 may be a potential strategy for reducing neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin E and telmisartan attenuates doxorubicin induced cardiac injury in rat through down regulation of inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The importance of doxorubicin (Dox), as a potent antitumor antibiotic, is limited by the development of life-threatening cardiomyopathy. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in acute doxorubicin-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of vitamin E and telmisartan in acute doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Methods Thirty two male Sprague - Dawly rats were involved in this study and were randomly separated into 4 groups, eight rats in each group, one group received normal saline I.P as control and second group received doxorubicin 20 mg/kg I.P, the other two groups also received doxorubicin 20 mg/kg I.P as single dose after seven cumulative doses (for seven days) of vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and telmisartan (1 mg/kg) respectively. Immunofluorescent staining for monocytes infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs) for MCP-1and troponin I. Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, while left ventricular function was analyzed by microcatheter, also estimated the level of oxidative stress parameters (MDA and Catalase) and cardiac enzymes activities (CK-MB and LDH) before starting drugs treatment and after treatment period by 48 hours. Results The immunofluorescent staining showed that administration of vitamin E and telmisartan are attenuated of mononuclear cell infiltration; (p < 0.05 vs. Dox group), also reduced the level of chemokines MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression compared with Dox group only, and there is marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels with improved LV function in vitamin E and telmisartan treated group. Doxorubicin treatment increased MDA, LDH, CK-MB levels significantly (P < 0.01), and were counteracted by administration of vitamin E and telmisartan, but did not significantly affect serum catalase activity. Conclusions Antioxidant effect (Vitamin E and telmisartan) have been shown to decrease doxorubicininduced cardiotoxicity. PMID:22867422

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen attenuates neuropathic pain and reverses inflammatory signaling likely via the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway in the chronic pain injury model in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Xu, Haiping; Song, Xingrong

    2017-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is proven to attenuate neuropathic pain in rodents. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway during astrocyte activation and inflammation in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. Rats were assigned into sham operation, chronic constriction injury (CCI), and CCI + HBO treatment groups. Neuropathic pain developed in rats following CCI of the sciatic nerve. Rats in the CCI + HBO group received HBO treatment for five consecutive days beginning on postoperative day 1. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) tests were performed to determine mechanical and heat hypersensitivity of animals, respectively. Kindlin-1, Wnt-10a and β-catenin protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also determined by ELISA. Our findings demonstrated that HBO treatment significantly suppressed mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the CCI neuropathic pain model in rats. HBO therapy significantly reversed the up-regulation of Kindlin-1 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal cord, and hippocampus of CCI rats. CCI-induced astrocyte activation and increased levels of TNF-α were efficiently reversed by HBO (P < 0.05 vs. CCI). HBO also reversed Wnt-10a up-regulation induced by CCI in the DRG, spinal cord, and hippocampus (P < 0.05 vs. CCI). Our findings demonstrate that HBO attenuated CCI-induced rat neuropathic pain and inflammatory responses, possibly through regulation of the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway.

  17. Modulation of neuro-inflammatory condition, acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant levels by genistein attenuates diabetes associated cognitive decline in mice.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Mithun Singh; Sarkar, Purnima Dey

    2017-04-25

    The association of diabetes and cognitive decline may indicate that high sugar level might be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. A collective term 'diabetes associated cognitive decline' (DACD) has been coined for the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus showing decline in their cognitive function, especially weak episodic memory, cognitive inflexibility and poor psychomotor performance leading towards Alzheimer's disease. However, at present, no specific treatment exists for the prevention and/or treatment of DACD. Genistein, an isoflavone phytoestrogen, reveals neuroprotective effects in many experimental murine models, though its role on DACD with probable mechanistic approach has still been scope for research. The motive behind the present study is to investigate the outcome of genistein treatment against DACD in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with Morris water maze paradigm followed by open field trial to rule out the possibility of impairment in locomotor performance. Chronic (30 days) genistein treatment (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, i.p. once daily) in diabetic mice significantly lowered hyperglycemia, recovered cognitive performance by affecting acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress and ameliorated neuro-inflammatory condition by varying TNF-α, IL-1β and nitrite levels as impaired in diabetic mice. Thirty days treatment with vitamin C or metformin also improved diabetes-induced memory impairment and significantly dragged these biochemical parameters towards respective controls. Locomotor performance was not influenced by diabetic condition or any associated treatment. It is concluded that genistein supplementation might be a prospective therapeutic approach for the treatment and/or avoidance of diabetic linked learning and memory dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ying; Chen, Nan-Fu; Chen, Wu-Fu; Hung, Han-Chun; Lee, Hsin-Pai; Lin, Yen-You; Wang, Hui-Min; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg) 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1. PMID:23118711

  19. Lunasin Attenuates Obesity-Associated Metastasis of 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell through Anti-Inflammatory Property

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation with macrophage infiltration, which is linked with a poorer breast cancer prognosis. Lunasin is a natural seed peptide with chemopreventive properties and multiple bioactivities. This is the first study to explore the chemopreventive effects of lunasin in the obesity-related breast cancer condition using 4T1 breast cancer cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and conditioned media. An obesity-related environment, such as leptin-treatment or adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), promoted 4T1 cell proliferation and metastasis. Lunasin treatment inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells, partially through modestly inhibiting production of the angiogenesis-mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and significantly by inhibiting secretion in the Ad-CM condition. Subsequently, two adipocytes inflammation models, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and RAW 264.7 cell-conditioned medium (RAW-CM) was used to mimic the obese microenvironment. Lunasin significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 secretion by TNF-α stimulation, and MCP-1 secretion in the RAW-CM model. This study highlights that lunasin suppressed 3T3-L1 adipocyte inflammation and inhibited 4T1 breast cancer cell migration. Interestingly, lunasin exerted more effective anti-metastasis activity in the obesity-related condition models, indicating that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties and blocks adipocyte-cancer cell cross-talk. PMID:27983683

  20. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation.

  1. Resveratrol abrogates alcohol-induced cognitive deficits by attenuating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammatory cascade in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vinod; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2013-05-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is known to induce permanent cognitive deficits along with enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress and activation of neuroinflammatory cascade. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin against chronic alcohol-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroiflammatory cascade in the brain of adult rats chronically administered ethanol. Male Wistar rats were adminstered ethanol (10g/kg; oral gavage) for ten weeks and treated with resveratrol (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) for the same duration. Ethanol-exposed rats showed impaired spatial navigation in the Morris water maze test and poor retention in the elevated plus maze task which was coupled with enhanced acetylcholinesterase activity, increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta), NF-kappa β and caspase-3 levels in different brain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) of ethanol-treated rats. Co-administration with resveratrol significantly and dose-dependently prevented all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular deficits. Correlatively, the results of the present study revealed that treatment with resveratrol significantly prevented cognitive deficits induced by chronic ethanol exposure not only by modulating oxido-nitrosative stress but also by attenuating the enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), NF-kβ and caspase-3 in different brain regions of ethanol treated rats. Therefore, mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol observed in our study may be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulating activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutation of SH2B3 (LNK), a genome-wide association study candidate for hypertension, attenuates Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension via inflammatory modulation.

    PubMed

    Rudemiller, Nathan P; Lund, Hayley; Priestley, Jessica R C; Endres, Bradley T; Prokop, Jeremy W; Jacob, Howard J; Geurts, Aron M; Cohen, Eric P; Mattson, David L

    2015-05-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have linked SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3, LNK) to hypertension and renal disease, although little experimental investigation has been performed to verify a role for SH2B3 in these pathologies. SH2B3, a member of the SH2B adaptor protein family, is an intracellular adaptor protein that functions as a negative regulator in many signaling pathways, including inflammatory signaling processes. To explore a mechanistic link between SH2B3 and hypertension, we targeted the SH2B3 gene for mutation on the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat genetic background with zinc-finger nucleases. The resulting mutation was a 6-bp, in-frame deletion within a highly conserved region of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of SH2B3. This mutation significantly attenuated Dahl SS hypertension and renal disease. Also, infiltration of leukocytes into the kidneys, a key mediator of Dahl SS pathology, was significantly blunted in the Sh2b3(em1Mcwi) mutant rats. To determine whether this was because of differences in immune signaling, bone marrow transplant studies were performed in which Dahl SS and Sh2b3(em1Mcwi) mutants underwent total body irradiation and were then transplanted with Dahl SS or Sh2b3(em1Mcwi) mutant bone marrow. Rats that received Sh2b3(em1Mcwi) mutant bone marrow had a significant reduction in mean arterial pressure and kidney injury when placed on a high salt diet (4% NaCl). These data further support a role for the immune system as a modulator of disease severity in the pathogenesis of hypertension and provide insight into inflammatory mechanisms at play in human hypertension and renal disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Bioactive Fraction of Annona reticulata Bark (or) Ziziphus jujuba Root Bark along with Insulin Attenuates Painful Diabetic Neuropathy through Inhibiting NF-κB Inflammatory Cascade.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Ramanathan, Muthiah; Talukdar, Narayan C; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-01-01

    The present study explains the neuroprotective ability of bioactive fractions of Annona reticulata bark (ARB) and Ziziphus jujuba root bark (ZJ) along with insulin against diabetic neuropathy. By using different solvents of increasing polarity ARB and ZJ were undergone for bioactive guided fractionation. The neuroprotective ability of the all the plant fractions were tested against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and DRG neuronal cells. Among all the fractions tested, the methanol extract of ARB and ZJ (ARBME and ZJME) and its water fractions (ARBWF and ZJWF) exhibited significant neuroprotection against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cells and DRG neuronal cells. Further both the active fractions were tested against streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p.) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Wistar rats. Body weight changes, blood glucose levels and pain threshold through hot plate, tail immersion, cold plate and Randall-Sillitto methods were measured throughout the study at weekly interval. After completion of the drug treatment period, all the animals were sacrificed to measure the sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme levels (SOD, catalase, and GSH) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, iNOS, and NFκB) through ELISA and western blotting analysis. Results of this study explain that ARBME, ZJME, ARBWF, and ZJWF along with insulin potentially attenuate the thermal, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in diabetic neuropathic rats, where insulin treatment alone failed to diminish the same. Reduction of sciatic nerve oxidative stress, NF-κB and iNOS mediated inflammatory cascade and normalization of abnormal cytokine release confirms the possible mechanism of action. The present study confirms the neuroprotective ability of ARB and ZJ against painful diabetic neuropathy through inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB inflammatory cascade.

  4. Bioactive Fraction of Annona reticulata Bark (or) Ziziphus jujuba Root Bark along with Insulin Attenuates Painful Diabetic Neuropathy through Inhibiting NF-κB Inflammatory Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Ramanathan, Muthiah; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-01-01

    The present study explains the neuroprotective ability of bioactive fractions of Annona reticulata bark (ARB) and Ziziphus jujuba root bark (ZJ) along with insulin against diabetic neuropathy. By using different solvents of increasing polarity ARB and ZJ were undergone for bioactive guided fractionation. The neuroprotective ability of the all the plant fractions were tested against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and DRG neuronal cells. Among all the fractions tested, the methanol extract of ARB and ZJ (ARBME and ZJME) and its water fractions (ARBWF and ZJWF) exhibited significant neuroprotection against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cells and DRG neuronal cells. Further both the active fractions were tested against streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p.) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Wistar rats. Body weight changes, blood glucose levels and pain threshold through hot plate, tail immersion, cold plate and Randall-Sillitto methods were measured throughout the study at weekly interval. After completion of the drug treatment period, all the animals were sacrificed to measure the sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme levels (SOD, catalase, and GSH) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, iNOS, and NFκB) through ELISA and western blotting analysis. Results of this study explain that ARBME, ZJME, ARBWF, and ZJWF along with insulin potentially attenuate the thermal, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in diabetic neuropathic rats, where insulin treatment alone failed to diminish the same. Reduction of sciatic nerve oxidative stress, NF-κB and iNOS mediated inflammatory cascade and normalization of abnormal cytokine release confirms the possible mechanism of action. The present study confirms the neuroprotective ability of ARB and ZJ against painful diabetic neuropathy through inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB inflammatory cascade. PMID:28381989

  5. PF-04886847 (an inhibitor of plasma kallikrein) attenuates inflammatory mediators and activation of blood coagulation in rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kolte, D; Bryant, J W; Gibson, G W; Wang, J; Shariat-Madar, Z

    2012-06-01

    The plasma kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates both thrombosis and inflammation. Previous study has shown that PF-04886847 is a potent and competitive inhibitor of kallikrein, suggesting that it might be useful for the treatment of kallikrein-kinin mediated inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. In the rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced sepsis used in this study, pretreatment of rats with PF-04886847 (1 mg/kg) prior to LPS (10 mg/kg) prevented endotoxin-induced increase in granulocyte count in the systemic circulation. PF-04886847 significantly reduced the elevated plasma 6-keto PGF1α levels in LPS treated rats, suggesting that PF-04886847 could be useful in preventing hypotensive shock during sepsis. PF-04886847 did not inhibit LPS-induced increase in plasma TNF-α level. Pretreatment of rats with PF-04886847 prior to LPS did not attenuate endotoxin-induced decrease in platelet count and plasma fibrinogen levels as well as increase in plasma D-dimer levels. PF-04886847 did not protect the animals against LPS-mediated acute hepatic and renal injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Since prekallikrein (the zymogen form of plasma kallikrein) deficient patients have prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) without having any bleeding disorder, the anti-thrombotic property and mechanism of action of PF-04886847 was assessed. In a rabbit balloon injury model designed to mimic clinical conditions of acute thrombotic events, PF-04886847 reduced thrombus mass dose-dependently. PF-04886847 (1 mg/kg) prolonged both aPTT and prothrombin time (PT) in a dose-dependent manner. Although the findings of this study indicate that PF-04886847 possesses limited anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, PF-04886847 may have therapeutic potential in other kallikrein-kinin mediated diseases.

