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Sample records for attenuating factor phage

  1. Bacteriophage-Resistant Mutants in Yersinia pestis: Identification of Phage Receptors and Attenuation for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Filippov, Andrey A.; Sergueev, Kirill V.; He, Yunxiu; Huang, Xiao-Zhe; Gnade, Bryan T.; Mueller, Allen J.; Fernandez-Prada, Carmen M.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages specific for Yersinia pestis are routinely used for plague diagnostics and could be an alternative to antibiotics in case of drug-resistant plague. A major concern of bacteriophage therapy is the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. The use of phage cocktails can overcome this problem but only if the phages exploit different receptors. Some phage-resistant mutants lose virulence and therefore should not complicate bacteriophage therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this work was to identify Y. pestis phage receptors using site-directed mutagenesis and trans-complementation and to determine potential attenuation of phage-resistant mutants for mice. Six receptors for eight phages were found in different parts of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner and outer core. The receptor for R phage was localized beyond the LPS core. Most spontaneous and defined phage-resistant mutants of Y. pestis were attenuated, showing increase in LD50 and time to death. The loss of different LPS core biosynthesis enzymes resulted in the reduction of Y. pestis virulence and there was a correlation between the degree of core truncation and the impact on virulence. The yrbH and waaA mutants completely lost their virulence. Conclusions/Significance We identified Y. pestis receptors for eight bacteriophages. Nine phages together use at least seven different Y. pestis receptors that makes some of them promising for formulation of plague therapeutic cocktails. Most phage-resistant Y. pestis mutants become attenuated and thus should not pose a serious problem for bacteriophage therapy of plague. LPS is a critical virulence factor of Y. pestis. PMID:21980477

  2. Bacteriophage-resistant mutants in Yersinia pestis: identification of phage receptors and attenuation for mice.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Andrey A; Sergueev, Kirill V; He, Yunxiu; Huang, Xiao-Zhe; Gnade, Bryan T; Mueller, Allen J; Fernandez-Prada, Carmen M; Nikolich, Mikeljon P

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages specific for Yersinia pestis are routinely used for plague diagnostics and could be an alternative to antibiotics in case of drug-resistant plague. A major concern of bacteriophage therapy is the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. The use of phage cocktails can overcome this problem but only if the phages exploit different receptors. Some phage-resistant mutants lose virulence and therefore should not complicate bacteriophage therapy. The purpose of this work was to identify Y. pestis phage receptors using site-directed mutagenesis and trans-complementation and to determine potential attenuation of phage-resistant mutants for mice. Six receptors for eight phages were found in different parts of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner and outer core. The receptor for R phage was localized beyond the LPS core. Most spontaneous and defined phage-resistant mutants of Y. pestis were attenuated, showing increase in LD₅₀ and time to death. The loss of different LPS core biosynthesis enzymes resulted in the reduction of Y. pestis virulence and there was a correlation between the degree of core truncation and the impact on virulence. The yrbH and waaA mutants completely lost their virulence. We identified Y. pestis receptors for eight bacteriophages. Nine phages together use at least seven different Y. pestis receptors that makes some of them promising for formulation of plague therapeutic cocktails. Most phage-resistant Y. pestis mutants become attenuated and thus should not pose a serious problem for bacteriophage therapy of plague. LPS is a critical virulence factor of Y. pestis.

  3. Bacteriophage-Resistant Mutants in Yersinia pestis: Identification of Phage Receptors and Attenuation for Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    case of drug-resistant plague. A major concern of bacteriophage therapy is the emergence of phage- resistant mutants. The use of phage cocktails can... bacteriophage therapy . Methodology/Principal Findings: The purpose of this work was to identify Y. pestis phage receptors using site-directed...cocktails. Most phage-resistant Y. pestis mutants become attenuated and thus should not pose a serious problem for bacteriophage therapy of plague. LPS is a

  4. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  5. Bacteriophage-encoded bacterial virulence factors and phage-pathogenicity island interactions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, E Fidelma

    2012-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages as natural vectors for some of the most potent bacterial toxins is well recognized and includes classical type I membrane-acting superantigens, type II pore-forming lysins, and type III exotoxins, such as diphtheria and botulinum toxins. Among Gram-negative pathogens, a novel class of bacterial virulence factors called effector proteins (EPs) are phage encoded among pathovars of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella enterica. This chapter gives an overview of the different types of virulence factors encoded within phage genomes based on their role in bacterial pathogenesis. It also discusses phage-pathogenicity island interactions uncovered from studies of phage-encoded EPs. A detailed examination of the filamentous phage CTXφ that encodes cholera toxin is given as the sole example to date of a single-stranded DNA phage that encodes a bacterial toxin.

  6. Sigma factors from E. coli, B. subtilis, phage SP01, and phage T4 are homologous proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gribskov, M; Burgess, R R

    1986-01-01

    We show, using dot matrix comparisons and statistical analysis of sequence alignments, that seven sequenced sigma factors, E. coli sigma-70 and sigma-32, B. subtilis sigma-43 and sigma-29, phage SP01 gene products 28 and 34, and phage T4 gene product 55, comprise a homologous family of proteins. Sigma-70, sigma-32, and sigma-43 each have two copies of a sequence similar to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif seen in CRP, and lambda repressor and cro proteins. B. subtilis sigma-29, SP01 gp28, and SP01 gp34 have at least one copy similar to this sequence. We propose that a second sequence, conserved in all seven proteins is the core RNA polymerase binding site. A third region, present only in sigma-70 and sigma-43, may also be involved in interaction with core. Available mutational evidence supports our model for sigma factor structure. PMID:3092189

  7. Phages of dairy Leuconostoc mesenteroides: genomics and factors influencing their adsorption.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Mercanti, Diego J; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea del L

    2015-05-18

    Phages infecting Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains can be overlooked during milk fermentation because they do not slowdown the acidification process. However, they can negatively impact the flavor profile of the final product. Yet, the information about these phages is still scarce. In this work, we investigated diverse factors influencing the adsorption of seven virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages, isolated from blue cheese manufacture in Argentina, to their host cells. The addition of calcium ions was generally necessary to observe complete cell lysis and plaque formation for four of the seven phages, but adsorption was very high even in the absence of this cation for all phages. The temperature barely influenced the adsorption process as it was high within the temperature range tested (0 to 50 °C). Moreover, the kinetics of adsorption were similar on viable and non-viable cells, revealing that phage adsorption does not depend on physiological state of the bacterial cells. The adsorption rates were also high at pH values from 4 to 9 for all Ln. mesenteroides phages. We also analyzed the complete genome sequences of two of these phages. Complete nucleotide analysis of phages Ln-8 and Ln-9 showed dsDNA genomes with sizes of 28.5 and 28.9 kb, and the presence of 45 and 48 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. These genomes were highly similar to those of previously characterized Φ1-A4 (USA, sauerkraut, fermentation) and ΦLN25 (England, whey), both virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages. A detailed understanding of these phages will lead to better control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) phage library and identification of high binders of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by phage display.

    PubMed

    Tang, X B; Dallaire, P; Hoyt, D W; Sykes, B D; O'Connor-McCourt, M; Malcolm, B A

    1997-10-01

    TGF-alpha, a 50 amino acid growth factor containing 3 disulfide bonds, was fused to the N-terminal domain of the pIII protein of fusN, a derivative of phagemid fd-tet, to form a TGF-alpha phage. The fusion phage showed binding activity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A library of approximately 4 x 10(7) variants of TGF-alpha was generated with substitutions of total of 10 amino acids located in the C-loop region. This C-loop subdomain of TGF-alpha consists of a small antiparallel double hairpin structure involving interactions between intra-polypeptide segments. Mutants isolated from the phage library with greatly increased binding affinity were selected through panning with A431 cells (a cell line expressing an elevated number of EGFRs). Following two rounds of stringent selection, variant phages with higher binding affinity than wild type TGF-alpha were identified and the phage DNAs were sequenced for the alignment analysis. Absolute selection at position 42 as Arg, preferential selection at position 38 and 45 as Tyr or Phe with aromatic side chain and selection at position 41 with acidic residues, were obtained. Although an amino acid residue with smaller side chain at position 35 and one with larger side chain at position 36 were preferred, the steric hindering of the structure in side chains was minimized between these adjacent amino acids.

  9. UHF Radio Wave Attenuation Factor Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, S. I.; Kostina, V. L.; Mytsenko, I. M.; Roenko, A. N.

    2007-07-01

    As is known each sea-going vessel is equipped with navigation, communication and other radio engineering facilities that serve to secure the safety of navigation and are chiefly operated at UHF-wave band. In developing these systems and calculating the energy potential for a necessary coverage range one should be well aware of the radio signal attenuation processes on a propagation path. The key parameter of this path is the (radio) wave attenuation factor V and its distance dependence V(R). A diversity of factors influencing the radio signal attenuation over the oceanic expanses, especially well pronounced and quite stable tropospheric ducts, and the lack of experimental data were the compelling reasons why the researchers of the Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, NASU, had spent many years on comprehensive radiophysical investigations carried out in different regions of the Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The experimental data obtained allow creating the database of radio wave attenuation factor V.

  10. The genomes, proteomes, and structures of three novel phages that infect the Bacillus cereus group and carry putative virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Grose, Julianne H; Belnap, David M; Jensen, Jordan D; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Merrill, Bryan D; Burnett, Sandra H; Breakwell, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. Importance: The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding the

  11. The Genomes, Proteomes, and Structures of Three Novel Phages That Infect the Bacillus cereus Group and Carry Putative Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Belnap, David M.; Jensen, Jordan D.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. IMPORTANCE The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding

  12. Phage choice, isolation, and preparation for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jason J; Hyman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the use of bacteriophages--viruses that use bacteria as their host cells--as biocontrol agents of bacteria. Currently, phage therapy is garnering renewed interest as bacterial resistance to antibiotics becomes widespread. Historically, phage therapy was largely abandoned in the West in the 1940s due to the advent of chemical antibiotics, and the unreliability of phage-based treatments when compared to antibiotics. The choice of phage strain and the methods of phage preparation are now thought to have been critical to the success or failure of phage therapy trials. Insufficiently virulent phages, especially against actual target bacteria, allow bacteria to survive treatment while poorly prepared phage stocks, even if of sufficiently virulent phages, lack the numbers of viable phages required for adequate treatment. In this review we discuss the factors that determine the methods of isolation, analysis, and identification of phage species for phage therapy. We go on to discuss the various methods available for purifying phages as well as considerations of the degree of purification which is sufficient for various applications. Lastly, we review the current practices used to prepare commercial phage therapy products.

  13. Holliday junction affinity of the base excision repair factor Endo III contributes to cholera toxin phage integration.

    PubMed

    Bischerour, Julien; Spangenberg, Claudia; Barre, François-Xavier

    2012-09-12

    Toxigenic conversion of Vibrio cholerae bacteria results from the integration of a filamentous phage, CTX phage. Integration is driven by the bacterial Xer recombinases, which catalyse the exchange of a single pair of strands between the phage single-stranded DNA and the host double-stranded DNA genomes; replication is thought to convert the resulting pseudo-Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate into the final recombination product. The natural tendency of the Xer recombinases to recycle HJ intermediates back into substrate should thwart this integration strategy, which prompted a search for additional co-factors aiding directionality of the process. Here, we show that Endo III, a ubiquitous base excision repair enzyme, facilitates CTX phage-integration in vivo. In vitro, we show that it prevents futile Xer recombination cycles by impeding new rounds of strand exchanges once the pseudo-HJ is formed. We further demonstrate that this activity relies on the unexpected ability of Endo III to bind to HJs even in the absence of the recombinases. These results explain how tandem copies of the phage genome can be created, which is crucial for subsequent virion production.

  14. Phage displayed peptides/antibodies recognizing growth factors and their tyrosine kinase receptors as tools for anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ronca, Roberto; Benzoni, Patrizia; De Luca, Angela; Crescini, Elisabetta; Dell'era, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The basic idea of displaying peptides on a phage, introduced by George P. Smith in 1985, was greatly developed and improved by McCafferty and colleagues at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and, later, by Barbas and colleagues at the Scripps Research Institute. Their approach was dedicated to building a system for the production of antibodies, similar to a naïve B cell repertoire, in order to by-pass the standard hybridoma technology that requires animal immunization. Both groups merged the phage display technology with an antibody library to obtain a huge number of phage variants, each of them carrying a specific antibody ready to bind its target molecule, allowing, later on, rare phage (one in a million) to be isolated by affinity chromatography. Here, we will briefly review the basis of the technology and the therapeutic application of phage-derived bioactive molecules when addressed against key players in tumor development and progression: growth factors and their tyrosine kinase receptors.

  15. X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 66 X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables (Web, free access)   This database collects tables and graphs of the form factors, the photoabsorption cross section, and the total attenuation coefficient for any element (Z <= 92).

  16. Factors Affecting Phage D29 Infection: A Tool to Investigate Different Growth States of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin M. C.; Gerrard, Zara E.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay. PMID:25184428

  17. Factors affecting phage D29 infection: a tool to investigate different growth states of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Swift, Benjamin M C; Gerrard, Zara E; Huxley, Jonathan N; Rees, Catherine E D

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay.

  18. Phage adsorption to Lactobacillus plantarum: influence of physiological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Marcó, M Briggiler; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2010-04-15

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitutes one of the major problems in the dairy industry, causing economic losses and a constant risk of low quality and/or unsafe foods. The first step in the phage biology is the adsorption on the host cell surface. In a previous study, a remarkable thermal, chemical and photocatalytic resistance was demonstrated by four phages of Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014-B1, ATCC 8014-B2, FAGK1 and FAGK2). In the present work, these phages were used to characterize the adsorption process on L. plantarum ATCC 8014. Clearly, the characterization of this process could increase the possibilities of design useful strategies in order to prevent phage infections. The influence of Ca(2+), temperature, pH and physiological cell state on phage adsorption was investigated. Burst sizes of phages ATCC 8014-B1 and ATCC 8014-B2 were 60 and 83 PFU/infective centre, respectively. The four phages exhibited a high infectivity even at pH 4 and pH 11. Calcium or magnesium ions were not indispensable for cell lysis and plaque formation, and more than 99% of phage particles were adsorbed either in the presence or absence of Ca(2+), after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Phage adsorption was only partially affected at 50 degrees C, while reached its maximum between 30 and 42 degrees C. The highest adsorption values (99.9%) were observed from pH 5 to 7, after 30 min at 37 degrees C. Adsorption rates decreased after the thermal inactivation of cells, though, when 20 microg/ml of chloramphenicol was used, adsorption values were similar on treated and untreated cells. All these results showed that the adsorption process was only partially affected by a few conditions: thermally killed host cells, an incubation temperature of 50 degrees C and pH values of 9 and 10. Nevertheless, and unfortunately, those conditions are not commonly applied during fermented food manufacturing, thus restricting highly the application of strategies currently available to

  19. Phage therapy pharmacology phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy is the clinical or veterinary application of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) as antibacterial "drugs." More generally, phages can be used as biocontrol agents against plant as well as foodborne pathogens. In this chapter, we consider the therapeutic use of phage cocktails, which is the combining of two or more phage types to produce more pharmacologically diverse formulations. The primary motivation for the use of cocktails is their broader spectra of activity in comparison to individual phage isolates: they can impact either more bacterial types or achieve effectiveness under a greater diversity of conditions. The combining of phages can also facilitate better targeting of multiple strains making up individual bacterial species or covering multiple species that might be responsible for similar disease states, in general providing, relative to individual phage isolates, a greater potential for presumptive or empirical treatment. Contrasting the use of phage banks, or even phage isolation against specific etiologies that have been obtained directly from patients under treatment, here we consider the utility as well as potential shortcomings associated with the use of phage cocktails as therapeutic antibacterial agents.

  20. Attaching the phage display-selected GLA peptide to liposomes: factors influencing target binding.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Inge; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2012-02-14

    In our previous study, phage display selections were performed by in situ perfusion of a random peptide library through a mouse brain. This yielded two peptides (GLA and GYR) that showed significant binding to human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) when displayed on phage particles, but not to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, these peptides were produced synthetically and coupled to liposomes to investigate the capacity of the peptides to act as ligands for targeting to hCMEC/D3 cells. Flow cytometry studies showed that these peptides when coupled to liposomes showed weak binding to the target brain endothelial cells. We hypothesized that the weak endothelial cell binding of the selected peptides when coupled to liposomes as compared to the binding of the peptides displayed on phage particles may be ascribed to: change of vehicle shape, change of peptide density, or change of peptide conformation. Peptide density on the liposomes influenced binding of the liposomes to the cells, however, this effect was minor. To study the influence of the peptide conformation, the GLA peptide was recombinantly produced fused to the N1-N2 domains of the phage p3 minor coat protein (p3-GLA) to mimic its conformation when displayed on phage particles. Binding of liposomes modified with either the GLA peptide or the p3-GLA protein to hCMEC/D3 cells was studied, and the p3-GLA-liposomes showed a higher binding to the cells compared to the GLA-liposomes. The experiments demonstrate that bringing the GLA peptide into the original phage protein environment restores and improves the peptide binding capacity and suggest that the GLA peptide, with some modifications, may be used as a brain-targeting ligand in the future.

  1. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Holliday junction affinity of the base excision repair factor Endo III contributes to cholera toxin phage integration

    PubMed Central

    Bischerour, Julien; Spangenberg, Claudia; Barre, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Toxigenic conversion of Vibrio cholerae bacteria results from the integration of a filamentous phage, CTXϕ. Integration is driven by the bacterial Xer recombinases, which catalyse the exchange of a single pair of strands between the phage single-stranded DNA and the host double-stranded DNA genomes; replication is thought to convert the resulting pseudo-Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate into the final recombination product. The natural tendency of the Xer recombinases to recycle HJ intermediates back into substrate should thwart this integration strategy, which prompted a search for additional co-factors aiding directionality of the process. Here, we show that Endo III, a ubiquitous base excision repair enzyme, facilitates CTXϕ-integration in vivo. In vitro, we show that it prevents futile Xer recombination cycles by impeding new rounds of strand exchanges once the pseudo-HJ is formed. We further demonstrate that this activity relies on the unexpected ability of Endo III to bind to HJs even in the absence of the recombinases. These results explain how tandem copies of the phage genome can be created, which is crucial for subsequent virion production. PMID:22863778

  3. Structural basis for promoter specificity switching of RNA polymerase by a phage factor.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Minakhin, Leonid; Esyunina, Daria; Akasaka, Ryogo; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Severinov, Konstantin; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-03-01

    Transcription of DNA to RNA by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the first step of gene expression and a major regulation point. Bacteriophages hijack their host's transcription machinery and direct it to serve their needs. The gp39 protein encoded by Thermus thermophilus phage P23-45 binds the host's RNAP and inhibits transcription initiation from its major "-10/-35" class promoters. Phage promoters belonging to the minor "extended -10" class are minimally inhibited. We report the crystal structure of the T. thermophilus RNAP holoenzyme complexed with gp39, which explains the mechanism for RNAP promoter specificity switching. gp39 simultaneously binds to the RNAP β-flap domain and the C-terminal domain of the σ subunit (region 4 of the σ subunit [σ4]), thus relocating the β-flap tip and σ4. The ~45 Å displacement of σ4 is incompatible with its binding to the -35 promoter consensus element, thus accounting for the inhibition of transcription from -10/-35 class promoters. In contrast, this conformational change is compatible with the recognition of extended -10 class promoters. These results provide the structural bases for the conformational modulation of the host's RNAP promoter specificity to switch gene expression toward supporting phage development for gp39 and, potentially, other phage proteins, such as T4 AsiA.

  4. Binding-induced Stabilization and Assembly of the Phage P22 Tail Accessory Factor gp4

    SciTech Connect

    Olia,A.; Al-Bassam, J.; Winn-Stapley, D.; Joss, L.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2006-01-01

    To infect and replicate, bacteriophage P22 injects its 43 kbp genome across the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The attachment of phage P22 to the host cell as well as the injection of the viral DNA into the host is mediated by the virion's tail complex. This 2.8 MDa molecular machine is formed by five proteins, which include the portal protein gp1, the adhesion tailspike protein gp9, and three tail accessory factors: gp4, gp10, gp26. We have isolated the tail accessory factor gp4 and characterized its structure and binding interactions with portal protein. Interestingly, gp4 exists in solution as a monomer, which displays an exceedingly low structural stability (T{sub m} 34 {sup o}C). Unfolded gp4 is prone to aggregation within a narrow range of temperatures both in vitro and in Salmonella extracts. In the virion the thermal unfolding of gp4 is prevented by the interaction with the dodecameric portal protein, which stabilizes the structure of gp4 and suppresses unfolded gp4 from irreversibly aggregating in the Salmonella milieu. The structural stabilization of gp4 is accompanied by the concomitant oligomerization of the protein to form a ring of 12 subunits bound to the lower end of the portal ring. The interaction of gp4 with portal protein is complex and likely involves the distinct binding of two non-equivalent sets of six gp4 proteins. Binding of the first set of six gp4 equivalents to dodecameric portal protein yields a gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 6} assembly intermediate, which is stably populated at 30 {sup o}C and can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis. The final product of the assembly reaction is a bi-dodecameric gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 12} complex, which appears hollow by electron microscopy, suggesting that gp4 does not physically plug the DNA entry/exit channel, but acts as a structural adaptor for the other tail accessory factors: gp10 and gp26.

  5. Generation of Potent Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Neutralizing Antibodies from Mouse Phage Display Library for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan-Da; Wu, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Jiue; Tsai, Yi-San; Lin, Yu-Ying; Lai, Szu-Liang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Lok, Ying-Yung; Hu, Chih-Yung; Lai, Jiann-Shiun

    2016-02-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important stimulator for angiogenesis in solid tumors. Blocking VEGF activity is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Avastin, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizes VEGF, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To generate potential VEGF-recognizing antibodies with better tumor regression ability than that of Avastin, we have designed a systematic antibody selection plan. From mice immunized with recombinant human VEGF, we generated three phage display libraries, scFv-M13KO7, Fab-M13KO7, and scFv-Hyperphage, in single-chain Fv (scFv) or Fab format, displayed using either M13KO7 helper phage or Hyperphage. Solid-phase and solution-phase selection strategies were then applied to each library, generating six panning combinations. A total of sixty-four antibodies recognizing VEGF were obtained. Based on the results of epitope mapping, binding affinity, and biological functions in tumor inhibition, eight antibodies were chosen to examine their abilities in tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model using human COLO 205 cancer cells. Three of them showed improvement in the inhibition of tumor growth (328%-347% tumor growth ratio (% of Day 0 tumor volume) on Day 21 vs. 435% with Avastin). This finding suggests a potential use of these three antibodies for VEGF-targeted therapy.

  6. Influence of Stress Factors Related to Cheese-Making Process and to STEC Detection Procedure on the Induction of Stx Phages from STEC O26:H11

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Delubac, Benjamin; Michel, Valérie; Auvray, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11. Stx phage induction is known to result in STEC lysis and release of new Stx phages particles. This phenomenon could negatively impact STEC screening in foods based on stx gene detection by PCR. Here, we evaluated the influence of physicochemical parameters related to cheese-making process on the induction rate of Stx phages from STEC O26:H11, including H2O2, NaCl, lactic acid and temperature. In addition, selective agents from the analytical STEC enrichment and detection procedure (XP CEN ISO/TS 13136) were tested, including novobiocin, acrifavin, cefixim-tellurite, and bile salts. An impact of H2O2 and NaCl on Stx phage induction was observed. Production of Stx phages was also observed during a real cheese-making process. By contrast, no significant effect could be demonstrated for the chemical agents of the STEC detection procedure when tested separately, except for acriflavin and novobiocin which reduced Stx1 phage production in some cases. In conclusion, these results suggest that the cheese-making process might trigger the production of Stx phages, potentially interfering with the analysis of STEC in food. PMID:28316592

  7. Attenuation correction factors for cylindrical, disc and box geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Poi, Sanhita; Mhatre, Amol; Goswami, A.; Gathibandhe, M.

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, attenuation correction factors have been experimentally determined for samples having cylindrical, disc and box geometry and compared with the attenuation correction factors calculated by Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) method [ C. Agarwal, S. Poi, A. Goswami, M. Gathibandhe, R.A. Agrawal, Nucl. Instr. and. Meth. A 597 (2008) 198] and with the near-field and far-field formulations available in literature. It has been observed that the near-field formulae, although said to be applicable at close sample-detector geometry, does not work at very close sample-detector configuration. The advantage of the HMC method is that it is found to be valid for all sample-detector geometries.

  8. Structure of a group A streptococcal phage-encoded virulence factor reveals a catalytically active triple-stranded beta-helix.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicola L; Taylor, Edward J; Lindsay, Anna-Marie; Charnock, Simon J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Dodson, Eleanor J; Davies, Gideon J; Black, Gary W

    2005-12-06

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes severe invasive infections including scarlet fever, pharyngitis (streptococcal sore throat), skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease), septicemia, erysipelas, cellulitis, acute rheumatic fever, and toxic shock. The conversion from nonpathogenic to toxigenic strains of S. pyogenes is frequently mediated by bacteriophage infection. One of the key bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors is a putative "hyaluronidase," HylP1, a phage tail-fiber protein responsible for the digestion of the S. pyogenes hyaluronan capsule during phage infection. Here we demonstrate that HylP1 is a hyaluronate lyase. The 3D structure, at 1.8-angstroms resolution, reveals an unusual triple-stranded beta-helical structure and provides insight into the structural basis for phage tail assembly and the role of phage tail proteins in virulence. Unlike the triple-stranded beta-helix assemblies of the bacteriophage T4 injection machinery and the tailspike endosialidase of the Escherichia coli K1 bacteriophage K1F, HylP1 possesses three copies of the active center on the triple-helical fiber itself without the need for an accessory catalytic domain. The triple-stranded beta-helix is not simply a structural scaffold, as previously envisaged; it is harnessed to provide a 200-angstroms-long substrate-binding groove for the optimal reduction in hyaluronan viscosity to aid phage penetration of the capsule.

  9. Human antibody fragments specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor selected from large non-immunised phage display libraries.

    PubMed

    Souriau, Christelle; Rothacker, Julie; Hoogenboom, Hennie R; Nice, Edouard

    2004-09-01

    Antibodies to EGFR have been shown to display anti-tumour effects mediated in part by inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, and by enhancement of apoptosis. Humanised antibodies are preferred for clinical use to reduce complications with HAMA and HAHA responses frequently seen with murine and chimaeric antibodies. We have used depletion and subtractive selection strategies on cells expressing the EGFR to sample two large antibody fragment phage display libraries for the presence of human antibodies which are specific for the EGFR. Four Fab fragments and six scFv fragments were identified, with affinities of up to 2.2nM as determined by BIAcore analysis using global fitting of the binding curves to obtain the individual rate constants (ka and kd). This overall approach offers a generic screening method for the identification of growth factor specific antibodies and antibody fragments from large expression libraries and has potential for the rapid development of new therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  10. Phage therapy pharmacology: calculating phage dosing.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Phage therapy, which can be described as a phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria (or, simply, biocontrol), is the application of bacterial viruses-also bacteriophages or phages-to reduce densities of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Predictive calculations for phage therapy dosing should be useful toward rational development of therapeutic as well as biocontrol products. Here, I consider the theoretical basis of a number of concepts relevant to phage dosing for phage therapy including minimum inhibitory concentration (but also "inundation threshold"), minimum bactericidal concentration (but also "clearance threshold"), decimal reduction time (D value), time until bacterial eradication, threshold bacterial density necessary to support phage population growth ("proliferation threshold"), and bacterial density supporting half-maximal phage population growth rates (K(B)). I also address the concepts of phage killing titers, multiplicity of infection, and phage peak densities. Though many of the presented ideas are not unique to this chapter, I nonetheless provide variations on derivations and resulting formulae, plus as appropriate discuss relative importance. The overriding goal is to present a variety of calculations that are useful toward phage therapy dosing so that they may be found in one location and presented in a manner that allows facile appreciation, comparison, and implementation. The importance of phage density as a key determinant of the phage potential to eradicate bacterial targets is stressed throughout the chapter.

  11. Designing phage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the application of phages to bodies, substances, or environments to effect the biocontrol of pathogenic or nuisance bacteria. To be effective, phages, minimally, must be capable of attaching to bacteria (adsorption), killing those bacteria (usually associated with phage infection), and otherwise surviving (resisting decay) until they achieve attachment and subsequent killing. While a strength of phage therapy is that phages that possess appropriate properties can be chosen from a large diversity of naturally occurring phages, a more rational approach to phage therapy also can include post-isolation manipulation of phages genetically, phenotypically, or in terms of combining different products into a single formulation. Genetic manipulation, especially in these modern times, can involve genetic engineering, though a more traditional approach involves the selection of spontaneously occurring phage mutants during serial transfer protocols. While genetic modification typically is done to give rise to phenotypic changes in phages, phage phenotype alone can also be modified in vitro, prior to phage application for therapeutic purposes, as for the sake of improving phage lethality (such as by linking phage virions to antibacterial chemicals such as chloramphenicol) or survival capabilities (e.g., via virion PEGylation). Finally, phages, both naturally occurring isolates or otherwise modified constructs, can be combined into cocktails which provide collectively enhanced capabilities such as expanded overall host range. Generally these strategies represent different routes towards improving phage therapy formulations and thereby efficacy through informed design.