  6. S-Propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-06-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. We found that SPRC prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation assessed by NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, incubation of H9c2 cells with SPRC induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, SPRC attenuated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The effects of SPRC were abolished by cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE-an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)] inhibitor, DL: -propargylglycine (PAG), SPRC-induced Akt phosphorylation and TNF-α release was also abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, SPRC also increased LPS-induced down-regulation expression of CSE and H(2)S level in H9c2 cells. PAG abolished SPRC-induced up-regulation of H(2)S level. Therefore, we concluded that SPRC produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated H9c2 cells partly through the CSE/H(2)S pathway by impairing IκBα/NF-κB signaling and by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  7. Interleukin-32γ attenuates ethanol-induced liver injury by the inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Hwang, Chul Ju; Song, Sukgil; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Youngsoo; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Do Young; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which is a major type of chronic liver disease worldwide. Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. However, the role of IL-32 in chronic liver disease has not been reported. In the present paper, we tested the effect of IL-32γ on ethanol-induced liver injury in IL-32γ-overexpressing transgenic mice (IL-32γ mice) after chronic ethanol feeding. Male C57BL/6 and IL-32γ mice (10-12 weeks old) were fed on a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6.6% ethanol for 6 weeks. IL-32γ-transfected HepG2 and Huh7 cells, as well as primary hepatocytes from IL-32γ mice, were treated with or without ethanol. The hepatic steatosis and damage induced by ethanol administration were attenuated in IL-32γ mice. Ethanol-induced cytochrome P450 2E1 expression and hydrogen peroxide levels were decreased in the livers of IL-32γ mice, primary hepatocytes from IL-32γ mice and IL-32γ-overexpressing human hepatic cells. The ethanol-induced expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-6 were reduced in the livers of IL-32γ mice. Because nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) is a key redox transcription factor of inflammatory responses, we examined NF-κB activity. Ethanol-induced NF-κB activities were significantly lower in the livers of IL-32γ mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, reduced infiltration of natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-cells and macrophages in the liver after ethanol administration was observed in IL-32γ mice. These data suggest that IL-32γ prevents ethanol-induced hepatic injury via the inhibition of oxidative damage and inflammatory responses.

  8. SCM-198 attenuates early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via modulation of the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Wei; Wen, Yadan; Xiong, Qinghui; Liu, Hongrui; Wu, Jian; Zou, Yunzeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2012-09-01

    GPx in the aorta. In a rabbit atherosclerotic model, SCM-198 dose-dependently ameliorated the progression of atherosclerotic lesions and vascular dysfunction accompanied by the suppression of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. These findings suggested that SCM-198 might be a potential agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of age on brain edema formation, secondary brain damage and inflammatory response after brain trauma in mice.

    PubMed

    Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luh, Clara; Gotthardt, Philipp; Huang, Changsheng; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2012-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI) elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months) and old (21 months) male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count) were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2%) compared to young (0%). This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral inflammation

  10. Influence of Age on Brain Edema Formation, Secondary Brain Damage and Inflammatory Response after Brain Trauma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luh, Clara; Gotthardt, Philipp; Huang, Changsheng; Schäfer, Michael K.; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C.

    2012-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI) elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months) and old (21 months) male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count) were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2%) compared to young (0%). This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral inflammation

  11. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis.

  12. T inflammatory memory CD8 T cells participate to antiviral response and generate secondary memory cells with an advantage in XCL1 production.

    PubMed

    Jubin, Virginie; Ventre, Erwan; Leverrier, Yann; Djebali, Sophia; Mayol, Katia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Teixeira, Marie; Teoh, Denise Y-L; Lina, Bruno; Walzer, Thierry; Arpin, Christophe; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2012-06-01

    Besides the classically described subsets of memory CD8 T cells generated under infectious conditions, are T inflammatory memory cells generated under sterile priming conditions, such as sensitization to allergens. Although not fully differentiated as pathogen-induced memory cells, they display memory properties that distinguish them from naive CD8 T cells. Given these memory cells are generated in an antigen-specific context that is devoid of pathogen-derived danger signals and CD4 T cell help, we herein questioned whether they maintained their activation and differentiation potential, could be recruited in an immune response directed against a pathogen expressing their cognate antigen and further differentiate in fully competent secondary memory cells. We show that T inflammatory memory cells can indeed take part to the immune response triggered by a viral infection, differentiate into secondary effectors and further generate typical central memory CD8 T cells and effector memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, the secondary memory cells they generate display a functional advantage over primary memory cells in their capacity to produce TNF-α and the XCL1 chemokine. These results suggest that cross-reactive stimulations and differentiation of cells directed against allergens or self into fully competent pathogen-induced memory cells might have incidences in inflammatory immuno-pathologies.

  13. The different molar absorptivities of the secondary structure types in the amide I region: an attenuated total reflection infrared study on globular proteins.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, H H; Goormaghtigh, E; Ruysschaert, J M

    1996-11-01

    Differences in molar absorptivity of the various secondary structures in the amide I region of infrared protein spectra would have a great impact on the interpretation of the data published thus far on protein films studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. In this work, representative values for amide I absorptivities are obtained for 15 different films of globular proteins spread from H2O solutions. The observed intensities are corrected for variations in film thickness and for contributions of hydration water, atmospheric water, and side chains. These absorptivities, together with the reported secondary structure of the proteins investigated, are used to deduce the molar absorptivities of the individual secondary structure types. It is found that the molar absorptivity of beta-strands is 1.4-1.6 times larger than that of alpha-helices, which in turn is 1.3-2.1 times larger than those found for beta-turns or random coiled structures. The implications of our findings for spectral analysis currently used in literature are discussed.

  14. Naltrexone attenuates cue- but not drug-induced methamphetamine seeking: a possible mechanism for the dissociation of primary and secondary reward.

    PubMed

    Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Sakimura, Katsuya; Hiranita, Takato; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2004-09-24

    The present study was aimed to clarify the role of the opioid system in the reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior in METH self-administering rats. Following 12 days of self-administration of METH, the replacement of METH with saline resulted in a gradual decrease in lever press responses (extinction). Under extinction conditions, METH-priming or re-exposure to cues previously paired with METH infusion markedly increased the responses (reinstatement of drug-seeking). Naltrexone administered 30 min before re-exposure to METH-associated cues attenuated reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. On the other hand, administration of this antagonist had no effect on the reinstatement induced by METH-priming. We discussed these findings in relation with the dissociation of primary and secondary reward, suggesting that an opioid mechanism is responsible for this dissociation. Further, these results indicate the possibility of using naltrexone as an anti-relapse agent.

  15. Deferoxamine attenuates lipid peroxidation, blocks interleukin-6 production, ameliorates sepsis inflammatory response syndrome, and confers renoprotection after acute hepatic ischemia in pigs.

    PubMed

    Vlahakos, Demetrios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Siasiakou, Sofia; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Demonakou, Maria; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that deferoxamine (DFO) infusion protected myocardium against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing open heart surgery, and reduced brain edema, intracranial pressure, and lung injury in pigs with acute hepatic ischemia (AHI). The purpose of this research was to study if DFO could attenuate sepsis inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and confer renoprotection in the same model of AHI in anesthetized pigs. Fourteen animals were randomly allocated to two groups. In the Group DFO (n=7), 150mg/kg of DFO dissolved in normal saline was continuously infused in animals undergoing hepatic devascularization and portacaval anastomosis. The control group (Group C, n=7) underwent the same surgical procedure and received the same volume of normal saline infusion. Animals were euthanized after 24h. Hematological, biochemical parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were determined from sera obtained at baseline, at 12h, and after euthanasia. Hematoxylin-eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling were used to evaluate necrosis and apoptosis, respectively, in kidney sections obtained after euthanasia. A rapid and substantial elevation (more than 100-fold) of serum IL-6 levels was observed in Group C reaching peak at the end of the experiment, associated with increased production of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation (MDA 3.2±0.1nmol/mL at baseline and 5.5±0.9nmol/mL at the end of the experiment, P<0.05) and various manifestations of SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), including elevation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, severe hypotension, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (fourfold), alkaline phosphatase (fourfold), alanine aminotransferase (14-fold), and ammonia (sevenfold). In sharp contrast, IL-6 production and lipid

  16. Exogenous heat shock cognate protein 70 pretreatment attenuates cardiac and hepatic dysfunction with associated anti-inflammatory responses in experimental septic shock.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Jen; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Wu, Jiunn-Ren

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that intracellular heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) can be released into extracellular space with physiologic effects. However, its extracellular function in sepsis is not clear. In this study, we hypothesize that extracellular HSC70 can protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial and hepatic dysfunction because of its anti-inflammatory actions. In Wistar rats, septic shock developed with hypotension, tachycardia, and myocardial and hepatic dysfunction at 4 h following LPS administration (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Pretreatment with recombinant bovine HSC70 (20 μg/kg, i.v.) attenuated LPS-induced hypotension and tachycardia by 21% and 23%, respectively (P < 0.05), improved myocardial dysfunction (left ventricular systolic pressure: 33%; max dP/dt: 20%; min dP/dt: 33%, P < 0.05), and prevented hepatic dysfunction (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase: 81 vs. 593 IU/L; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase: 15 vs. 136 IU/L, P < 0.05) compared with LPS-treated rats at 4 h. Heat shock cognate protein 70 also prevented LPS-induced hypoglycemia (217 vs. 59 mg/dL, P < 0.05) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (1,312 vs. 6,301 IU/L, P < 0.05). Furthermore, HSC70 decreased LPS-induced elevation of circulating tumor necrosis factor α and nitrite/nitrate, and tissue expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in the heart and liver. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we found that HSC70 attenuated LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB subunit p65 by blocking the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor κB. Finally, we showed that HSC70 repressed the activation of MAPKs caused by LPS. These results demonstrate that in LPS-induced septic shock, extracellular HSC70 conveys pleiotropic protection on myocardial, hepatic, and systemic derangements, with associated inhibition of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2

  17. A-803467, a potent and selective Nav1.8 sodium channel blocker, attenuates neuropathic and inflammatory pain in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Michael F.; Honore, Prisca; Shieh, Char-Chang; Chapman, Mark; Joshi, Shailen; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Kort, Michael; Carroll, William; Marron, Brian; Atkinson, Robert; Thomas, James; Liu, Dong; Krambis, Michael; Liu, Yi; McGaraughty, Steve; Chu, Katharine; Roeloffs, Rosemarie; Zhong, Chengmin; Mikusa, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Gricelda; Gauvin, Donna; Wade, Carrie; Zhu, Chang; Pai, Madhavi; Scanio, Marc; Shi, Lei; Drizin, Irene; Gregg, Robert; Matulenko, Mark; Hakeem, Ahmed; Gross, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Marsh, Kennan; Wagoner, P. Kay; Sullivan, James P.; Faltynek, Connie R.; Krafte, Douglas S.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels contributes to action potential electrogenesis in neurons. Antisense oligonucleotide studies directed against Nav1.8 have shown that this channel contributes to experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We report here the discovery of A-803467, a sodium channel blocker that potently blocks tetrodotoxin-resistant currents (IC50 = 140 nM) and the generation of spontaneous and electrically evoked action potentials in vitro in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. In recombinant cell lines, A-803467 potently blocked human Nav1.8 (IC50 = 8 nM) and was >100-fold selective vs. human Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.5, and Nav1.7 (IC50 values ≥1 μM). A-803467 (20 mg/kg, i.v.) blocked mechanically evoked firing of wide dynamic range neurons in the rat spinal dorsal horn. A-803467 also dose-dependently reduced mechanical allodynia in a variety of rat pain models including: spinal nerve ligation (ED50 = 47 mg/kg, i.p.), sciatic nerve injury (ED50 = 85 mg/kg, i.p.), capsaicin-induced secondary mechanical allodynia (ED50 ≈ 100 mg/kg, i.p.), and thermal hyperalgesia after intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injection (ED50 = 41 mg/kg, i.p.). A-803467 was inactive against formalin-induced nociception and acute thermal and postoperative pain. These data demonstrate that acute and selective pharmacological blockade of Nav1.8 sodium channels in vivo produces significant antinociception in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. PMID:17483457

  18. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Dawson, H; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2009-07-01

    We have previously reported that the obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoprotein (apo) B48 containing lipoproteins. In the current study, we have evaluated whether a water-soluble cinnamon extract [CE (Cinnulin PF)] attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibits the oversecrection of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S labeling study. In vivo, oral treatment of Cinnulin PF (50 mg per kg BW), inhibited the postprandial overproduction of apoB48-containing lipoproteins and serum triglyceride levels. In ex vivo 35S labeling studies, CE (10 and 20 microg/ml) inhibited the oversecretion of apoB48 induced by TNF-alpha treated enterocytes into the media. To determine the molecular mechanisms, TNF-alpha treated primary enterocytes isolated from chow-fed hamsters, were incubated with CE (10 microg/ml), and the expression of the inflammatory factor genes, IL1-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, insulin signaling pathway genes, insulin receptor (IR), IRS1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Akt1 and phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN), as well as the key regulators of lipid metabolism, cluster of differentiation (CD)36, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that CE treatment decreased the mRNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, improved the mRNA expression of IR, IRS1, IRS2, PI3K and Akt1, inhibited CD36, MTTP, and PTEN, and enhanced the impaired SREBP-1c expression in TNF-alpha treated enterocytes. These data suggest that a water extract of cinnamon reverses TNF-alpha-induced overproduction of intestinal apoB48 by regulating gene expression involving inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein signaling pathways. In conclusion, Cinulin PF improves inflammation related intestinal dyslipidemia.