  12. Phages of dairy bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brussow, H

    2001-01-01

    Bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria are a threat to industrial milk fermentation. Owing to their economical importance, dairy phages became the most thoroughly sequenced phage group in the database. Comparative genomics identified related cos-site and pac-site phages, respectively, in lactococci, lactic streptococci and lactobacilli. Each group was represented with closely related temperate and virulent phages. Over the structural genes their gene maps resembled that of lambdoid coliphages, suggesting distant evolutionary relationships. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, a number of biochemical characteristics of these dairy phages are lambda-like (genetic switch, DNA packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, and integration, but not excision). These dairy phages thus provide interesting variations to the phage lambda paradigm. The structural gene cluster of Lactococcus phage r1t resembled that of phages from mycobacteria. Virulent lactococcal phages with prolate heads (c2-like genus of Siphoviridae), in contrast, have no known counterparts in other bacterial genera.

  13. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Ahern, Stephen J.; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf), is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic) phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella. PMID:26107261

  14. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  15. Daily exercise attenuates the development of arterial blood pressure related cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, H L; Rodenbaugh, D W; DiCarlo, S E

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that daily spontaneous running (DSR) attenuates the development of blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease risk factors (BP-related CVD risk factors) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After 8 weeks of DSR or sedentary control, rats were chronically instrumented with arterial catheters. Daily exercise attenuated the development of all measures of BP-related CVD risk factors. Specifically DSR attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure (delta--22 mmHg), systolic blood pressure variability (delta--2.5 mmHg), and systolic blood pressure load (delta--27%). Similarly, DSR attenuated the increase in diastolic blood pressure (delta--15 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure variability (delta--1.19 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure load (delta--17%). Finally, DSR attenuated the development of tachycardia (delta--63 bpm). These data demonstrate that daily exercise attenuates the development of hypertension and tachycardia in animals predisposed to hypertension.

  16. Engineered phages for electronics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  17. Who went into phage research?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A total of 30,000 phage papers, books, or book chapters, published between 1965 and 2010, were analyzed for the ethnic origins of 14,429 first authors. Their names represent 40 linguistic domains or geographic areas and at least 70 languages. British and German names predominate. Results broadly concur with statistics on the frequency of publications by country and show the growing role of Third-World countries in phage research. Irish and Jewish scientists are prominent. Historical and societal factors appear to be very important elements in the advancement of science. PMID:22666657

  18. EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS-PHAGE RELATIONSHIPS

    PubMed Central

    West, B.; Kelly, Florene C.; Shields, Doris A.

    1963-01-01

    West, B. (University of Oklahoma Medical Center, Oklahoma City), Florene C. Kelly, and Doris A. Shields. Effect of sodium chloride on staphylococcus-phage relationships. J. Bacteriol. 86:773–780. 1963.—Phage patterns of 21 phage-propagating strains of staphylococci on medium with high NaCl content appeared to be an expression of the staphylococcal cells, as well as of the salt tolerance of the phages. Serological group A phages, previously found to be NaCl-tolerant in the free state, were capable of lysing susceptible staphylococci on 3, 7.5, and 10% NaCl Trypticase Soy Agar. None of the other phages tested was active when the medium contained 7.5 and 10% NaCl. Increasing the NaCl content of the medium rarely resulted in nonspecific reactions; rather the effect was, generally, a narrowing of the phage spectrum of the cells, with persistence in the phage pattern of the phage, or phages, which were propagated on the cells being tested. Although NaCl tolerance of the phages was the chief limiting factor of phage activity in the presence of 7.5 and 10% NaCl, reactions on salt medium also depended on the degree of susceptibility of cells to phage on routine typing medium and to certain other unexplained factors. In some instances, under the influence of increased NaCl, significant lysis at 1000 RTD was replaced by thinning of growth (inhibition), with or without the presence of plaques. Conversely, certain phage-cell combinations, which gave inhibition at 1000 RTD on standard medium produced some degree of lysis when the NaCl concentration was increased. Studies of phage 81 and its propagating strain showed that replication of phage occurred in 10% NaCl medium, although adsorption diminished as salt concentration was increased, and the time required to reach maximal lytic activity was delayed. PMID:14066474

  19. A variety of human monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor isolated from a phage antibody library.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Gene; Kondo, Mariko; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2016-11-04

    When the technology for constructing human antibody (Ab) libraries using a phage-display system was developed, many researchers in Ab-related fields anticipated that it would be widely applied to the development of pharmaceutical drugs against various diseases, including cancers. However, successful examples of such applications are very limited. Moreover, researchers who utilize phage-display technology now show divergent ways of thinking about phage Ab libraries. For example, there is debate about what should be the source of VH and VL genes for the construction of libraries to cover the whole repertoire of Abs present in the human body. In the immune system, the introduction of mutations into V genes followed by selection based on binding activity, termed Ab maturation, is required for the production of Abs exhibiting high affinity to the antigen (Ag). Therefore, introduction of mutations and selection are required for isolation of Abs with high affinity after isolation of clones from phage Ab libraries. We constructed a large human Ab library termed AIMS, developed a screening method termed ICOS, and succeeded in isolating many human monoclonal Abs (mAbs) that specifically and strongly bind to various tumor-associated Ags. Eight anti-EGFR mAbs were included, which we characterized. These mAbs showed various different activities against EGFR-expressing cancer cells. In this paper, we describe these data and discuss the possibility and necessity that the mAbs isolated from the AIMS library might be developed as therapeutic drugs against cancers without introduction of mutations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The peptide growth factor, phytosulfokine, attenuates pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Tsuda, Kenichi; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2012-07-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Although immune responses may provide good protection of plants from pathogen attack, excessive immune responses have negative impacts on plant growth and development. Thus, a good balance between positive and negative effects on the immune signaling network is important for plant fitness. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in attenuation of PTI. Here, we describe a growth-promoting peptide hormone, phytosulfokine (PSK), as attenuating PTI signaling in Arabidopsis. This research was motivated by the observation that expression of the PSK Receptor 1 (PSKR1) gene was induced by MAMP treatment. Plants homozygous for pskr1 T-DNA insertions showed enhanced defense gene expression and seedling growth inhibition triggered by MAMPs. The pskr1 plants also showed enhanced PTI against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results indicate that the PSKR-mediated signaling attenuates immune responses. Tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase (TPST) is an enzyme required for production of the mature sulfated PSK. Like pskr1 mutants, a tpst T-DNA insertion line exhibited enhanced MAMP-triggered seedling growth inhibition, which was suppressed by exogenous application of PSK. Thus, PSK signaling mediated by PSKR1 attenuates PTI but stimulates growth.

  1. Dividing of Q factor of viscous and intrinsic attenuation in poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikura, K.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sonic logging has been widely used for many years to understand physical properties of hydrocarbon reservoirs. When gaseous phase exists in the formation fluid, the compressional waves traveling through the formation could be strongly attenuated due to low bulk modulus of gas in the fluid, while the shear waves are not. For acquiring physical properties of fluid in the formation, Biot physics or poroelastic analysis could be the best method. Among the available technologies, quality factors based on the Biot's equation could be used. Although the Biot's theory considers the viscous attenuation induced at the interface between rocks and pore fluids, the intrinsic attenuation caused by the internal friction in the matrix is ignored. In the present study, we investigate how large are the effects of the intrinsic attenuation of compressional waves through the evaluation of the reservoir properties based on the quality factor. We employ a 2D finite-difference scheme to simulate seismic wave propagation in a poroelasic medium. The intrinsic attenuation is included in our model by using the filter of frequency-independent quality factor (constant-Q). We then compare the results compressional waves and shear waves with the intrinsic attenuation in our numerical simulations. Our results clearly show that on compressional and shear waves, the amplitude and phase of the waveforms are strongly affected by the intrinsic attenuation, and we could get only the viscous attenuation by the results of quality factor of compressional wave and shear wave. We conclude that the evaluations of hydrocarbon reservoir require the consideration of the intrinsic attenuation as well as the viscous attenuation predicted by the Biot's theory and also we could get what kind of fluid is contained in the reservoir. The profile of Q factor

  2. [Search for destruction factors of bacterial biofilms: comparison of phage properties in a group of Pseudomonas putida bacteriophages and specificity of their halo-formation products].

    PubMed

    Shaburova, O V; Krylov, S V; Veĭko, V P; Pleteneva, E A; Burkal'tseva, M V; Miroshnokov, K A; Kornelissen, A; Lavogne, R; Sykilinda, N N; Kadykov, V A; Mesianzhinov, V V; Volckaert, G; Krylov, V N

    2009-02-01

    Comparison of Pseudomonas putida group of phages attributed to five species (af, phi15, phi27, phi2F, and pf16) with their common property of halo-formation (formation of lightening zones) around phage plaques was conducted. The halo around phage plaques appears as a result of reduction or disappearance of bacterial polysaccharide capsules. The concentration of viable bacteria remains unchanged within the halo. A comparison of specificities of halo-formation products from various phages was conducted by a simple method. These products were shown to be highly specific and inactive on other species of pseudomonads. Phage-resistant P. putida mutants scored with respect to various phages, which lost phage adsorption ability, were tolerant to the effect of halo-formation products in most cases. Apparently, the capsular polysaccharides, which serve as a substrate for depolymerases and are the primary phage receptors, may be often lost. Results of partial sequencing of the af phage genome revealed an open reading frame that encodes the enzyme transglycosylase similar rather to transglycosylases of oligotrophic bacteria belonging to different species than to lysozymes of other phages. Possibly, it is a polyfunctional enzyme combining functions of lysozyme and an enzyme that executes the penetration of phage particle across extracellular slime and capsule.

  3. Preparation and assay of phage lambda.

    PubMed

    Dale, J W; Greenaway, P J

    1985-01-01

    Lambda, a temperate bacteriophage of E. coli, has two alternative modes of replication in sensitive cells, known as the lytic and lysogenic cycles. In the lytic cycle, after the lambda DNA enters the cells, various phage functions are expressed that result in the production of a large number of mature phage particles and cell lysis. In the lysogenic mode, which normally occurs in only a small proportion of the infected cells, the phage forms a more or less stable relationship with the host bacterium; this stable state is known as lysogeny. In a lysogenic cell, phage DNA is normally incorporated into the chromosomal DNA via specific attachment sites on both the phage DNA and the host chromosome. Replication of lambda DNA then occurs only during replication of the host chromosome, and the phage genome is inherited by each daughter cell at cell division. The phage is maintained in this prophage state through the action of a repressor protein, coded for by the phage gene cl. This repressor protein turns off the expression of virtually the whole of the lambda genome. If the repressor is inactivated, the expression of phage genes is initiated. This leads to the excision of lambda DNA from the host chromosome and entry into the lytic cycle. The balance between the lytic and lysogenic modes of replication is a delicate and complex one in which a key factor is the concentration of the cl gene product. Some of the many sources of further information about the basic biology of lambda phage are listed in the references to this chapter.

  4. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a) as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68) and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94), after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors. PMID:23057531

  5. VERO stable cell lines expressing full-length human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 and 3: platforms for subtractive phage display.

    PubMed

    Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Valadan, Reza; Rafiei, Alireza; Tehrani, Mohsen; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Cross-talk between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (HER2 and HER3) may potentially contribute to therapeutic resistance in human breast cancer. Subtractive phage display allows highly specific selection for antibody fragments directed against cells surface HER2 and HER3. The strategies to select conformation- and activation-specific antibodies against HER2 and HER3 require tightly regulated HER2 and HER3 expressing cells that allow controlled activation/inactivation of these receptors during panning procedures. To achieve this, first, we found that the VERO cell line is an appropriate cell line for heterogeneous expression of HER2 and HER3, and then we established a panel of VERO stable cell lines expressing high levels of HER2 and HER3 alone and in combination. We also showed that HER2 and HER3 expressed in VERO cells were biologically active and could form heterodimer following neuregulin1 treatment. The cell line established here not only provided platforms for phage display-based methods but also could be used in any HER-related studies.

  6. GROWTH AND PHAGE PRODUCTION OF B. MEGATHERIUM

    PubMed Central

    Northrop, John H.

    1953-01-01

    yield per cell, under conditions in which the infected cells do grow, increases more rapidly than the size of the cells. The phage yield per cell under these conditions may be calculated by the equation See PDF for Equation The determining factor for the variation in phage yield is the growth rate of the cells. This, in turn, is determined by the composition of the medium. III. The growth and phage production of megatherium 899a have been determined in the presence of the following substances: aureomycin, bacitracin, chloromycetin, gramicidin, Merck AB631, Merck AB191, Merck AB624, penicillin, streptomycin, terramycin, tyrothricin, usnic acid, acetone, chloroform, ethyl alcohol, formaldehyde, gentian violet, glycerin, maleic hydrazide, methyl alcohol, phenyl mercuric acetate, sodium fluoride, sulfanilamide, toluene, and urethane. In every case, the lowest concentration of the substance which completely inhibits growth, is also the lowest concentration which completely inhibits phage production. One antibiotic, Merck AB81, causes increased phage production in concentrations which partially inhibit growth, and low phage production in concentrations which completely inhibit growth (as determined by turbidity). Short exposure to ultraviolet light also decreases the growth rate, with increase in phage production. Longer exposure, which completely inhibits growth (as determined by turbidity) results in lysis and phage liberation. PMID:13035070

  7. N15: the linear phage-plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2011-03-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends. Upon infection the phage DNA circularises via cohesive ends, then phage-encoded enzyme, protelomerase, cuts at an inverted repeat site and forms hairpin ends (telomeres) of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally resulting in formation of duplicated telomeres. Then the N15 protelomerase cuts duplicated telomeres generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike F sop, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lysogeny, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. Two N15-related lambdoid Siphoviridae phages, φKO2 in Klebsiella oxytoca and pY54 in Yersinia enterocolitica, also lysogenize their hosts as linear plasmids, as well as Myoviridae marine phages VP882 and VP58.5 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and ΦHAP-1 in Halomonas aquamarina. The genomes of all these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny modules and replication genes, as well as plasmid-partitioning genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  8. Colonisation of a Phage Susceptible Campylobacter jejuni Population in Two Phage Positive Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails. PMID:24733154

  9. Chromosomal DNA deletion confers phage resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Shuai; Yao, Xinyue; Lu, Shuguang; Tan, Yinling; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Ming; Jin, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Nicholas C; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Hu, Fuquan

    2014-04-28

    Bacteria develop a broad range of phage resistance mechanisms, such as prevention of phage adsorption and CRISPR/Cas system, to survive phage predation. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain was infected with lytic phage PaP1, and phage-resistant mutants were selected. A high percentage (~30%) of these mutants displayed red pigmentation phenotype (Red mutant). Through comparative genomic analysis, one Red mutant PA1r was found to have a 219.6 kb genomic fragment deletion, which contains two key genes hmgA and galU related to the observed phenotypes. Deletion of hmgA resulted in the accumulation of a red compound homogentisic acid; while A galU mutant is devoid of O-antigen, which is required for phage adsorption. Intriguingly, while the loss of galU conferred phage resistance, it significantly attenuated PA1r in a mouse infection experiment. Our study revealed a novel phage resistance mechanism via chromosomal DNA deletion in P. aeruginosa.

  10. Estimating richness from phage metagenomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophages are important drivers of ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the vast majority of phages. Phage metagenomics, or the study of the collective genome of an assemblage of phages, enables the investigation of broad ecological questions in phage communities. One ecological cha...

  11. Phage therapy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, S. G.; Tulyakova, E. N.; Moiseeva, I. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, bacteriophages are known to have become an effective alternative to antibiotic drugs. The article describes the current and potential applications of bacteriophages and phage endolysins. Also of interest is the devastating effect of phages on biofilms. The development of phage resistance is touched upon as well. Furthermore, the authors discuss the issue of laying down the rules of rational phage therapy.

  12. Phage Therapy: Future Inquiries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sijia; Zachary, Elisabeth; Wells, Keenan; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Western scientists have steadily been gaining interest in phage therapy since the mid-1980’s due to the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. Its introduction in the 20th century by Felix d’Herelle marked the beginning for the uses of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents. However, a lack in understanding phage biology, as well as the arrival of broad-spectrum antibiotics deprioritized using phage therapy to treat bacterial infections in the West. With the advent of molecular biology, we are now better able to understand the predator-prey relationships with which phage co-evolve with their hosts as well as the specificity of phage-host interactions which could lend itself into personalized treatments for infection. These discoveries give us greater insights on how to most effectively use bacteriophage as potential therapeutic agents. It is encouraging to note that bacteriophages are used as food additives in the U.S., suggesting that the FDA acknowledges the positive potential of bacteriophages for human applications. Unfortunately, there are only a few examples to date of bacteriophages used on humans in controlled clinical trials. Rigorous studies in-vitro and especially in-vivo are critically important to avoid the mishaps of our predecessors. Phage biologists must strive to meet regulatory standards and to design thorough, rugged studies in order to establish a substantiated need for phage therapy in health care. PMID:28286802

  13. Phage treatment of human infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T; Kuhl, Sarah J; Blasdel, Bob G

    2011-01-01

    Phages as bactericidal agents have been employed for 90 years as a means of treating bacterial infections in humans as well as other species, a process known as phage therapy. In this review we explore both the early historical and more modern use of phages to treat human infections. We discuss in particular the little-reviewed French early work, along with the Polish, US, Georgian and Russian historical experiences. We also cover other, more modern examples of phage therapy of humans as differentiated in terms of disease. In addition, we provide discussions of phage safety, other aspects of phage therapy pharmacology, and the idea of phage use as probiotics. PMID:22334863

  14. Factors mediating powerful voltage attenuation along CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Nace L; Mickus, Timothy J; Katz, Yael; Kath, William L; Spruston, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    We performed simultaneous patch-electrode recordings from the soma and apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, in order to determine the degree of voltage attenuation along CA1 dendrites. Fifty per cent attenuation of steady-state somatic voltage changes occurred at a distance of 238 μm from the soma in control and 409 μm after blocking the hyperpolarization-activated (H) conductance. The morphology of three neurons was reconstructed and used to generate computer models, which were adjusted to fit the somatic and dendritic voltage responses. These models identify several factors contributing to the voltage attenuation along CA1 dendrites, including high axial cytoplasmic resistivity, low membrane resistivity, and large H conductance. In most cells the resting membrane conductances, including the H conductances, were larger in the dendrites than the soma. Simulations suggest that synaptic potentials attenuate enormously as they propagate from the dendrite to the soma, with greater than 100-fold attenuation for synapses on many small, distal dendrites. A prediction of this powerful EPSP attenuation is that distal synaptic inputs are likely only to be effective in the presence of conductance scaling, dendritic excitability, or both. PMID:16002454

  15. Attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-induced endothelial cell cytotoxicity and neutrophil chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Crowley, J.J.; Chan, J.C.; Hoffmann, H.; Hatherill, J.R.; Ishizaka, A.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Our laboratory has previously shown that the administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine produced by activated mononuclear cells, to guinea pigs produces a syndrome similar to gram-negative sepsis or ARDS. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine, protects against TNF-induced and sepsis-induced acute lung injury in vivo. We now report on in vitro cellular studies of PMN-mediated cellular injury and its attenuation. We studied TNF-induced bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) cytotoxicity both with and without PMN. A 51Cr release assay was used to measure EC damage. Further, we investigated PMN function in response to TNF by measuring chemiluminescence. Agents that attenuate EC damage and PMN activation were evaluated in the above assays. Results revealed that TNF causes EC injury (p less than 0.05) and PMN increase TNF-induced EC injury. Furthermore, PTX, aminophylline (AMPH), caffeine, and forskolin attenuate TNF-induced EC cytotoxicity only in the presence of PMN (p less than 0.05). Of interest, dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) protects EC from TNF-induced injury both with and without PMN. Agents that may increase cAMP levels in PMN (PTX, DBcAMP, forskolin, isobutyl methylxanthine, and terbutaline) significantly attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence (p less than 0.05). We conclude that TNF causes EC damage and PMN increase this damage. Furthermore, PTX, AMPH, caffeine, and forskolin can attenuate TNF-induced EC injury in the presence of PMN, whereas DBcAMP attenuates TNF-induced EC injury with and without PMN. In addition, agents that may increase intracellular cAMP levels in PMN can attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence. Thus, these agents likely attenuate TNF-induced PMN-mediated EC injury through their inhibitory effects on PMN.

  16. Fluoride exposure attenuates expression of Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Thongboonkerd, Visith; Luengpailin, Jirapon; Cao, Junkai; Pierce, William M; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Doyle, R J

    2002-05-10

    Fluoridation causes an obvious reduction of dental caries by interference with cariogenic streptococci. However, the effect of fluoride on group A streptococci that causes rheumatic fever and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is not known. We have used proteomic analysis to create a reference proteome map for Streptococcus pyogenes and to determine fluoride-induced protein changes in the streptococci. Cellular and extracellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. 183 protein spots were visualized, and 74 spots representing 60 unique proteins were identified. A 16-h exposure to sodium fluoride caused decreased expression of proteins required to respond to cellular stress, including anti-oxidants, glycolytic enzymes, transcriptional and translational regulators, and protein folding. Fluoride caused decreased cellular expression of two well-characterized S. pyogenes virulence factors. Fluoride decreased expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which acts to bind fibronectin and promote bacterial adherence. We also performed proteomic analysis of protein released by S. pyogenes into the culture supernatant and observed decreased expression of M proteins following fluoride exposure. These data provide evidence that fluoride causes decreased expression by S. pyogenes proteins used to respond to stress, virulence factors, and implicated in non-suppurative complications of S. pyogenes, including glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever.

  17. Phages in nature

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Andrew D; Letarov, Andrey V; Heaphy, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages or phages are the most abundant organisms in the biosphere and they are a ubiquitous feature of prokaryotic existence. A bacteriophage is a virus which infects a bacterium. Archaea are also infected by viruses, whether these should be referred to as ‘phages’ is debatable, but they are included as such in the scope this article. Phages have been of interest to scientists as tools to understand fundamental molecular biology, as vectors of horizontal gene transfer and drivers of bacterial evolution, as sources of diagnostic and genetic tools and as novel therapeutic agents. Unraveling the biology of phages and their relationship with their hosts is key to understanding microbial systems and their exploitation. In this article we describe the roles of phages in different host systems and show how modeling, microscopy, isolation, genomic and metagenomic based approaches have come together to provide unparalleled insights into these small but vital constituents of the microbial world. PMID:21687533

  18. Estimation of near-surface quality factors by constrained inversion of Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Miller, Richard D.; Ivanov, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Quality factors (Q) of near-surface materials are as important as velocities of the materials in many applications. Only phase information of surface-wave data is utilized when high-frequency (≥ 2 Hz) surface-wave data are routinely inverted to determine near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities. Amplitude information of high-frequency surface-wave data can be used to determine quality factors of near-surface materials. Given S-wave velocity, compressional (P)-wave velocity, and Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, it is feasible to solve for S-wave quality factor QS and P-wave quality factor QP (for some specific velocity models) down to 30 m below the ground surface in many settings by inverting high-frequency Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients in a layered earth model. Amplitude of seismic data is an exponential function of attenuation coefficients. When calculating attenuation coefficients from changes in amplitude, this nonlinear nature would result in that small variations in amplitude cause huge changes in attenuation coefficients. This result suggests data (attenuation coefficients) that normally possess large errors could eventually transfer to a model (quality factors); therefore, constraints (or a priori information) on models are necessary. Because an inversion system to solve this problem is unstable, a regularization parameter must be introduced into an inversion algorithm to stabilize the inversion. These characteristics of the inversion problem allow us to solve the problem as a constrained and regularized linear system. Usually, a set of models that meet the defined constraints can be obtained by solving the system. Based on the linear nature of the inversion system, a smooth model can be selected from the set of models as a solution of the inversion using the L-curve method. This approach is a trade-off solution between data misfit and model length. Several real-world examples demonstrate the importance of constraints in finding acceptable realistic

  19. Vapor intrusion attenuation factors relative to subslab and source, reconsidered in light of background data

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Suuberg, Eric M.; Provoost, Jeroen; shen, Rui; Ma, Jianqing; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The basis upon which recommended attenuation factors for vapor intrusion (VI) have been derived are reconsidered. By making a fitting curve to the plot showing the dependence of observed indoor air concentration (cin) on subslab concentration (css) for residences in EPA database, an analytical equation is obtained to identify the relationship among cin, css and the averaged background level. The new relationship indicates that subslab measurements may serve as a useful guide only if css is above 500 μg / m3. Otherwise, cin is independent of css, with a distribution in good agreements with other studies of background levels. Therefore, employing this screening value (500 μg / m3), new contaminant concentration attenuation factors are proposed for VI, and the values for groundwater-to-indoor and subslab-to-indoor air concentration attenuation factors are 0.004 and 0.02, respectively. The former is applied to examining the reported temporal variations of cin obtained during a long-term monitoring study. The results show that using this new groundwater-to-indoor air concentration attenuation factor also provides a reasonably conservative estimate of cin. PMID:25618001

  20. Mechanism of action of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein PspA in repression of the AAA family transcription factor PspF.

    PubMed

    Elderkin, Sarah; Jones, Susan; Schumacher, Jörg; Studholme, David; Buck, Martin

    2002-06-28

    The PspA protein, a negative regulator of the Escherichia coli phage shock psp operon, is produced when virulence factors are exported through secretins in many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and its homologue in plants, VIPP1, plays a critical role in thylakoid biogenesis, essential for photosynthesis. Activation of transcription by the enhancer-dependent bacterial sigma(54) containing RNA polymerase occurs through ATP hydrolysis-driven protein conformational changes enabled by activator proteins that belong to the large AAA(+) mechanochemical protein family. We show that PspA directly and specifically acts upon and binds to the AAA(+) domain of the PspF transcription activator. Interactions involving PspF and nucleotide are changed by the action of PspA. These changes and the complexes that form between PspF and PspA can explain how PspA exerts its negative effects upon transcription activated by PspF, and are of significance when considering how activities of other AAA(+) proteins might be controlled.

  1. The long-term effects of phage concentration on the inhibition of planktonic bacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Worley-Morse, Thomas O; Zhang, Lucy; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1920s there has been an interest in using bacteriophages (phages) for the control of bacterial pathogens. While there are many factors that have limited the success of phage bio-control, one particular problem is the variability of outcomes between phages and bacteria. Specifically, there is a significant need for a better understanding of how initial phage concentrations affect long-term bacterial inhibition. In work reported herein three phages were isolated for Escherichia coli K12, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, as well as Bacillus cereus and bio-control experiments were performed with phage concentrations ranging from 10(5) to 10(8) plaque forming units per mL over the course of 72 h. For four of the nine phages isolated there was a linear relationship between inhibition and phage concentration, suggesting the effect of phage concentration is important at longer time scales. For three of the isolated phages, phage concentrations had no effect on bacterial inhibition suggesting that even at the lowest concentration the method of action was saturated and lower concentrations might still be effective. Additionally, a cocktail was created and was compared to the previously isolated phages. There was no statistical difference between the cocktail and the best performing phage highlighting the importance of selecting the appropriate phages for treatment. These results suggest that, for certain phages, there is a strong relationship between phage concentration and long-term bacterial growth inhibition and the initial phage concentration is an important indicator of the long-term outcome.

  2. Spatial variation of attenuation factor in subduction zone of Philippine Sea slab around Kyushu Island Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parithusta, Rizkita; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    Kyushu Island, in south-western part of Japan is characterized by subduction from Philippine Sea Slab and Eurasian Plate (Amurian); volcanic front seen in islands arcs runs through the central part of Kyushu Island. In Kyushu, shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes occur robustly through a depth of about 200 km. We estimated attenuation structure beneath Southern Part of Japan, at subduction zone of Philippine Sea Slab by applying modified coda normalization method (Eq.1) proposed by Parithusta, et.al. (2008*). The method estimates relative source spectra by taking spectral ratio in coda waves between two events at first. From a lot of the spectral data, those can be estimated with higher stability through singular value decomposition. After that, the relative source effect between event pair can be eliminated by the solution from ratios between direct wave spectra for many event pairs. We confirmed the estimation of source factor by assessment with empirical method, the result show that estimates of source factor almost satisfy empirical relation between magnitude and energy relation. The attenuation factor can be obtained from a relation below; ( ) Edij(tij,?-)- -1 dn = ln Edi'j(ti'j,?) = - ?Q(?) (tij - ti'j)+ const.... (1) Where: Ed denotes Direct S-wave power spectrum and Q is attenuation factor at target area; t is lapse time from origin time. Subscript i,jdenote identification number for event and station, respectively. Q-1 factor can be estimated from decay with ?tii'j(= tij - ti'j). By using this method, we obtained frequency dependent Q-1 value with smaller estimation error than previous study carried by Matsumoto et.al (2007). We used waveform data from earthquakes occurred in Philippine Sea Slab, recorded by Hi-net and Kyushu University seismic networks. Window length adopted here is 2.5 seconds for taking spectrum. The results shows the Q-1 values around Bungo-Suido area, northern part of Kyushu. Q-1 values are plotted in seven depth ranges as a

  3. The Presence of Phage Orthologous Genes in Helicobacter pylori Correlates with the Presence of the Virulence Factors CagA and VacA.

    PubMed

    Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav; Murray, Bradley; Rosenwald, Anne G

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with ulcers and the development of gastric cancer. Several genes, including cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), are associated with increased gastric cancer risk. Some strains of H. pylori also contain sequences related to bacteriophage phiHP33; however, the significance of these phage-related sequences remains unknown. We assessed the extent to which phiHP33-related sequences are present in 335 H. pylori strains using homology searches then mapped shared genes between phiHP33 and H. pylori strains onto an existing phylogeny. One hundred and twenty-one H. pylori strains contain phage orthologous sequences, and the presence of the phage-related sequences correlates with the presence of CagA and VacA. Mapping of the phage orthologs onto a phylogeny of H. pylori is consistent with the hypothesis that these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. phiHP33 phage orthologous sequences might be of significance in understanding virulence of different H. pylori strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of Five Podoviridae Phages Infecting Citrobacter freundii

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Labrie, Simon J.; Kourda, Rim S.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Moineau, Sylvain; Slama, Karim B.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter freundii causes opportunistic infections in humans and animals, which are becoming difficult to treat due to increased antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to explore phages as potential antimicrobial agents against this opportunistic pathogen. We isolated and characterized five new virulent phages, SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5 from sewage samples in Tunisia. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that the five C. freundii phages belong to the Caudovirales order, Podoviridae family, and Autographivirinae subfamily. Their linear double-stranded DNA genomes range from 39,158 to 39,832 bp and are terminally redundant with direct repeats between 183 and 242 bp. The five genomes share the same organization as coliphage T7. Based on genomic comparisons and on the phylogeny of the DNA polymerases, we assigned the five phages to the T7virus genus but separated them into two different groups. Phages SH1 and SH2 are very similar to previously characterized phages phiYeO3-12 and phiSG-JL2, infecting, respectively, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica, as well as sharing more than 80% identity with most genes of coliphage T7. Phages SH3, SH4, and SH5 are very similar to phages K1F and Dev2, infecting, respectively, Escherichia coli and Cronobacter turicensis. Several structural proteins of phages SH1, SH3, and SH4 were detected by mass spectrometry. The five phages were also stable from pH 5 to 10. No genes coding for known virulence factors or integrases were found, suggesting that the five isolated phages could be good candidates for therapeutic applications to prevent or treat C. freundii infections. In addition, this study increases our knowledge about the evolutionary relationships within the T7virus genus. PMID:27446058

  5. Isolation of Phages for Phage Therapy: A Comparison of Spot Tests and Efficiency of Plating Analyses for Determination of Host Range and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S.

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection. PMID:25761060

  6. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  7. Phages in the global fruit and vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Żaczek, M; Weber-Dąbrowska, B; Górski, A

    2015-03-01

    From recent articles, we have learned that phages can constitute a promising alternative in the food industry to eliminate bacterial pathogens from seedlings in greenhouse and field environments, as well as from fresh-cut food products. The fruit and vegetable industry requires quite a different approach than the meat or dairy industry. Several factors can inhibit efficacy of phage treatment such as plant watering or washing ready-to-eat products (water may dilute therapeutic doses), UV irradiation or extensive spreading of phytopathogens by wind, insects or even humans. Spontaneously occurring anomalous weather conditions in different parts of the world also may have an enormous impact on phage persistence in cultivations and on yields. Despite that, some phage preparations are commercially available and, without doubt, are much safer than chemical treatments. Along with increasing worldwide fruit and vegetable consumption, plant diseases and human foodborne illnesses are becoming a serious economic problem, resulting in a focus on optimization of phage treatment.

  8. Factors influencing the attenuation of serotype 1 Marek's disease virus by serial cell culture passage, and evaluation of attenuated strains for protection and replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was to better understand factors that influenced the process of attenuation of Marek’s disease (MD) virus by serial passage in cell cultures. Three virulent (v) pathotype and 3 very virulent plus (vv+) pathotype strains were passed by 3 techniques up to 131 times and the passage level at...

  9. Phage genomics: small is beautiful.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald; Hendrix, Roger W

    2002-01-11

    The Age of Genomics dawned only gradually for bacteriophages. It was 1977 when the genome of phage phi X174 was published and 1983 when the "large" genome of phage lambda hit the streets. More recently, the pace has quickened, so that we now have over 100 complete phage genomes and can expect thousands in a very few years. These sequences have been marvelously informative for the biology of the individual phages, but with the advent of high volume sequencing technology, the real excitement for phage biology is that it is now possible to analyze the sequences together and thereby address--for the first time at whole genome resolution--a set of fundamental biological questions related to populations: What is the structure of the global phage population? What are its dynamics? How do phages evolve? This is Comparative Genomics with a capital "C".

  10. Aquifer heterogeneity controls on adverse human health effects and the concept of the hazard attenuation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Bellin, A.; Cvetkovic, V.; Dagan, G.; Fiori, A.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the probability distribution of the hazard attenuation factor for a noncarcinogenic reactive compound captured by a well in heterogeneous porous formations. The hazard attenuation factor is defined as the ratio between the hazard index HI at a detection well and at the source. Heterogeneity of the aquifer is represented through the multi-indicator model (a collection of blocks of independent permeability) while flow and transport are solved by the means of the self-consistent approach that is able to deal with any degree of heterogeneity. Due to formation heterogeneity, HI is a random variable and similar for hazard attenuation index. The latter can be fully characterized by its cumulative distribution function (CDF), which in turn can be related to the statistics of the travel time of solute particles, from the source to the detection well. The approach is applied to the case of a solute which undergoes decay and a well with a screen much smaller than the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity. The results show that the probability of exceeding a given acceptable threshold of the hazard index is significantly affected by the level of heterogeneity comparable to the one observed for the MADE site, and the distance between the source and the well.

  11. Linear attenuation coefficient and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy for dose accuracy, beam collimation, and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Deidre N; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed S

    2012-07-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy were determined for (60)Co, (54)Mn, and (137)Cs gamma emitters and a NaI detector. The thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator was varied from 1 to 4 cm. A collimated beam of gamma rays was allowed to pass through various thicknesses of the MCP-96 alloy. The attenuated beam was detected by a NaI detector, and data were recorded by a multichannel analyzer. The run was repeated without the collimator for broad-beam geometry. For each run, the attenuated beam intensity was normalized by the intensity of the unattenuated incident beam obtained by removing the attenuators. Linear attenuation coefficients were determined by plotting of the intensity of the collimated beam against the attenuator thickness. For every thickness of the alloy, the ratio of the attenuated to the unattenuated beam was found to be higher in broad-beam geometry as compared to the same ratio in narrow-beam geometry. We used the difference in these ratios in broad and narrow-beam geometries to calculate the buildup factor. The buildup factor was found to increase with beam energy and attenuator thickness. Variation in the source-to-detector distance gave a lower value of the buildup factor for a small and a large distance and a higher value for an intermediate distance. The buildup factor was found to be greater than 1 in all cases. We conclude that the buildup factor must be calculated and incorporated for dose correction and precision when the MCP-96 alloy is used for tissue compensation or radiation shielding and protection purposes.

  12. Replication and Maintenance of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into the chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends (telomeres). Upon infection, the phage DNA circularizes via cohesive ends, and then a special phage enzyme of the tyrosine recombinase family, protelomerase, cuts at another site and joins the ends, forming hairpin telomeres of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in the formation of duplicated telomeres. The N15 protelomerase cuts them, generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by a partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike the F centromere, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in the N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lytic development, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. The family of N15-like linear phage-plasmids includes lambdoid phages ɸKO2 and pY54, as well as Myoviridae phages ΦHAP-1, VHML, VP882, Vp58.5, and vB_VpaM_MAR of marine gamma-proteobacteria. The genomes of these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny control modules, and replication genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

  13. Phage Neutralization by Sera of Patients Receiving Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Żaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K≤1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K≤1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K>18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n=15) treated with phages locally (n=13) or locally/orally (n=2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K≤1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT. PMID:24893003

  14. Phage neutralization by sera of patients receiving phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Zaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K ≤ 1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K ≤ 1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K > 18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n = 15) treated with phages locally (n = 13) or locally/orally (n = 2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K ≤ 1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT.

  15. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Pryshliak, Mark; Hammerl, Jens A; Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  16. Vibrio vulnificus Phage PV94 Is Closely Related to Temperate Phages of V. cholerae and Other Vibrio Species

    PubMed Central

    Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. Results In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5′-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. Conclusion We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species. PMID:24732980

  17. Synergy as a rationale for phage therapy using phage cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Schmerer, Matthew; Molineux, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Where phages are used to treat bacterial contaminations and infections, multiple phages are typically applied at once as a cocktail. When two or more phages in the cocktail attack the same bacterium, the combination may produce better killing than any single phage (synergy) or the combination may be worse than the best single phage (interference). Synergy is of obvious utility, especially if it can be predicted a priori, but it remains poorly documented with few examples known. This study addresses synergy in which one phage improves adsorption by a second phage. It first presents evidence of synergy from an experimental system of two phages and a mucoid E. coli host. The synergy likely stems from a tailspike enzyme produced by one of the phages. We then offer mathematical models and simulations to understand the dynamics of synergy and the enhanced magnitude of bacterial control possible. The models and observations complement each other and suggest that synergy may be of widespread utility and may be predictable from easily observed phenotypes. PMID:25279269

  18. Marine phages as excellent tracers for reactive colloidal transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2016-04-01

    Question: Here we evaluate marine phages as specific markers of hydrological flow and reactive transport of colloidal particles in the Earth's critical zone (CZ). Marine phages and their bacterial hosts are naturally absent in the CZ, and can be detected with extremely high sensitivity. In the framework of the DFG Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva, we asked the following questions: (1) Are marine phages useful specific markers of hydrological flow and reactive transport in porous media? and (2) Which phage properties are relevant drivers for the transport of marine phages in porous media? Methods: Seven marine phages from different families (as well two commonly used terrestrial phages) were selected based on their morphology, size and physico-chemical surface properties (surface charge and hydrophobicity). Phage properties were assessed by electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and water contact angle analysis (CA). Sand-filled laboratory percolation columns were used to study transport. The breakthrough curves of the phages were analyzed using the clean bed filtration theory and the XDLVO theory of colloid stability, respectively. Phages were quantified by a modified high- throughput plaque assay and a culture-independent particle counting method approach. Results: Our data show that most marine tested phages exhibited highly variable transport rates and deposition efficiency, yet generally high colloidal stability and viability. We find that size, morphology and hydrophobicity are key factors shaping the transport efficiency of phages. Differing deposition efficiencies of the phages were also supported by calculated XDLVO interaction energy profile. Conclusion: Marine phages have a high potential for the use as sensitive tracers in terrestrial habitats with their surface properties playing a crucial role for their transport. Marine phages however, exhibit differences in their deposition efficiency depending on their morphology, hydrophobicity and

  19. Drugs derived from phage display

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785

  20. Envisaging bacteria as phage targets

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult to appreciate just how small bacteria and phages are or how large, in comparison, the volumes that they occupy. A single milliliter, for example, can represent to a phage what would be, with proper scaling, an “ocean” to you and me. Here I illustrate, using more easily visualized macroscopic examples, the difficulties that a phage, as a randomly diffusing particle, can have in locating bacteria to infect. I conclude by restating the truism that the rate of phage adsorption to a given target bacterium is a function of phage density, that is, titer, in combination with the degree of bacterial susceptibility to adsorption by an encountering phage. PMID:23616932

  1. The first EGF domain of coagulation factor IX attenuates cell adhesion and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kitano, Hisataka; Mamiya, Atsushi; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Hidai, Chiaki

    2016-07-01

    Coagulation factor IX (FIX) is an essential plasma protein for blood coagulation. The first epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif of FIX (EGF-F9) has been reported to attenuate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this motif on cell adhesion and apoptosis. Treatment with a recombinant EGF-F9 attenuated cell adhesion to the ECM within 10 min. De-adhesion assays with native FIX recombinant FIX deletion mutant proteins suggested that the de-adhesion activity of EGF-F9 requires the same process of FIX activation as that which occurs for coagulation activity. The recombinant EGF-F9 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity release into the medium and increased the number of cells stained with annexin V and activated caspase-3, by 8.8- and 2.7-fold respectively, indicating that EGF-F9 induced apoptosis. Activated caspase-3 increased very rapidly after only 5 min of administration of recombinant EGF-F9. Treatment with EGF-F9 increased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not that of phosphorylated MAPK 44/42 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibitors of caspase-3 suppressed the release of LDH. Caspase-3 inhibitors also suppressed the attenuation of cell adhesion and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by EGF-F9. Our data indicated that EGF-F9 activated signals for apoptosis and induced de-adhesion in a caspase-3 dependent manner.

  2. Plasmid carriage can limit bacteria-phage coevolution.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Truman, Julie; Wright, Rosanna; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution with bacteriophages is a major selective force shaping bacterial populations and communities. A variety of both environmental and genetic factors has been shown to influence the mode and tempo of bacteria-phage coevolution. Here, we test the effects that carriage of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, had on antagonistic coevolution between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its phage, SBW25ϕ2. Plasmid carriage limited bacteria-phage coevolution; bacteria evolved lower phage-resistance and phages evolved lower infectivity in plasmid-carrying compared with plasmid-free populations. These differences were not explained by effects of plasmid carriage on the costs of phage resistance mutations. Surprisingly, in the presence of phages, plasmid carriage resulted in the evolution of high frequencies of mucoid bacterial colonies. Mucoidy can provide weak partial resistance against SBW25ϕ2, which may have limited selection for qualitative resistance mutations in our experiments. Taken together, our results suggest that plasmids can have evolutionary consequences for bacteria that go beyond the direct phenotypic effects of their accessory gene cargo.

  3. Changes in Environmental Conditions Modify Infection Kinetics of Dairy Phages.

    PubMed

    Zaburlin, Delfina; Quiberoni, Andrea; Mercanti, Diego

    2017-04-08

    Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. For kinetics assessment, one-step growth curves were carried out in MRS broth at optimal conditions (control), lower temperature, pH 6.0 and 5.0 (MRS6 and MRS5, respectively), or in medium lacking carbon (MRSN) or nitrogen (MRSC) sources. Phage infection was progressively impaired as environmental conditions were modified from optimal. At lower temperature or pH, infection was delayed, as perceived by longer latent and burst times. Burst size, however, was lower, equal or higher than for controls, but this effect was highly dependent on the particular phage-host system studied. Phage infection was strongly inhibited in MRSC, but only mildly impaired in MRSN. Nevertheless, growth of all the bacterial strains tested was severely compromised by starvation, without significant differences between MRSC and MRSN, indicating that nitrogen compounds are specifically required for a successful phage infection, beyond their influence on bacterial growth.

  4. Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Tatum, Kelsey B.; Lynn, Jason S.; Brewer, Tess E.; Lu, Stephen; Washburn, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    , contractile tail through which the DNA is delivered to host cells. This phylogenetic and structural study of S. meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9 provides new insight into the diversity of this family. The comparison of structure-related genes in both ΦM9 and S. meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM12, which comes from a completely different lineage of these phages, allows the identification of host infection-related factors. PMID:26311868

  5. Insulin-like growth factor 1 treatment of MSCs attenuates inflammation and cardiac dysfunction following MI.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zheng, Dong; Li, Wen-feng; Li, Hai-rui; Zhang, Ai-dong; Li, Zi-cheng

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promoted migration of endothelial cells and cardiac resident progenitor cells. In the previous study, we found the time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of IGF-1 treatment on the CXCR4 expression in MSCs in vitro, but it is still not clear whether IGF-1 pretreatment of MSCs may play anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation role in myocardial infarction. In this study, we demonstrated that IGF-1-treated MSCs' transplantation attenuate cardiac dysfunction, increase the survival of engrafted cells in the ischemic heart, decrease myocardium cells apoptosis, and inhibit protein production and gene expression of inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. IGF-1 pretreatment of MSCs may play anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation roles in post-myocardial infarction.

  6. The origin of phage virology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The history of bacteriophage (phage) had its start in 1915, when Twort isolated an unusual filterable and infectious agent from excrete of patients struck by diarrhoea; this discovery was followed by an analogous, and probably independent, finding of d'Hérelle in 1917. For several years phage research made scant progress but great attention was paid to the question of phage nature, which saw the contrast between d'Hérelle and Bordet's views (living against chemical nature, respectively). This situation changed with the independent discovery of lysogeny, in 1925, thanks to Bordet and Bail: this phenomenon was considered of genetical origin, a view that Wollman interpreted by assimilating the properties of phage to those of gene (according to a previous idea of Muller). In the 1930s, Burnet's work opened a new era by demonstrating the occurrence of several species of phages and their antigenic property. In the same period, the physical and chemical characteristics of these viruses were disclosed thanks, in particular, to the work of Schlesinger, who first demonstrated that a virus (phage) was constituted of nucleoproteins. The peculiarity of phage was finally shown after the invention of electron microscope: H. Ruska, in 1940, and Anderson and Luria in the next years, obtained the first images of tailed phages, a finding that strongly helped the investigation on the first steps of the infection process. The decisive impulse to phage virology came from Delbrück, a physicist who entered biology giving it a new arrangement. The so-called "phage group" assembled brilliant minds (Luria, Hershey and Delbrück himself, and later a dozen of other scientists): this group faced three fundamental questions of phage virology, i.e., the mechanisms of attack, multiplication and lysis. In ten years' time, phage virology became an integrant part of molecular biology, also thanks to the discovery of the genetical properties of DNA: in such scientific context, Delbrück, Luria and

  7. Clostridium difficile phages: still difficult?

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Katherine R.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Phages that infect Clostridium difficile were first isolated for typing purposes in the 1980s, but their use was short lived. However, the rise of C. difficile epidemics over the last decade has triggered a resurgence of interest in using phages to combat this pathogen. Phage therapy is an attractive treatment option for C. difficile infection, however, developing suitable phages is challenging. In this review we summarize the difficulties faced by researchers in this field, and we discuss the solutions and strategies used for the development of C. difficile phages for use as novel therapeutics. Epidemiological data has highlighted the diversity and distribution of C. difficile, and shown that novel strains continue to emerge in clinical settings. In parallel with epidemiological studies, advances in molecular biology have bolstered our understanding of C. difficile biology, and our knowledge of phage–host interactions in other bacterial species. These three fields of biology have therefore paved the way for future work on C. difficile phages to progress and develop. Benefits of using C. difficile phages as therapeutic agents include the fact that they have highly specific interactions with their bacterial hosts. Studies also show that they can reduce bacterial numbers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Genetic analysis has revealed the genomic diversity among these phages and provided an insight into their taxonomy and evolution. No strictly virulent C. difficile phages have been reported and this contributes to the difficulties with their therapeutic exploitation. Although treatment approaches using the phage-encoded endolysin protein have been explored, the benefits of using “whole-phages” are such that they remain a major research focus. Whilst we don’t envisage working with C. difficile phages will be problem-free, sufficient study should inform future strategies to facilitate their development to combat this problematic pathogen. PMID:24808893

  8. Nonviral gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor attenuates neurologic injury after spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Enyi; Jiang, Xiaojing; Kazui, Teruhisa; Washiyama, Naoki; Yamashita, Katsushi; Terada, Hitoshi; Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad

    2006-10-01

    Paraplegia caused by spinal cord ischemia remains a serious complication after surgical repair of thoracoabdminal aortic aneurysms. Hepatocyte growth factor is a potent angiogenic and neurotrophic factor. We sought to investigate the neuroprotective effect of gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor on spinal cord ischemia in rabbits. Human hepatocyte growth factor expression plasmid was combined with hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope vector. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope vector containing the hepatocyte growth factor gene was injected intrathecally into the experimental rabbits, whereas control vector or saline was given to the control animals. Five days later, spinal cord ischemia was induced by means of infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed during a 14-day recovery period with Tarlov criteria. Human hepatocyte growth factor was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid 3 days after gene transfer, and the level peaked on day 5. Compared with the control animals, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer significantly increased the capillary density in the gray matter and decreased the spinal cord edema. All rabbits pretreated with saline or control vector had hind-limb paraplegia (Tarlov score = 0) 14 days after spinal cord ischemia. However, previous transfection of the hepatocyte growth factor gene remarkably enhanced the Tarlov scores, and 8 of the 9 rabbits showed normal motor function (Tarlov score = 5) after a 14-day recovery period. Histologic examination showed that the intact motor neurons were preserved to a much greater extent in the rabbits transfected with the hepatocyte growth factor gene. Gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor attenuates neurologic injury after spinal cord ischemia.

  9. Anti-nerve growth factor antibody attenuates chronic morphine treatment-induced tolerance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheppudira, Bopaiah P; Trevino, Alex V; Petz, Lawrence N; Christy, Robert J; Clifford, John L

    2016-09-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to induce inflammation and pain; however its role in opioid-induced tolerance has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of an anti-NGF neutralizing antibody on the development of tolerance following chronic morphine treatment in naïve rats. Four groups of rats were used in this study; one treated with saline alone, one with 10 mg/kg of morphine, one with 10 μg of anti-NGF and the other with 10 mg/kg of morphine + 10 μg of anti-NGF, twice per day for 5 days. The route of treatment was subcutaneous (S.C.) for morphine and saline, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) for anti-NGF. Response to a noxious thermal stimulus during the course of drug treatment was assessed (Hargreaves' test). Further, the change in the NGF levels in the lumbar spinal cord was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that repeated administration of morphine produced an apparent tolerance which was significantly attenuated by co-administration of anti-NGF (P < 0.001). Additionally, the area under the curve (AUC) of the analgesic effect produced by the combination of morphine and anti-NGF was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than for saline controls and chronic morphine treated rats. Moreover, the level of NGF in the spinal cord of chronic morphine treated rats was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in both the saline control group and the group receiving simultaneous administration of anti-NGF with morphine. These results indicate that anti-NGF has the potential to attenuate morphine-induced tolerance behavior by attenuating the effects of NGF at the spinal level. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that the NGF signaling system is a potential novel target for treating opioid-induced tolerance.

  10. Phage cocktails and the future of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Viruses of bacteria, known as bacteriophages or phages, were discovered nearly 100 years ago. Their potential as antibacterial agents was appreciated almost immediately, with the first 'phage therapy' trials predating Fleming's discovery of penicillin by approximately a decade. In this review, we consider phage therapy that can be used for treating bacterial infections in humans, domestic animals and even biocontrol in foods. Following an overview of the topic, we explore the common practice - both experimental and, in certain regions of the world, clinical - of mixing therapeutic phages into cocktails consisting of multiple virus types. We conclude with a discussion of the commercial and medical context of phage cocktails as therapeutic agents. In comparing off-the-shelf versus custom approaches, we consider the merits of a middle ground, which we deem 'modifiable'. Finally, we explore a regulatory framework for such an approach based on an influenza vaccine model.

  11. Characterizing RecA-Independent Induction of Shiga toxin2-Encoding Phages by EDTA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imamovic, Lejla; Muniesa, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage life cycle has an important role in Shiga toxin (Stx) expression. The induction of Shiga toxin-encoding phages (Stx phages) increases toxin production as a result of replication of the phage genome, and phage lysis of the host cell also provides a means of Stx toxin to exit the cell. Previous studies suggested that prophage induction might also occur in the absence of SOS response, independently of RecA. Methodology/Principal Findings The influence of EDTA on RecA-independent Stx2 phage induction was assessed, in laboratory lysogens and in EHEC strains carrying Stx2 phages in their genome, by Real-Time PCR. RecA-independent mechanisms described for phage λ induction (RcsA and DsrA) were not involved in Stx2 phage induction. In addition, mutations in the pathway for the stress response of the bacterial envelope to EDTA did not contribute to Stx2 phage induction. The effect of EDTA on Stx phage induction is due to its chelating properties, which was also confirmed by the use of citrate, another chelating agent. Our results indicate that EDTA affects Stx2 phage induction by disruption of the bacterial outer membrane due to chelation of Mg2+. In all the conditions evaluated, the pH value had a decisive role in Stx2 phage induction. Conclusions/Significance Chelating agents, such as EDTA and citrate, induce Stx phages, which raises concerns due to their frequent use in food and pharmaceutical products. This study contributes to our understanding of the phenomenon of induction and release of Stx phages as an important factor in the pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. PMID:22393404

  12. Role of the phi 11 phage genome in competence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, J E; Philipson, L

    1974-07-01

    Both phage ø11 and 83A, when present as prophage or when used as helper phage, induce competence for transfection and transformation to the same level in Staphylococcus aureus, strain 8325-4. Cells lysogenized with certain temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of phage ø11 show competence at the nonpermissive temperature (41 C) without production of infectious phages. Phage ø11ts allele 31 can neither as a prophage nor as a helper phage develop competence under nonpermissive conditions. This mutant appears, therefore, to be mutated in the region of the phage genome controlling competence. The competence level for both transfection and transformation is increased by superinfecting strain 8325-4 (ø11) or 8325-4 (83A) at high multiplicities with phage ø11 with some of its mutants or with phage 83A. This superinfection enhancement appears to require protein synthesis but not deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis as judged from studies with inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. Besides the phage particle, no extracellular or cell-bound factors so far detected can induce competence. The phage-induced product conferring competence is rapidly synthesized by strain 8325-4 (tsø11(31)) after shift to permissive conditions, but requires deoxyribonucleic acid and protein synthesis to be expressed. Recombination between the sus mutants of phage ø11 of Kretschmer and Egan and tsø11(31) indicate that competence is controlled by an early gene in the lytic cycle which may be expressed also in lysogenic cells. The phage product inducing competence appears to have a half-life of 10 to 15 min in the conditional lethal mutant at shift to nonpermissive temperature. Ultraviolet inactivation of phage ø11 infectivity occurs more rapidly than inactivation of competence induction. In fact, the number of transformants is increased at low doses of irradiation. Competence induction is, however, decreased at high does of ultraviolet irradiation.

  13. Earmuff restricts progenitor cell potential by attenuating the competence to respond to self-renewal factors

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Derek H.; Komori, Hideyuki; Grbac, Daniel; Chen, Keng; Koe, Chwee Tat; Wang, Hongyan; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Despite expressing stem cell self-renewal factors, intermediate progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential, which allows them to give rise exclusively to differentiated progeny rather than stem cell progeny. Failure to restrict the developmental potential can allow intermediate progenitor cells to revert into aberrant stem cells that might contribute to tumorigenesis. Insight into stable restriction of the developmental potential in intermediate progenitor cells could improve our understanding of the development and growth of tumors, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs), generated by type II neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, provide an in vivo model for investigating the mechanisms that stably restrict the developmental potential of intermediate progenitor cells. Here, we report that the transcriptional repressor protein Earmuff (Erm) functions temporally after Brain tumor (Brat) and Numb to restrict the developmental potential of uncommitted (immature) INPs. Consistently, endogenous Erm is detected in immature INPs but undetectable in INPs. Erm-dependent restriction of the developmental potential in immature INPs leads to attenuated competence to respond to all known neuroblast self-renewal factors in INPs. We also identified that the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex probably functions cooperatively with Erm to restrict the developmental potential of immature INPs. Together, these data led us to conclude that the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism stably restricts the developmental potential of immature INPs by attenuating their genomic responses to stem cell self-renewal factors. We propose that restriction of developmental potential by the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism functionally distinguishes intermediate progenitor cells from stem cells, ensuring the generation of differentiated cells and preventing the formation of progenitor cell-derived tumor-initiating stem cells. PMID

  14. Attenuation of internal organ damages by exogenously administered epidermal growth factor (EGF) in burned rodents.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Jorge; Lodos, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Major burns are associated with multiple internal organ damages, including necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Failure of the intestinal barrier is a serious complication in burned patients. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair and affords protection to the gastric mucosa. We examined whether a single systemic intervention with EGF prevents organ systems damages, following full-thickness scalds (25-30%) in rodents. Animals were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of EGF (30 microg/kg in mice, 10 microg/kg in rats) or saline solution, 30 min prior thermal injury in mice or after the cutaneous injury in rats. General clinical condition and mortality during 24h were recorded. Animals were autopsied and histopathological and histomorphometric studies were conducted. Mice treated with EGF exhibited a milder clinical evolution and acute lethality was significantly reduced as compared to saline counterparts (P<0.01). Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that EGF significantly reduced intestinal necrosis and contributed to preserve jejunoileal architecture in mice (P<0.05) and rats (P<0.01). The onset of renal hemorrhagic foci was significantly reduced in EGF-treated groups (P<0.01). Lung damages appeared attenuated in EGF-treated animals. These data indicate the salutary effects of EGF by attenuating internal complications associated to thermal injuries. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the usefulness of this therapy.