  19. Tranexamic acid attenuates inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery through blockade of fibrinolysis: a case control study followed by a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan J; Iribarren, Jose L; Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Jose M; Hernandez, Domingo; Nassar, Ibrahim; Perez, Rosalia; Brouard, Maitane; Milena, Antonio; Martinez, Rafael; Mora, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal circulation induces hemostatic alterations that lead to inflammatory response (IR) and postoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TA) reduces fibrinolysis and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, its effects on IR and vasoplegic shock (VS) are not well known and elucidating these effects was the main objective of this study. Methods A case control study was carried out to determine factors associated with IR after CPB. Patients undergoing elective CPB surgery were randomly assigned to receive 2 g of TA or placebo (0.9% saline) before and after intervention. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing the incidence of IR and VS. We also analyzed several biological parameters related to inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis systems. We used SPSS version 12.2 for statistical purposes. Results In the case control study, 165 patients were studied, 20.6% fulfilled IR criteria, and the use of TA proved to be an independent protective variable (odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.81; P < 0.01). The clinical trial was interrupted. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive TA (24) or placebo (26). Incidence of IR was 17% in the TA group versus 42% in the placebo group (P = 0.047). In the TA group, we observed a significant reduction in the incidence of VS (P = 0.003), the use of norepinephrine (P = 0.029), and time on mechanical ventilation (P = 0.018). These patients showed significantly lower D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and creatine-kinase levels and a trend toward lower levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor and interleukin-6 within the first 24 hours after CPB. Conclusion The use of TA attenuates the development of IR and VS after CPB. Trial registration number ISRCTN05718824. PMID:17988379

  20. Previous physical exercise alters the hepatic profile of oxidative-inflammatory status and limits the secondary brain damage induced by severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Mauro Robson Torres; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Busanello, Guilherme Lago; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Arrifano, Gabriela; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Cuevas, María J; Bresciani, Guilherme; González-Gallego, Javier; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2017-09-01

    An early inflammatory response and oxidative stress are implicated in the signal transduction that alters both hepatic redox status and mitochondrial function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Peripheral oxidative/inflammatory responses contribute to neuronal dysfunction after TBI Exercise training alters the profile of oxidative-inflammatory status in liver and protects against acute hyperglycaemia and a cerebral inflammatory response after TBI. Approaches such as exercise training, which attenuates neuronal damage after TBI, may have therapeutic potential through modulation of responses by metabolic organs. The vulnerability of the body to oxidative/inflammatory in TBI is significantly enhanced in sedentary compared to physically active counterparts. Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate whether a peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to neuronal dysfunction after TBI, as well as the prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha and ATP-binding cassette transporter, and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver. Interestingly, exercise training protected against hepatic inflammation (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6), oxidative stress (decreases in non-protein sulfhydryl and glutathione, as well as increases in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation and protein carbonyl), which altered hepatic redox status (increases in myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as inhibition of catalase activity) mitochondrial function (decreases in methyl-tetrazolium and Δψ, as well as

  1. A new standard of Efficacy for Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Pain Attenuation in Japan (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain attenuation varies among institutions, all having their own method of assessment with no common standards. At the author's institution in the beginning, the patients were asked how they assessed their pain relief immediately after the treatment. They were to choose from excellent, good, fair, no change and poor. The overall efficacy rate was calculated by the numbers of patients scoring excellent and good, expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. However, a large number of institutions have utilized the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or the Pain Relief Score (PRS) for the assessment of treatment; but even then, the evaluation could not be considered uniform. Therefore, the standardization of the efficacy rate was continuously discussed among the practitioners of LLLT, dating back to the 9th annual meeting of the Japan Laser Therapy Association (JaLTA) in 1997. It took four years (including the 1997 meeting) until finally an agreement was reached and a new standard of efficacy was presented at the 12th JaLTA meeting in 2000, based on the PRS. The new standard defined excellent as pain reduction in any treatment session from 10 to 0 or 1, good as reduction from 10 to 2∼5, fair as reduction from 10 to 6∼8, no change as a reduction from 10 to 9∼10 and poor was defined as exacerbation of pain from 10 to 11 or greater. Efficacy rate was calculated by the number of patients scoring excellent and good expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. For the purpose of reference, the VAS was to be used for patients receiving the treatment for the first time. PMID:25368444

  2. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine in the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps cicadae Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Pro-inflammatory Responses by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-10-23

    Natural products play an important role in promoting health with relation to the prevention of chronic inflammation. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine (HEA), a physiologically active compound in the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps cicadae, has been identified as a Ca(2+) antagonist and shown to control circulation and possess sedative activity in pharmacological tests. The fruiting body of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese medicine. However, neither the anti-inflammatory activities of HEA nor the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae have been carefully examined. In this study, we first cultured the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae and then investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of water and methanol extracts of wild and artificially cultured C. cicadae fruiting bodies. Next, we determined the amount of three bioactive compounds, adenosine, cordycepin, and HEA, in the extracts and evaluated their synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the possible mechanism involved in anti-inflammatory action of HEA isolated from C. cicadae was investigated. The results indicate that cordycepin is more potent than adenosine and HEA in suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by RAW 264.7 macrophages; however, no synergistic effect was observed with these three compounds. HEA attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by suppressing the toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. This result will support the use of HEA as an anti-inflammatory agent and C. cicadae fruiting bodies as an anti-inflammatory mushroom.

  3. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Contrasting Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Mucor Racemosus Secondary Metabolites Compared to Dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Samuel M.; Muqaku, Besnik; Ullmann, Ronald; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mader, Johanna C.; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Gerner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Classical drug assays are often confined to single molecules and targeting single pathways. However, it is also desirable to investigate the effects of complex mixtures on complex systems such as living cells including the natural multitude of signalling pathways. Evidence based on herbal medicine has motivated us to investigate potential beneficial health effects of Mucor racemosus (M rac) extracts. Secondary metabolites of M rac were collected using a good-manufacturing process (GMP) approved production line and a validated manufacturing process, in order to obtain a stable product termed SyCircue (National Drug Code USA: 10424–102). Toxicological studies confirmed that this product does not contain mycotoxins and is non-genotoxic. Potential effects on inflammatory processes were investigated by treating stimulated cells with M rac extracts and the effects were compared to the standard anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone on the levels of the proteome and metabolome. Using 2D-PAGE, slight anti-inflammatory effects were observed in primary white blood mononuclear cells, which were more pronounced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Proteome profiling based on nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests revealed inhibitory effects of M rac extracts on pro-inflammatory cytoplasmic mediators and secreted cytokines and chemokines in these endothelial cells. This finding was confirmed using targeted proteomics, here treatment of stimulated cells with M rac extracts down-regulated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, CXCL5 and GROA significantly. Finally, the modulating effects of M rac on HUVECs were also confirmed on the level of the metabolome. Several metabolites displayed significant concentration changes upon treatment of inflammatory activated HUVECs with the M rac extract, including spermine and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:0 and sphingomyelin C26:1, while the bulk of measured metabolites remained unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of M rac

  4. Consumption of dairy yogurt with the polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan from the peel of the Korean citrus hallabong enhances immune function and attenuates the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Chang, Dong Hoon; Yu, Won Kyu; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt supplemented with rhamnogalacturonan (RG), a polysaccharide from the peel of the Korean citrus hallabong, on natural killer (NK) cell activity and circulating cytokine levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 120 nondiabetic and nonobese subjects. Over an eight-week period, the test group consumed one pack (150 mL) of dairy yogurt containing 50 mg of probiotics and 100 mg of hallabong peel polysaccharide (60% RG) each day, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without the hallabong peel supplement. NK cell activity (%) was measured based on the ratios of the effector cells (E; peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) from each participant relative to the target cells (T; K562 cells) at E : T ratios of 10 : 1, 5 : 1, 2.5 : 1, or 1.25 : 1. NK cell activities under all assay conditions and interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were significantly increased in the test group at eight weeks compared to the baseline values, whereas the placebo group showed a significant increase only in NK cell activity at E : T = 1.25 : 1. The test group had significantly greater increases in the changes in serum NK cell activity at the E : T ratios of 10 : 1, 5 : 1, and 2.5 : 1 and in the increases in IL-12 and IFN-γ levels than were observed in the placebo group, after adjusting for baseline values. After eight weeks of treatment, significant reductions were found in IL-6 and IL-1β levels in both the placebo and test groups. The daily consumption of dairy yogurt supplemented with RG, a polysaccharide from the peel of the Korean citrus hallabong, enhanced NK cell function and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02535663).

  5. HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse precision-cut lung slices by attenuating NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Leus, Niek G.J.; van der Wouden, Petra E.; van den Bosch, Thea; Hooghiemstra, Wouter T.R.; Ourailidou, Maria E.; Kistemaker, Loes E.M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and increasing health problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. HDAC 3 has been reported to be an important player in inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB p65, which has been implicated in the pathology of COPD. Here, we applied the pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966, which attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression in models for inflammatory lung diseases. Consistent with this, a robust decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 was observed. HDAC 3 inhibition affected neither the acetylation status of NF-κB p65 nor histone H3 or histone H4. This indicates that HDAC 3 inhibition does not inhibit NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity by affecting its deacetylation but rather by inhibiting enzymatic activity of HDAC 3. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibition by inhibitors such as RGFP966 may provide a novel and effective approach toward development of therapeutics for inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26993378

  6. Melatonin Counteracts at a Transcriptional Level the Inflammatory and Apoptotic Response Secondary to Ischemic Brain Injury Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Blockade in Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Sergio D; Rancan, Lisa; Kireev, Roman; González, Alberto; Louzao, Pedro; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2015-01-01

    Aging increases oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin counteracts inflammation and apoptosis. This study investigated the possible protective effect of melatonin on the inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemia induced by blockade of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) in aging male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to MCA obstruction. After 24 h or 7 days of procedure, 14-month-old nontreated and treated rats with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin were sacrificed and right and left hippocampus and cortex were collected. Rats aged 2 and 6 months, respectively, were subjected to the same brain injury protocol, but they were not treated with melatonin. mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and sirtuin 1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In nontreated animals, a significant time-dependent increase in IL-1β, TNF-α, BAD, and BAX was observed in the ischemic area of both hippocampus and cortex, and to a lesser extent in the contralateral hemisphere. Hippocampal GFAP was also significantly elevated, while Bcl-2 and sirtuin 1 decreased significantly in response to ischemia. Aging aggravated these changes. Melatonin administration was able to reverse significantly these alterations. In conclusion, melatonin may ameliorate the age-dependent inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemic cerebral injury.

  7. Acute inflammatory response of the male breasts secondary to self-injection of petroleum jelly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Yalamanchili, Chandana; Hamous, James; Piskun, Mary A; Weis, Brian

    2008-04-01

    The injection of liquid foreign materials such as petroleum jelly and paraffin oil was used as an early medical intervention for the augmentation of body contour in the late 19th century. These practices were associated with severe late onset complications and they have been abandoned by plastic surgeons today. This article discusses a male-to-female transsexual patient with an acute inflammatory response with early sclerosing lipogranuloma of breasts associated with the self-injection of large amounts of petroleum jelly. The inflammation is successfully controlled with the early administration of prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents followed by a subcutaneous mastectomy. The importance of medical education and psychology counseling is discussed.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis in mice (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Yusuke; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune disease afflicting multiple joints of the body, where as a result of the increase in inflammatory cytokines and tissue destructive factors such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, deterioration of the bones and cartilages of the joints occurs. The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on hind paw inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice models. Materials and method: RA in the CIA mouse model was induced by immunization of DBA/1J mice with intradermal injections of an emulsion of bovine type II collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant. A total of 20 CIA mice were subdivided into the following groups: control group, CIA group and 2 groups of LED irradiated CIA mice (LED groups) (n=5 per group). The mouse knee joint area in the LED groups (the 570 nm and 940 nm groups) was irradiated with LED energy, three times a week for 500 s per session over 8 weeks at a dose of 5 J/cm2. The hind paw swelling was assessed by the increase in hind paw thickness. The serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines and arthritic factor MMP-3 were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the LED-570 and LED-940 groups at 4 weeks after arthritis induction, the swelling inhibition index was 18.1±4.9 and 29.3±4.0 respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and MMP-3 serum levels were significantly lower in the LED-940 group. Conclusions: LED irradiation, particularly in the near-infrared was effective for inhibition of the inflammatory reactions caused by RA. PMID:25368445

  9. A case report of small bowel perforation secondary to cytomegalovirus related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Delgado, Eva María; Villanueva-Lozano, Hiram; García Rojas-Acosta, Miguel J; Miranda-Maldonado, Ivett C; Ramos-Jiménez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Non-traumatic small bowel perforation is rare in adults but carries a high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is made on clinical suspicion, and the most common causes in developing countries are infectious diseases, being cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompromised patients the main etiology. We describe a patient with a recently diagnosed advanced stage HIV infection and an intestinal perforation associated with cytomegalovirus immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation.

  10. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-liang; Dong, Bi-ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-hong; Hou, Chang-chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26792984

  11. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus is attenuated by telmisartan through suppression of iNOS/NO and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Guo, Xueling; Deng, Yan; Zhu, Die; Shang, Jin; Liu, Huiguo

    2015-01-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), but little is known about the precise mechanism of OSAS-induced AD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play key roles in the development of AD. Several studies have confirmed that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, beneficially regulates NOS and NO. Here, we examined the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan against hippocampal apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the most characteristic pathophysiological change of OSAS. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 8h of intermittent hypoxia per day with or without telmisartan for eight weeks. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region, NOS activity, NO content, and the presence of inflammatory agents and radical oxygen species in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed that CIH activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased NO content, and enhanced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Treatment with telmisartan inhibited excessive iNOS and NO generation and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses. In addition, telmisartan significantly ameliorated the hippocampal apoptosis induced by CIH. In conclusion, Pre-CIH telmisartan administration attenuated CIH-induced hippocampal apoptosis partly by regulating NOS activity, inhibiting excessive NO generation, and reducing lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Qing Hua Chang Yin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human intestinal cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    KE, XIAO; CHEN, JINGTUAN; ZHANG, XIN; FANG, WENYI; YANG, CHUNBO; PENG, JUN; CHEN, YOUQIN; SFERRA, THOMAS J.

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is tightly regulated by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Thus, the suppression of NF-κB signaling may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation, which has been used for a number of years to clinically treat UC. However, little is known with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory model of the human intestinal epithelium to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of QHCY and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that QHCY inhibited the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells as it significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, QHCY treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that QHCY suppressed the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation may constitute a potential mechanism by which QHCY treats UC. PMID:23935744

  13. Qing Hua Chang Yin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human intestinal cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiao; Chen, Jingtuan; Zhang, Xin; Fang, Wenyi; Yang, Chunbo; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is tightly regulated by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Thus, the suppression of NF-κB signaling may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation, which has been used for a number of years to clinically treat UC. However, little is known with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory model of the human intestinal epithelium to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of QHCY and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that QHCY inhibited the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells as it significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, QHCY treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that QHCY suppressed the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation may constitute a potential mechanism by which QHCY treats UC.