  15. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent 'binge' METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure as assessed 24 h after the binge exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function.

  16. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: Role of brain derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent “binge” METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered at this timepoint in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function. PMID:24650575

  17. MTMR4 Attenuates Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling by Dephosphorylating R-Smads in Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junjing; Pan, Lei; Qin, Xincheng; Chen, Hua; Xu, Youli; Chen, Yeguang; Tang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Homeostasis of Smad phosphorylation at its C-terminal SXS motif is essential for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Whereas it is known that TGFβ signaling can be terminated by phosphatases, which dephosphorylate R-Smads in the nucleus, it is unclear whether there are any cytoplasmic phosphatase(s) that can attenuate R-Smad phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we demonstrate that myotubularin-related protein 4 (MTMR4), a FYVE domain-containing dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DSP), attenuates TGFβ signaling by reducing the phosphorylation level of R-Smads in early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous MTMR4 interacts with phosphorylated R-Smads, and that this interaction is correlated with dephosphorylation of R-Smads. Further analysis showed that overexpression of MTMR4 resulted in the sequestration of activated Smad3 in the early endosomes, thus reducing its nuclear translocation. However, both point mutations at the conserved catalytic site of the phosphatase (MTMR4-C407S) and small interference RNA of endogenous Mtmr4 expression led to sustained Smad3 activation. This work therefore suggests that MTMR4 plays an important role in preventing the overactivation of TGFβ signaling by dephosphorylating activated R-Smads that have been trafficked to early endosomes. PMID:20061380

  18. MTMR4 attenuates transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling by dephosphorylating R-Smads in endosomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junjing; Pan, Lei; Qin, Xincheng; Chen, Hua; Xu, Youli; Chen, Yeguang; Tang, Hong

    2010-03-12

    Homeostasis of Smad phosphorylation at its C-terminal SXS motif is essential for transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling. Whereas it is known that TGFbeta signaling can be terminated by phosphatases, which dephosphorylate R-Smads in the nucleus, it is unclear whether there are any cytoplasmic phosphatase(s) that can attenuate R-Smad phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we demonstrate that myotubularin-related protein 4 (MTMR4), a FYVE domain-containing dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DSP), attenuates TGFbeta signaling by reducing the phosphorylation level of R-Smads in early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous MTMR4 interacts with phosphorylated R-Smads, and that this interaction is correlated with dephosphorylation of R-Smads. Further analysis showed that overexpression of MTMR4 resulted in the sequestration of activated Smad3 in the early endosomes, thus reducing its nuclear translocation. However, both point mutations at the conserved catalytic site of the phosphatase (MTMR4-C407S) and small interference RNA of endogenous Mtmr4 expression led to sustained Smad3 activation. This work therefore suggests that MTMR4 plays an important role in preventing the overactivation of TGFbeta signaling by dephosphorylating activated R-Smads that have been trafficked to early endosomes.

  19. Metagenomic recovery of phage genomes of uncultured freshwater actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Megumi Mizuno, Carolina; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Low-GC Actinobacteria are among the most abundant and widespread microbes in freshwaters and have largely resisted all cultivation efforts. Consequently, their phages have remained totally unknown. In this work, we have used deep metagenomic sequencing to assemble eight complete genomes of the first tailed phages that infect freshwater Actinobacteria. Their genomes encode the actinobacterial-specific transcription factor whiB, frequently found in mycobacteriophages and also in phages infecting marine pelagic Actinobacteria. Its presence suggests a common and widespread strategy of modulation of host transcriptional machinery upon infection via this transcriptional switch. We present evidence that some whiB-carrying phages infect the acI lineage of Actinobacteria. At least one of them encodes the ADP-ribosylating component of the widespread bacterial AB toxins family (for example, clostridial toxin). We posit that the presence of this toxin reflects a 'trojan horse' strategy, providing protection at the population level to the abundant host microbes against eukaryotic predators.

  20. Collagen-binding vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kangkang; Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Cao, Shufeng; Hou, Xianglin; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves an important role in promoting angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. However, the lack of an effective delivery system that can target this growth factor to the injured site reduces its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, in the current study, collagen-binding VEGF was constructed by fusing a collagen-binding domain (CBD) to the N-terminal of native VEGF. The CBD-VEGF can specifically bind to collagen which is the major component of the extracellular matrix in fibrotic liver. The anti-fibrotic effects of this novel material were investigated by the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrotic mouse model. Mice were injected with CCl4 intraperitoneally to induce liver fibrosis. CBD-VEGF was injected directly into the liver tissue of mice. The liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general observation or with Masson's trichrome staining for detection of collagen deposition. The hepatic stellate cell activation, blood vessel formation and hepatocyte proliferation were measured by immunohistochemical staining for α-smooth muscle actin, CD31 and Ki67 in the liver tissue. The fluorescent TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the hepatocyte apoptosis. The present study identified that the CBD-VEGF injection could significantly promote vascularization of the liver tissue of fibrotic mice and attenuate liver fibrosis. Furthermore, hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic stellate cell activation were attenuated by CBD-VEGF treatment. CBD-VEGF treatment could additionally promote hepatocyte regeneration in the liver tissue of fibrotic mice. Thus, it was suggested that CBD-VEGF may be used as a novel therapeutic intervention for liver fibrosis. PMID:27748931

  1. Stochastic cellular fate decision making by multiple infecting lambda phage.

    PubMed

    Robb, Matthew L; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a classic system for the study of cellular decision making. Both experiments and mathematical models have demonstrated the importance of viral concentration in the lysis-lysogeny decision outcome in lambda phage. However, a recent experimental study using single cell and single phage resolution reported that cells with the same viral concentrations but different numbers of infecting phage (multiplicity of infection) can have markedly different rates of lysogeny. Thus the decision depends on not only viral concentration, but also directly on the number of infecting phage. Here, we attempt to provide a mechanistic explanation of these results using a simple stochastic model of the lambda phage genetic network. Several potential factors including intrinsic gene expression noise, spatial dynamics and cell-cycle effects are investigated. We find that interplay between the level of intrinsic noise and viral protein decision threshold is a major factor that produces dependence on multiplicity of infection. However, simulations suggest spatial segregation of phage particles does not play a significant role. Cellular image processing is used to re-analyse the original time-lapse movies from the recent study and it is found that higher numbers of infecting phage reduce the cell elongation rate. This could also contribute to the observed phenomena as cellular growth rate can affect transcription rates. Our model further predicts that rate of lysogeny is dependent on bacterial growth rate, which can be experimentally tested. Our study provides new insight on the mechanisms of individual phage decision making. More generally, our results are relevant for the understanding of gene-dosage compensation in cellular systems.

  2. Examination of the influence of environmental factors in contaminant vapor concentration attenuation factor with U.S. EPA’s vapor intrusion database

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Those charged with the responsibility of estimating the risk posed by vapor intrusion (VI) processes have often looked to information contained in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s VI database for insight. Indoor air concentration attenuation factors have always been a key focus of this database, but the roles of different environmental factors in these attenuation processes are still unclear. This study aims to examine the influences of these factors in the context of the information in the VI database. The database shows that the attenuation factors vary over many orders of magnitude, and that no simple statistical fluctuation around any typical mean value exists. Thus far, no simple explanation of this phenomenon has been presented. This paper examines various possible contributing factors to the enormous range of observed values, looking at which ones can plausibly contribute to explaining them. PMID:23252837

  3. Phages targeting infected tissues: novel approach to phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Hodyra-Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Borysowski, Jan; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    While the true efficacy of phage therapy still requires formal confirmation in clinical trials, it continues to offer realistic potential treatment in patients in whom antibiotics have failed. Novel developments and approaches are therefore needed to ascertain that future clinical trials would evaluate the therapy in its optimal form thus allowing for reliable conclusions regarding the true value of phage therapy. In this article, we present our vision to develop and establish a bank of phages specific to most threatening pathogens and armed with homing peptides enabling their localization in infected tissues in densities assuring efficient and stable eradication of infection.

  4. Treatment of in vitro enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using phage and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dini, C; Bolla, P A; de Urraza, P J

    2016-07-01

    To assay the combination of phage and probiotics against EHEC in vitro on infected Hep-2 cells. Phage and probiotics treatments on EHEC O157:H7-infected Hep-2 cells were assayed individually or combined. The effect of freeze-drying on phage and probiotic antimicrobial activity was also studied. While treatment with phage alone increased cell detachment caused by EHEC infection, the treatments with MM alone or in combination with phage proved to effectively diminish cell damage caused by EHEC infection. Combined treatment showed a decrease in apoptotic cell count of 57·3% and a reduction in EHEC adhesion to cell monolayer of 1·2 log CFU. The simultaneous use of phage and probiotics showed no antagonistic effect, and freeze-drying did not affect their antipathogenic activity. The combination of phage and probiotics has great potential for reducing the number of pathogens adhered to epithelial cells during EHEC O157:H7 infection and attenuating the cytotoxic effect derived from it. Further in vivo assays are needed for assessing the actual effectiveness of the treatment. This study presents a freeze-dried formulation of phage and probiotics capable of controlling EHEC infections and reducing epithelial cell damage in vitro. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim Cause Phage Induction and Virulence Modulation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Christiane; Köller, Johanna; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus strains of human origin, phages which integrate into the chromosomal gene coding for β-hemolysin (hlb) are widely distributed. Most of them encode accessory virulence determinants such as staphylokinase (sak) or enterotoxins. Here, we analyzed the effects of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on phage induction and expression of phage-encoded virulence factors by using isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis for which the induction of hlb-converting phages was demonstrated in vivo (C. Goerke, S. Matias y Papenberg, S. Dasbach, K. Dietz, R. Ziebach, B. C. Kahl, and C. Wolz, J. Infect. Dis. 189:724-734, 2004) as well as a φ13 lysogen of phage-cured strain 8325-4. Treatment of lysogens with subinhibitory concentrations of either antibiotic resulted in (i) delysogenization of strains resembling the isolates picked up after chronic lung infection and (ii) replication of phages in the bacterial host in a dose-dependent manner. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in enhanced recA transcription, indicating involvement of the SOS response in phage mobilization. Induction of φ13 was linked to elevated expression of the phage-encoded virulence gene sak, chiefly due to the activation of latent phage promoters. In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. PMID:16377683

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli phage by pulsed electric field treatment and analysis of inactivation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanino, Takanori; Yoshida, Tomoki; Sakai, Kazuki; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2013-03-01

    Inactivation of bacteriophage by pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, one of the effective procedures for bacteria nonthermal inactivation, was studied. Model phage particles Escherichia coli bacteriophages M13mp18 and λ phage, were successfully inactivated by PEF treatment. The survival ratios of both bacteriophages decreased depending on the PEF treatment time when applied peak voltage was 5 or 7 kV, and the survival ratios after 12 min PEF treatment were 10-4 - 10-5. Electrophoresis analyses of biological molecules of inactivated λ phage detected no degradation of total protein and genomic DNA. These results suggested that the factor of phage inactivation by PEF treatment was not based on the degradation of protein or DNA, but on the destruction of phage particle structure. Sensitivity of E. coli phage to PEF treatment was compared with that of E. coli cell. Phage and MV1184 cell were treated with same condition PEF at 5 kV, respectively. After 12 min treatment, the survival ration of λ phage and MV1184 were 4.0 × 10-5 and 1.7 × 10-3, respectively. The survival ratio of phage was lower than that of MV1184. E. coli cell is more tolerant to inactivation with PEF treatment than coli phage.

  7. Evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence as a result of phage predation.

    PubMed

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; van de Ven, Theo G M; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    The rapid increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has attracted attention to bacteriophages for treating and preventing bacterial infections. Bacteriophages can drive the diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, giving rise to phage-resistant variants with different phenotypes from their ancestral hosts. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of phage resistance on cytotoxicity of host populations toward cultured mammalian cells. The library of phage-resistant P. aeruginosa PAO1 variants used was developed previously via experimental evolution of an isogenic host population using phages PP7 and E79. Our results presented herein indicate that the phage-resistant variants developed in a heterogeneous phage environment exhibit a greater ability to impede metabolic action of cultured human keratinocytes and have a greater tendency to cause membrane damage even though they cannot invade the cells in large numbers. They also show a heightened resistance to phagocytosis by model murine macrophages. Furthermore, all isolates produced higher levels of at least one of the secreted virulence factors, namely, total proteases, elastase, phospholipase C, and hemolysins. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed upregulation in the transcription of a number of genes associated with virulence of P. aeruginosa for the phage-resistant variants. The results of this study indicate a significant change in the in vitro virulence of P. aeruginosa following phage predation and highlight the need for caution in the selection and design of phages and phage cocktails for therapeutic use.

  8. Genomic evolution of bacterial populations under coselection by antibiotics and phage.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Johannes; Frickel, Jens; Jalasvuori, Matti; Hiltunen, Teppo; Becks, Lutz

    2016-12-15

    Bacteria live in dynamic systems where selection pressures can alter rapidly, forcing adaptation to the prevailing conditions. In particular, bacteriophages and antibiotics of anthropogenic origin are major bacterial stressors in many environments. We previously observed that populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 exposed to the lytic bacteriophage SBW25Φ2 and a noninhibitive concentration of the antibiotic streptomycin (coselection) achieved higher levels of phage resistance compared to populations exposed to the phage alone. In addition, the phage became extinct under coselection while remaining present in the phage alone environment. Further, phenotypic tests indicated that these observations might be associated with increased mutation rate under coselection. In this study, we examined the genetic causes behind these phenotypes by whole-genome sequencing clones isolated from the end of the experiments. We were able to identify genetic factors likely responsible for streptomycin resistance, phage resistance and hypermutable (mutator) phenotypes. This constitutes genomic evidence in support of the observation that while the presence of phage did not affect antibiotic resistance, the presence of antibiotic affected phage resistance. We had previously hypothesized an association between mutators and elevated levels of phage resistance under coselection. However, our evidence regarding the mechanism was inconclusive, as although with phage mutators were only found under coselection, additional genomic evidence was lacking and phage resistance was also observed in nonmutators under coselection. More generally, our study provides novel insights into evolution between univariate and multivariate selection (here two stressors), as well as the potential role of hypermutability in natural communities.

  9. Rifampicin Attenuated Global Cerebral Ischemia Injury via Activating the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beibei; Cao, Huimin; Chen, Lili; Yang, Xuemei; Tian, Xiaoyan; Li, Rong; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found that rifampicin has neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection. In this study, we examined whether rifampicin exhibits beneficial effects mediated by the Nrf2 pathway after global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to four groups that included a sham group and three treatment groups with global ischemia-reperfusion [control, rifampicin, and rifampicin plus brusatol (an inhibitor of Nrf2)]. Rats were subjected to transient GCI induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min with systemic hypotension by blood withdrawal. The Morris water maze test was performed for neurobehavioral testing, whereas the pathological changes were investigated using HE and TUNEL staining. The protein expression of Nrf2, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hippocampus were analyzed by Western blotting. The immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the distribution of Nrf2. Results: Rifampicin treatment significantly improved spatial learning ability compared with the control group, which was consistent with the pathological changes. In addition, rifampicin significantly elevated the nuclear expression of Nrf2, Nrf2 downstream anti-oxidant protein, HO-1 compared with the control group, and it simultaneously downregulated the expression of COX-2 in the hippocampus on day 3 after ischemia-reperfusion. Interestingly, the forenamed effects of rifampicin were abolished by pretreatment with brusatol, a specific inhibitor of Nrf2 activation. Conclusions: Rifampicin exerts neuroprotective effects against global cerebral ischemia, which may be attributed to activation of the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:27965540

  10. Phage therapy of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that a bacteriophage-associated phenomenon was first unambiguously observed one-hundred years ago with the findings of Twort in 1915. This was independently followed by complementary observations by d'Hérelle in 1917. D'Hérelle's appreciation of the bacteriophage phenomenon appears to have directly led to the development of phages as antibacterial agents within a variety of contexts, including medical and agricultural. Phage use to combat nuisance bacteria appears to be especially useful where targets are sufficiently problematic, suitably bactericidal phages exist, and alternative approaches are lacking in effectiveness, availability, safety, or cost effectiveness, etc. Phage development as antibacterial agents has been strongest particularly when antibiotics have been less available or useful, e.g., such as in the treatment of chronic infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One relatively under-explored or at least not highly reported use of phages as therapeutic agents has been to combat bacterial infections of the lungs and associated tissues. These infections are diverse in terms of their etiologies, manifestations, and also in terms of potential strategies of phage delivery. Here I review the literature considering the phage therapy of pulmonary and pulmonary-related infections, with emphasis on reports of clinical treatment along with experimental treatment of pulmonary infections using animal models. PMID:26442188

  11. Consumer attitudes and behaviours--key risk factors in an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12 infection sourced to chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Kenny, B; Hall, R; Cameron, S

    1999-04-01

    To identify the source and intervention methods for an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 12 in South Australia. Ten cases of S. Typhimurium phage type (PT) 12 infection were notified in South Australia in a four-week period from 7 May 1998. Nine cases and 27 controls were included in a case control study to test the hypothesis that illness was associated with the consumption of chicken nuggets. A significant association between illness and the consumption of one brand of chicken nuggets was determined, odds ratio undefined (95% CI undefined; p = undefined). Nine of nine cases and one of 27 controls reported eating these chicken nuggets. S. Typhimurium PT 12 was isolated from an opened sample of this particular brand of nuggets which had been retrieved from the home of one case. The implicated nuggets were essentially a raw product which had been 'flash fried' in contrast with other brands which were fully cooked. The investigation highlighted issues of inadequate labelling and consumer responses to labelling information which affect food safety. A media release to highlight to the consumer the need to cook frozen food properly and a voluntary recall of the 'flash fried' product was instigated as a result of these conclusions. Further action is needed to eliminate the potential hazard that consumers will perceive and handle 'flash fried' nuggets as if they are a cooked chicken product.

  12. Estimation of patient attenuation factor for iodine-131 based on direct dose rate measurements from radioiodine therapy patients.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Khaled; Alenezi, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the actual dose at 1 m from the patients per unit activity with the aim of providing a more accurate prediction of the dose levels around radioiodine patients in the hospital, as well as to compare our results with the literature. In this work the demonstration of a patient body tissue attenuation factor is verified by comparing the dose rates measured from the patients with those measured from the unshielded radioiodine capsules immediately after administration of the radioactivity. The normalized dose rate per unit activity is therefore proposed as an operational quantity that can be used to predict exposure rates to staff and patients' relatives. The average dose rate measured from our patient per unit activity was 38.4±11.8 μSv/h/GBq. The calculated attenuation correction factor based on our measurements was 0.55±0.17. The calculated dose rate from a radioiodine therapy patient should normally include a factor accounting for patient body tissue attenuation and scatter. The attenuation factor is currently neglected and not applied in operational radiation protection. Realistic estimation of radiation dose levels from radioiodine therapy patients when properly performed will reduce the operational cost and optimize institutional radiation protection practice. It is recommended to include patient attenuation factors in risk assessment exercises - in particular, when accurate estimates of total effective doses to exposed individuals are required when direct measurements are not possible. The information provided about patient attenuation might benefit radiation protection specialists and regulators.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-1 attenuates TGF-β1-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shimbori, Chiko; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Xia, Jiaji; Gauldie, Jack; Ask, Kjetil; Ramos, Carlos; Becerril, Carina; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Kolb, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive fibroblast and myofibroblast proliferation, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) belongs to the FGF family and has been shown to inhibit fibroblast collagen production and differentiation into myofibroblasts, and revert epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting TGF-β1 signalling pathways. However, the precise role of FGF-1 in pulmonary fibrosis has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrogenic effect of FGF-1 in pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo by prolonged transient overexpression of FGF-1 (AdFGF-1) and TGF-β1 (AdTGF-β1) using adenoviral vectors. In vivo, FGF-1 overexpression markedly attenuated TGF-β1-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat lungs when given both concomitantly, or delayed, by enhancing proliferation and hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). AdFGF-1 also attenuated the TGF-β1 signalling pathway and induced FGFR1 expression in AECs. In vitro, AdFGF-1 prevented the increase in α-SMA and the decrease in E-cadherin induced by AdTGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts, primary human pulmonary AECs, and A549 cells. Concomitantly, AdTGF-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation was significantly reduced by AdFGF-1 in both cell types. AdFGF-1 also attenuated the increase in TGFβR1 protein and mRNA levels in fibroblasts. In AECs, AdFGF-1 decreased TGFβR1 protein by favouring TGFβR1 degradation through the caveolin-1/proteasome pathway. Furthermore, FGFR1 expression was increased in AECs, whereas it was decreased in fibroblasts. In serum of IPF patients, FGF-1 levels were increased compared to controls. Interestingly, FGF-1 expression was restricted to areas of AEC hyperplasia, but not α-SMA-positive areas in IPF lung tissue. Our results demonstrate that FGF-1 may have preventative and therapeutic effects on TGF-β1-driven pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting

  14. Genomics of staphylococcal Twort-like phages--potential therapeutics of the post-antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Łobocka, Małgorzata; Hejnowicz, Monika S; Dąbrowski, Kamil; Gozdek, Agnieszka; Kosakowski, Jarosław; Witkowska, Magdalena; Ulatowska, Magdalena I; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Kwiatek, Magdalena; Parasion, Sylwia; Gawor, Jan; Kosowska, Helena; Głowacka, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    . Although the number and location of introns may vary between particular phages, intron shuffling is unlikely to be a major factor responsible for specificity differences.

  15. High Stability of Stx2 Phage in Food and under Food-Processing Conditions ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Tone Mari; Axelsson, Lars; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less studied. We have investigated the stability of an Stx phage in several food products and examined how storage, food processing, and disinfection influence the infectivity of phage particles. The study involved a recombinant Stx phage (Δstx::cat) of an E. coli O103:H25 strain from a Norwegian outbreak in 2006. Temperature, matrix, and time were factors of major importance for the stability of phage particles. Phages stored at cooling temperatures (4°C) showed a dramatic reduction in stability compared to those stored at room temperature. The importance of the matrix was evident at higher temperatures (60°C). Phages in ground beef were below the detection level when heated to 60°C for more than 10 min, while phages in broth exposed to the same heating conditions showed a 5-log-higher stability. The phages tolerated desiccation poorly but were infective for a substantial period of time in solutions. Under moist conditions, they also had a high ability to tolerate exposure to several disinfectants. In a dry-fermented sausage model, phages were shown to infect E. coli in situ. The results show that Stx phage particles can maintain their infectivity in foods and under food-processing conditions. PMID:21685156

  16. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is protective in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether pegfilgrastim, GCSF with sustained action, is protective in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with manifestations of upper and lower motoneuron death and muscle atrophy accompanied by inflammation in the CNS and periphery. Methods Human mutant G93A superoxide dismutase (SOD1) ALS mice were treated with pegfilgrastim starting at the presymptomatic stage and continued until the end stage. After long-term pegfilgrastim treatment, the inflammation status was defined in the spinal cord and peripheral tissues including hematopoietic organs and muscle. The effect of GCSF on spinal cord neuron survival and microglia, bone marrow and spleen monocyte activation was assessed in vitro. Results Long-term pegfilgrastim treatment prolonged mutant SOD1 mice survival and attenuated both astro- and microgliosis in the spinal cord. Pegfilgrastim in SOD1 mice modulated the inflammatory cell populations in the bone marrow and spleen and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in monocytes and microglia. The mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the circulation was restored back to basal level after long-term pegfilgrastim treatment in SOD1 mice while the storage of Ly6C expressing monocytes in the bone marrow and spleen remained elevated. After pegfilgrastim treatment, an increased proportion of these cells in the degenerative muscle was detected at the end stage of ALS. Conclusions GCSF attenuated inflammation in the CNS and the periphery in a mouse model of ALS and thereby delayed the progression of the disease. This mechanism of action targeting inflammation provides a new perspective of the usage of GCSF in the treatment of ALS. PMID:21711557

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor attenuates pancreatic damage in caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Z; Dembiński, A; Konturek, P C; Ceranowicz, P; Konturek, S J; Tomaszewska, R; Schuppan, D; Stachura, J; Nakamura, T

    2001-10-26

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression was reported in experimental and clinical acute pancreatitis. These observations prompted us to determine the effect of HGF administration on the development of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Acute pancreatitis was induced by s.c. infusion of caerulein (10 microg/kg/h) for 5 h. HGF was administrated twice (30 min before caerulein or saline infusion and 3 h later) at the doses: 0.4, 2, 10 or 50 microg/kg s.c. Immediately after cessation of caerulein or saline infusion, the pancreatic blood flow, plasma amylase and lipase activity, plasma cytokines concentration, cell proliferation, and morphological signs of pancreatitis were examined. Caerulein administration induced acute edematous pancreatitis manifested by 41% decrease in DNA synthesis, 53% inhibition of pancreatic blood flow, a significant increase in plasma amylase and lipase activity, plasma interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 concentration, as well as, the development of the histological signs of pancreatic damage (edema, leukocyte infiltration, and vacuolization). Administration of HGF without induction of pancreatitis increased plasma interleukin-10. Treatment with HGF, during induction of pancreatitis, increased plasma interleukin-10 and attenuated the pancreatic damage, what was manifested by histological improvement of pancreatic integrity, the partial reversion of the drop in DNA synthesis and pancreatic blood flow, and the reduction in pancreatitis evoked increase in plasma amylase, lipase, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 levels. HGF administrated at the dose 2 microg/kg exhibited a similar beneficial effect as administration of HGF at the doses 10 or 50 microg/kg. Treatment with HGF at the dose 0.4 microg/kg was less effective. We conclude that: (1) administration of HGF attenuates pancreatic damage in caerulein-induced pancreatitis; (2) this effect seems to be related to the increase in production of interleukin-10, the reduction in

  18. Captopril attenuates hypertension and renal injury induced by the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tasuku; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Imig, John D

    2012-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi) are known to cause hypertension and renal injury that severely limits their use as an anticancer therapy. We hypothesized that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril not only prevents hypertension, but also decreases renal injury caused by the VEGFi sorafenib. Rats were administered sorafenib (20 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with captopril (40 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Sorafenib administration increased blood pressure, which plateaued by day 10. Concurrent treatment with captopril for 4 weeks resulted in a 30 mmHg decrease in blood pressure compared with sorafenib alone (155 ± 5 vs 182 ± 6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Furthermore, concurrent captopril treatment reduced albuminuria by 50% compared with sorafenib alone (20 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05) and reduced nephrinuria by eightfold (280 ± 96 vs 2305 ± 665 μg/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Glomerular injury, thrombotic microangiopathy and tubular cast formation were also decreased in captopril-treated rats administered sorafenib. Renal autoregulatory efficiency was determined by evaluating the afferent arteriolar constrictor response to ATP. Sorafenib administration attenuated the vasoconstriction to ATP, whereas concurrent captopril treatment improved ATP reactivity. In conclusion, captopril attenuated hypertension and renal injury and improved renal autoregulatory capacity in rats administered sorafenib. These findings indicate that captopril treatment, in addition to alleviating the detrimental side-effect of hypertension, decreases the renal injury associated with anticancer VEGFi therapies such as sorafenib.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tumor necrosis factor-alpha attenuate Clara cell secretory protein promoter function.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Kevin S; Jaramillo, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    The Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP, also CC-10/uterglobin) is a 16-kD homodimeric protein abundantly expressed in the airways of mammals. Although the molecular function is unknown, gene-targeting studies indicate CCSP as a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or injury. CCSP is decreased in the lungs of mice following acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) infection. In the present study, the role of decreased promoter function in the regulation of CCSP by P.a. was assessed using an in vitro co-culture system and in vivo studies of transgenic mice. CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells was markedly decreased by P.a. or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Regulation of CCSP promoter function by either P.a. or TNF-alpha was localized to the proximal 166 bp flanking region of the CCSP promoter activity. Decreased regulation of the CCSP promoter by P.a. or TNF-alpha was specific to CCSP, as human surfactant protein D (SP-D) promoter activity was unaffected or increased by P.a. or TNF-alpha, respectively. A neutralizing antibody against human TNF-alpha was able to reverse both the TNF-alpha- mediated as well as P.a.-mediated decrease in CCSP promoter function in lung epithelial cells. TNF-alpha secretion by lung epithelial cells coincided with the decrease in CCSP promoter function following P.a. administration. Using a transgenic mouse model, P.a. administration to the lung markedly attenuated CCSP promoter-conferred gene expression in vivo. The attenuation of CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells by P.a. involves, in part, autocrine/paracrine secretion of TNF-alpha, which in turn regulates CCSP transcription through cis-active elements in the proximal promoter region.

  20. Captopril attenuates hypertension and renal injury induced by the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Tasuku; Khan, Abdul Hye; Imig, John D

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi) are known to cause hypertension and renal injury that severely limits their use as an anticancer therapy. We hypothesized that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril not only prevents hypertension, but also decreases renal injury caused by the VEGFi sorafenib.Rats were administered sorafenib (20 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with captopril (40 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Sorafenib administration increased blood pressure, which plateaued by day 10.Concurrent treatment with captopril for 4 weeks resulted in a 30 mmHg decrease in blood pressure compared with sorafenib alone (155 ± 5 vs 182 ± 6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Furthermore, concurrent captopril treatment reduced albuminuria by 50% compared with sorafenib alone (20 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05) and reduced nephrinuria by eightfold (280 ± 96 vs 2305 ± 665 μg/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Glomerular injury, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and tubular cast formation were also decreased in captopril-treated rats administered sorafenib. Renal autoregulatory efficiency was determined by evaluating the afferent arteriolar constrictor response to ATP. Sorafenib administration attenuated the vasoconstriction to ATP, whereas concurrent captopril treatment improved ATP reactivity.In conclusion, captopril attenuated hypertension and renal injury and improved renal autoregulatory capacity in rats administered sorafenib. These findings indicate that captopril treatment, in addition to alleviating the detrimental side-effect of hypertension, decreases the renal injury associated with anticancer VEGFi therapies such as sorafenib. PMID:22443474

  1. The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2010-10-26

    Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on the planet, are outnumbered by a factor of 10 to 1 by phages that infect them. Faced with the rapid evolution and turnover of phage particles, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to evade phage infection and killing, leading to an evolutionary arms race. The extensive co-evolution of both phage and host has resulted in considerable diversity on the part of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. In this paper, we discuss the unique and common features of phage resistance mechanisms and their role in global biodiversity. Finally, the commonalities between defense mechanisms suggest avenues for the discovery of novel forms of these mechanisms based on their evolutionary traits.

  2. Attenuation of the Transforming Growth Factor β –Signaling Pathway in Chronic Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Krzyzanowska, Agata; Barrientos, Stephan; Stuelten, Christina; Zimmerman, Karen; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Brem, Harold; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is important in inflammation, angiogenesis, reepithelialization and connective tissue regeneration during wound healing. We analyzed components of TGFβ signaling pathway in biopsies from 10 patients with nonhealing venous ulcers (VUs). Using comparative genomics of transcriptional profiles of VUs and TGFβ-treated keratinocytes, we found deregulation of TGFβ target genes in VUs. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis, we found suppression of TGFβ RI, TGFβ RII and TGFβ RIII, and complete absence of phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) in VU epidermis. In contrast, pSmad2 was induced in the cells of the migrating epithelial tongue of acute wounds. TGFβ-inducible transcription factors (GADD45β , ATF3 and ZFP36L1) were suppressed in VUs. Likewise, genes suppressed by TGFβ (FABP5, CSTA and S100A8) were induced in nonhealing VUs. An inhibitor of Smad signaling, Smad7 was also downregulated in VUs. We conclude that TGFβ signaling is functionally blocked in VUs by downregulation of TGFβ receptors and attenuation of Smad signaling resulting in deregulation of TGFβ target genes and consequent hyperproliferation. These data suggest that application of exogenous TGFβ may not be a beneficial treatment for VUs. PMID:20069132

  3. Dispersal and survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum phages in vivo in rainbow trout and in vitro under laboratory conditions: implications for their use in phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lone; Bertelsen, Sif K; Dalsgaard, Inger; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Attention has been drawn to phage therapy as an alternative approach for controlling pathogenic bacteria such as Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonid aquaculture, which can give rise to high mortalities, especially in rainbow trout fry. Recently, phages have been isolated with a broad host range and a strong lytic potential against pathogenic F. psychrophilum under experimental conditions. However, little is known about the fate of phages at environmental conditions. Here, we quantified the dispersal and fate of F. psychrophilum phages and hosts in rainbow trout fry after intraperitoneal injection. Both phages and bacteria were isolated from the fish organs for up to 10 days after injection, and coinjection with both bacteria and phages resulted in a longer persistence of the phage in the fish organs, than when the fish had been injected with the phages only. The occurrence of both phage and bacterium was most prevalent in the kidney and spleen, with only minor occurrence in the brain. The experiment showed that injected phages were rapidly spread in the internal organs of the fish, also in the absence of bacteria. Parallel examination of the regulation of bacteriophage infectivity in controlled laboratory experiments at various environmental conditions showed that pH had only minor effects on long-term (3 months) phage infectivity within a pH range of 4.5 to 7.5, whereas phage infectivity was immediately lost at pH 3. In the absence of host cells, phage infectivity decreased by a factor of 10,000 over 55 days in untreated pond water, while the sterilization and removal of particles caused a 100-fold increase in phage survival relative to the control. In addition, F. psychrophilum-specific phages maintained their infectivity for ∼2 months in glycerol at -80°C, whereas infectivity decreased by a factor 10 when kept in a buffer at 20°C. Only a very small degradation in infectivity was seen when bacteriophages were added and dried on fish feed pellets

  4. Kinetics of filamentous phage assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploss, Martin; Kuhn, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Filamentous phages release their progeny particles by a secretory process without lysing the bacterial cell. By this process about 6 viral particles per min are secreted from each cell. We show here that when the major coat protein (gp8) is provided from a plasmid we observe a phage progeny production rate depending on the induction of gp8 by IPTG. We also show that a transfection of Escherichia coli lacking F-pili is observed using a mutant of M13 that carries an ampicillin resistance gene, and phage particles are secreted in the absence of an F-plasmid. Extruding phage was visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using gold-labeled antibodies to the major coat protein.

  5. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  6. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  7. Salvia miltiorrhiza Lipophilic Fraction Attenuates Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy Through Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Zhou, Mei; Marikar, Faiz M M T; Hu, Xue-Wen; Miao, Qiu-Yun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2017-09-25

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which can be triggered by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (EASM) on DN and examined the underlying molecular mechanism. We observed that EASM treatment attenuated metabolic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic conditions in the experimental DN model. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice, EASM treatment reduced albuminuria, improved renal function and alleviated the pathological alterations within the glomerulus. To mimic the hyperglycemic conditions in DN patients, we used high glucose (25[Formula: see text]mmol/L) media to stimulate mouse mesangial cells (MMCs), and EASM inhibited high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species. We also observed that EASM enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which mediated the anti-oxidant response, and its downstream gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) with concomitant decrease of expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap1) both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that EASM alleviates the progression of DN and this might be associated with activation of Nrf2.

  8. Tanshinone IIA attenuates seawater aspiration-induced lung injury by inhibiting macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Dun-Quan; Li, Wang-Ping; Xu, Min; Li, Jia-Huan; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Qi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Mu, De-Guang; Dong, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan-Xia; Nan, Yan-Dong; Li, Zhi-Chao; Jin, Fa-Guang

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation takes responsibility for the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) can protect lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice through the inhibition of inflammation, but it is not reported whether TIIA have a protective effect on lung injury induced by seawater aspiration. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in acute lung injury. In this study, we observed the effect of TIIA on the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury and the role of MIF in it. Seawater was aspirated into trachea of rats to make the lung injury model. TIIA was administered to investigate its beneficial effect on seawater-induced acute lung injury. The results showed that seawater aspiration led to hyoxemia, pulmonary edema, neutrophil infiltration, and lung histopathologic changes, with the elevated MIF expression in the lung tissues and plasma. However, these changes were attenuated by TIIA. In macrophage cells we also demonstrated that TIIA could inhibit MIF expression, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced by seawater. Besides, pretreatment with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid (ISO-1), the MIF antagonist, elevated NF-κB and cytokines induced by seawater were also reduced markedly. Furthermore, rMIF treatment alone increased the phosphorylation level of NF-κB and release of cytokines, which was almost abolished by TIIA. Taken together, our results suggested that TIIA exert a protective effect on the seawater aspiration-induced lung injury partly through downregulation of MIF and the subsequent NF-κB activity, as well as expression of IL-6 and TNF-α.

  9. Phages in the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference. PMID:28421059

  10. PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES VENEZUELAE PHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, R. A.; Bradley, S. G.

    1964-01-01

    Kolstad, R. A. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), and S. G. Bradley. Purification of Streptomyces venezuelae phage. J. Bacteriol. 87:1157–1161. 1964.—Streptomyces venezuelae phage MSP8 was concentrated and purified by a combination of methods including dialysis against polyethylene glycol, partitioning between the two phases of aqueous polymer systems, gel filtration, chromatography on ECTEOLA-cellulose, and differential centrifugation. S. venezuelae phage MSP8 is 57% deoxyribonucleic acid and 43% protein. Its head is 55 by 70 mμ, and its tail is 10 by 150 mμ. Its dry weight is 250 mg per 1015 plaqueforming units, and its density is 1.4. Phage MSP8 contains 15 μg of phosphorus and 40 μg of nitrogen per 1012 particles. The ratio of light absorbancy at 260 to 280 mμ is 1.5. A mixture of two actinophages, MNP3 and MVP7, was separated by use of ECTEOLA-cellulose. In one fraction, 99% of the phage was MNP3; in another fraction, 99% of the phage was MVP7. Images PMID:5874537

  11. Phage integrases: biology and applications.

    PubMed

    Groth, Amy C; Calos, Michele P

    2004-01-16

    Phage integrases are enzymes that mediate unidirectional site-specific recombination between two DNA recognition sequences, the phage attachment site, attP, and the bacterial attachment site, attB. Integrases may be grouped into two major families, the tyrosine recombinases and the serine recombinases, based on their mode of catalysis. Tyrosine family integrases, such as lambda integrase, utilize a catalytic tyrosine to mediate strand cleavage, tend to recognize longer attP sequences, and require other proteins encoded by the phage or the host bacteria. Phage integrases from the serine family are larger, use a catalytic serine for strand cleavage, recognize shorter attP sequences, and do not require host cofactors. Phage integrases mediate efficient site-specific recombination between two different sequences that are relatively short, yet long enough to be specific on a genomic scale. These properties give phage integrases growing importance for the genetic manipulation of living eukaryotic cells, especially those with large genomes such as mammals and most plants, for which there are few tools for precise manipulation of the genome. Integrases of the serine family have been shown to work efficiently in mammalian cells, mediating efficient integration at introduced att sites or native sequences that have partial identity to att sites. This reaction has applications in areas such as gene therapy, construction of transgenic organisms, and manipulation of cell lines. Directed evolution can be used to increase further the affinity of an integrase for a particular native sequence, opening up additional applications for genomic modification.

  12. Phages in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  13. Current insights into phage biodiversity and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-10-01

    Phages exert tremendous ecological and evolutionary forces directly on their bacterial hosts. Phage induced cell lysis also indirectly contributes to organic and inorganic nutrient recycling. Phage abundance, diversity, and distribution are therefore important parameters in ecosystem function. The assumption that phage consortia are ubiquitous and homogenous across habitats (everything is everywhere) is currently being re-evaluated. New studies on phage biogeography have found that some phages are globally distributed while others are unique and perhaps endemic to specific environments. Furthermore, advances in technology have allowed scientists to conduct experiments aimed at analyzing phage consortia over temporal scales, and surprisingly have found reoccurring patterns. This review discusses currents in the field of phage ecology with particular focus on efforts to characterize phage diversity and biogeography across various spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Bacteria-phage interactions in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L; Koskella, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Phages are considered the most abundant and diverse biological entities on Earth and are notable not only for their sheer abundance, but also for their influence on bacterial hosts. In nature, bacteria-phage relationships are complex and have far-reaching consequences beyond particular pairwise interactions, influencing everything from bacterial virulence to eukaryotic fitness to the carbon cycle. In this review, we examine bacteria and phage distributions in nature first by highlighting biogeographic patterns and nonhost environmental influences on phage distribution, then by considering the ways in which phages and bacteria interact, emphasizing phage life cycles, bacterial responses to phage infection, and the complex patterns of phage host specificity. Finally, we discuss phage impacts on bacterial abundance, genetics, and physiology, and further aim to clarify distinctions between current theoretical models and point out areas in need of future research.

  15. Advance in phage display technology for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuyu; Tian, Tian; Liu, Wenli; Zhu, Zhi; J Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-06-01

    Phage display technology has emerged as a powerful tool for target gene expression and target-specific ligand selection. It is widely used to screen peptides, proteins and antibodies with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency and low cost. A variety of targets, including ions, small molecules, inorganic materials, natural and biological polymers, nanostructures, cells, bacteria, and even tissues, have been demonstrated to generate specific binding ligands by phage display. Phages and target-specific ligands screened by phage display have been widely used as affinity reagents in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensors. In this review, comparisons of different types of phage display systems are first presented. Particularly, microfluidic-based phage display, which enables screening with high throughput, high efficiency and integration, is highlighted. More importantly, we emphasize the advances in biosensors based on phages or phage-derived probes, including nonlytic phages, lytic phages, peptides or proteins screened by phage display, phage assemblies and phage-nanomaterial complexes. However, more efficient and higher throughput phage display methods are still needed to meet an explosion in demand for bioanalysis. Furthermore, screening of cyclic peptides and functional peptides will be the hotspot in bioanalysis.

  16. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages.

  17. Inhibition of myeloid differentiation factor-2 attenuates obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qilu; Wang, Jingying; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Lintao; Li, Weixin; Han, Jibo; Huang, Weijian; Liang, Guang; Wang, Yi

    2017-09-28

    Obesity causes cardiovascular diseases, including cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, via chronic tissue inflammation. Myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD2), a binding protein of lipopolysaccharide, is functionally essential for the activation of proinflammatory pathways in endotoxin-induced acute inflammatory diseases. Here we tested the hypothesis that MD2 plays a central role in obesity-induced cardiomyopathy. Wildtype or MD2 knockout mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (Control) for total 16weeks, and MD2 inhibitor L6H21 (20mg/kg) or vehicle (1% CMC-Na) were administered from the beginning of the 9th week. HFD induced significant weight gain and cardiac hypertrophy, with increased cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. L6H21 administration or MD2 knockout attenuated HFD-induced obesity, inflammation and cardiac remodeling. In vitro exposure of H9C2 cells to high lipids induced cell hypertrophy with activated JNK/ERK and NF-κB pathways, which was abolished by pretreatment of MD2 inhibitor L6H21. Our results demonstrate that MD2 is essential to obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy through activating JNK/ERK and NF-κB-dependent cardiac inflammatory pathways. Targeting MD2 would be a therapeutic approach to prevent obesity-induced cardiac injury and remodeling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 6 attenuates acute lung injury following paraquat exposure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajun; Zhen, Jiantao; Zhu, Jingfa; Lin, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat exposure commonly occurs in the developing countries and the mortality rate is high. However, there is currently no consensus on the efficacy of treatment for paraquat exposure. The study was aimed to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced protein 6 (TSG-6) on acute lung injury (ALI) following paraquat exposure in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n = 8), the paraquat group (n = 8), and the paraquat TSG-6-treated group (n = 8). Rats were administered with 50 mg/kg of paraquat intraperitoneally. At 1 h after exposure, rats were treated with 30 μg of recombinant human TSG-6 (rhTSG-6) intraperitoneally. After 6 h of exposure, ALI scores were evaluated by histology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung was assayed using real-time RT-PCR. ALI scores were significantly lower in the paraquat TSG-6-treated group, compared with the paraquat group (p < 0.05). The expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA was significantly lower in the paraquat TSG-6-treated group, compared with the paraquat group (p < 0.01, respectively). Administration of rhTSG-6 attenuates ALI following paraquat exposure by suppressing inflammatory response.

  19. Phage display biopanning identifies the translation initiation and elongation factors (IF1α-3 and eIF-3) as components of Hsp70-peptide complexes in breast tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Siebke, Christina; James, Tharappel C; Cummins, Robert; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Bond, Ursula

    2012-03-01

    The heat shock protein, HSP70, is over-expressed in many tumours and acts at the crossroads of key intracellular processes in its role as a molecular chaperone. HSP70 associates with a vast array of peptides, some of which are antigenic and can mount adaptive immune responses against the tumour from which they are derived. The pool of peptides associated with HSP70 represents a unique barcode of protein metabolism in tumour cells. With a view to identifying unique protein targets that may be developed as tumour biomarkers, we used purified HSP70 and its associated peptide pool (HSP70-peptide complexes, HSP70-PCs) from different human breast tumour cell lines as targets for phage display biopanning. Our results show that HSP70-PCs from each cell line interact with unique sets of peptides within the phage display library. One of the peptides, termed IST, enriched in the biopanning process, was used in a 'pull-down' assay to identify the original protein from which the HSP70-associated peptides may have been derived. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF-3), a member of the elongation factor EF1α family, and the HSP GRP78, were pulled down by the IST peptide. All of these proteins are known to be up-regulated in cancer cells. Immunohistochemical staining of tumour tissue microarrays showed that the peptide co-localised with HSP70 in breast tumour tissue. The data indicate that the reservoir of peptides associated with HSP70 can act as a unique indicator of cellular protein activity and a novel source of potential tumour biomarkers.

  20. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  1. Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1-Deficiency Attenuates Overloading-Associated Hypertrophy of Mouse Soleus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. PMID:24167582

  2. Attenuated fibroblast growth factor 21 response to acute aerobic exercise in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Slusher, A L; Whitehurst, M; Zoeller, R F; Mock, J T; Maharaj, M; Huang, C-J

    2015-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is positively associated with body mass index, potentially as a compensatory mechanism to mediate obesity related metabolic and inflammatory insult due to chronic low-grade elevations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Therefore, FGF21 response in obese subjects and the associations with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, and energy utilization warrants investigation. Twenty four untrained subjects (12 obese and 12 normal-weight) performed 30 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise. Following exercise, obese subjects exhibited a blunted FGF21 response to exercise compared to normal-weight subjects as indicated by area-under-the-curves "with respect to increase" (AUCi) analyses (p = 0.005). Furthermore, while exercise-induced plasma FGF21 was not associated with any inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) response, FGF21 AUCi was positively correlated with glucose AUCi (r = 0.495, p = 0.014), total relative energy expenditure (r = 0.562, p = 0.004), and relative maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max; r = 0.646, p = 0.001) in all subjects. Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness may influence the sensitivity of FGF21 response to acute exercise in obese individuals, potentially contributing to the attenuated metabolic response (e.g., glucose) and total exercise energy expenditure. Therefore, exercise training aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and/or body composition may augment cardioprotective properties against obesity-associated CVD through enhanced FGF21 flux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Olszak, Tomasz; Danis, Katarzyna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2014-03-01

    A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH.

  4. Quantifying the significance of phage attack on starter cultures: a mechanistic model for population dynamics of phage and their hosts isolated from fermenting sauerkraut.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, P; Breidt, F; Lubkin, S R; Sandeep, K P

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and thereby reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would enter in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, could potentially affect the starter cultures introduced. Thus, a mechanistic mathematical model was developed to quantify the growth kinetics of the phage and starter cultures. The model was validated by independent experiments with two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from sauerkraut and their corresponding phage. Model simulations and experimental evidence showed the presence of phage-resistant cell populations in starter cultures which replaced phage-sensitive cells, even when the initial phage density (P(0)) and multiplicity of infection (MOI) were low (P(0) < 1 x 10(3) PFU/ml; MOI < 10(-4)) in the MRS media. Based on the results of model simulation and parameter optimization, it was suggested that the kinetic parameters of phage-host interaction, especially the adsorption rate, vary with the initial phage and host densities and with time. The model was validated in MRS broth. Therefore, the effects of heterogeneity and other environmental factors, such as temperature and pH, should be considered to make the model applicable to commercial fermentations.

  5. Development of an engineered bioluminescent reporter phage for detection of bacterial blight of crucifers.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David A; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassicaceae family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as pepper spot, a much less severe disease caused by the related pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. We have developed a phage-based diagnostic that can both identify and detect the causative agent of bacterial blight and differentiate the two pathogens. A recombinant "light"-tagged reporter phage was generated by integrating bacterial luxAB genes encoding luciferase into the genome of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis phage PBSPCA1. The PBSPCA1::luxAB reporter phage is viable and stable and retains properties similar to those of the wild-type phage. PBSPCA1::luxAB rapidly and sensitively detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis by conferring a bioluminescent signal response to cultured cells. Detection is dependent on cell viability. Other bacterial pathogens of Brassica species such as P. syringae pv. maculicola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and X. campestris pv. raphani either do not produce a response or produce significantly attenuated signals with the reporter phage. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis on diseased plant specimens, indicating its potential for disease diagnosis.

  6. Development of an Engineered Bioluminescent Reporter Phage for Detection of Bacterial Blight of Crucifers

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Carolee T.; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W. Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassicaceae family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as pepper spot, a much less severe disease caused by the related pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. We have developed a phage-based diagnostic that can both identify and detect the causative agent of bacterial blight and differentiate the two pathogens. A recombinant “light”-tagged reporter phage was generated by integrating bacterial luxAB genes encoding luciferase into the genome of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis phage PBSPCA1. The PBSPCA1::luxAB reporter phage is viable and stable and retains properties similar to those of the wild-type phage. PBSPCA1::luxAB rapidly and sensitively detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis by conferring a bioluminescent signal response to cultured cells. Detection is dependent on cell viability. Other bacterial pathogens of Brassica species such as P. syringae pv. maculicola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and X. campestris pv. raphani either do not produce a response or produce significantly attenuated signals with the reporter phage. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis on diseased plant specimens, indicating its potential for disease diagnosis. PMID:22427491

  7. φ29 Family of Phages

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Wilfried J. J.; Horcajadas, José A.; Salas, Margarita

    2001-01-01

    Continuous research spanning more than three decades has made the Bacillus bacteriophage φ29 a paradigm for several molecular mechanisms of general biological processes, such as DNA replication, regulation of transcription, phage morphogenesis, and phage DNA packaging. The genome of bacteriophage φ29 consists of a linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which has a terminal protein (TP) covalently linked to its 5′ ends. Initiation of DNA replication, carried out by a protein-primed mechanism, has been studied in detail and is considered to be a model system for the protein-primed DNA replication that is also used by most other linear genomes with a TP linked to their DNA ends, such as other phages, linear plasmids, and adenoviruses. In addition to a continuing progress in unraveling the initiation of DNA replication mechanism and the role of various proteins involved in this process, major advances have been made during the last few years, especially in our understanding of transcription regulation, the head-tail connector protein, and DNA packaging. Recent progress in all these topics is reviewed. In addition to φ29, the genomes of several other Bacillus phages consist of a linear dsDNA with a TP molecule attached to their 5′ ends. These φ29-like phages can be divided into three groups. The first group includes, in addition to φ29, phages PZA, φ15, and BS32. The second group comprises B103, Nf, and M2Y, and the third group contains GA-1 as its sole member. Whereas the DNA sequences of the complete genomes of φ29 (group I) and B103 (group II) are known, only parts of the genome of GA-1 (group III) were sequenced. We have determined the complete DNA sequence of the GA-1 genome, which allowed analysis of differences and homologies between the three groups of φ29-like phages, which is included in this review. PMID:11381102

  8. Genome sequence of the phage clP1, which infects the beer spoilage bacterium Pediococcus damnosus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Mills, Susan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-08-01

    Pediococcus damnosus (P. damnosus) bacteriophage (phage) clP1 is a novel virulent phage isolated from a municipal sewage sample collected in Southern Ireland. This phage infects the beer spoilage strain P. damnosus P82 which was isolated from German breweries. Sequencing of the phage has revealed a linear double stranded DNA genome of 38,013 base pairs (bp) with an overall GC content of 47.6%. Fifty seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified of which 30 showed homology to previously sequenced proteins, and as a consequence 20 of these were assigned predicted functions. The majority of genes displayed homology with genes from the Lactobacillus plantarum phage phiJL-1. All genes were located on the same coding strand and in the same orientation. Morphological characterisation placed phage clP1 as a member of the Siphoviridae family with an isometric head (59 nm diameter) and non-contractile tail (length 175 nm; diameter 10nm. Interestingly, the phage clP1 genome was found to share very limited identity with other phage genome sequences in the database, and was hence considered unique. This was highlighted by the genome organisation which differed slightly to the consensus pattern of genomic organisation usually found in Siphoviridae phages. With the genetic machinery present for a lytic lifecycle and the absence of potential endotoxin factors, this phage may have applications in the biocontrol of beer spoilage bacteria. To our knowledge, this study represents the first reported P. damnosus phage genome sequence.

  9. Four Escherichia coli O157:H7 Phages: A New Bacteriophage Genus and Taxonomic Classification of T1-Like Phages

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yan D.; McAllister, Tim A.; Nash, John H. E.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Stanford, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The T1-like bacteriophages vB_EcoS_AHP24, AHS24, AHP42 and AKS96 of the family Siphoviridae were shown to lyse common phage types of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157:H7), but not non-O157 E. coli. All contained circularly permuted genomes of 45.7–46.8 kb (43.8–44 mol% G+C) encoding 74–81 open reading frames and 1 arginyl-tRNA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the structural proteins were identical among the four phages. Further proteomic analysis identified seven structural proteins responsible for tail fiber, tail tape measure protein, major capsid, portal protein as well as major and minor tail proteins. Bioinformatic analyses on the proteins revealed that genomes of AHP24, AHS24, AHP42 and AKS96 did not encode for bacterial virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. All four phages were highly lytic to STEC O157:H7 with considerable potential as biocontrol agents. Comparative genomic, proteomic and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the four phages along with 17 T1-like phage genomes from database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) can be assigned into a proposed subfamily “Tunavirinae” with further classification into five genera, namely “Tlslikevirus” (TLS, FSL SP-126), “Kp36likevirus” (KP36, F20), Tunalikevirus (T1, ADB-2 and Shf1), “Rtplikevirus” (RTP, vB_EcoS_ACG-M12) and “Jk06likevirus” (JK06, vB_EcoS_Rogue1, AHP24, AHS24, AHP42, AKS96, phiJLA23, phiKP26, phiEB49). The fact that the viruses related to JK06 have been isolated independently in Israel (JK06) (GenBank Assession #, NC_007291), Canada (vB_EcoS_Rogue1, AHP24, AHS24, AHP42, AKS96) and Mexico (phiKP26, phiJLA23) (between 2005 and 2011) indicates that these similar phages are widely distributed, and that horizontal gene transfer does not always prevent the characterization of bacteriophage evolution. With this new scheme, any new discovered

  10. Membrane fusion during phage lysis.

    PubMed

    Rajaure, Manoj; Berry, Joel; Kongari, Rohit; Cahill, Jesse; Young, Ry

    2015-04-28

    In general, phages cause lysis of the bacterial host to effect release of the progeny virions. Until recently, it was thought that degradation of the peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary and sufficient for osmotic bursting of the cell. Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). This is accomplished by spanins, which are phage-encoded proteins that connect the cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane, IM) and the OM. The mechanism by which the spanins destroy the OM is unknown. Here we show that the spanins of the paradigm coliphage lambda mediate efficient membrane fusion. This supports the notion that the last step of lysis is the fusion of the IM and OM. Moreover, data are provided indicating that spanin-mediated fusion is regulated by the meshwork of the PG, thus coupling fusion to murein degradation by the phage endolysin. Because endolysin function requires the formation of μm-scale holes by the phage holin, the lysis pathway is seen to require dramatic dynamics on the part of the OM and IM, as well as destruction of the PG.

  11. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  12. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    PubMed

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF.

  13. Chronic inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B attenuates aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Minmin; Gu, Yong

    2012-04-20

    Recent studies suggested that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal injury. This study investigated whether NF-κB inhibition attenuates progressive renal damage in aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury and its mechanisms. Adult male rats were uninephrectomized and treated with one of the following for 4 weeks: vehicle (0.5% ethanol, subcutaneously); vehicle/1% NaCl (1% NaCl in drinking solution); aldosterone/1% NaCl (1% NaCl in drinking solution and aldosterone, 0.75 μg/h, subcutaneously); or aldosterone/1%NaCl+pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB (100 mg/kg/day, by gavage). The activity of NF-κB was measured by EMSA and immunohistochemistry, CTGF and ICAM-1 were measured by Western blot and real-time PCR, and TGF-β and CTGF were measured by immunohistochemistry. Rats that received aldosterone/1% NaCl exhibited hypertension and severe renal injury. Renal cortical mRNA levels of CTGF, TGF-β, ICAM-1 and collagen IV, protein expression of CTGF and ICAM-1, and NF-κB-DNA binding activity were significantly upregulated in rats that received aldosterone/1% NaCl. Treatment with PDTC significantly decreased the percentage of cells positive for CTGF and TGF-β; mRNA levels of CTGF, TGF-β, ICAM-1 and collagen IV, and protein levels of CTGF and ICAM-1 were also inhibited by PDTC. These data suggest that the NF-κB signal pathway plays a role in the progression of aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sesamin attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangchang; Piao, Hongmei; Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Zhewu; Zhao, Liguang; Yan, Guanghai

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the role of sesamin, the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil, on the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. A BALB/c mouse model with allergic asthma was used to evaluate the effects of sesamin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine histological changes. Moreover, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins in tissues. Prior to administering sesamin, the mice developed the following pathophysiological features of asthma: An increase in the number of inflammatory cells, increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, decreased levels of interferon-γ in BAL fluids and lung tissues, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and an increased activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Following treatment with sesamin, the mice had evidently reduced peribronchiolar inflammation and airway inflammatory cell recruitment, inhibited production of several cytokines in BAL fluids and lung tissues, and decreased IgE levels. Following inhalation of ovalbumin, the administration of sesamin also inhibited the activation of NF-κB. In addition, sesamin administration reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The present study demonstrates that sesamin decreases the activation of NF-κB in order to attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma, possibly via the regulation of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These observations provide an important molecular mechanism for the potential use of sesamin in preventing and/or treating asthma, as well as other airway inflammatory disorders.