  14. Melatonin Counteracts at a Transcriptional Level the Inflammatory and Apoptotic Response Secondary to Ischemic Brain Injury Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Blockade in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Sergio D.; Rancan, Lisa; Kireev, Roman; González, Alberto; Louzao, Pedro; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging increases oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin counteracts inflammation and apoptosis. This study investigated the possible protective effect of melatonin on the inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemia induced by blockade of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) in aging male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to MCA obstruction. After 24 h or 7 days of procedure, 14-month-old nontreated and treated rats with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin were sacrificed and right and left hippocampus and cortex were collected. Rats aged 2 and 6 months, respectively, were subjected to the same brain injury protocol, but they were not treated with melatonin. mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and sirtuin 1 was measured by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. In nontreated animals, a significant time-dependent increase in IL-1β, TNF-α, BAD, and BAX was observed in the ischemic area of both hippocampus and cortex, and to a lesser extent in the contralateral hemisphere. Hippocampal GFAP was also significantly elevated, while Bcl-2 and sirtuin 1 decreased significantly in response to ischemia. Aging aggravated these changes. Melatonin administration was able to reverse significantly these alterations. In conclusion, melatonin may ameliorate the age-dependent inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemic cerebral injury. PMID:26594596

  15. Simvastatin attenuates intestinal fibrosis independent of the anti-inflammatory effect by promoting fibroblast/myofibroblast apoptosis in the regeneration/healing process from TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yosuke; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Murano, Naoko; Morita, Eijiro; Inoue, Takuya; Kawakami, Ken; Ishida, Kumi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Kakimoto, Kazuki; Okada, Toshihiko; Narabayashi, Ken; Umegaki, Eiji; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal deformity and stenosis are induced by fibrosis during the process healing of intestinal chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Potent anti-inflammatory treatment of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) may induce fibrous stenosis, and this is often difficult to treat in clinical practice. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a treatment strategy that concomitantly exhibits repair/regenerative and anti-fibrotic effects, in addition to the current anti-inflammatory effect, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the relationship between the course of inflammatory activity and the healing process and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated; although the complex involvement of various factors in the mechanism of biological fibrosis has been investigated. Simvastatin (SIMV), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The current study established a model of the regeneration/healing process from TNBS-induced colitis and investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of SIMV. Four groups of TNBS-induced colitis model were prepared using male SJL/J mice: A: Normal control group, B: control group, and C and D: treatment groups. The mucosal healing process was classified into three phases (an early phase: inflammation period, a mid-phase: regeneration promoting period, and a late phase: regeneration-converging period), and inflammation, the expression of fibrosis-related growth factors, and induction of apoptosis of fibrosis-related cells were compared in each period. (1) The clinical findings showed that SIMV showed anti-inflammatory effects with body weight gain and improvement of epithelial injury in the late phase. Histological (macroscopic/microscopic) improvement was noted in the mid- and late phases. The inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) level significantly decreased in the mid- and late phases in the high-dose treatment group. (2) SIMV also had anti-fibrotic effects

  16. Oridonin attenuates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gan; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiaofei; Jiang, Kangfeng; Wu, Haichong; Qiu, Changwei; Guo, Mengyao; Deng, Ganzhen

    2017-09-15

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease owing to the lack of specific and effective therapies. Oridonin (Ori) is an active diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosiarubescens (R.rubescens) that has been shown to possess a broadspectrum pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antitumour, antioxidative and neuroregulatory effects. However, its potential protective mechanism in ALI is not well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that Ori reduces the mortality of mice with ALI induced by a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which suggests that Ori has a protective effect on LPS induced ALI. Next, our results confirmed that Ori improves LPS-induced localized pulmonary pathology and decreased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) in the serum. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is capable of regulating the transcription of pro-inflammatory factors. Interestingly, our results showed that Ori inhibits the expression of TLR4/MyD88 and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in lung tissues. To confirm this, we further validated the possible regulatory anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Ori in vitro. LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, which are widely used as an inflammation model to evaluate the potential protective effect of drugs in vitro, were chosen for this study. Similar results were observed, that is, pre-treatment with Ori, markedly inhibited the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 induced by LPS and subsequently decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that were increased by LPS. Overall, these results demonstrated that Ori exerts a therapeutic effect on ALI by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB axis.

  17. Cynandione A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators via MAPK inhibition and NF-κB inactivation in RAW264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Ji Hae; Park, Keun Hyung; Jung, Mira; Jung, Hana; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, In Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii has been traditionally used in eastern Asia for the treatment of various diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases and arteriosclerosis. Cynandione A (CA), an acetophenone, is one of major constituents from roots of C. wilfordii. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activities of CA were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-administered C57BL/6 N mice. CA significantly decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner, while CA up to 200 μM did not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Our data also showed that CA significantly attenuated expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. CA inhibited phosphorylation of IκB-α and MAP kinases such as ERK and p38. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CA inhibited translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus, transcription of the NF-κB minimal promoter and NF-κB DNA binding activity. Administration of CA significantly decreased the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-injected mice and improved survival of septic mice with lethal endotoxemia. These results demonstrate that CA has effective inhibitory effects on production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that CA may be used as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25361770

  18. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (CE = Cinnulin PF®) attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339-treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibited the over-secretion of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S-labelling study. In vivo, oral treatment with C...

  19. Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ji-Hyun; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seo, Dong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor κB, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo. PMID:26539049

  20. Polyandric acid A, a clerodane diterpenoid from the Australian medicinal plant Dodonaea polyandra, attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Bradley S; Luo, Xianling; Costabile, Maurizio; Caughey, Gillian E; Wang, Jiping; Claudie, David J; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2014-01-24

    Dodonaea polyandra is a medicinal plant used traditionally by the Kuuku I'yu (Northern Kaanju) indigenous people of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. The most potent of the diterpenoids previously identified from this plant, polyandric acid A (1), has been examined for inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and other inflammatory mediators using well-established acute and chronic mouse ear edema models and in vitro cellular models. Topical application of 1 significantly inhibited interleukin-1β production in mouse ear tissue in an acute model. In a chronic skin inflammation model, a marked reduction in ear thickness, associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase accumulation, was observed. Treatment of primary neonatal human keratinocytes with 1 followed by activation with phorbol ester/ionomycin showed a significant reduction in IL-6 secretion. The present study provides evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of 1 are due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with skin inflammation and may be useful in applications for skin inflammatory conditions including psoriasis and dermatitis.

  1. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  2. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  3. A leaf methanolic extract of Wercklea insignis attenuates the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Jang, Ha-young; Jeong, Hyeok; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2012-02-01

    The biological activity of Wercklea insignis (WI) in inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action of extracts of this plant are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a WI methanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. A WI methanolic extract significantly inhibited NO, PGE(2), IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were suppressed by the extract at both the mRNA and protein levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. Additionally, the attenuation of inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells by the WI extract was closely associated with suppression of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules, including ERK, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK and translocation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus. The effect of WI extract was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in female (20-25 g). Our results collectively indicate that the WI extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages, supporting use of the extract as a therapeutic anti-inflammatory treatment.

  4. Pathogen- and Host-Directed Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Helen C.; Theron, Annette J.; Cockeran, Riana; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics possess several, beneficial, secondary properties which complement their primary antimicrobial activity. In addition to high levels of tissue penetration, which may counteract seemingly macrolide-resistant bacterial pathogens, these agents also possess anti-inflammatory properties, unrelated to their primary antimicrobial activity. Macrolides target cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as structural cells, and are beneficial in controlling harmful inflammatory responses during acute and chronic bacterial infection. These secondary anti-inflammatory activities of macrolides appear to be particularly effective in attenuating neutrophil-mediated inflammation. This, in turn, may contribute to the usefulness of these agents in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of both microbial and nonmicrobial origin, predominantly of the airways. This paper is focused on the various mechanisms of macrolide-mediated anti-inflammatory activity which target both microbial pathogens and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, with emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22778497

  5. Attenuation of Inflammatory Mediators (TNF-α and Nitric Oxide) and Up-Regulation of IL-10 by Wild and Domesticated Basidiocarps of Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amauroderma rugosum, commonly known as “Jiǎzī” in China, is a wild mushroom traditionally used by the Chinese to reduce inflammation, to treat diuretic and upset stomach, and to prevent cancer. It is also used by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent epileptic episodes and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to compare the wild and domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum for antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The wild basidiocarps of A. rugosum were collected from the Belum Forest, Perak, Malaysia and the domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum were cultivated in the mushroom house located in the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both the wild and domesticated basidiocarps were subjected to ethanolic extraction and the extracts were tested for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the crude ethanolic extract of wild (WB) and domesticated (DB) basidiocarps of A. rugosum had comparable total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. However, WB (EC50 = 222.90 μg/mL) displayed a better ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than DB (EC50 = 469.60 μg/mL). Both WB and DB were able to scavenge nitric oxide (NO) radical and suppress the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and this effect was mediated through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene. In addition, both WB and DB caused down-regulation of the inflammatory gene TNF-α and the up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory gene IL-10. There was no inhibitory effect of WB and DB on nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In conclusion, the wild and domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum possessed antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. WB and DB inhibited downstream inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and NO) and induced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production. No inhibitory effects shown on upstream nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. WB and

  6. Inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Podell, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies are the result of infiltration of inflammatory cells into striated muscle, with or without an association with an underlying cause. Two broad classifications are IIMs and secondary inflammatory myopathies associated with other diseases. Standard diagnostic criteria for inflammatory myopathy include the presence of weakness or loss of specific muscle group function, an increase in CK, EMG changes associated with muscle membrane instability, and histologic evidence of inflammation. Not all these criteria, however, must be present. Fresh-frozen biopsy from two proximal muscles is recommended for biopsy confirmation. IIM can either focally affect head or neck muscles or be more diffuse. MMM is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a humoral antibody produced against the unique type IIM and type I variant mvofibers of masticatory muscles of dogs, which causes inflammation and loss of function of the muscles of mastication. Idiopathic polymyositis can affect focal muscle groups (extraocular, laryngeal) or present as multifocal or diffuse involvement of skeletal muscle in the cat and dog. Familial canine DM is an inflammatory disease of the striated muscle, skin, and vasculature in young Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs (Shelties), and, rarely, Collie-crossbred dogs. Immunosuppressive therapy is the key to successful treatment. Protozoal parasitic myopathies are the most common cause of clinically relevant secondary inflammatory myopathies. The degree of systemic involvement is often the limiting factor to successful treatment. Early recognition of the clinical signs for proper diagnostic testing and institution of appropriate therapy can result in a rewarding outcome in treating inflammatory myopathies in the cat and dog.

  7. Apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone, Isolated from Sargassum muticum, Inhibits CpG-Induced Inflammatory Response by Attenuating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Doobyeong; Manzoor, Zahid; Kim, Sung Chun; Kim, Sohyun; Oh, Tae-Heon; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Hyun, Jin-Won; Lee, Nam Ho; Ko, Mi-Hee; Koh, Young-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Sargassum muticum (S. muticum) is a brown edible alga and widely distributed in Korea. This report was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (APO-9′) isolated from S. muticum on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. S. muticum extract (SME) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs). APO-9′ pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDMs and BMDCs showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production with IC50 values ranging from 5.31 to 13.79. It exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. APO-9′ pre-treatment exhibited significant inhibition of CpG DNA-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these data suggest that SME and APO-9′ have a significant anti-inflammatory property and warrant further studies concerning the potentials of SME and APO-9′ for medicinal use. PMID:23985898

  8. The pro-resolving lipid mediator Maresin 1 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating the pro-inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Xian, Wenjing; Wu, Yan; Xiong, Wei; Li, Longyan; Li, Tong; Pan, Shangwen; Song, Limin; Hu, Lisha; Pei, Lei; Yao, Shanglong; and others

    2016-03-25

    Inflammation plays a crucial role in acute ischemic stroke pathogenesis. Macrophage-derived Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a newly uncovered mediator with potent anti-inflammatory abilities. Here, we investigated the effect of MaR1 on acute inflammation and neuroprotection in a mouse brain ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model. Male C57 mice were subjected to 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. By the methods of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, haematoxylin and eosin or Fluoro-Jade B staining, neurological deficits scoring, ELISA detection, immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of MaR1 significantly reduced the infarct volume and neurological defects, essentially protected the brain tissue and neurons from injury, alleviated pro-inflammatory reactions and NF-κB p65 activation and nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that MaR1 significantly protects against I/R injury probably by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reactions. - Highlights: • MaR1 significantly protects against ischemia reperfusion injury. • MaR1 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and reducing glial activation and neutrophil infiltration. • These effects at least partially occurred via suppression of the NF-κB p65 signalling pathway.

  9. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. Methods We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Results Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Conclusions Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22920325

  10. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Han; Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Lin; Dou, Xiaoguang

    2012-08-24

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuate Hyperalgesia and Block Upregulation of Trigeminal Ganglionic Sodium Channel 1.7 after Induction of Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui Yun; Ding, Yun; Gan, Ye Hua

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the association between the analgesic effect of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in female rats. Ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium and meloxicam were given intragastrically before induction of TMJ inflammation. Histopathological evaluation and scoring of TMJ inflammation was used to evaluate the level of inflammation. The head withdrawal threshold and food intake were measured to evaluate TMJ nociceptive responses. The mRNA and protein expression of trigeminal ganglionic Nav1.7 was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Twenty-four hours after the injection of CFA into the TMJs, NSAIDs attenuated hyperalgesia of inflamed TMJ and simultaneously blocked inflammation-induced upregulation of Nav1.7 mRNA and protein expression in the TG. However, ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium slightly attenuated TMJ inflammation and meloxicam did not affect TMJ inflammation. Attenuation of hyperalgesia of inflamed TMJ by NSAIDs might be associated with their role in blocking upregulation of trigeminal ganglionic Nav1.7.

  12. Quercetin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells: Role of MAPKs on the Nrf2 Pathway and Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Grace Y.; Chen, Zihong; Jasmer, Kimberly J.; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Hannink, Mark; Simonyi, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    A large group of flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been suggested to elicit health benefits due mainly to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies with immune cells have demonstrated inhibition of these inflammatory responses through down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory pathway involving NF-κB and up-regulation of the anti-oxidative pathway involving Nrf2. In the present study, the murine BV-2 microglial cells were used to compare anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and cyanidin, two flavonoids differing by their alpha, beta keto carbonyl group. Quercetin was 10 folds more potent than cyanidin in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production as well as stimulation of Nrf2-induced heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression. In addition, quercetin demonstrated enhanced ability to stimulate HO-1 protein expression when cells were treated with LPS. In an attempt to unveil mechanism(s) for quercetin to enhance Nrf2/HO-1 activity under endotoxic stress, results pointed to an increase in phospho-p38MAPK expression upon addition of quercetin to LPS. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors for phospho-p38MAPK and MEK1/2 for ERK1/2 further showed that these MAPKs target different sites of the Nrf2 pathway that regulates HO-1 expression. However, inhibition of LPS-induced NO by quercetin was not fully reversed by TinPPIX, a specific inhibitor for HO-1 activity. Taken together, results suggest an important role of quercetin to regulate inflammatory responses in microglial cells and its ability to upregulate HO-1 against endotoxic stress through involvement of MAPKs. PMID:26505893

  13. Low-dose benznidazole treatment results in parasite clearance and attenuates heart inflammatory reaction in an experimental model of infection with a highly virulent Trypanosoma cruzi strain.

    PubMed

    Cevey, Ágata Carolina; Mirkin, Gerardo Ariel; Penas, Federico Nicolás; Goren, Nora Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is the main cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Americas. Antiparasitic treatment mostly relies on benznidazole (Bzl) due to Nifurtimox shortage or unavailability. Both induce adverse drug effects (ADE) of varied severity in many patients, leading to treatment discontinuation or abandonment. Since dosage may influence ADE, we aimed to assess Bzl efficacy in terms of parasiticidal and anti-inflammatory activity, using doses lower than those previously reported. BALB/c mice infected with the T. cruzi RA strain were treated with different doses of Bzl. Parasitaemia, mortality and weight change were assessed. Parasite load, tissue infiltrates and inflammatory mediators were studied in the heart. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined as a marker of heart damage. The infection-independent anti-inflammatory properties of Bzl were studied in an in vitro model of LPS-treated cardiomyocyte culture. Treatment with 25 mg/kg/day Bzl turned negative the parasitological parameters, induced a significant decrease in IL-1β, IL-6 and NOS2 in the heart and CK activity in serum, to normal levels. No mortality was observed in infected treated mice. Primary cultured cardiomyocytes treated with Bzl showed that inflammatory mediators were reduced via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. A Bzl dose lower than that previously reported for treatment of experimental Chagas disease exerts adequate antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory effects leading to parasite clearance and tissue healing. This may be relevant to reassess the dose currently used for the treatment of human Chagas disease, aiming to minimize ADE.

  14. Low-dose benznidazole treatment results in parasite clearance and attenuates heart inflammatory reaction in an experimental model of infection with a highly virulent Trypanosoma cruzi strain

    PubMed Central

    Cevey, Ágata Carolina; Mirkin, Gerardo Ariel; Penas, Federico Nicolás; Goren, Nora Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is the main cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Americas. Antiparasitic treatment mostly relies on benznidazole (Bzl) due to Nifurtimox shortage or unavailability. Both induce adverse drug effects (ADE) of varied severity in many patients, leading to treatment discontinuation or abandonment. Since dosage may influence ADE, we aimed to assess Bzl efficacy in terms of parasiticidal and anti-inflammatory activity, using doses lower than those previously reported. BALB/c mice infected with the T. cruzi RA strain were treated with different doses of Bzl. Parasitaemia, mortality and weight change were assessed. Parasite load, tissue infiltrates and inflammatory mediators were studied in the heart. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined as a marker of heart damage. The infection-independent anti-inflammatory properties of Bzl were studied in an in vitro model of LPS-treated cardiomyocyte culture. Treatment with 25 mg/kg/day Bzl turned negative the parasitological parameters, induced a significant decrease in IL-1β, IL-6 and NOS2 in the heart and CK activity in serum, to normal levels. No mortality was observed in infected treated mice. Primary cultured cardiomyocytes treated with Bzl showed that inflammatory mediators were reduced via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. A Bzl dose lower than that previously reported for treatment of experimental Chagas disease exerts adequate antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory effects leading to parasite clearance and tissue healing. This may be relevant to reassess the dose currently used for the treatment of human Chagas disease, aiming to minimize ADE. PMID:26862474

  15. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-02-10

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG(+) memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM(+)(IgD(+))CD27(+) and IgG(+) memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG(+) memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-γ caused differentiation of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG(+) post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils.

  16. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B.; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG+ memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM+(IgD+)CD27+ and IgG+ memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG+ memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-γ caused differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG+ post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils. PMID:25624468

  17. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-12-15

    Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1) upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500-1000 nM), accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  18. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on selected inflammatory biomarkers in older adults: a secondary analysis of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Mary; Tran, Bich; Ebeling, Peter R; English, Dallas R; Lucas, Robyn M; Venn, Alison J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-09-14

    Observational studies have suggested that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with inflammatory markers. Most trials reporting significant associations between vitamin D intake and inflammatory markers used specific patient groups. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of supplementary vitamin D using secondary data from a population-based, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (Pilot D-Health trial 2010/0423). Participants were 60- to 84-year-old residents of one of the four eastern states of Australia. They were randomly selected from the electoral roll and were randomised to one of three trial arms: placebo (n 214), 750 μg (n 215) or 1500 μg (n 215) vitamin D3, each taken once per month for 12 months. Post-intervention blood samples for the analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin levels were available for 613 participants. Associations between intervention group and biomarker levels were evaluated using quantile regression. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, leptin:adiponectin ratio or IL-10 levels between the placebo group and either supplemented group. The 75th percentile IL-6 level was 2·8 pg/ml higher (95 % CI 0·4, 5·8 pg/ml) in the 1500 μg group than in the placebo group (75th percentiles:11·0 v. 8·2 pg/ml), with a somewhat smaller, non-significant difference in 75th percentiles between the 750 μg and placebo groups. Despite large differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between the three groups after 12 months of supplementation, we found little evidence of an effect of vitamin D supplementation on cytokine or adipokine levels, with the possible exception of IL-6.

  19. 4(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, a bioactive phytochemical that attenuates secondary damage in an experimental model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4(α-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (glucomoringin isothiocyanate; GMG-ITC) is released from the precursor 4(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG) by myrosinase (β-thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147) catalyzed hydrolysis. GMG is an uncommon member of the glucosinolate group as it presents a unique characteristic consisting in a second glycosidic residue within the side chain. It is a typical glucosinolate found in large amounts in the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., the most widely distributed plant of the Moringaceae family. GMG was purified from seed-cake of M. oleifera and was hydrolyzed by myrosinase at neutral pH in order to form the corresponding GMG-ITC. This bioactive phytochemical can play a key role in counteracting the inflammatory response connected to the oxidative-related mechanisms as well as in the control of the neuronal cell death process, preserving spinal cord tissues after injury in mice. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) for 1 min., via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. In particular, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes occurring in the spinal cord after ip treatment with bioactive GMG-ITC produced 15 min before use from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of GMG (10mg/kg body weight+5 μl Myr mouse/day). The following parameters, such as histological damage, distribution of reticular fibers in connective tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκB-α) degradation, expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthases (iNOS), as well as apoptosis, were evaluated. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of bioactive GMG-ITC on the secondary damage, following spinal cord injury, through an antioxidant mechanism of neuroprotection. Therefore, the bioactive phytochemical GMG-ITC freshly produced before use by myrosinase

  20. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Varella, Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos; Santiago, Joselita Ferreira Carvalho; Carrete, Henrique; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira de; Canzian, Mauro; Amado, Débora; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2011-02-01

    We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  1. α-Tocopherol attenuates NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 secretion in cancer-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Vinayak, Manjula

    2011-10-01

    Cancer development and progression are closely associated with inflammation. NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) provides a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, and is a major factor controlling the ability of malignant cells to resist tumour surveillance mechanisms. NF-κB might also regulate tumour angiogenesis and invasiveness and the signalling pathways that mediate its activation provide attractive targets for new chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic approaches. ROS (reactive oxygen species) initiate inflammation by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore antioxidants provide a major defence against inflammation. α-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant. In addition to decreasing lipid peroxidation, α-tocopherol may exert intracellular effects. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the effect of α-tocopherol supplementation in cancer prevention via suppression of NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines. α-Tocopherol treatment significantly down-regulates expression, synthesis as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 (interleukin-6) in cancerous mice. It also suppresses NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter in liver leading to decreased secretion of IL-6 in serum. The regulation of the signalling pathway by α-tocopherol is found apart from its antioxidant capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the hypothesis that besides the powerful free radical scavenging effects, α-tocopherol has genomic effects in down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and cancer prevention via the NF-κB-dependent pathway.

  2. St. John's wort attenuates irinotecan-induced diarrhea via down-regulation of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Zeping; Yang Xiaoxia; Chan Suiyung; Xu Anlong; Duan Wei; Zhu Yizhun; Sheu, F.-S.; Boelsterli, Urs Alex; Chan, Eli; Zhang Qiang; Wang, J.-C.; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel; Koh, H.L.; Huang Min; Zhou Shufeng . E-mail: phazsf@nus.edu.sg

    2006-10-15

    Diarrhea is a common dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy, in particular for drugs such as irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluouracil, oxaliplatin, capecitabine and raltitrexed. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) has anti-inflammatory activity, and our preliminary study in the rat and a pilot study in cancer patients found that treatment of SJW alleviated irinotecan-induced diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated whether SJW modulated various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-6), interferon (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and intestinal epithelium apoptosis in rats. The rats were treated with irinotecan at 60 mg/kg for 4 days in combination with oral SJW or SJW-free control vehicle at 400 mg/kg for 8 days. Diarrhea, tissue damage, body weight loss, various cytokines including IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} and intestinal epithelial apoptosis were monitored over 11 days. Our studies demonstrated that combined SJW markedly reduced CPT-11-induced diarrhea and intestinal lesions. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta}, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} was significantly up-regulated in intestine. In the mean time, combined SJW significantly suppressed the intestinal epithelial apoptosis induced by CPT-11 over days 5-11. In particular, combination of SJW significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in the intestine over days 5-11. In conclusion, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intestinal epithelium apoptosis partly explained the protective effect of SJW against the intestinal toxicities induced by irinotecan. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential for STW as an agent in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs to lower their dose-limiting toxicities.

  3. MD-2 as the target of a novel small molecule, L6H21, in the attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory response and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Shan, Xiaoou; Chen, Gaozhi; Jiang, Lili; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Qilu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jingying; Zhang, Yali; Wu, Wencan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) recognizes LPS, which is required for TLR4 activation, and represents an attractive therapeutic target for severe inflammatory disorders. We previously found that a chalcone derivative, L6H21, could inhibit LPS-induced overexpression of TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages. Here, we performed a series of biochemical experiments to investigate whether L6H21 specifically targets MD-2 and inhibits the interaction and signalling transduction of LPS-TLR4/MD-2. Experimental Approach The binding affinity of L6H21 to MD-2 protein was analysed using computer docking, surface plasmon resonance analysis, elisa, fluorescence measurements and flow cytometric analysis. The effects of L6H21 on MAPK and NF-κB signalling were determined using EMSA, fluorescence staining, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The anti-inflammatory effects of L6H21 were confirmed using elisa and RT-qPCR in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effects of L6H21 were also evaluated in septic C57BL/6 mice. Key Results Compound L6H21 inserted into the hydrophobic region of the MD-2 pocket, forming hydrogen bonds with Arg90 and Tyr102 in the MD-2 pocket. In vitro, L6H21 subsequently suppressed MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in macrophages stimulated by LPS. In vivo, L6H21 pretreatment improved survival, prevented lung injury, decreased serum and hepatic cytokine levels in mice subjected to LPS. In addition, mice with MD-2 gene knockout were universally protected from the effects of LPS-induced septic shock. Conclusions and Implications Overall, this work demonstrated that the new chalcone derivative, L6H21, is a potential candidate for the treatment of sepsis. More importantly, the data confirmed that MD-2 is an important therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders. PMID:26076332

  4. Ampelopsin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response through the inhibition of the NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways in microglia.

    PubMed

    Weng, Leihua; Zhang, He; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhan, Hui; Chen, Fan; Han, Lijuan; Xu, Yun; Cao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that microglia are a major cellular contributor to neuroinflammation. The present study investigated whether Ampelopsin (Amp), a type of flavanonol derivative from Ampelopsis grossedentata, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 and primary microglia cells. We found that pre-treatment of microglia cells with Amp before LPS with a non-cytotoxic concentration range decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Amp also suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was obviously reduced by Amp. Our mechanistic study indicated that Amp suppressed LPS-induced activation of the IκB/NF-κB inflammation pathway without affecting changes in the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in BV2 cells. Further studies revealed that Amp markedly reduced the phosphorylation levels of JAK2-STAT3 and STAT3 nuclear translocation. Overall, our data suggest that Amp can suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory response of microglial cells, indicating that Amp has potential for the treatment of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Ethyl linoleate from garlic attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Seetharaman, Rajasekar; Ko, Min Jung; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kwak, Jung Ho; Lee, Sang Joon; Bae, Yoe Sik; Choi, Young Whan

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, an essential fatty acid, ethyl linoleate (ELA), was isolated from the cloves of Allium sativum, and its structure was elucidated by NMR and GC-MS analyses. In vitro systems were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ELA. Our results indicate that ELA down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and thereby reduces nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescent microscopy and western blot analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by impaired translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases. Furthermore, ELA exerted its anti-inflammatory activity by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as determined by HO-1 small interfering (Si) RNA system. Si RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 abrogated the inhibitory effects of ELA on the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages. These findings indicate the potential therapeutic use of ELA as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  6. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Farias, Jaime Antonio Machado; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Beber, Ana Paula; Cury, Benhur Judah; Santin, José Roberto; Faloni de Andrade, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1-100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders.

  7. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Farias, Jaime Antonio Machado; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Beber, Ana Paula; Cury, Benhur Judah

    2016-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1–100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27847525

  8. Severe water intoxication secondary to the concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and desmopressin: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Verrua, Elisa; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrante, Emanuele; Noto, Andrea; Sala, Elisa; Malchiodi, Elena; Iapichino, Gaetano; Peccoz, Paolo Beck; Spada, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most of the clinical data on the safety profile of desmopressin (DDAVP), which is an effective treatment for both polyuric conditions and bleeding disorders, originate from studies on the tailoring of drug treatment, whereas few reports exist describing severe side effects secondary to drug-drug interaction. We herein describe a case of severe hyponatremia complicated by seizure and coma due to the intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in a patient on DDAVP replacement therapy for central diabetes insipidus (DI). A 50-yr-old Caucasian man, with congenital central DI, developed an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure, resulting in coma immediately after being admitted to the Emergency Unit for weakness and emesis. Based on his medical history and clinical findings, water intoxication secondary to ketoprofen intake (200 mg/day for the last 3 days) concomitant with DDAVP replacement therapy (Minirin(®) 60 mcg 4 tablets a day) was hypothesized as being the cause of the severe euvolemic hypotonic hyponatremia (natremia 113 mEq/l, plasma osmolality 238 mOsm/Kg). After standard emergency procedures, appropriate gradual restoration of serum sodium levels to the normal range was achieved in 72 hours. Hydratation was maintained according to water excretion and desmopressin therapy was re-introduced. We discuss this case report in the context of the published literature. The present report first highlights the potentially life-threatening side effects associated with over-the-counter NSAIDs during DDAVP replacement therapy for central DI. Risks and benefits of co-treatment should be carefully considered and therapeutic alternatives to NSAIDs should be recommended to patients with central DI in order to improve DDAVP safety.