  15. Serum thymic factor, FTS, attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity by suppressing cisplatin-induced ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Yuka; Kawai, Yoshiko; Iwamoto, Noriaki; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Aiga, Hiromi; Awaya, Akira; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-11-01

    Serum thymic factor (FTS), a thymic peptide hormone, has been reported to attenuate the bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and also experimental pancreatitis and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of FTS on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-induced nephrotoxicity. We have already demonstrated that cephaloridine, a nephrotoxic antibiotic, leads to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the rat kidney, which probably contributes to cephaloridine-induced renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cisplatin on ERK activation in the rat kidney and also the effect of FTS on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In vitro treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with FTS significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell injury. Treatment of rats with intravenous cisplatin for 3 days markedly induced renal dysfunction and increased platinum contents in the kidney cortex. An increase in pERK was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the rat kidney cortex from days 1 to 3 after injection of cisplatin. FTS suppressed cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and ERK activation in the kidney. FTS did not influence any Pt contents in the kidney after cisplatin administration. FTS has been shown to enhance the in vivo expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the kidney cortex. The beneficial role of FTS against cisplatin nephrotoxicity may be mediated in part by HSP70, as suggested by its up-regulation in the kidney cortex treated with FTS alone. Our results suggest that FTS participates in protection from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ERK activation caused by cisplatin.

  16. Sesamin attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangchang; Piao, Hongmei; Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Zhewu; Zhao, Liguang; Yan, Guanghai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the role of sesamin, the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil, on the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. A BALB/c mouse model with allergic asthma was used to evaluate the effects of sesamin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine histological changes. Moreover, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins in tissues. Prior to administering sesamin, the mice developed the following pathophysiological features of asthma: An increase in the number of inflammatory cells, increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, decreased levels of interferon-γ in BAL fluids and lung tissues, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and an increased activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Following treatment with sesamin, the mice had evidently reduced peribronchiolar inflammation and airway inflammatory cell recruitment, inhibited production of several cytokines in BAL fluids and lung tissues, and decreased IgE levels. Following inhalation of ovalbumin, the administration of sesamin also inhibited the activation of NF-κB. In addition, sesamin administration reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The present study demonstrates that sesamin decreases the activation of NF-κB in order to attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma, possibly via the regulation of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These observations provide an important molecular mechanism for the potential use of sesamin in preventing and/or treating asthma, as well as other airway inflammatory disorders. PMID:28105144

  17. Liposomes targeted by fusion phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Jayanna, Prashanth K; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Petrenko, Valery A

    2009-03-01

    Targeting of nanocarriers has long been sought after to improve the therapeutic indices of anticancer drugs. Here we provide the proof of principle for a novel approach of nanocarrier targeting through their fusion with target-specific phage coat proteins. The source of the targeted phage coat proteins are landscape phage libraries--collections of recombinant filamentous phages with foreign random peptides fused to all 4000 copies of the major coat protein. We exploit in our approach the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phage major coat protein as a typical membrane protein. Landscape phage peptides specific for specific tumors can be obtained by affinity selection, and purified fusion coat proteins can be assimilated into liposomes to obtain specific drug-loaded nanocarriers. As a paradigm for inceptive experiments, a streptavidin-specific phage peptide selected from a landscape phage library was incorporated into approximately 100-nm liposomes. Targeting of liposomes was proved by their specific binding to streptavidin-coated beads.

  18. Honokiol Attenuates Oligomeric Amyloid β1-42-Induced Alzheimer's Disease in Mice Through Attenuating Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Inhibiting the Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Li, Yu; Ni, Changwei; Song, Guijun

    2017-08-25

    Increasing evidence indicates that amyloid β oligomer (AβO) is toxic to neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of honokiol on AβO-induced learning and memory dysfunction in mice. AD mice model was established by AβO intrahippocampal injection. The cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM). Nissl staining was used to examine the hippocampal neuron damage. Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to AβO. The apoptosis in the hippocampal tissues and primary neurons was assessed using terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and Hoechst staining, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential and radical oxygen species were detected using standard methods. Western blotting assay was used to check the expression levels of apoptotic and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling-associated proteins and electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to detect NF-κB-DNA binding. Honokiol increased the time spend in the target zone of the AD mice in the MWM. In addition, honokiol dose-dependently attenuated AβO-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, AβO-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by honokiol, as well as the upregulated amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase. Honokiol attenuates AβO-induced learning and memory dysfunction in mice and it may be a potential candidate in AD therapy. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The Phage Shock Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2016-09-08

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system was identified as a response to phage infection in Escherichia coli, but rather than being a specific response to a phage, it detects and mitigates various problems that could increase inner-membrane (IM) permeability. Interest in the Psp system has increased significantly in recent years due to appreciation that Psp-like proteins are found in all three domains of life and because the bacterial Psp response has been linked to virulence and other important phenotypes. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of what the Psp system detects and how it detects it, how four core Psp proteins form a signal transduction cascade between the IM and the cytoplasm, and current ideas that explain how the Psp response keeps bacterial cells alive. Although recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of this system, it is an understanding that is still far from complete.

  20. Phage display selection and evaluation of cancer drug targets.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor I

    2003-04-01

    Techniques for the construction of phage display libraries of combinatorial proteins have dramatically improved. This has allowed researchers to expand the applications to the field of cancer biology. The most direct use of protein phage-displayed libraries is the selection of ligands for individual proteins. This includes identification of peptide ligands for receptor signaling molecules: integrins, cytokine and growth factor receptors. Selected peptides may be used as competitors for natural ligands and for the mapping of binding epitopes. This approach has been exploited for delineation of intracellular signal transduction pathways and for the selection of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. Recently, more complicated biological systems were used as targets for biopanning. This includes combination of soluble proteins, cellular surfaces and even the vasculature of whole organs. cDNA expression libraries in phage-based vectors have been recently introduced. The use of phage as a vector for targeted gene therapy is also considered. These and other applications of phage display for cancer research will be reviewed.

  1. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Spus, M; Li, M; Alexeeva, S; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J C M; Zwietering, M H; Abee, T; Smid, E J

    2015-08-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic lineages, simple blends of Lactococcus lactis strains were made and subsequently propagated for 152 generations in the absence and presence of selected bacteriophages. We first screened 102 single-colony isolates (strains) from the complex cheese starter for resistance to bacteriophages isolated from this starter. The collection of isolates represents all lactococcal genetic lineages present in the culture. Large differences were found in bacteriophage resistance among strains belonging to the same genetic lineage and among strains from different lineages. The blends of strains were designed such that 3 genetic lineages were represented by strains with different levels of phage resistance. The relative abundance of the lineages in blends with phages was not stable throughout propagation, leading to continuous changes in composition up to 152 generations. The individual resistance of strains to phage predation was confirmed as one of the factors influencing starter culture diversity. Furthermore, loss of proteolytic activity of initially proteolytic strains was found. Reconstituted blends with only 4 strains with a variable degree of phage resistance showed complex behavior during prolonged propagation.

  2. Attenuation of arsenic in a karst subterranean stream and correlation with geochemical factors: a case study at Lihu, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liankai; Yang, Hui; Tang, Jiansheng; Qin, Xiaoqun; Yu, Au Yik

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As) pollutants generated by human activities in karst areas flow into subterranean streams and contaminate groundwater easily because of the unique hydrogeological characteristics of karst areas. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of arsenic in karst subterranean streams, physical-chemical analysis was conducted by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results show that inorganic species account for most of the total arsenic, whereas organic arsenic is not detected or occurs in infinitesimal amounts. As(III) accounts for 51.0%±9.9% of the total inorganic arsenic. Arsenic attenuation occurs and the attenuation rates of total As, As(III) and As(V) in the Lihu subterranean stream are 51%, 36% and 59%, respectively. To fully explain the main geochemical factors influencing arsenic attenuation, SPSS 13.0 and CANOCO 4.5 bundled with CanoDraw for Windows were used for simple statistical analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). Eight main factors, i.e., sediment iron (SFe), sediment aluminum (SAl), sediment calcium (SCa), sediment organic matter (SOM), sediment manganese (SMn), water calcium (WCa(2+)), water magnesium (WMg(2+)), and water bicarbonate ion (WHCO3(-)) were extracted from thirteen indicators. Their impacts on arsenic content rank as: SFe>SCa>WCa(2+)>SAl>WHCO3(-)>SMn>SOM>WMg(2+). Of these factors, SFe, SAl, SCa, SOM, SMn, WMg(2+) and WCa(2+) promote arsenic attenuation, whereas WHCO3(-) inhibits it. Further investigation revealed that the redox potential (Eh) and pH are adverse to arsenic removal. The dramatic distinction between karst and non-karst terrain is that calcium and bicarbonate are the primary factors influencing arsenic migration in karst areas due to the high calcium concentration and alkalinity of karst water. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Phage therapy--constraints and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anders S

    2014-05-01

    The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, causing intractable infections, has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy. Phage therapy preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections and involves the use of bacteriophages, bacterial viruses, to fight bacteria. Virulent phages are abundant and have proven to be very effective in vitro, where they in most cases lyse any bacteria within the hour. Clinical trials on animals and humans show promising results but also that the treatments are not completely effective. This is partly due to the studies being carried out with few phages, and with limited experimental groups, but also the fact that phage therapy has limitations in vivo. Phages are large compared with small antibiotic molecules, and each phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains. A very large number of different phages are needed to treat infections as these are caused by genetically different strains of bacteria. Phages are effective only if enough of them can reach the bacteria and increase in number in situ. Taken together, this entails high demands on resources for the construction of phage libraries and the testing of individual phages. The effectiveness and host range must be characterized, and immunological risks must be assessed for every single phage.

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor counteracts transforming growth factor-beta1, through attenuation of connective tissue growth factor induction, and prevents renal fibrogenesis in 5/6 nephrectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tsutomu; Okada, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Nishida, Takashi; Takigawa, Masaharu; Ueno, Munehisa; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism of the anti-fibrotic effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the kidney, with respect to its effect on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a down-stream, profibrotic mediator of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). In wild-type (WT) mice with 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), HGF and TGF-beta1 mRNAs increased transiently in the remnant kidney by week 1 after the Nx, returned to baseline levels, and increased again at weeks 4 to 12. In contrast, CTGF and alpha1(I) procollagen (COLI) mRNAs increased in parallel with HGF and TGF-beta1 during the early stage, but did not re-increase during the late stage. In the case of TGF-beta1 transgenic (TG) mice with 5/6 Nx, excess TGF-beta1 derived from the transgene enhanced CTGF expression significantly in the remnant kidney, accordingly accelerating renal fibrogenesis. Administration of dHGF (5.0 mg/kg/day) to TG mice with 5/6 Nx for 4 weeks from weeks 2 to 6 suppressed CTGF expression in the remnant kidney, attenuating renal fibrosis and improving the survival rate. In an experiment in vitro, renal tubulointerstitial fibroblasts (TFB) were co-cultured with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Pretreatment with HGF reduced significantly CTGF induction in PTEC by TGF-beta1, consequently suppressing COLI synthesis in TFB. In conclusion, HGF can block, at least partially, renal fibrogenesis promoted by TGF-beta1 in the remnant kidney, via attenuation of CTGF induction.

  5. Morphological characterization and biocontrol effects of Vibrio vulnificus phages against Vibriosis in the shrimp aquaculture environment.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Pappu; Ramasamy, Palaniappan

    2017-10-01

    The re-emerging field of phage therapy is the potential biocontrol agents for the transfer of virulence factor and to kill their bacterial hosts. In this study, the lytic Vibrio vulnificus phages were studied to provide a better understanding of phage-host interactions and development of phage therapy. Four new V. vulnificus phages were detected from shrimp aquaculture system, named VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4. All lytic V. vulnificus phages are the Tectiviruses of the family Tectiviridae with typical double layered elongated icosahedral head and tailless morphology. Lytic V. vulnificus phages which infect other Vibrio isolates were further characterized by long term storage, enzymes treatment, organic solvents treatment, detergents treatment, pH stability, temperature stability, agar bioassay method and one-step growth experiment. The effects of chloroform, acetone, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, ribonuclease (RNase), trypsin, protease, Triton-X100 treatments were not affected the growth of VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4 phages. These phages (VV1-VV4) were inactivated completely with temperature (over 60 °C), pH (<3 or >12), lysozyme and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment. One-step growth experiments indicated that the latent period was at 3 h and burst size was at 37 °C. Agar bioassay method indicated that the percentage of inhibition was 75% (VV1) and 70% (VV2, VV3 & VV4), respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis of all V. vulnificus phages had similar protein patterns with molecular weight masses of 260, 249, 204, 148, 63, 59, 22 and 15 kDa. Hence, it could be concluded that V. vulnificus phage had a broad lytic spectrum and potential biocontrol of luminous Vibriosis in the shrimp aquaculture system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic characterization of ØVC8 lytic phage for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Solís-Sánchez, Alejandro; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; De la Mora, Javier; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Eslava-Campos, Carlos

    2016-03-22

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a diarrheal disease, are attributed to Vibrio cholera serogroups O1 and O139. In recent years, specific lytic phages of V. cholera have been proposed to be important factors in the cyclic occurrence of cholera in endemic areas. However, the role and potential participation of lytic phages during long interepidemic periods of cholera in non-endemic regions have not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize specific lytic phages of V. cholera O1 strains. Sixteen phages were isolated from wastewater samples collected at the Endhó Dam in Hidalgo State, Mexico, concentrated with PEG/NaCl, and purified by density gradient. The lytic activity of the purified phages was tested using different V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. Phage morphology was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and phage genome sequencing was performed using the Genome Analyzer IIx System. Genome assembly and bioinformatics analysis were performed using a set of high-throughput programs. Phage structural proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixteen phages with lytic and lysogenic activity were isolated; only phage ØVC8 showed specific lytic activity against V. cholerae O1 strains. TEM images of ØVC8 revealed a phage with a short tail and an isometric head. The ØVC8 genome comprises linear double-stranded DNA of 39,422 bp with 50.8 % G + C. Of the 48 annotated ORFs, 16 exhibit homology with sequences of known function and several conserved domains. Bioinformatics analysis showed multiple conserved domains, including an Ig domain, suggesting that ØVC8 might adhere to different mucus substrates such as the human intestinal epithelium. The results suggest that ØVC8 genome utilize the "single-stranded cohesive ends" packaging strategy of the lambda-like group. The two structural proteins sequenced and analyzed are proteins of known function. ØVC8 is a lytic phage with specific activity against V. cholerae

  7. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

  8. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, A.A.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, H.; McGuire, Anthony; Post, W.; Kicklighter, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr−1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr−1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr−1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr−1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon

  9. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and

  10. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    Treesearch

    Atul Jain; Xiaojuan Yang; Haroon Kheshgi; A. David McGuire; Wilfred Post; David. Kicklighter

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen...

  11. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

    2012-09-01

    Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

  12. Phage lytic enzymes: a history.

    PubMed

    Trudil, David

    2015-02-01

    There are many recent studies regarding the efficacy of bacteriophage-related lytic enzymes: the enzymes of 'bacteria-eaters' or viruses that infect bacteria. By degrading the cell wall of the targeted bacteria, these lytic enzymes have been shown to efficiently lyse Gram-positive bacteria without affecting normal flora and non-related bacteria. Recent studies have suggested approaches for lysing Gram-negative bacteria as well (Briersa Y, et al., 2014). These enzymes include: phage-lysozyme, endolysin, lysozyme, lysin, phage lysin, phage lytic enzymes, phageassociated enzymes, enzybiotics, muralysin, muramidase, virolysin and designations such as Ply, PAE and others. Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria, do not contribute to antimicrobial resistance, are easy to develop, inexpensive to manufacture and safe for humans, animals and the environment. The current focus on lytic enzymes has been on their use as anti-infectives in humans and more recently in agricultural research models. The initial translational application of lytic enzymes, however, was not associated with treating or preventing a specific disease but rather as an extraction method to be incorporated in a rapid bacterial detection assay (Bernstein D, 1997).The current review traces the translational history of phage lytic enzymes-from their initial discovery in 1986 for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus in clinical specimens to evolving applications in the detection and prevention of disease in humans and in agriculture.

  13. Promiscuous tumor targeting phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amanda L; Gillespie, James W; Petrenko, Valery A

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cell-specific targeting ligands against numerous cancer cell lines have been selected previously and used as ligands for cell-specific delivery of chemotherapies and various nanomedicines. However, tumor heterogeneity is one recognized problem hampering clinical translation of targeted anti-cancer medicines. Therefore, a novel class of targeting ligands is required that recognize receptors expressed between a variety of cancer phenotypes, identified here as 'promiscuous' ligands. In this work, promiscuous phage fusion proteins were first identified by a novel selection scheme to enrich for pan-cancer cell binding abilities, as indicated by conserved structural motifs identified previously in other cancer types. Additionally, peptide sequences containing a combination of motifs were identified to modulate binding. A panel of phage fusion proteins was studied for their specificity and selectivity for lung and pancreatic cancer cells. Phage displaying the fusion peptides GSLEEVSTL or GEFDELMTM, the two predominate clones with greatest binding ability, were used to modify preformed, doxorubicin-loaded, liposomes. These modified liposomes increased cytotoxicity up to 8.1-fold in several cancer cell lines when compared with unmodified liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, these data indicate that promiscuous phage proteins, selected against different cancer cell lines, can be used as targeting ligands for treatment of heterogeneous tumor populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Thioredoxin is required for filamentous phage assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Russel, M; Model, P

    1985-01-01

    Sequence comparisons show that the fip gene product of Escherichia coli, which is required for filamentous phage assembly, is thioredoxin. Thioredoxin serves as a cofactor for reductive processes in many cell types and is a constituent of phage T7 DNA polymerase. The fip-1 mutation makes filamentous phage and T7 growth temperature sensitive in cells that carry it. The lesion lies within a highly conserved thioredoxin active site. Thioredoxin reductase (NADPH), as well as thioredoxin, is required for efficient filamentous phage production. Mutant phages defective in phage gene I are particularly sensitive to perturbations in the fip-thioredoxin system. A speculative model is presented in which thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, and the gene I protein interact to drive an engine for filamentous phage assembly. Images PMID:3881756

  15. The habits of highly effective phages: population dynamics as a framework for identifying therapeutic phages

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James J.; Gill, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents is being actively researched on a global scale. Typically, the phages used are isolated from the wild by plating on the bacteria of interest, and a far larger set of candidate phages is often available than can be used in any application. When an excess of phages is available, how should the best phages be identified? Here we consider phage-bacterial population dynamics as a basis for evaluating and predicting phage success. A central question is whether the innate dynamical properties of phages are the determinants of success, or instead, whether extrinsic, indirect effects can be responsible. We address the dynamical perspective, motivated in part by the absence of dynamics in previously suggested principles of phage therapy. Current mathematical models of bacterial-phage dynamics do not capture the realities of in vivo dynamics, nor is this likely to change, but they do give insight to qualitative properties that may be generalizable. In particular, phage adsorption rate may be critical to treatment success, so understanding the effects of the in vivo environment on host availability may allow prediction of useful phages prior to in vivo experimentation. Principles for predicting efficacy may be derived by developing a greater understanding of the in vivo system, or such principles could be determined empirically by comparing phages with known differences in their dynamic properties. The comparative approach promises to be a powerful method of discovering the key to phage success. We offer five recommendations for future study: (i) compare phages differing in treatment efficacy to identify the phage properties associated with success, (ii) assay dynamics in vivo, (iii) understand mechanisms of bacterial escape from phages, (iv) test phages in model infections that are relevant to the intended clinical applications, and (v) develop new classes of models for phage growth in spatially heterogeneous environments

  16. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Manuel; Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan

    2017-05-01

    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  17. Isolation and Characterization of the New Mosaic Filamentous Phage VFJ Φ of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuya; Kan, Biao; Wang, Ruibai

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous phages have distinguished roles in conferring many pathogenicity and survival related features to Gram-negative bacteria including the medically important Vibrio cholerae, which carries factors such as cholera toxin on phages. A novel filamentous phage, designated VFJΦ, was isolated in this study from an ampicillin and kanamycin-resistant O139 serogroup V. cholerae strain ICDC-4470. The genome of VFJΦ is 8555 nucleotides long, including 12 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), which are organized in a modular structure. VFJΦ was found to be a mosaic of two groups of V. cholerae phages. A large part of the genome is highly similar to that of the fs2 phage, and the remaining 700 bp is homologous to VEJ and VCYΦ. This 700 bp region gave VFJΦ several characteristics that are not found in fs2 and other filamentous phages. In its native host ICDC-4470 and newly-infected strain N16961, VFJΦ was found to exist as a plasmid but did not integrate into the host chromosome. It showed a relatively wide host range but did not infect the classical biotype O1 V. cholerae strains. After infection, the host strains exhibited obvious inhibition of both growth and flagellum formation and had acquired a low level of ampicillin resistance and a high level of kanamycin resistance. The antibiotic resistances were not directly conferred to the hosts by phage-encoded genes and were not related to penicillinase. The discovery of VFJΦ updates our understanding of filamentous phages as well as the evolution and classification of V. cholerae filamentous phage, and the study provides new information on the interaction between phages and their host bacteria. PMID:23936475

  18. Characterization of two polyvalent phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Labrie, Simon J.; Tremblay, Denise M.; Kourda, Rim Saïed; Ben Slama, Karim; Moineau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages display remarkable genetic diversity and host specificity. In this study, we explore phages infecting bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family because of their ability to infect related but distinct hosts. We isolated and characterized two novel virulent phages, SH6 and SH7, using a strain of Shigella flexneri as host bacterium. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that phage SH6 belongs to the T1virus genus of the Siphoviridae family. Conversely, phage SH7 was classified in the T4virus genus of the Myoviridae family. Phage SH6 had a short latent period of 16 min and a burst size of 103 ± 16 PFU/infected cell while the phage SH7 latent period was 23 min with a much lower burst size of 26 ± 5 PFU/infected cell. Moreover, phage SH6 was sensitive to acidic conditions (pH < 5) while phage SH7 was stable from pH 3 to 11 for 1 hour. Of the 35 bacterial strains tested, SH6 infected its S. flexneri host strain and 8 strains of E. coli. Phage SH7 lysed additionally strains of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Paratyphi, and Shigella dysenteriae. The broader host ranges of these two phages as well as their microbiological properties suggest that they may be useful for controlling bacterial populations. PMID:28091598

  19. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  20. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virions alone. Ecologically, we can consider phage propagation, densities, distribution (within bodies), impact on body-associated microbiota (as ecological communities), and modification of the functioning of body “ecosystems” more generally. These ecological and physiological components in many ways represent different perspectives on otherwise equivalent phenomena. Comparable to drugs, one also can view phages during phage therapy in pharmacological terms. The relatively unique status of phages within the context of phage therapy as essentially replicating antimicrobials can therefore result in a confluence of perspectives, many of which can be useful towards gaining a better mechanistic appreciation of phage therapy, as I consider here. Pharmacology more generally may be viewed as a discipline that lies at an interface between organism-associated phenomena, as considered by physiology, and environmental interactions as considered by ecology. PMID:25031881

  1. Niacin and Selenium Attenuate Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury by Up-Regulating Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woon Yong; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Kyung Su; Jung, Yoon Sun; Kim, Sung Hee; Kim, Jae Seong; You, Kyoung Min

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether the combination therapy of niacin and selenium attenuates lung injury and improves survival during sepsis in rats and whether its benefits are associated with the activation of the glutathione redox cycle and up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Prospective laboratory study. University laboratory. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells and male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 291). In lipopolysaccharide-exposed cells, the dose-related effects of niacin and selenium were assessed, and the therapeutic effects of the combination therapy of niacin (0.9 mM) and selenium (1.5 μM) were evaluated. The role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 was determined using nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 knockdown cells. In endotoxemic and cecal ligation and puncture with antibiotics rats, the therapeutic effects of the posttreatments of clinically relevant doses of niacin (360 mg/kg) and selenium (60 μg/kg) were evaluated. Combination therapy reduced the hydrogen peroxide level via the synergistic activation of the glutathione redox cycle, which involves niacin-induced increases in glutathione reductase activity, and reduced the glutathione level and a selenium-induced increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. Combination therapy contributed to the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, enhancement of glutathione synthesis, and down-regulation of nuclear factor κB signaling, but nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 knockdown inhibited the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and down-regulation of the nuclear factor κB pathway. The therapeutic effects of combination therapy on endotoxemic rats were consistent with those on lipopolysaccharide-exposed cells. In addition, the posttreatment of combination therapy attenuated lung injury and improved survival in endotoxemic and cecal ligation and puncture with antibiotics rats. However, individual therapies of niacin or selenium

  2. Phage Conversion for β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from Foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Duck; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Temperate phages have been suggested to carry virulence factors and other lysogenic conversion genes that play important roles in pathogenicity. In this study, phage TEM123 in wild-type Staphylococcus aureus from food sources was analyzed with respect to its morphology, genome sequence, and antibiotic resistance conversion ability. Phage TEM123 from a mitomycin C-induced lysate of S. aureus was isolated from foods. Morphological analysis under a transmission electron microscope revealed that it belonged to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of phage TEM123 consisted of a double-stranded DNA of 43,786 bp with a G+C content of 34.06%. A bioinformatics analysis of the phage genome identified 43 putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encoded a protein that was nearly identical to the metallo-β-lactamase enzymes that degrade β-lactam antibiotics. After transduction to S. aureus with phage TEM123, the metallo-β-lactamase gene was confirmed in the transductant by PCR and sequencing analyses. In a β-lactam antibiotic susceptibility test, the transductant was more highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics than S. aureus S133. Phage TEM123 might play a role in the transfer of β-lactam antibiotic resistance determinants in S. aureus. Therefore, we suggest that the prophage of S. aureus with its exotoxin is a risk factor for food safety in the food chain through lateral gene transfer.

  3. Immunity to an attenuated variant of Plasmodium berghei: role of some non-specific factors.

    PubMed

    Waki, S; Nakazawa, S; Taverne, J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

    1985-10-01

    Plasmodium berghei XAT, an attenuated variant of lethal P. berghei, causes a resolving infection in Balb/c mice from which they recover in about 3 weeks. The parasitaemia displays an early peak at about 5 days, followed by a steep drop in parasite number associated with the appearance of degenerating forms inside mature erythrocytes; the parasites remaining are inside reticulocytes. By contrast, no degenerating parasites were seen in infections caused by the virulent parent, which was mainly confined to mature erythrocytes. However, P. berghei XAT was no more sensitive to reactive O2 metabolites, generated by alloxan, or to tumour necrosis serum, than its virulent parent. Furthermore, its early drop in parasitaemia was unaffected by silica. The drop still occurred in the absence of T cells, although the infection was then ultimately lethal, and it was not mediated by NK cells since it occurred in nude mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 serum to abolish NK cell activity. However, it was absent in splenectomized mice, in which P. berghei XAT infection was lethal. Thus, the attenuation of P. berghei XAT infection is not due to increased susceptibility to some of the agents thought to cause parasite destruction, but to some other mechanism in which the spleen is involved.

  4. Phage display: applications, innovations, and issues in phage and host biology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D R; Finlay, B B

    1998-04-01

    In the 7 years since the first publications describing phage-displayed peptide libraries, phage display has been successfully employed in a variety of research. Innovations in vector design and methods to identify target clones account for much of this success. At the same time, not all ventures have been entirely successful and it appears that phage and host biology play important roles in this. A key issue concerns the role played by a displayed peptide or protein in its successful expression and incorporation into virions. While few studies have examined these issues specifically in context of phage display, the literature as a whole provides insight. Accordingly, we review phage biology, relevant aspects of host biology, and phage display applications with the goals of illustrating (i) relevant aspects of the interplay between phage-host biology and successful phage display and (ii) the limitations and considerable potential of this important technology.