  9. Attenuating effect of Acorus calamus extract in chronic constriction injury induced neuropathic pain in rats: an evidence of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acorus calamus (family: Araceae), is an indigenous plant, traditionally it is used as an ingredient of various cocktail preparations and for the management of severe inflammatory disorders in Indian system of medicine. Present study investigated the attenuating role of Acorus calamus plant extract in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Methods Hot plate, plantar, Randall Selitto, Von Frey Hair, pin prick, acetone drop, photoactometer and rota-rod tests were performed to assess degree of thermal, radiant, mechanical, chemical sensation, spontaneous motor activity and motor co-ordination changes respectively, at different time intervals i.e., day 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Tissue myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion and total calcium levels were determined after 21st day to assess biochemical alterations. Histopathological evaluations were also performed. Hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered from the day of surgery for 14 days. Results CCI of sciatic nerve significantly induced thermal, radiant, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal, chemical, tactile allodynia, along with increase in the levels of superoxide anion, total calcium and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover significant histological changes were also observed. HAE-AC attenuated CCI induced development of painful behavioural, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of pregabalin serving as positive control. Conclusions Acorus calamus prevented CCI induced neuropathy which may be attributed to its multiple actions including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory actions. PMID:21426568

  10. Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletion of the SH gene induces increased apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro, and is attenuated and induces protective immunity in calves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine; Wyld, Sara; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Guzman, Efrain; Thom, Michelle; Widdison, Stephanie; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2014-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes inflammation and obstruction of the small airways, leading to severe respiratory disease in young calves. The virus is closely related to human (H)RSV, a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. The ability to manipulate the genome of RSV has provided opportunities for the development of stable, live attenuated RSV vaccines. The role of the SH protein in the pathogenesis of BRSV was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a recombinant (r)BRSV in which the SH gene had been deleted. Infection of bovine epithelial cells and monocytes with rBRSVΔSH, in vitro, resulted in an increase in apoptosis, and higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with cells infected with parental, wild-type (WT) rBRSV. Although replication of rBRSVΔSH and WT rBRSV, in vitro, were similar, the replication of rBRSVΔSH was moderately reduced in the lower, but not the upper, respiratory tract of experimentally infected calves. Despite the greater ability of rBRSVΔSH to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, in vitro, the pulmonary inflammatory response in rBRSVΔSH-infected calves was significantly reduced compared with that in calves inoculated with WT rBRSV, 6 days previously. Virus lacking SH appeared to be as immunogenic and effective in inducing resistance to virulent virus challenge, 6 months later, as the parental rBRSV. These findings suggest that rBRSVΔSH may be an ideal live attenuated virus vaccine candidate, combining safety with a high level of immunogenicity.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Limits Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Attenuating MyD88-Dependent and MyD88-Independent Pathway Activation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Mengling; Fu, Yunhe; Wang, Jiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine Escherichia coli infection after calving reduces fertility and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. We investigated the protective effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on E. coli-induced cell damage and inflammation in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs). L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduced ultrastructure alterations and the percentage of BEECs apoptosis after E. coli challenge. Increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of immune response indicators, including pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]1, and NOD2), inflammasome proteins (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1), TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules (myeloid differentiation antigen 88 [MyD88], toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [TICAM2]), nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-β, was observed following E. coli challenge. However, these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 ameliorates the E. coli-induced disruption of cellular ultrastructure, subsequently reducing the percentage of BEECs apoptosis and limiting inflammatory responses, partly via attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway activation. Certain probiotics could potentially prevent postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, ultimately reducing the use of antibiotics.

  12. Caffeic acid attenuates the inflammatory stress induced by glycated LDL in human endothelial cells by mechanisms involving inhibition of AGE-receptor, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Toma, Laura; Sanda, Gabriela M; Niculescu, Loredan S; Deleanu, Mariana; Stancu, Camelia S; Sima, Anca V

    2017-07-28

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic and its atherosclerotic complications determine the high morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Caffeic acid (CAF), a phenolic acid present in normal diets, is known for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate CAF's anti-inflammatory properties and its mechanism of action, using cultured human endothelial cells (HEC) incubated with glycated low-density lipoproteins (gLDL). Levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), inflammatory stress markers (C reactive protein, CRP; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1), and oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers were evaluated in gLDL-exposed HEC, in the presence/absence of CAF. RAGE silencing or blocking, specific inhibitors for oxidative stress (apocynin, N-acetyl-cysteine), and ERS (salubrinal) were used. The results showed that: (i) gLDL induced CRP synthesis and secretion through mechanisms involving NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress and ERS in HEC; (ii) gLDL-RAGE interaction, oxidative stress, and ERS stimulated the secretion of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in HEC; and (iii) CAF reduced the secretion of CRP, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 in gLDL-exposed HEC by inhibiting RAGE expression, oxidative stress, and ERS. In conclusion, CAF might be a promising alternative to ameliorate a wide spectrum of disorders due to its complex mechanisms of action resulting in anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation attenuates vascular endothelial impairments and reduces the inflammatory profile via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Liu, Huaipu; Sun, Peng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chen; Wang, Ling; Wang, Tinghuai

    2016-02-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), a method for activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, could suppress endothelial activation and minimize tissue injury during inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic VNS on endothelial impairments and the inflammatory profile in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (7-8 months old) were randomly assigned to the following four groups: sham-OVX, OVX, OVX+sham-VNS, and OVX+VNS. Throughout the experimental period, the OVX+VNS group received VNS for 3h (20.0 Hz, 1.0 mA, and 10.00 ms pulse width) at the same time every other day. After 12 weeks of VNS, blood samples and thoracic aortas were collected for further analyses. Light microscopy and electron microscopy analyses showed that chronic VNS prevented endothelial swelling, desquamation and even necrosis in the OVX rats. In addition, it obviously improved endothelial function in the OVX rats by restoring the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) and serum endothelin-1 level. Increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin) in the thoracic aortas and increases in the levels of circulating cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC/KC) were also observed in the OVX rats. Chronic VNS significantly restored these detrimental changes partly by increasing the ACh concentrations in vascular walls and blocking NF-κB pathway activity. The results of this in vivo study have shown that the administration of chronic VNS during, in the early stage of estrogen deficiency, protects OVX rats from endothelial impairments and the inflammatory profile. These findings indicate that activation of the vagus nerve could be a promising supplemental therapy for reducing the risks of suffering from further CVDs in postmenopausal women.

  14. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages.

  15. Aqueous Date Flesh or Pits Extract Attenuates Liver Fibrosis via Suppression of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Angiogenic Markers in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M.; Attia, Hala A.; Mohamad, Raeesa A.; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M.; Al-Amin, Maha A.; AL-Onazi, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Previous data indicated the protective effect of date fruit extract on oxidative damage in rat liver. However, the hepatoprotective effects via other mechanisms have not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the antifibrotic effect of date flesh extract (DFE) or date pits extract (DPE) via inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reducing the levels of inflammatory, fibrotic and angiogenic markers. Coffee was used as reference hepatoprotective agent. Liver fibrosis was induced by injection of CCl4 (0.4 mL/kg) three times weekly for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE (6 mL/kg), coffee (300 mg/kg), and combination of coffee + DFE and coffee + DPE were given to CCl4-intoxicated rats daily for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE, and their combination with coffee attenuated the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. The increased levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen deposition in injured liver were alleviated by both extracts. CCl4-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin was suppressed indicating HSCs inactivation. Increased angiogenesis was ameliorated as revealed by reduced levels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31. We concluded that DFE or DPE could protect liver via different mechanisms. The combination of coffee with DFE or DPE may enhance its antifibrotic effects. PMID:25945106

  16. In inflammatory reactive astrocytes co-cultured with brain endothelial cells nicotine-evoked Ca(2+) transients are attenuated due to interleukin-1beta release and rearrangement of actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Delbro, D; Westerlund, A; Björklund, U; Hansson, E

    2009-03-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in a more pronounced way in astrocytes co-cultured with microvascular endothelial cells from adult rat brain, compared with monocultured astrocytes, as a sign of a more developed signal transduction system. Also investigated was whether nicotine plays a role in the control of neuroinflammatory reactivity in astrocytes. Ca(2+) imaging experiments were performed using cells loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2/AM. Co-cultured astrocytes responded to lower concentrations of nicotine than did monocultured astrocytes, indicating that they are more sensitive to nicotine. Co-cultured astrocytes also expressed a higher selectivity for alpha7nAChR and alpha4/beta2 subunits and evoked higher Ca(2+) transients compared with monocultured astrocytes. The Ca(2+) transients referred to are activators of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, both IP(3) and ryanodine, triggered by influx through receptor channels. The nicotine-induced Ca(2+) transients were attenuated after incubation with the inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but were not attenuated after incubation with the pain-transmitting peptides substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide, nor with the infection and inflammation stress mediator, leptin. Furthermore, LPS-induced release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was more pronounced in co-cultured versus monocultured astrocytes. Incubation with both LPS and IL-1beta further attenuated nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response. We also found that LPS and IL-1beta induced rearrangement of the F-actin filaments, as measured with an Alexa488-conjugated phalloidin probe. The rearrangements consisted of increases in ring formations and a more dispersed appearance of the filaments. These results indicate that there is a connection between a dysfunction of nicotine Ca(2+) signaling in

  17. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-02-08

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer's disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ1-42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1-42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1-42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes.

  18. Electroacupuncture Attenuates CFA-induced Inflammatory Pain by suppressing Nav1.8 through S100B, TRPV1, Opioid, and Adenosine Pathways in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsien-Yin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2017-02-13

    Pain is associated with several conditions, such as inflammation, that result from altered peripheral nerve properties. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a common Chinese clinical medical technology used for pain management. Using an inflammatory pain mouse model, we investigated the effects of EA on the regulation of neurons, microglia, and related molecules. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injections produced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by EA or a transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) gene deletion. The expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the microglial marker Iba-1, S100B, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), TRPV1, and other related molecules was dramatically increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) of CFA-treated mice. This effect was reversed by EA and TRPV1 gene deletion. In addition, endomorphin (EM) and N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) administration reliably reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, thereby suggesting the involvement of opioid and adenosine receptors. Furthermore, blocking of opioid and adenosine A1 receptors reversed the analgesic effects of EA. Our study illustrates the substantial therapeutic effects of EA against inflammatory pain and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia via neuronal and non-neuronal pathways.

  19. Withania somnifera and Its Withanolides Attenuate Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses and Up-Regulate Antioxidant Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Grace Y; Li, Runting; Cui, Jiankun; Hannink, Mark; Gu, Zezong; Fritsche, Kevin L; Lubahn, Dennis B; Simonyi, Agnes

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for promoting health and quality of life. Recent clinical trials together with experimental studies indicated significant neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha and its constituents. This study is aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of this botanical and its two withanolide constituents, namely, Withaferin A and Withanolide A, using the murine immortalized BV-2 microglial cells. Ashwagandha extracts not only effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 cells, but also stimulates the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway, leading to induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), both in the presence and absence of LPS. Although the withanolides were also capable of inhibiting LPS-induced NO production and stimulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, Withaferin A was tenfold more effective than Withanolide A. In serum-free culture, LPS can also induce production of long thin processes (filopodia) between 4 and 8 h in BV-2 cells. This morphological change was significantly suppressed by Ashwagandha and both withanolides at concentrations for suppressing LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, these results suggest an immunomodulatory role for Ashwagandha and its withanolides, and their ability to suppress oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells by simultaneously down-regulating the NF-kB and upregulating the Nrf2 pathways.

  20. Electroacupuncture Attenuates CFA-induced Inflammatory Pain by suppressing Nav1.8 through S100B, TRPV1, Opioid, and Adenosine Pathways in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hsien-Yin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Pain is associated with several conditions, such as inflammation, that result from altered peripheral nerve properties. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a common Chinese clinical medical technology used for pain management. Using an inflammatory pain mouse model, we investigated the effects of EA on the regulation of neurons, microglia, and related molecules. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injections produced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by EA or a transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) gene deletion. The expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the microglial marker Iba-1, S100B, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), TRPV1, and other related molecules was dramatically increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) of CFA-treated mice. This effect was reversed by EA and TRPV1 gene deletion. In addition, endomorphin (EM) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) administration reliably reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, thereby suggesting the involvement of opioid and adenosine receptors. Furthermore, blocking of opioid and adenosine A1 receptors reversed the analgesic effects of EA. Our study illustrates the substantial therapeutic effects of EA against inflammatory pain and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia via neuronal and non-neuronal pathways. PMID:28211895

  1. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1–42 (Aβ1−42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1−42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1−42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26853104

  2. GBE50 Attenuates Inflammatory Response by Inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-κB Pathways in LPS-Stimulated Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Gai-ying; Yuan, Chong-gang; Hao, Li; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-xiong

    2014-01-01

    Overactivated microglia contribute to a variety of pathological conditions in the central nervous system. The major goal of the present study is to evaluate the potential suppressing effects of a new type of Ginko biloba extract, GBE50, on activated microglia which causes proinflammatory responses and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Murine BV2 microglia cells, with or without pretreatmentof GBE50 at various concentrations, were activated by incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A series of biochemical and microscopic assays were performed to measure cell viability, cell morphology, release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and signal transduction via the p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 pathways. We found that GBE50 pretreatment suppressed LPS-induced morphological changes in BV2 cells. Moreover, GBE50 treatment significantly reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and inhibited the associated signal transduction through the p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 pathways. These results demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of GBE50 on LPS-activated BV2 microglia cells, and indicated that GBE50 reduced the LPS-induced proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β release by inhibiting signal transduction through the NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK pathways. Our findings reveal, at least in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of GBE50. PMID:24782908

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors differentially attenuate pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Temp, Fernanda Rossatto; Marafiga, Joseane Righes; Milanesi, Laura Hautrive; Duarte, Thiago; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Pillat, Micheli Mainardi; Mello, Carlos Fernando

    2017-09-05

    Seizures increase prostaglandin and cytokine levels in the brain. However, it remains to be determined whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived metabolites play a role in seizure-induced cytokine increase in the brain and whether anticonvulsant activity is shared by all COX-2 inhibitors. In this study we investigated whether three different COX-2 inhibitors alter pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice. Adult male albino Swiss mice received nimesulide, celecoxib or etoricoxib (0.2, 2 or 20mg/kg in 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in 5% Tween 80, p.o.). Sixty minutes thereafter the animals were injected with PTZ (50mg/kg, i.p.) and the latency to myoclonic jerks and to generalized tonic-clonic seizures were recorded. Twenty minutes after PTZ injection animals were killed and cytokine levels were measured. PTZ increased cytokine levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. While celecoxib and nimesulide attenuated PTZ -induced increase of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebral cortex, etoricoxib did not. Nimesulide was the only COX-2 inhibitors that attenuated PTZ-induced seizures. This effect coincided with an increase of IL-10 levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, constituting circumstantial evidence that IL-10 increase may be involved in the anticonvulsant effect of nimesulide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Norisoboldine, an Anti-Arthritis Alkaloid Isolated from Radix Linderae, Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation and Inflammatory Bone Erosion in an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhi-feng; Lv, Qi; Xia, Ying; Yue, Meng-fan; Shi, Can; Xia, Yu-feng; Chou, Gui-xin; Wang, Zheng-tao; Dai, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Norisoboldine (NOR), the primary isoquinoline alkaloid constituent of the root of Lindera aggregata, has previously been demonstrated to attenuate osteoclast (OC) differentiation. Accumulative evidence has shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of various cells, and multiple isoquinoline alkaloids can modulate AhR. In the present study, we explored the role of NOR in the AhR signaling pathway. These data showed that the combination of AhR antagonist resveratrol (Res) or α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) nearly reversed the inhibition of OC differentiation through NOR. NOR could stably bind to AhR, up-regulate the nuclear translocation of AhR, and enhance the accumulation of the AhR-ARNT complex, AhR-mediated reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 expression in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that NOR might be an agonist of AhR. Moreover, NOR inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, resulting in the evident accumulation of the AhR-NF-κB-p65 complex, which could be markedly inhibited through either Res or α-NF. Although NOR only slightly affected the expression of HIF-1α, NOR markedly reduced VEGF mRNA expression and ARNT-HIF-1α complex accumulation. In vivo studies indicated that NOR decreased the number of OCs and ameliorated the bone erosion in the joints of rats with collagen-induced arthritis, accompanied by the up-regulation of CYP1A1 and the down-regulation of VEGF mRNA expression in the synovium of rats. A combination of α-NF nearly completely reversed the effects of NOR. In conclusion, NOR attenuated OC differentiation and bone erosion through the activation of AhR and the subsequent inhibition of both NF-κB and HIF pathways.

  5. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and the SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifu; Xiong, Yunyi; Zhang, Huanxi; Li, Jun; Wang, Dong; Chen, Wenfang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Su, Qiao; Li, Wenwen; Huang, Huiting; Bi, Zirong; Liu, Longshan; Wang, Changxi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba extract, against brain death-induced kidney injury. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, brain-death (BD), BD + EGb b48h (48 hours before BD), BD + EGb 2 h (2 hours after BD), BD + EGb 1 h, and BD + EGb 0.5 h. Six hours after BD, serum sample and kidney tissues were collected for analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine significantly elevated in the BD group than in sham group. In all the EGb761-treated BD animals except for the BD + Gb 2 h group, the levels of BUN and serum creatinine significantly reduced (all P < 0.01). EGb761 attenuated tubular injury and lowered the histological score. In addition, the longer duration of drug treatment was, the better protective efficacy could be observed. EGb761 significantly reduced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10 mRNA expression and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. EGb761 treatment at 48 hour before brain death significantly attenuate the levels of p-JNK-MAPK, p-p38-MAPK, and p-STAT3 proteins (all P < 0.05, compared to BD group). In summary, our data showed that EGb761 treatment protected donor kidney from BD-induced damages by blocking SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings. Early administration of EGb761 can provide better protective efficacy. PMID:28332628

  6. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Actin filament-associated protein 1 (AFAP-1) is a key mediator in inflammatory signaling-induced rapid attenuation of intrinsic P-gp function in human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Yutaro; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify regulatory molecule(s) involved in the inflammatory signaling-induced decrease in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that may occur in brain diseases. We confirmed that in vivo P-gp efflux activity at the BBB was decreased without any change in P-gp protein expression level in a mouse model of acute inflammation induced by 3 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide. In a human BBB model cell line (human brain capillary endothelial cells; hCMEC/D3), 1-h treatment with 10 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; an inflammatory mediator) rapidly reduced P-gp efflux activity, but had no effect on P-gp protein expression level. To clarify the non-transcriptional mechanism that causes the decrease in intrinsic efflux activity of P-gp in acute inflammation, we applied comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare hCMEC/D3 cells treated with TNF-α and vehicle (control). Actin filament-associated protein-1 (AFAP-1), MAPK1, and transcription factor AP-1 (AP-1) were significantly phosphorylated in TNF-α-treated cells, and were selected as candidate proteins. In validation experiments, knockdown of AFAP-1 expression blocked the reduction in P-gp efflux activity by TNF-α treatment, whereas inhibition of MAPK function or knockdown of AP-1 expression did not. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics revealed that the reduction in P-gp activity by TNF-α did not require any change in P-gp protein expression levels in the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrate that AFAP-1 is a key mediator in the inflammatory signaling-induced, translocation-independent rapid attenuation of P-gp efflux activity in human brain capillary endothelial cells. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Added value of high-b-value (b = 3000 s/mm2) diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T in relation to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images for the evaluation of cortical lesions in inflammatory brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Koya; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Uetani, Hiroyuki; Iryo, Yasuhiko; Azuma, Minako; Hayashida, Eri; Ando, Yukio; Murakami, Ryuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the gray-to-white matter contrast in healthy subjects changes on high-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) acquired at 3 T and evaluate whether high-b-value DWI at 3 T is useful for the detection of cortical lesions in inflammatory brain diseases. Ten healthy volunteers underwent DWI at b = 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 s/mm(2) on a 3-T MRI unit. On DW images, 1 radiologist performed region-of-interest measurements of the signal intensity of 8 gray matter structures. The gray-to-white matter contrast ratio (GWCR) was calculated. Ten patients with inflammatory cortical lesions were also included. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI at b = 1000 and 3000 s/mm(2). Using a 4-point grading system, 2 radiologists independently assessed the presence of additional information on DW images compared with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Interobserver agreement was assessed by κ statistics. In the healthy subjects, the b value increased as the GWCR decreased in all evaluated gray matter structures. On DW images acquired at b = 3000 s/mm(2), mean GWCR was less than 1.0 in 7 of 8 structures. For both reviewers, DWI at b = 3000 s/mm(2) yielded significantly more additional information than did DWI at b = 1000 s/mm(2) (P < 0.05). Interobserver agreement for DWI at b = 1000 s/mm(2) and b = 3000 s/mm(2) was fair (κ = 0.35) and excellent (κ = 1.0), respectively. At 3-T DWI, the gray-to-white matter contrast in most gray matter structures reverses at b = 3000 s/mm. In the evaluation of cortical lesions in patients with inflammatory brain diseases, 3-T DWI at b = 3000 s/mm was more useful than b = 1000 s/mm(2).

  9. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates uranium-induced acute nephrotoxicity through oxidative stress and inflammatory response via Nrf2-NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jifang; Zhao, Tingting; Yuan, Yan; Hu, Nan; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-12-05

    As an endogenous gaseous mediator, H2S exerts anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in kidneys. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of H2S against uranium-induced nephrotoxicity in adult SD male rats after in vivo effect of uranium on endogenous H2S formation was explored in kidneys. The levels of endogenous H2S and H2S-producing enzymes (CBS and CSE) were measured in renal homogenates from rats intoxicated by an intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection of uranyl acetate at a single dose of 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg. In rats injected i.p. with uranyl acetate (5 mg/kg) or NaHS (an H2S donor, 28 or 56 μmol/kg) alone or in combination, we determined biochemical parameters and histopathological alteration to assess kidney function, examined oxidative stress markers, and investigated Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways in kidney homogenates. The results suggest that uranium intoxication in rats decreased endogenous H2S generation as well as CBS and CSE protein expression. NaHS administration in uranium-intoxicated rats ameliorated the renal biochemical indices and histopathological effects, lowered MDA accumulation, and restored GSH level and anti-oxidative enzymes activities like SOD, CAT, GPx and GST. NaHS treatment in uranium-intoxicated rats activated uranium-inhibited protein expression and nuclear translocation of transcription factor Nrf2, which increased protein expression of downstream target-Nrf2 genes HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, and TXNRD-1. NaHS administration in uranium-intoxicated rats inhibited uranium-induced nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of transcription factor κB/p65, which decreased protein expression of target-p65 inflammatory genes TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2. Taken together, these data implicate that H2S can afford protection to rat kidneys against uranium-induced adverse effects through induction of antioxidant defense by activating Nrf2 pathway and reduction of inflammatory response by suppressing NF-κB pathway

  10. Fisetin inhibits IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes through activating SIRT1 and attenuates the progression of osteoarthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenhao; Feng, Zhenhua; You, Shengban; Zhang, Hui; Tao, Zhenyu; Wang, Quan; Chen, Hua; Wu, Yaosen

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. Fisetin, a polyphenol extracted from fruits and vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on OA both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, chondrocytes were pretreated with fisetin alone or fisetin combined with sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1) for 2h before IL-1β stimulation. Production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated by the Griess reaction and ELISAs. The mRNA (COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, Sox-9, aggrecan and collagen-II) and protein expression (COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5 and SIRT1) were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the expression of collagen-II and SIRT1. SIRT1 activity was quantified with SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit. The in vivo effect of fisetin was evaluated by gavage in mice OA models induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). We found that fisetin inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5. Besides, fisetin remarkably decreased IL-1β-induced degradation of Sox-9, aggrecan and collagen-II. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced SIRT1 decrease and inactivation. However, the inhibitory effect of fisetin was obvious abolished by sirtinol, suggesting that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory effects through activating SIRT1. In vivo, fisetin-treated mice exhibited less cartilage destruction and lower OARSI scores. Moreover, fisetin reduced subchondral bone plate thickness and alleviated synovitis. Taken together, these findings indicate that fisetin may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resveratrol attenuates neuronal autophagy and inflammatory injury by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    FENG, YAN; CUI, YING; GAO, JUN-LING; LI, MING-HANG; LI, RAN; JIANG, XIAO-HUA; TIAN, YAN-XIA; WANG, KAI-JIE; CUI, CHANG-MENG; CUI, JIAN-ZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates autophagy and a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to substantial neuronal damage and behavioral impairment, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of this cascade. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that resveratrol (RV), a natural polyphenolic compound with potent multifaceted properties, alleviates brain damage mediated by TLR4 following TBI. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats, subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, were intraperitoneally injected with RV (100 mg/kg, daily for 3 days) after the onset of TBI. The results demonstrated that RV significantly reduced brain edema, motor deficit, neuronal loss and improved spatial cognitive function. Double immunolabeling demonstrated that RV decreased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), TLR4-positive cells co-labeled with the hippocampal neurons, and RV also significantly reduced the number of TLR4-positive neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) cells following TBI. Western blot analysis revealed that RV significantly reduced the protein expression of the autophagy marker proteins, LC3II and Beclin1, in the hippocampus compared with that in the TBI group. Furthermore, the levels of TLR4 and its known downstream signaling molecules, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also decreased after RV treatment. Our results suggest that RV reduces neuronal autophagy and inflammatory reactions in a rat model of TBI. Thus, we suggest that the neuroprotective effect of RV is associated with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26936125

  12. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  13. Crude extract of hydatid laminated layer from Echinococcus granulosus cyst attenuates mucosal intestinal damage and inflammatory responses in Dextran Sulfate Sodium induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Soufli, Imene; Toumi, Ryma; Rafa, Hayet; Amri, Manel; Labsi, Moussa; Khelifi, Lila; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an immunologically mediated disease. Notably, it is less common in countries where there is a greater risk of exposure to helminths. In our study, we examined the modulatory effect of the laminated layer extracted from the cyst wall of a helminth parasite, Echinococcus granulosus, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. An acute colitis was induced in BALB/c mice using 2.5% w/v DSS in drinking water. The crude extract of E. granulosus laminated layer was injected intraperitoneally daily, starting 3 days before colitis induction. The Disease Activity Index was monitored daily, colon length and weight were measured and histological scores were evaluated. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels (interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the colonic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was examined. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance and the survival rate was analyzed by the long rank test. Hydatid laminated layer pretreatment significantly improved the clinical symptoms and histological scores (*** p < 0.01) observed during DSS-induced colitis and maintained mucus production by goblet cells. Furthermore, treatment with hydatid laminated layer caused a significant decrease in NO, IFN-γ (** p < 0.01) and TNF-α production (* p < 0.05) and an increase in IL-10 production. These results were associated with localized downregulation of iNOS and NF-κB expression. Our results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory effects of hydatid laminated layer. Furthermore, preventive treatment with the laminated layer played a beneficial role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier against DSS-induced injury.

  14. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 target genes and attenuates inflammatory gene expression in microglia from brain of young adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Brigitte E.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Increased neuroinflammation and oxidative stress resulting from heightened microglial activation is associated with age-related cognitive impairment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the bioactive sulforaphane (SFN) on the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in BV2 microglia and primary microglia, and to evaluate proinflammatory cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary microglia from adult and aged mice. BV2 microglia and primary microglia isolated from young adult and aged mice were treated with SFN and LPS. Changes in Nrf2 activity, expression of Nrf2 target genes, and levels of proinflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative PCR and immunoassay. SFN increased Nrf2 DNA-binding activity and upregulated Nrf2 target genes in BV2 microglia, while reducing LPS-induced interleukin (IL-)1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In primary microglia from adult and aged mice, SFN increased expression of Nrf2 target genes and attenuated IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS induced by LPS. These data indicate that SFN is a potential beneficial supplement that may be useful for reducing microglial mediated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress associated with aging. PMID:26571201

  15. Shielding data for 100 250 MeV proton accelerators: Attenuation of secondary radiation in thick iron and concrete/iron shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Magistris, M.; Mereghetti, A.; Silari, M.; Zajacova, Z.