  5. Intranasal delivery of nerve growth factor attenuates aquaporins-4-induced edema following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiushi; Fan, Xinying; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Qian; Tian, Lili; Cai, Xiaoyi; Sun, Wenshan; Wang, Xiaomeng; Cai, Qiankun; Bao, Yuanfei; Zhou, Lulu; Zhang, Yao; Ge, Liang; Guo, Ruibing; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of injury-related death and disability. Brain edema, one of the most major complications of TBI, contributes to elevated intracranial pressure, and poor prognosis following TBI. Nerve growth factor (NGF) appears to be a viable strategy to treat brain edema and TBI. Unfortunately, due to its poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the clinical application of NGF has been greatly limited. We previously demonstrated that intranasal NGF could bypass the BBB and distribute throughout the brain. Here we further studied whether intranasal NGF could attenuate TBI-induced brain edema and its putative mechanisms. TBI was produced by a modified weight-drop model. We found that intranasal administration of NGF (5μg/d) attenuated the brain edema, as assayed by hemisphere water content, at 12h, 24h and 72h after TBI induction. This attenuation was associated with a prominent decrease of the content of aquaporin-4, which plays a pivotal role in the formation of brain edema. By the use of RT-PCR and ELISA, we showed that intranasal NGF markedly inhibited the transcription and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) displayed a significant activation of nuclear factor-κB following TBI, which was, however, much lowered in the NGF-treated rats. Furthermore, upon intranasal NGF supplementation, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis following TBI was minimized, as indicated by upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of caspase-3. Collectively, our findings suggested that intranasal NGF may be a promising strategy to treat brain edema and TBI.

  6. Bacteriophages with potential to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium: Use of single phage suspensions and phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Moreirinha, Catarina; Lewicka, Magdalena; Almeida, Paulo; Clemente, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Romalde, Jésus L; Nunes, Maria L; Almeida, Adelaide

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of three previously isolated bacteriophages (or phages) individually (phSE-1, phSE-2 and phSE-5) or combined in cocktails of two or three phages (phSE-1/phSE-2, phSE-1/phSE-5, phSE-2/phSE-5 and phSE-1/phSE-2/phSE-5) to control Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in order to evaluate their potential application during depuration. Phages were assigned to the family Siphoviridae and revealed identical restriction digest profiles, although they showed a different phage adsorption, host range, burst size, explosion time and survival in seawater. The three phages were effective against S. Typhimurium (reduction of ∼2.0 log CFU/mL after 4h treatment). The use of cocktails was not significantly more effective than the use of single phages. A big fraction of the remained bacteria are phage-resistant mutants (frequency of phage-resistant mutants 9.19×10(-5)-5.11×10(-4)) but phage- resistant bacterial mutants was lower for the cocktail phages than for the single phage suspensions and the phage phSE-1 presented the highest rate of resistance and phage phSE-5 the lowest one. The spectral changes of S. Typhimurium resistant and phage-sensitive cells were compared and revealed relevant differences for peaks associated to amide I (1620cm(-1)) and amide II (1515cm(-1)) from proteins and from carbohydrates and phosphates region (1080-1000cm(-1)). Despite the similar efficiency of individual phages, the development of lower resistance indicates that phage cocktails might be the most promising choice to be used during the bivalve depuration to control the transmission of salmonellosis.

  7. Phage therapy: the Escherichia coli experience.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2005-07-01

    Phages have been proposed as natural antimicrobial agents to fight bacterial infections in humans, in animals or in crops of agricultural importance. Phages have also been discussed as hygiene measures in food production facilities and hospitals. These proposals have a long history, but are currently going through a kind of renaissance as documented by a spate of recent reviews. This review discusses the potential of phage therapy with a specific example, namely Escherichia coli.

  8. Personalized Therapeutic Cocktail of Wild Environmental Phages Rescues Mice from Acinetobacter baumannii Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Regeimbal, James M.; Jacobs, Anna C.; Corey, Brendan W.; Henry, Matthew S.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Quinones, Javier; Hannah, Ryan M.; Ghebremedhin, Meron; Crane, Nicole J.; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa C.; Hall, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens are an increasing threat to public health, and lytic bacteriophages have reemerged as a potential therapeutic option. In this work, we isolated and assembled a five-member cocktail of wild phages against Acinetobacter baumannii and demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a mouse full-thickness dorsal infected wound model. The cocktail lowers the bioburden in the wound, prevents the spread of infection and necrosis to surrounding tissue, and decreases infection-associated morbidity. Interestingly, this effective cocktail is composed of four phages that do not kill the parent strain of the infection and one phage that simply delays bacterial growth in vitro via a strong but incomplete selection event. The cocktail here appears to function in a combinatorial manner, as one constituent phage targets capsulated A. baumannii bacteria and selects for loss of receptor, shifting the population to an uncapsulated state that is then sensitized to the remaining four phages in the cocktail. Additionally, capsule is a known virulence factor for A. baumannii, and we demonstrated that the emergent uncapsulated bacteria are avirulent in a Galleria mellonella model. These results highlight the importance of anticipating population changes during phage therapy and designing intelligent cocktails to control emergent strains, as well as the benefits of using phages that target virulence factors. Because of the efficacy of this cocktail isolated from a limited environmental pool, we have established a pipeline for developing new phage therapeutics against additional clinically relevant multidrug-resistant pathogens by using environmental phages sourced from around the globe. PMID:27431214

  9. Exposure to phages has little impact on the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance on drug concentration gradients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The use of phages for treating bacterial pathogens has recently been advocated as an alternative to antibiotic therapy. Here, we test a hypothesis that bacteria treated with phages may show more limited evolution of antibiotic resistance as the fitness costs of resistance to phages may add to those of antibiotic resistance, further reducing the growth performance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We did this by studying the evolution of phage-exposed and phage-free Pseudomonas fluorescens cultures on concentration gradients of single drugs, including cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. During drug treatment, the level of bacterial antibiotic resistance increased through time and was not affected by the phage treatment. Exposure to phages did not cause slower growth in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, although it did so in antibiotic-susceptible bacteria. We observed significant reversion of antibiotic resistance after drug use being terminated, and the rate of reversion was not affected by the phage treatment. The results suggest that the fitness costs caused by resistance to phages are unlikely to be an important constraint on the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance in heterogeneous drug environments. Further studies are needed for the interaction of fitness costs of antibiotic resistance with other factors. PMID:24665341

  10. Two flagellotropic phages and one pilus-specific phage active against Asticcacaulis biprosthecum.

    PubMed

    Pate, J L; Petzold, S J; Umbreit, T H

    1979-04-15

    Three phages active against cells of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum attach to receptor sites located at the pole of the cell where pili, flagella, and holdfast are produced. Phage phiAcS2, a large phage with a prolate cylindrical head and flexible, noncontractile tail, attaches to flagella as well as to receptor sites at the pole of the cell. Attachment to flagella occurs at the region where head and tail of the phage are joined, leaving the distal end of the tail free for attachment to receptor sites at the cell surface. Phages phiAcM2 and phiAcM4, are identical in appearance to each other, possessing prolate cylindrical heads and flexible, noncontractile tails, and are smaller than phage phiAcS2. Phage phiAcM4, exhibits the same flagellotropic characteristic as described for phage phiAcS2, including the manner of attachment to flagella. Phage phiAcM2 has no affinity for flagella, but attaches by the distal end of the tail to pili and to receptor sites at the pole of the cell. Mechanical removal of flagella and pili protects against infection by all three phages. Studies with phage-resistant mutants and with KCN-treated cells suggest that pili are required for infection by both flagellotropic and pilus-specific phages.

  11. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  12. Information Phage Therapy Research Should Report.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2017-04-30

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses which infect bacteria. A large subset of phages infect bactericidally and, consequently, for nearly one hundred years have been employed as antibacterial agents both within and outside of medicine. Clinically these applications are described as phage or bacteriophage therapy. Alternatively, and especially in the treatment of environments, this practice instead may be described as a phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria. Though the history of phage therapy has involved substantial clinical experimentation, current standards along with drug regulations have placed a premium on preclinical approaches, i.e., animal experiments. As such, it is important for preclinical experiments not only to be held to high standards but also to be reported in a manner which improves translation to clinical utility. Here I address this latter issue, that of optimization of reporting of preclinical as well as clinical experiments. I do this by providing a list of pertinent information and data which, in my opinion, phage therapy experiments ought to present in publications, along with tips for best practices. The goal is to improve the ability of readers to gain relevant information from reports on phage therapy research, to allow other researchers greater potential to repeat or extend findings, to ease transitions from preclinical to clinical development, and otherwise simply to improve phage therapy experiments. Targeted are not just authors but also reviewers, other critical readers, writers of commentaries, and, perhaps, formulators of guidelines or policy. Though emphasizing therapy, many points are applicable to phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria more generally.

  13. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  14. Enhancing and initiating phage-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T; Chang, Juan T; Liu, Xiangan

    2014-01-01

    Drug development has typically been a primary foundation of strategy for systematic, long-range management of pathogenic cells. However, drug development is limited in speed and flexibility when response is needed to changes in pathogenic cells, especially changes that produce drug-resistance. The high replication speed and high diversity of phages are potentially useful for increasing both response speed and response flexibility when changes occur in either drug resistance or other aspects of pathogenic cells. We present strategy, with some empirical details, for (1) using modern molecular biology and biophysics to access these advantages during the phage therapy of bacterial infections, and (2) initiating use of phage capsid-based drug delivery vehicles (DDVs) with procedures that potentially overcome both drug resistance and other present limitations in the use of DDVs for the therapy of neoplasms. The discussion of phage therapy includes (a) historical considerations, (b) changes that appear to be needed in clinical tests if use of phage therapy is to be expanded, (c) recent work on novel phages and its potential use for expanding the capabilities of phage therapy and (d) an outline for a strategy that encompasses both theory and practice for expanding the applications of phage therapy. The discussion of DDVs starts by reviewing current work on DDVs, including work on both liposomal and viral DDVs. The discussion concludes with some details of the potential use of permeability constrained phage capsids as DDVs. PMID:26713220

  15. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Xu, Raomei; Liu, Jixun; Song, Ningfang

    2014-03-01

    The effects of transmission wavelength, total dose and light source power on temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in Ge-P co-doped fibers were investigated. Three fibers irradiated up to total dose of 100 Gy and 10,000 Gy were used as test samples. A test system for temperature dependence of RIA was built up. The influence of transmission wavelength, total dose and light power on temperature sensitivity and linearity of RIA in three irradiated fibers were researched. The test results show that temperature sensitivity and linearity of RIA in optical fibers could be improved by adjusting total dose and selecting transmission wavelength. The light source power does not have obvious influence on temperature sensitivity and linearity. The Ge-P co-doped fiber at 850 nm transmission wavelength with higher total dose is a very promising candidate for fiber-optic temperature sensor.

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor attenuates phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Mie; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of human immune system, thus allowing the pathogen to grow and spread in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes CAMP factor increases erythrocytosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin. However, the effects of CAMP factor for immune cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CAMP factor to macrophages. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that all examined strains expressed CAMP factor protein. In the presence of calcium or magnesium ion, CAMP factor was significantly released in the supernatant. In addition, both culture supernatant from S. pyogenes strain SSI-9 and recombinant CAMP factor dose-dependently induced vacuolation in RAW 264.7 cells, but the culture supernatant from Δcfa isogenic mutant strain did not. CAMP factor formed oligomers in RAW 264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. CAMP factor suppressed cell proliferation via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without inducing cell death. Furthermore, CAMP factor reduced the uptake of S. pyogenes and phagocytic activity indicator by RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that CAMP factor works as a macrophage dysfunction factor. Therefore, we conclude that CAMP factor allows S. pyogenes to escape the host immune system, and contribute to the spread of streptococcal infection. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Low muscle attenuation is a prognostic factor for survival in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with first line palliative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rier, Hánah N; Jager, Agnes; Sleijfer, Stefan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Kock, Marc C J M; Levin, Mark-David

    2017-02-01

    Low muscle mass (LMM) and low muscle attenuation (LMA) reflect low muscle quantity and low muscle quality, respectively. Both are associated with a poor outcome in several types of solid malignancies. This study determined the association of skeletal muscle measures with overall survival (OS) and time to next treatment (TNT). A skeletal muscle index (SMI) in cm(2)/m(2) and muscle attenuation (MA) in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using abdominal CT-images of 166 patients before start of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Low muscle mass (SMI <41 cm(2)/m(2)), sarcopenic obesity (LMM and BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and low muscle attenuation (MA <41 HU and BMI <25 kg/m2 or MA <33 HU and BMI ≥25 kg/m2) were related to OS and TNT. The prevalence of LMM, sarcopenic obesity and LMA were 66.9%, 7.2% and 59.6% respectively. LMM and sarcopenic obesity showed no significant association with OS and TNT, whereas LMA was associated with both lower OS (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.34-3.12, p = 0.001) and shorter TNT (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.62, p = 0.010). Patients with LMA had a median OS and TNT of 15 and 8 months respectively, compared to 23 and 10 months in patients with normal MA. LMA is a prognostic factor for OS and TNT in metastatic breast cancer patients receiving first-line palliative chemotherapy, whereas LMM and sarcopenic obesity are not. Further research is needed to establish what impact LMA should have in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imatinib attenuates cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptors activation in isoproterenol induced model

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yuan; Fan, Tian; Hou, Jian; Chen, Guang-Xian; Liang, Meng-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a significant global health problem with limited treatment choices. Although previous studies have shown that imatinib (IMA) inhibited cardiac fibrosis, the anti-fibrotic mechanisms have not been clearly uncovered. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether IMA attenuates cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle or ISO ± IMA for one week. After echocardiography examination, the hearts of mice were used for histopathologic, RT-qPCR, and western blot analyses. We found that the ventricular wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy, and apoptosis were enhanced following ISO treatment. IMA decreased the left ventricular wall thickness, prevented hypertrophy, and inhibited apoptosis induced by ISO. In addition, IMA attenuated the accumulation of collagens and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (the markers of fibrosis) caused by ISO treatment. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis related genes, and the phosphorylation of PDGFRs in ISO-treated mice hearts were inhibited by IMA as well. However, IMA did not change the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ISO-treated hearts. Furthermore, IMA reduced the expressions of collagens as well as α-SMA caused by activation of PDGFRα in cardiac fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IMA attenuated the cardiac fibrosis by blocking the phosphorylation of PDGFRs in the ISO-induced mice model. This study indicates that IMA could be a potentially therapeutic option for cardiac fibrosis in clinical application. PMID:28570599

  19. Imatinib attenuates cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptors activation in isoproterenol induced model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le-Xun; Yang, Xiao; Yue, Yuan; Fan, Tian; Hou, Jian; Chen, Guang-Xian; Liang, Meng-Ya; Wu, Zhong-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a significant global health problem with limited treatment choices. Although previous studies have shown that imatinib (IMA) inhibited cardiac fibrosis, the anti-fibrotic mechanisms have not been clearly uncovered. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether IMA attenuates cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle or ISO ± IMA for one week. After echocardiography examination, the hearts of mice were used for histopathologic, RT-qPCR, and western blot analyses. We found that the ventricular wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy, and apoptosis were enhanced following ISO treatment. IMA decreased the left ventricular wall thickness, prevented hypertrophy, and inhibited apoptosis induced by ISO. In addition, IMA attenuated the accumulation of collagens and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (the markers of fibrosis) caused by ISO treatment. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis related genes, and the phosphorylation of PDGFRs in ISO-treated mice hearts were inhibited by IMA as well. However, IMA did not change the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ISO-treated hearts. Furthermore, IMA reduced the expressions of collagens as well as α-SMA caused by activation of PDGFRα in cardiac fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IMA attenuated the cardiac fibrosis by blocking the phosphorylation of PDGFRs in the ISO-induced mice model. This study indicates that IMA could be a potentially therapeutic option for cardiac fibrosis in clinical application.

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate proliferation of colonic carcinoma cells by blocking epidermal growth factor-induced Ca++ mobilization.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Miller, T A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that NSAIDs, in human colonic carcinoma cells (Caco-2), attenuate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cellular proliferation through a process independent of their inhibitory effects on prostaglandin synthesis. Furthermore, separate studies have also suggested that NSAIDs inhibit EGF-induced store-operated Ca++ influx. Thus we developed the hypothesis that NSAIDs may limit the activity of EGF by altering intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) mobilization. Serum-deprived Caco-2 cells were employed for all experimentation. [Ca++]i was measured with Fluo-3 and extracellular Ca++ influx was monitored by quenching Fluo-3 fluorescence with Mn++. Proliferation was quantitated with two assays: cellular nucleic acid and total protein content. Caco-2 cells exposed to EGF demonstrated an initial increase in [Ca++]i which was blocked by neomycin, an inhibitor of IPsubscript 3 generation, and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 but not U73343 (inactive control). This was followed by sustained extracellular Ca++ influx, which was attenuated with calcium-free buffer (-Ca++), the store- operated Ca++ channel blocker lanthanum, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and aspirin. In subsequent studies, cells were treated with either serum-free media or EGF +/- the aforementioned inhibitors, and again serum starved. Cells exposed to EGF +/- the inactive phospholipase C inhibitor U73343 demonstrated a significant increase in nucleic acid and protein. However, proliferation induced by EGF was not observed when [Ca++]i elevation was prevented by blocking either internal Ca++ store release via phospholipase C/IPsubscript 3 or sustained Ca++ influx through store-operated Ca++ channels. Sustained [Ca++]i elevation, as induced by EGF, appears to be required for mitogenesis. These data support our premise that one mechanism whereby NSAIDs may attenuate colonic neoplasia is

  1. The tail-associated depolymerase of Erwinia amylovora phage L1 mediates host cell adsorption and enzymatic capsule removal, which can enhance infection by other phage.

    PubMed

    Born, Yannick; Fieseler, Lars; Klumpp, Jochen; Eugster, Marcel R; Zurfluh, Katrin; Duffy, Brion; Loessner, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    The depolymerase enzyme (DpoL1) encoded by the T7-like phage L1 efficiently degrades amylovoran, an important virulence factor and major component of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) of its host, the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Mass spectrometry analysis of hydrolysed EPS revealed that DpoL1 cleaves the galactose-containing backbone of amylovoran. The enzyme is most active at pH 6 and 50°C, and features a modular architecture. Removal of 180 N-terminal amino acids was shown not to affect enzyme activity. The C-terminus harbours the hydrolase activity, while the N-terminal domain links the enzyme to the phage particle. Electron microscopy demonstrated that DpoL1-specific antibodies cross-link phage particles at their tails, either lateral or frontal, and immunogold staining confirmed that DpoL1 is located at the tail spikes. Exposure of high-level EPS-producing Er. amylovora strain CFBP1430 to recombinant DpoL1 dramatically increased sensitivity to the Dpo-negative phage Y2, which was not the case for EPS-negative mutants or low-level EPS-producing Er. amylovora. Our findings indicate that enhanced phage susceptibility is based on enzymatic removal of the EPS capsule, normally a physical barrier to Y2 infection, and that use of DpoL1 together with the broad host range, virulent phage Y2 represents an attractive combination for biocontrol of fire blight.

  2. Statistical structure of host-phage interactions.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cesar O; Meyer, Justin R; Valverde, Sergi; Farr, Lauren; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-07-12

    Interactions between bacteria and the viruses that infect them (i.e., phages) have profound effects on biological processes, but despite their importance, little is known on the general structure of infection and resistance between most phages and bacteria. For example, are bacteria-phage communities characterized by complex patterns of overlapping exploitation networks, do they conform to a more ordered general pattern across all communities, or are they idiosyncratic and hard to predict from one ecosystem to the next? To answer these questions, we collect and present a detailed metaanalysis of 38 laboratory-verified studies of host-phage interactions representing almost 12,000 distinct experimental infection assays across a broad spectrum of taxa, habitat, and mode of selection. In so doing, we present evidence that currently available host-phage infection networks are statistically different from random networks and that they possess a characteristic nested structure. This nested structure is typified by the finding that hard to infect bacteria are infected by generalist phages (and not specialist phages) and that easy to infect bacteria are infected by generalist and specialist phages. Moreover, we find that currently available host-phage infection networks do not typically possess a modular structure. We explore possible underlying mechanisms and significance of the observed nested host-phage interaction structure. In addition, given that most of the available host-phage infection networks examined here are composed of taxa separated by short phylogenetic distances, we propose that the lack of modularity is a scale-dependent effect, and then, we describe experimental studies to test whether modular patterns exist at macroevolutionary scales.

  3. Phage-host interactions analysis of newly characterized Oenococcus oeni bacteriophages: Implications for malolactic fermentation in wine.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Antonella; Doria, Francesca; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2017-04-04

    Nowadays, only few phages infecting Oenococcus oeni, the principal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine, have been characterized. In the present study, to better understanding the factors affecting the lytic activity of Oenococcus phages, fifteen O. oeni bacteriophages have been studied in detail, both with molecular and microbiological methods. No correlations were found between genome sizes, type of integrase genes, or morphology and the lytic activity of the 15 tested phages. Interestingly, though phage attack in a wine at the end of alcoholic fermentation seems not to be a problem, it can indeed represent a risk factor for MLF when the alcohol content is low, feature that may be a key point for choosing the appropriate time for malolactic starter inoculation. Additionally, it was observed that some phages genomes bear 2 or 3 types of integrase genes, which point to horizontal gene transfer between O. oeni bacteriophages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Systematic annotation and analysis of “virmugens” - virulence factors whose mutants can be used as live attenuated vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Rebecca; Chung, Monica; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are usually generated by mutation of genes encoding virulence factors. “Virmugen” is coined here to represent a gene that encodes for a virulent factor of a pathogen and has been proven feasible in animal models to make a live attenuated vaccine by knocking out this gene. Not all virulence factors are virmugens. VirmugenDB is a web-based virmugen database (http://www.violinet.org/virmugendb). Currently, VirmugenDB includes 225 virmugens that have been verified to be valuable for vaccine development against 57 bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens. Bioinformatics analysis has revealed significant patterns in virmugens. For example, 10 Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacterial aroA genes are virmugens. A sequence analysis has revealed at least 50% of identities in the protein sequences of the 10 Gram-negative bacterial aroA virmugens. As a pathogen case study, Brucella virmugens were analyzed. Out of 15 verified Brucella virmugens, six are related to carbohydrate or nucleotide transport and metabolism, and two involving cell membrane biogenesis. In addition, 54 virmugens from 24 viruses and 12 virmugens from 4 parasites are also stored in VirmugenDB. Virmugens tend to involve metabolism of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides) and cell membrane formation. Host genes whose expressions were regulated by virmugen mutation vaccines or wild type virulent pathogens have also been annotated and systematically compared. The bioinformatics annotation and analysis of virmugens helps elucidate enriched virmugen profiles and the mechanisms of protective immunity, and further supports rational vaccine design. PMID:23219434

  5. MSC attenuate diabetes-induced functional impairment in adipocytes via secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongyun; Xie, Jiangfan; Zhang, Junhua; Feng, Changjiang; Yao, Bin; Ma, Kui; Li, Jiwei; Wu, Xu; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-09-12

    The function of subcutaneous adipocytes in promoting wound healing is significantly suppressed in diabetic wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to ameliorate impaired diabetic wound healing. We hypothesized that MSC function may involve subcutaneous adipocytes. The abnormal function of subcutaneous adipocytes from STZ induced diabetic mice including glucose uptake and free fatty acid (FFA) secretion level were assessed. Then these cells were co-cultured with MSC via a transwell system to observe the changes of metabolic index and glucose transporter four (GLUT4) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway expression. The results of metabolic index suggest that MSC obviously attenuated the diabetes-induced functional impairment. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses showed that PI3K/AKT insulin signaling pathway and GLUT4 expression were up-regulated. These changes were substantially associated with a increased level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion from MSC. These findings suggest that MSC could attenuate abnormal function of diabetic adipocytes by IGF-1secretion, which was more or less associated with the beneficial effects of MSC on improving diabetic wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  7. A Virulent Phage Infecting Lactococcus garvieae, with Homology to Lactococcus lactis Phages

    PubMed Central

    Eraclio, Giovanni; Tremblay, Denise M.; Lacelle-Côté, Alexia; Labrie, Simon J.; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    A new virulent phage belonging to the Siphoviridae family and able to infect Lactococcus garvieae strains was isolated from compost soil. Phage GE1 has a prolate capsid (56 by 38 nm) and a long noncontractile tail (123 nm). It had a burst size of 139 and a latent period of 31 min. Its host range was limited to only two L. garvieae strains out of 73 tested. Phage GE1 has a double-stranded DNA genome of 24,847 bp containing 48 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Putative functions could be assigned to only 14 ORFs, and significant matches in public databases were found for only 17 ORFs, indicating that GE1 is a novel phage and its genome contains several new viral genes and encodes several new viral proteins. Of these 17 ORFs, 16 were homologous to deduced proteins of virulent phages infecting the dairy bacterium Lactococcus lactis, including previously characterized prolate-headed phages. Comparative genome analysis confirmed the relatedness of L. garvieae phage GE1 to L. lactis phages c2 (22,172 bp) and Q54 (26,537 bp), although its genome organization was closer to that of phage c2. Phage GE1 did not infect any of the 58 L. lactis strains tested. This study suggests that phages infecting different lactococcal species may have a common ancestor. PMID:26407890

  8. Mammalian Host-Versus-Phage immune response determines phage fate in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hodyra-Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Drapała, Jarosław; Drab, Marek; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Lecion, Dorota; Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Beta, Weronika; Majewska, Joanna; Harhala, Marek; Bubak, Barbara; Kłopot, Anna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance draws attention to bacteriophages as a therapeutic alternative to treat bacterial infection. Examples of phage that combat bacteria abound. However, despite careful testing of antibacterial activity in vitro, failures nevertheless commonly occur. We investigated immunological response of phage antibacterial potency in vivo. Anti-phage activity of phagocytes, antibodies, and serum complement were identified by direct testing and by high-resolution fluorescent microscopy. We accommodated the experimental data into a mathematical model. We propose a universal schema of innate and adaptive immunity impact on phage pharmacokinetics, based on the results of our numerical simulations. We found that the mammalian-host response to infecting bacteria causes the concomitant removal of phage from the system. We propose the notion that this effect as an indirect pathway of phage inhibition by bacteria with significant relevance for the clinical outcome of phage therapy. PMID:26440922

  9. Phage-Phagocyte Interactions and Their Implications for Phage Application as Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Owczarek, Barbara; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Łodej, Norbert; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-06-14

    Phagocytes are the main component of innate immunity. They remove pathogens and particles from organisms using their bactericidal tools in the form of both reactive oxygen species and degrading enzymes-contained in granules-that are potentially toxic proteins. Therefore, it is important to investigate the possible interactions between phages and immune cells and avoid any phage side effects on them. Recent progress in knowledge concerning the influence of phages on phagocytes is also important as such interactions may shape the immune response. In this review we have summarized the current knowledge on phage interactions with phagocytes described so far and their potential implications for phage therapy. The data suggesting that phage do not downregulate important phagocyte functions are especially relevant for the concept of phage therapy.

  10. Phage-Phagocyte Interactions and Their Implications for Phage Application as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Owczarek, Barbara; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Łodej, Norbert; Górski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytes are the main component of innate immunity. They remove pathogens and particles from organisms using their bactericidal tools in the form of both reactive oxygen species and degrading enzymes—contained in granules—that are potentially toxic proteins. Therefore, it is important to investigate the possible interactions between phages and immune cells and avoid any phage side effects on them. Recent progress in knowledge concerning the influence of phages on phagocytes is also important as such interactions may shape the immune response. In this review we have summarized the current knowledge on phage interactions with phagocytes described so far and their potential implications for phage therapy. The data suggesting that phage do not downregulate important phagocyte functions are especially relevant for the concept of phage therapy. PMID:28613272

  11. Selection of phages and conditions for the safe phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Victor; Shaburova, Olga; Pleteneva, Elena; Krylov, Sergey; Kaplan, Alla; Burkaltseva, Maria; Polygach, Olga; Chesnokova, Elena

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens forced us to consider the phage therapy as one of the possible alternative approaches to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to consider the conditions for the safe, long-term use of phage therapy against various infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe the selection of the most suitable phages, their most effective combinations and some approaches for the rapid recognition of phages unsuitable for use in therapy. The benefits and disadvantages of the various different approaches to the preparation of phage mixtures are considered, together with the specific conditions that are required for the safe application of phage therapy in general hospitals and the possibilities for the development of personalized phage therapy.

  12. Epitope Mapping with Random Phage Display Library

    PubMed Central

    Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Goldblum, Randall M.

    2017-01-01

    Random phage display library is used to map conformational as well as linear epitopes. These libraries are available in varying lengths and with circularization. We provide here a protocol conveying our experience using a commercially available peptide phage display library, which in our hands provides good results. PMID:24515483

  13. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    PubMed

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  14. [Phage therapy for bacterial infection of burn].

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Z; Huang, G T

    2016-09-20

    With the long-term and widespread use of antibiotics, drug resistance of bacteria has become a major problem in the treatment of burn infection. For treating multidrug resistant bacteria, phage therapy has become the focus of attention. Development of phage therapy to fill the blank of this field in China is extremely urgent.