    2008-08-01

    Double differential distributions of neutrons produced by 100, 150, 200 and 250 MeV protons stopped in a thick iron target were calculated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code at four emission angles: forward, 45°, transverse and 135° backwards. The attenuation in thick iron shields of the dose equivalent due to neutrons, protons, photons and electrons was also calculated. The contribution to the total ambient dose equivalent from photons and protons is limited to a few percent at maximum. Source terms and attenuation lengths are given as a function of energy and emission angle, along with fits to the Monte Carlo data, for shallow depth and deep penetration in the shield. A brief discussion of simulations performed with composite iron/concrete shields is also given, showing the need for further investigations.

  16. Targeting α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Shifts Th1, Th2, and Inflammatory Cytokine Profiles in Immune Organs to Attenuate Adjuvant Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, Cheri L.; Lorton, Dianne; Schaller, Jill A.; Sweeney, Sarah J.; Bellinger, Denise L.

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to immune cell targets. The SNS typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB), a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day) and/or phentolamine (PHEN), an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day) or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN) and draining lymph node (DLN) cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift T helper (Th) cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ) and DLN (greater IFN-γ) cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN, and co-treatment (PT) promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10) and lowers TNF-α (PT only). In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and

  17. Effects of Benzo(e)pyrene on Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines Induction in Human RPE Cells and Attenuation by Mitochondrial-involved Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Estrago-Franco, M. Fernanda; Moustafa, M. Tarek; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Sapkal, Ashish U.; Piche-Lopez, Rhina; Patil, A. Jayaprakash; Sharma, Ashish; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Chwa, Marilyn; Luczy-Bachman, Georgia; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify inhibitors that could effectively lower reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), complement and inflammatory cytokine levels induced by Benzo(e)pyrene [B(e)p], an element of cigarette smoke, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. Methods: ARPE-19 cells were treated for 24 hours with 200 μM, 100 μM, and 50 μM B(e)p or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)-equivalent concentrations. Some cultures were pre-treated with ROS/RNS inhibitors (NG nitro-L-arginine, inhibits nitric oxide synthase; Apocynin, inhibits NADPH oxidase; Rotenone, inhibits mitochondrial complex I; Antimycin A, inhibits mitochondria complex III) and ROS/RNS levels were measured with a fluorescent H2 DCFDA assay. Multiplex bead arrays were used to measure levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Transforming Growth Factor alpha (TGF-α) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). IL-6 levels were also measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Real-time qPCR analyses were performed with primers for C3 (component 3), CFH (inhibits complement activation), CD59 (inhibitor of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC)) and CD55/DAF (accelerates decay of target complement target proteins). Results: The ARPE-19 cultures treated with B(e)p showed significantly increased ROS/RNS levels (P < 0.001), which were then partially reversed by 6 μM Antimycin A (19%, P = 0.03), but not affected by the other ROS/RNS inhibitors. The B(e)p treated cultures demonstrated increased levels of IL-6 (33%; P = 0.016) and GM-CSF (29%; P = 0.0001) compared to DMSO-equivalent controls, while the expression levels for components of the complement pathway (C3, CFH, CD59 and CD55/DAF) were not changed. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effects of B(e)p include elevated ROS/RNS levels along with pro-inflammatory IL-6 and GM-CSF proteins. Blocking the Qi site of cytochrome c reductase (complex III) with Antimycin A led to

  18. CPU86017-RS attenuate hypoxia-induced testicular dysfunction in mice by normalizing androgen biosynthesis genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-lin; Yu, Feng; Dai, De-zai; Cheng, Yu-si; Zhang, Can; Dai, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Downregulation of androgen biosynthesis genes StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) and 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) contributes to low testosterone levels in hypoxic mice and is possibly related to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CPU86017-RS that block Ca2+ influx on hypoxia-induced testis insult in mice. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into 5 groups: control group, hypoxia group, hypoxia group treated with nifedipine (10 mg/kg), hypoxia groups treated with CPU86017-RS (60 or 80 mg/kg). Hypoxia was induced by placing the mice in a chamber under 10%±0.5% O2 for 28 d (8 h per day). The mice were orally administered with drug in the last 14 d. At the end of experiment the testes of the mice were harvested. The mRNA and protein levels of StAR, 3β-HSD, connexin 43 (Cx43), matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), endothelin receptor A (ETAR) and leptin receptor (OBRb) were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) levels were measured using biochemical kits. Serum testosterone concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay. Results: Hypoxia significantly increased the MDA level, and decreased the LDH, ACP and SDH activities in testes. Meanwhile, hypoxia induced significant downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD in testes responsible for reduced testosterone biosynthesis. It decreased the expression of Cx43, and increased the expression of MMP9, ETAR and OBRb, leading to abnormal testis function and structure. These changes were effectively diminished by CPU86017-RS (80 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Low plasma testosterone level caused by hypoxia was due to downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD genes, in association with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These changes can be alleviated by CPU86017-RS or

  19. Anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscles and monocyte inflammatory reaction and attenuates atherosclerosis in male apo E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ervinna, Nasib; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Tanaka, Rica; Fujimura, Satoshi; Sukmawati, Dewi; Nomiyama, Takashi; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2013-03-01

    Dipeptyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. To gain insights into their mechanism of action, 9-wk-old male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice were fed a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin-containing diet. The effects of anagliptin were investigated in, a monocyte cell line, human THP-1 cells, and rat smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Treatment with anagliptin for 16 wk significantly reduced accumulation of monocytes and macrophages in the vascular wall, SMC content in plaque areas, and oil red O-stained area around the aortic valve without affecting glucose tolerance or body weight. Serum DPP-4 concentrations were significantly higher in apoE-deficient mice than control mice, and the levels increased with aging, suggesting the involvement of DPP-4 in the progression of atherosclerosis. Indeed, soluble DPP-4 augmented cultured SMC proliferation, and anagliptin suppressed the proliferation by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. In THP-1 cells, anagliptin reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production with inhibiting ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Quantitative analysis also showed that anagliptin reduced the area of atherosclerotic lesion in apoE-deficient mice. These results indicated that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of anagliptin is mediated, at least in part, through its direct inhibition of SMC proliferation and inflammatory reaction of monocytes.

  20. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy by Chaihuang-Yishen granule through anti-inflammatory mechanism in streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haojun; Zhao, Tingting; Gong, Yuewen; Dong, Xi; Zhang, Weiku; Sun, Sifan; Wang, Hua; Gu, Yanting; Lu, Xiaoguang; Yan, Meihua; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medical herbs have been used in China for a long time to treat different diseases. Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principle, Chaihuang-Yishen granule (CHYS) was developed and has been employed clinically to treat chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study was designed to investigate its mechanism of action in treatment of DN. Diabetic rats were established by having a right uninephrectomy plus a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Rats were divided into four groups of sham, diabetes, diabetes with CHYS and diabetes with fosinopril. CHYS and fosinopril were given to rats by gavage for 20 weeks. Samples from blood, urine and kidney were collected for biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. Rats treated with CHYS showed reduced 24h urinary protein excretion, decreased serum TC and TG levels, but CHYS treatment did not affect blood glucose level. Glomerular mesangial expansion and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic rats were significantly alleviated by CHYS treatment. Moreover, CHYS administration markedly reduced mRNA levels of NF-κB p65 and TGF-β1, as well as decreased protein levels of NF-κB p65, MCP-1, TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the kidney of diabetic rats. CHYS ameliorates renal injury in diabetic rats through reduction of inflammatory cytokines and their intracellular signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Superpulsed (Ga-As, 904 nm) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) attenuates inflammatory response and enhances healing of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheesh; Keshri, Gaurav K; Yadav, Anju; Gola, Shefali; Chauhan, Satish; Salhan, Ashok K; Bala Singh, Shashi

    2015-06-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using superpulsed near-infrared light can penetrate deeper in the injured tissue and could allow non-pharmacological treatment for chronic wound healing. This study investigated the effects of superpulsed laser (Ga-As 904 nm, 200 ns pulse width; 100 Hz; 0.7 mW mean output power; 0.4 mW/cm(2) average irradiance; 0.2 J/cm(2) total fluence) on the healing of burn wounds in rats, and further explored the probable associated mechanisms of action. Irradiated group exhibited enhanced DNA, total protein, hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents compared to the control and silver sulfadiazine (reference care) treated groups. LLLT exhibited decreased TNF-α level and NF-kB, and up-regulated protein levels of VEGF, FGFR-1, HSP-60, HSP-90, HIF-1α and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 compared to the controls. In conclusion, LLLT using superpulsed 904 nm laser reduced the inflammatory response and was able to enhance cellular proliferation, collagen deposition and wound contraction in the repair process of burn wounds. Photomicrographs showing no, absence inflammation and faster wound contraction in LLLT superpulsed (904 nm) laser treated burn wounds as compared to the non-irradiated control and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) ointment (reference care) treated wounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. I4, a synthetic anti-diabetes agent, attenuates atherosclerosis through its lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingman; Qian, Lifen; Ying, Qidi; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Changlin; Wu, Guanzhong

    2017-01-15

    Here, we investigated whether I4, which was initially developed as a hypoglycemic agent, possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity and attempted to elucidate the probable mechanism of action underlying this activity. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet and simultaneously administered I4, glimepiride, or pioglitazone once daily for 12 weeks, and the atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid content, and expression levels of LOX-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 in mouse aortas were assessed. RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells were obtained via ox-LDL stimulation to investigate the lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerotic inflammation and anti-apoptotic effect of I4. The data indicated that I4 significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the circulation and tissue, especially for TG and FFA levels (p < 0.05 vs model group), alleviating the arterial and liver lesions induced by lipotoxicity. Its lipid-reducing effects may due to LOX-1and CD36 expression suppression. I4, at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, significantly decreased serum IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production and suppressed the expression of p-ERK, p-p38, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein. I4 attenuated atherosclerotic inflammation by blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation, suppressing MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and diminishing NF-κB-VCAM-1 promoter region binding. Additionally, I4 suppressed p-p53 and cleaved-caspase-3 expression to inhibit foam cell apoptosis induced by ox-LDL uptake. Overall, I4 exerts potent inhibitory effects on atherosclerosis onset and development.

  4. Exenatide and metformin express their anti-inflammatory effects on human monocytes/macrophages by the attenuation of MAPKs and NFκB signaling.

    PubMed

    Bułdak, Łukasz; Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Bołdys, Aleksandra; Okopień, Bogusław

    2016-10-01

    Metformin and exenatide are effective antidiabetic drugs, and they seem to have pleiotropic properties improving cardiovascular outcomes. Macrophages' phenotype is essential in the development of atherosclerosis, and it can be modified during antidiabetic therapy, resulting in attenuated atherogenesis. The mechanism orchestrating this phenomenon is not fully clear. We examined the impact of exenatide and metformin on the level of TNF alpha, MCP-1, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) in human monocytes/macrophages. We found that both drugs reduced levels of TNF alpha, ROS, and NFκB binding activity to a similar extent. Compared to metformin, exenatide was more effective in reducing MCP-1 levels. We noted that Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) reduced the impact of exenatide on cytokines, ROS, and NFκB in cultures. Both drugs elevated the C/EBP beta phosphorylation level. Experiments on MAPKs showed effective inhibitory potential of exenatide toward p38, JNK, and ERK, whereas metformin inhibited JNK and ERK only. Exenatide was more effective in the inhibition of JNK than metformin. Interestingly, an in vitro setting additive effect of drugs was absent. In conclusion, here, we report that metformin and exenatide inhibit the proinflammatory phenotype of human monocytes/macrophages via influence on MAPK, C/EBP beta, and NFκB. Exenatide was more effective than metformin in reducing MCP-1 expression and JNK activity. We also showed that some effects of exenatide relied on AMPK activation. This shed light on the possible mechanisms responsible for pleiotropic effects of metformin and exenatide.

  5. Blockade of TRPA1 with HC-030031 attenuates visceral nociception by a mechanism independent of inflammatory resident cells, nitric oxide and the opioid system.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L M S; Lima-Júnior, R C P; Bem, A X C; Teixeira, C G; Grassi, L S; Medeiros, R P; Marques-Neto, R D; Callado, R B; Aragão, K S; Wong, D V T; Vale, M L; Brito, G A C; Ribeiro, R A

    2013-02-01

    Some studies have shown a somatic nociceptive response due to the activation of transient receptor potential A1 channels (TRPA1), which is modulated by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. However, a few studies report the role of TRPA1 in visceral pain. Therefore, we investigated the participation of TRPA1 in visceral nociception and the involvement of nitric oxide, the opioid system and resident cells in the modulation of these channels. Mice were treated with vehicle or HC-030031 (18.75-300 mg/kg) before ifosfamide (400 mg/kg), 0.75% mustard oil (50 μL/colon), acetic acid 0.6% (10 mL/kg), zymosan (1 mg/cavity) or misoprostol (1 μg/cavity) injection. Visceral nociception was assessed through the electronic von Frey test or the writhing response. Ifosfamide-administered mice were euthanized for bladder analysis. The involvement of nitric oxide and the opioid system were investigated in mice injected with ifosfamide and mustard oil, respectively. The participation of resident peritoneal cells in acetic acid-, zymosan- or misoprostol-induced nociception was also evaluated. HC-030031 failed to protect animals against ifosfamide-induced bladder injury (p > 0.05). However, a marked antinociceptive effect against ifosfamide, mustard oil, acetic acid, zymosan and misoprostol was observed (p < 0.05). Neither L-arginine (600 mg/kg) nor naloxone (2 mg/kg) could reverse the antinociceptive effect of HC-030031. The reduction of the peritoneal cell population inhibited the acetic acid and zymosan-related writhes without interfering with the misoprostol effect. Our findings suggest that the blockade of TRPA1 attenuates visceral nociception by a mechanism independent of the modulation of resident cells, nitric oxide and opioid pathways. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.