  15. Population Dynamics of Phage and Bacteria in Spatially Structured Habitats Using Phage λ and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stanley; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria living in physically structured habitats are exposed heterogeneously to both resources and different types of phages. While there have been numerous experimental approaches to examine spatially distributed bacteria exposed to phages, there is little theory to guide the design of these experiments, interpret their results, or expand the inferences drawn to a broader ecological and evolutionary context. Plaque formation provides a window into understanding phage-bacterium interactions in physically structured populations, including surfaces, semisolids, and biofilms. We develop models to address the plaque dynamics for a temperate phage and its virulent mutants. The models are compared with phage λ-Escherichia coli system to quantify their applicability. We found that temperate phages gave an increasing number of gradually smaller colonies as the distance increased from the plaque center. For low-lysogen frequency this resulted in plaques with most of the visible colonies at an intermediate distance between the center and periphery. Using spot inoculation, where phages in excess of bacteria were inoculated in a circular area, we measured the frequency and spatial distribution of lysogens. The spot morphology of cII-negative (cII−) and cIII− mutants of phage λ displays concentric rings of high-density lysogenic colonies. The simplest of these ring morphologies was reproduced by including multiplicity of infection (MOI) sensitivity in lysis-lysogeny decisions, but its failure to explain the occasional observation of multiple rings in cIII− mutant phages highlights unknown features of this phage. Our findings demonstrated advantages of temperate phages over virulent phages in exploiting limited resources in spatially distributed microbial populations. IMPORTANCE Phages are the most abundant organisms on earth, and yet little is known about how phages and bacterial hosts are influencing each other in density and evolution. Phages can be either

  16. Aeromonas phages encode tRNAs for their overused codons.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Xia, Xuhua

    2014-01-01

    The GC-rich bacterial species, Aeromonas salmonicida, is parasitised by both GC-rich phages (Aeromonas phages - phiAS7 and vB_AsaM-56) and GC-poor phages (Aeromonas phages - 25, 31, 44RR2.8t, 65, Aes508, phiAS4 and phiAS5). Both the GC-rich Aeromonas phage phiAS7 and Aeromonas phage vB_AsaM-56 have nearly identical codon usage bias as their host. While all the remaining seven GC-poor Aeromonas phages differ dramatically in codon usage from their GC-rich host. Here, we investigated whether tRNA encoded in the genome of Aeromonas phages facilitate the translation of phage proteins. We found that tRNAs encoded in the phage genome correspond to synonymous codons overused in the phage genes but not in the host genes.

  17. Coordinate post-transcriptional repression of Dpp-dependent transcription factors attenuates signal range during development.

    PubMed

    Newton, Fay G; Harris, Robin E; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Ashe, Hilary L

    2015-10-01

    Precise control of the range of signalling molecule action is crucial for correct cell fate patterning during development. For example, Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) are maintained by exquisitely short-range BMP signalling from the niche. In the absence of BMP signalling, one GSC daughter differentiates into a cystoblast (CB) and this fate is stabilised by Brain tumour (Brat) and Pumilio (Pum)-mediated post-transcriptional repression of mRNAs, including that encoding the Dpp transducer, Mad. However, the identity of other repressed mRNAs and the mechanism of post-transcriptional repression are currently unknown. Here, we identify the Medea and schnurri mRNAs, which encode transcriptional regulators required for activation and/or repression of Dpp target genes, as additional Pum-Brat targets, suggesting that tripartite repression of the transducers is deployed to desensitise the CB to Dpp. In addition, we show that repression by Pum-Brat requires recruitment of the CCR4 and Pop2 deadenylases, with knockdown of deadenylases in vivo giving rise to ectopic GSCs. Consistent with this, Pum-Brat repression leads to poly(A) tail shortening and mRNA degradation in tissue culture cells, and we detect a reduced number of Mad and shn transcripts in the CB relative to the GSC based on single molecule mRNA quantitation. Finally, we show generality of the mechanism by demonstrating that Brat also attenuates pMad and Dpp signalling range in the early embryo. Together our data serve as a platform for understanding how post-transcriptional repression restricts interpretation of BMPs and other cell signals in order to allow robust cell fate patterning during development.

  18. Thinking about microcolonies as phage targets

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Phage targets for adsorption can include: (1) individual bacteria; (2) bacterial cellular arrangements such as streptococci; (3) microcolonies consisting of bacterial clones as can make up bacterial lawns and biofilms; and (4) bacterial biofilms themselves. While much effort has gone into considering category 1, and some into category 4, substantially less has been put into the question of how bacterial association into clonal arrangements or microcolonies might affect phage-bacterial interactions. Recently I have been exploring just this issue—within a single-authored monograph published in 2011 and a theoretical article published in 2012 as part of a special issue of the journal, Viruses. For this commentary, I have been invited to summarize my thinking on how bacterial association into either cellular arrangements or microcolonies might affect their susceptibility to phages along with related issues of bacterial resistance to phages and phage propagation in the context of both plaques and biofilms. PMID:23275871

  19. Pseudomonas phage inhibition of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Hasan; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Secor, Patrick R; Sweere, Johanna M; Bollyky, Paul L; Sass, Gabriele; Cegelski, Lynette; Stevens, David A

    2017-10-06

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Candida albicans (Ca) are major bacterial and fungal pathogens in immunocompromised hosts, and notably in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. The bacteriophages of Pa physically alter biofilms, and were recently shown to inhibit the biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus. To understand the range of this viral-fungal interaction, we studied Pa phages Pf4 and Pf1, and their interactions with Ca biofilm formation and preformed Ca biofilm. Both forms of Ca biofilm development, as well as planktonic Ca growth, were inhibited by either phage. The inhibition of biofilm was reversed by the addition of iron, suggesting that the mechanism of phage action on Ca involves denial of iron. Birefringence studies on added phage showed an ordered structure of binding to Ca. Electron microscopic observations indicated phage aggregation in the biofilm extracellular matrix. Bacteriophage-fungal interactions may be a general feature with several pathogens in the fungal kingdom.

  20. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Daniel; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Hobbs, Zack; Porter, Jillian; Kutter, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 h after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. “Hibernation” mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially present cell) are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a “scavenger” response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 h after infection. The scavenger response seems

  1. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuates surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction possibly via inhibition of nuclear factor κB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Jiang, W; Zuo, Z

    2014-03-07

    Surgery induces learning and memory impairment. Neuroinflammation may contribute to this impairment. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor to regulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that inhibition of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces neuroinflammation and the impairment of learning and memory. To test this hypothesis, four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exploration under propofol and buprenorphine anesthesia. Some rats received two doses of 50mg/kg PDTC given intraperitoneally 30min before and 6h after the surgery. Rats were tested in the Barnes maze and fear conditioning paradigm begun 6days after the surgery. Expression of various proteins related to inflammation was examined in the hippocampus at 24h or 21days after the surgery. Here, surgery, but not anesthesia alone, had a significant effect on prolonging the time needed to identify the target hole during the training sessions of the Barnes maze. Surgery also increased the time for identifying the target hole in the long-term memory test and decreased context-related learning and memory in fear conditioning test. Also, surgery increased nuclear expression of p65, a NF-κB component, decreased cytoplasmic amount of inhibitor of NF-κB, and increased the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 and active matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Finally, surgery enhanced IgG extravasation in the hippocampus. These surgical effects were attenuated by PDTC. These results suggest that surgery, but not propofol-based anesthesia, induces neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory. PDTC attenuates these effects possibly by inhibiting NF-κB activation and the downstream MMP-9 activity.

  2. Administration of amitriptyline attenuates noise-induced hearing loss via glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induction.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji Bruce; Osumi, Yasunori; Yagi, Masao; Kanda, Seiji; Kawamoto, Kohei; Kuriyama, Hiromichi; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yamashita, Toshio

    2007-05-04

    Antidepressant treatments have been described to induce neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and reverse the cell loss observed in rodent stress models. Amitriptyline (AT), a tricyclic antidepressant agent, has been reported in recent studies to induce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) synthesis and release in rat C6 glioblastoma cells. GDNF has shown protection against acoustic trauma in previous studies. Therefore, we investigated whether AT could induce GDNF synthesis in the cochlea and attenuate cochlea damage against acoustic trauma. We used Hartley guinea pigs and injected AT (30 mg/kg) or saline into the peritoneum. Subjects were exposed to 117 dB SPL octave band noise centered at 4 kHz for 24 h. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was assessed with auditory brain stem response (ABR) at 4, 8 and 16 kHz measured prior to the injection, 3 days and 7 days after noise exposure. For histological assessment, we observed the sensory epithelium using a surface preparation technique and assessed the quantitative hair cell (HC) damage. We evaluated GDNF synthesis with or without intense noise exposure at 3, 12 and 24 h after the administration of AT in the cochlea using Western blot analysis. GDNF expression was shown 3 h and 12 h after the injection without noise, whereas with noise the GDNF expression lasted for 24 h. The AT-administrated group showed significantly reduced ABR threshold shift and less HC damage than the saline-administrated group. These findings suggest that the administration of AT-induced GDNF levels in the cochlea and attenuated cochlea damage from NIHL.

  3. Phage display: concept, innovations, applications and future.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jyoti; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Grover, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Phage display is the technology that allows expression of exogenous (poly)peptides on the surface of phage particles. The concept is simple in principle: a library of phage particles expressing a wide diversity of peptides is used to select those that bind the desired target. The filamentous phage M13 is the most commonly used vector to create random peptide display libraries. Several methods including recombinant techniques have been developed to increase the diversity of the library. On the other extreme, libraries with various biases can be created for specific purposes. For instance, when the sequence of the peptide that binds the target is known, its affinity and selectivity can be increased by screening libraries created with limited mutagenesis of the peptide. Phage libraries are screened for binding to synthetic or native targets. The initial screening of library by basic biopanning has been extended to column chromatography including negative screening and competition between selected phage clones to identify high affinity ligands with greater target specificity. The rapid isolation of specific ligands by phage display is advantageous in many applications including selection of inhibitors for the active and allosteric sites of the enzymes, receptor agonists and antagonists, and G-protein binding modulatory peptides. Phage display has been used in epitope mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions. The specific ligands isolated from phage libraries can be used in therapeutic target validation, drug design and vaccine development. Phage display can also be used in conjunction with other methods. The past innovations and those to come promise a bright future for this field.

  4. [Mechanisms of the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in attenuating insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong-yu; Wang, Wen-fei; Xu, Peng-fei; Yuan, Qing-yan; Liu, Shuang-qing; Zhnag, Tong; Ren, Gui-ping; Li, De-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) on type 2 diabetic mice model and to provide mechanistic insights into its therapeutic effect. Type 2 diabetic animal model was established with high calorie fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Mice were then randomized into 5 groups: model control, FGF21 0.25 and 0.05 μmol x kg(-1) x d(-1) groups, insulin treatment group. Ten age-matched normal KM mouse administered with saline were used as normal controls. Serum glucose, insulin, lipid products and the change of serum and liver tissue inflammation factor levels between five groups of mouse were determined. The results showed that blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, and inflammatory factor average FGF-21 of type 2 diabetes model group and normal control group were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while compared with insulin group, no difference was significant. Average blood glucose, insulin, blood lipid and inflammatory factor of FGF-21 treatment group compared with type 2 diabetes group was significantly lower (P < 0.01) and insulin group has no difference with the model control group. The results of OGTT and HOMA-IR showed that insulin resistance state was significantly relieved in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study demonstrates that FGF-21 significantly remits type 2 diabetic mice model's insulin resistance state and participates in the regulation of inflammatory factor levels and type 2 diabetes metabolic disorders.

  5. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans. PMID:27822205

  6. Attenuation of Folic Acid-Induced Renal Inflammatory Injury in Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Nakao, Akihide; Fujita, Toshiro; Toda, Akiko; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Noiri, Eisei

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator with various biological activities, plays an important role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes. In this study we used platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice to elucidate the role of PAF in inflammatory renal injury induced by folic acid administration. PAFR-deficient mice showed significant amelioration of renal dysfunction and pathological findings such as acute tubular damage with neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation observed with antibody to 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (day 2), and interstitial fibrosis with macrophage infiltration associated with expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the kidney (day 14). Acute tubular damage was attenuated by neutrophil depletion using a monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to acute phase injury. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased when treatment with a PAF antagonist (WEB2086) was started after acute phase. In vitro chemotaxis assay using a Boyden chamber demonstrated that PAF exhibits a strong chemotactic activity for macrophages. These results indicate that PAF is involved in pathogenesis of folic acid-induced renal injury by activating neutrophils in acute phase and macrophages in chronic interstitial fibrosis. Inhibiting the PAF pathway might be therapeutic to kidney injury from inflammatory cells. PMID:16651609

  7. Development of transient phage resistance in Campylobacter coli against the group II phage CP84.

    PubMed

    Orquera, Stefanie; Hertwig, Stefan; Alter, Thomas; Hammerl, Jens A; Jirova, Alice; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the use of bacteriophages for pre- and post-harvest applications to reduce foodborne pathogens (including Campylobacter) along the food chain. Quantitative Campylobacter reductions of up to three log10 units have been achieved by phage application. However, possible phage resistance might limit this approach. In Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, phage resistance mechanisms have been described in detail but data on these mechanisms in C. coli are still missing. To study phage resistance in C. coli, strain NCTC 12668 was infected with the lytic phage CP84, belonging to group II of Campylobacter phages. Resistant and sensitive clones were analysed using phenotypic and genotypic assays. C. coli clones acquired only transient resistance against CP84. The resistance led to cross-protection to one out of five other group II phages tested. Phage resistance was apparently neither caused by large genomic rearrangements nor by a CRISPR system. Binding assays demonstrated that CP84 could not adsorb to resistant C. coli clones suggesting a bacterial phage receptor to be involved in resistance. However, phage resistant C. coli clones did not reveal an altered motility or modified flaA sequence. Considering the loss of binding capacity and the reversion to a phage sensitive phenotype we hypothesize that acquired resistance depends on temporal phase variable switch-off modifications of the phage receptor genes, even though the resistance mechanism could not be elucidated in detail. We further speculate that even closely related phages of the same group use different bacterial receptors for binding on C. coli.

  8. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor induces sequestration of extracellular signal-related kinases and selective attenuation of specific epidermal growth factor-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Habib, Amyn A; Chun, Soo Jin; Neel, Benjamin G; Vartanian, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in cancer and correlates with neoplastic progression. Although the biology of this receptor has been the subject of intense investigation, surprisingly little is known about how increased expression of the wild-type EGFR affects downstream signal transduction in cells. We show that increasing the expression of the receptor results in dramatic shifts in signaling with attenuation of EGF-induced Ras, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and Akt activation, as well as amplification of STAT1 and STAT3 signaling. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling and present evidence suggesting that the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling in EGFR-overexpressing cells is a sequestration of ERKs at the cell membrane in EGFR-containing complexes. Increased expression of the EGFR results in an aberrant localization of ERKs to the cell membrane. Furthermore, ERKs become associated with the EGFR in a physical complex in EGFR-overexpressing cells but not in control cells. The EGFR-ERK association is detected in unstimulated cells or on exposure to a low concentration of EGF; under these conditions, ERK activation is minimal. Exposure of these cells to saturating concentrations of EGF results in a decreased membrane localization of ERKs, a concomitant dissociation of ERKs from the EGFR, and restores ERK activation. A similar association can be detected between the EGFR and MEK1 in receptor-overexpressing cells, suggesting that multiple components of the ERK signaling pathway may become trapped in complexes with the EGFR. These findings can be demonstrated in cells transfected to express high levels of the EGFR as well as in cancer cells which naturally overexpress the EGFR and, thus, may be representative of altered EGFR signaling in human cancer.

  9. Genomic characterization provides new insight into Salmonella phage diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen that causes tens of millions of salmonellosis cases globally every year. While the genomic diversity of Salmonella is increasingly well studied, our knowledge of Salmonella phage genomic diversity is still rather limited, despite the contributions of both lysogenic and lytic phages to Salmonella virulence, diversity and ecology (e.g., through horizontal gene transfer and Salmonella lysis). To gain a better understanding of phage diversity in a specific ecological niche, we sequenced 22 Salmonella phages isolated from a number of dairy farms from New York State (United States) and analyzed them using a comparative genomics approach. Results Classification of the 22 phages according to the presence/absence of orthologous genes allowed for classification into 8 well supported clusters. In addition to two phage clusters that represent novel virulent Salmonella phages, we also identified four phage clusters that each contained previously characterized phages from multiple continents. Our analyses also identified two clusters of phages that carry putative virulence (e.g., adhesins) and antimicrobial resistance (tellurite and bicyclomycin) genes as well as virulent and temperate transducing phages. Insights into phage evolution from our analyses include (i) identification of DNA metabolism genes that may facilitate nucleotide synthesis in phages with a G+C % distinct from Salmonella, and (ii) evidence of Salmonella phage tailspike and fiber diversity due to both single nucleotide polymorphisms and major re-arrangements, which may affect the host specificity of Salmonella phages. Conclusions Genomics-based characterization of 22 Salmonella phages isolated from dairy farms allowed for identification of a number of novel Salmonella phages. While the comparative genomics analyses of these phages provide a number of new insights in the evolution and diversity of Salmonella phages, they only represent a first

  10. Therapeutic use of chimeric bacteriophage (phage) lysins in staphylococcal endophthalmitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Phage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases that are produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle to digest the host bacterial cell wall, facilitating the release of mature phage progeny. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chimeric phage lysins against cli...

  11. A severe deficiency of coagulation factor VIIa results in attenuation of the asthmatic response in mice.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Kazuhiko; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2009-05-01

    Eosinophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild-type (WT) mice increased after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, a response that was diminished in comparably challenged low-expressing coagulation factor VII (FVII(tTA/tTA)) mice. Levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and eosinophil-attracting chemokines, eotaxin and RANTES, were also lower in the OVA-challenged FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Eosinophils purified from low-FVII mice underwent apoptosis at a faster rate compared with WT eosinophils, and eosinophil migration in response to eotaxin was reduced in eosinophils obtained from FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous layer thickness were reduced in OVA-treated FVII(tTA/tTA) mice, and addition of exogenous coagulation factor X (FX) enhanced mucin production in human epithelial NCI-H292 cells. Correspondingly, incubation of FX with NCI-H292 cells resulted in activated (a) FX production, suggesting that the components required for FX activation were present on NCI-H292 cells. These results demonstrate that FVIIa functions in the asthmatic response to an allergen by stimulating lung eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucin production, this latter effect through its ability to activate FX in conjunction with tissue factor.

  12. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 attenuates proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoko; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Suzuki, Taeko; Uchida, Eiji; Naito, Zenya; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the extracellular domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-2 generates the IIIb and IIIc isoforms. Expression of FGFR-2 IIIb correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and venous invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). By contrast, FGFR-2 IIIc expression correlates with faster development of liver metastasis after surgery, and increased proliferation rates and invasion of the cancer. In this study, we analyzed the expression and roles of total FGFR-2 (both isoforms) to determine the effectiveness of FGFR-2-targeting therapy for PDAC. Immunohistochemically, FGFR-2 was highly expressed in 25/48 (52.1%) PDAC cases, and correlated with advanced stage cancer. In FISH analysis, FGFR2 was amplified in 3/7 PDAC cell lines. We stably transfected an FGFR-2 shRNA targeting the IIIb and IIIc isoforms into FGFR2-amplified PDAC cells. The proliferation rates, migration, and invasion of FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells were lower than those of control cells in vitro. In response to FGF-2, FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells showed decreased phosphorylation of ERK compared with control cells. The FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells also expressed lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A than control cells, and formed smaller s.c. tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that FGFR-2 is a therapeutic target for inhibition in PDAC. PMID:24975163

  13. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibition attenuates middle cerebral artery remodeling but increases cerebral ischemic damage in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Girgla, Saavia S; Moreno, Guillermo; McClain, Jonathon L; Dorrance, Anne M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension causes vascular inflammation evidenced by an increase in perivascular macrophages and proinflammatory cytokines in the arterial wall. Perivascular macrophage depletion reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in cerebral arteries of hypertensive rats and attenuated inward remodeling, suggesting that TNF-α might play a role in the remodeling process. We hypothesized that TNF-α inhibition would improve middle cerebral artery (MCA) structure and reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in hypertensive rats. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept (ETN; 1.25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip daily) or PBS (equivolume) for 6 wk. The myogenic tone generation, postischemic dilation, and passive structure of MCAs were assessed by pressure myography. Cerebral ischemia was induced by MCA occlusion (MCAO). Myogenic tone was unchanged, but MCAs from SHRSP + ETN had larger passive lumen diameter and reduced wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio. Cerebral infarct size was increased in SHRSP + ETN after transient MCAO, despite an improvement in dilation of nonischemic MCA. The increase in infarct size was linked to a reduction in the number of microglia in the infarct core and upregulation of markers of classical macrophage/microglia polarization. There was no difference in infarct size after permanent MCAO or when untreated SHRSP subjected to transient MCAO were given ETN at reperfusion. Our data suggests that TNF-α inhibition attenuates hypertensive MCA remodeling but exacerbates cerebral damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury likely due to inhibition of the innate immune response of the brain.

  15. Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Hans-W.

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty publications from 2007 to 2012 were classified according to the quality of electron micrographs; namely as good (71); mediocre (21); or poor (168). Publications were from 37 countries; appeared in 77 journals; and included micrographs produced with about 60 models of electron microscopes. The quality of the micrographs was not linked to any country; journal; or electron microscope. Main problems were poor contrast; positive staining; low magnification; and small image size. Unsharp images were frequent. Many phage descriptions were silent on virus purification; magnification control; even the type of electron microscope and stain used. The deterioration in phage electron microscopy can be attributed to the absence of working instructions and electron microscopy courses; incompetent authors and reviewers; and lenient journals. All these factors are able to cause a gradual lowering of standards. PMID:27694773

  16. Replication of Vibrio cholerae classical CTX phage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Chun, Jongsik; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-02-28

    The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication. However, the identification of atypical El Tor strains that contain CTX-cla-like phage, CTX-2, indicates that CTX-cla and CTX-2 replicate and can be transmitted to V. cholerae strains. The replication of CTX-cla and CTX-2 phages and the transduction of El Tor biotype strains by various CTX phages under laboratory conditions are demonstrated in this report. We have established a plasmid-based CTX phage replication system that supports the replication of CTX-1, CTX-cla, CTX-2, and CTX-O139. The replication of CTX-2 from the tandem repeat of lysogenic CTX-2 in Wave 2 El Tor strains is also presented. El Tor biotype strains can be transduced by CTX phages in vitro by introducing a point mutation in toxT, the transcriptional activator of the tcp (toxin coregulated pilus) gene cluster and the cholera toxin gene. This mutation also increases the expression of cholera toxin in El Tor strains in a sample single-phase culture. Our results thus constitute experimental evidence of the genetic mechanism of the evolution of V. cholerae.

  17. Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir

    2014-06-17

    Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed.

  18. Inactivation and reactivation of B. megatherium phage.

    PubMed

    NORTHROP, J H

    1955-11-20

    Preparation of Reversibly Inactivated (R.I.) Phage.- If B. megatherium phage (of any type, or in any stage of purification) is suspended in dilute salt solutions at pH 5-6, it is completely inactivated; i.e., it does not form plaques, or give rise to more phage when mixed with a sensitive organism (Northrop, 1954). The inactivation occurs when the phage is added to the dilute salt solution. If a suspension of the inactive phage in pH 7 peptone is titrated to pH 5 and allowed to stand, the activity gradually returns. The inactivation is therefore reversible. Properties of R.I. Phage.- The R.I. phage is adsorbed by sensitive cells at about the same rate as the active phage. It kills the cells, but no active phage is produced. The R.I. phage therefore has the properties of phage "ghosts" (Herriott, 1951) or of colicines (Gratia, 1925), or phage inactivated by ultraviolet light (Luria, 1947). The R.I. phage is sedimented in the centrifuge at the same rate as active phage. It is therefore about the same size as the active phage. The R.I. phage is most stable in pH 7, 5 per cent peptone, and may be kept in this solution for weeks at 0 degrees C. The rate of digestion of R.I. phage by trypsin, chymotrypsin, or desoxyribonuclease is about the same as that of active phage (Northrop, 1955 a). Effect of Various Substances on the Formation of R.I. Phage.- There is an equilibrium between R.I. phage and active phage. The R.I. form is the stable one in dilute salt solution, pH 5 to 6.5 and at low temperature (<20 degrees C.). At pH >6.5, in dilute salt solution, the R.I. phage changes to the active form. The cycle, active right harpoon over left harpoon inactive phage, may be repeated many times at 0 degrees C. by changing the pH of the solution back and forth between pH 7 and pH 6. Irreversible inactivation is caused by distilled water, some heavy metals, concentrated urea or quanidine solutions, and by l-arginine. Reversible inactivation is prevented by all salts tested (except

  19. Phage-host interplay: examples from tailed phages and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chaturongakul, Soraya; Ounjai, Puey

    2014-01-01

    Complex interactions between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts play significant roles in shaping the structure of environmental microbial communities, not only by genetic transduction but also by modification of bacterial gene expression patterns. Survival of phages solely depends on their ability to infect their bacterial hosts, most importantly during phage entry. Successful dynamic adaptation of bacteriophages when facing selective pressures, such as host adaptation and resistance, dictates their abundance and diversification. Co-evolution of the phage tail fibers and bacterial receptors determine bacterial host ranges, mechanisms of phage entry, and other infection parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the physical interactions between tailed bacteriophages and bacterial pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the influences of the phage on host gene expression. Understanding these interactions can offer insights into phage-host dynamics and suggest novel strategies for the design of bacterial pathogen biological controls.

  20. Reduction of Nup107 attenuates the growth factor signaling in the senescent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Kang, Hyun Tae; Choi, Hae Ri; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Decreased expression of Nup107 in aged cells and organs. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 results in impaired nuclear translocation of p-ERK. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 affects downstream effectors of ERK signaling. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 inhibits cell proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells. -- Abstract: Hypo-responsiveness to growth factors is a fundamental feature of cellular senescence. In this study, we found markedly decreased level of Nup107, a key scaffold protein in nuclear pore complex assembly, in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as well as in organs of aged mice. Depletion of Nup107 by specific siRNA in young human diploid fibroblasts prevented the effective nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, and decreased the expression of c-Fos in consequence. The disturbances in ERK signaling in Nup107 depleted cells closely mirror the similar changes in senescent cells. Knockdown of Nup107 in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells caused cell death, rather than growth retardation, indicating a greater sensitivity to Nup107 depletion in cancer cells than in normal cells. These findings support the notion that Nup107 may contribute significantly to the regulation of cell fate in aged and transformed cells by modulating nuclear trafficking of signal molecules.

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Levels and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) Activity Are Attenuated in the Setting of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Lefer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are endogenous enzymatic sources of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Functions of H2S are mediated by several targets including ion channels and signaling proteins. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element–regulated genes and is known to be upregulated by H2S. We examined the levels of H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation status in skeletal muscle obtained from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods and Results Gastrocnemius tissues were attained postamputation from human CLI and healthy control patients. We found mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to control. H2S and sulfane sulfur levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. We also observed significant reductions in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation as well as antioxidant proteins, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions The data demonstrate that H2S bioavailability and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation are both attenuated in CLI tissues concomitant with significantly increased oxidative stress. Reductions in the activity of H2S-producing enzymes may contribute to the pathogenesis of CLI. PMID:25977470

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Levels and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) Activity Are Attenuated in the Setting of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI).

    PubMed

    Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Lefer, David J

    2015-05-14

    Cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are endogenous enzymatic sources of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Functions of H2S are mediated by several targets including ion channels and signaling proteins. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element-regulated genes and is known to be upregulated by H2S. We examined the levels of H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation status in skeletal muscle obtained from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Gastrocnemius tissues were attained postamputation from human CLI and healthy control patients. We found mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to control. H2S and sulfane sulfur levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. We also observed significant reductions in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation as well as antioxidant proteins, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to healthy controls. The data demonstrate that H2S bioavailability and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation are both attenuated in CLI tissues concomitant with significantly increased oxidative stress. Reductions in the activity of H2S-producing enzymes may contribute to the pathogenesis of CLI. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Reporter phage and breath tests: emerging phenotypic assays for diagnosing active tuberculosis, antibiotic resistance, and treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Paras; Thaler, David S; Maiga, Mamoudou; Timmins, Graham S; Bishai, William R; Hatfull, Graham F; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R

    2011-11-15

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) and its drug susceptibility remain a challenge. Phenotypic assays allow determination of antibiotic susceptibilities even if sequence data are not available or informative. We review 2 emerging diagnostic approaches, reporter phage and breath tests, both of which assay mycobacterial metabolism. The reporter phage signal, Green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-galactosidase, indicates transcription and translation inside the recipient bacilli and its attenuation by antibiotics. Different breath tests assay, (1) exhaled antigen 85, (2) mycobacterial urease activity, and (3) detection by trained rats of disease-specific odor in sputum, have also been developed. When compared with culture, reporter phage assays shorten the time for initial diagnosis of drug susceptibility by several days. Both reporter phage and breath tests have promise as early markers to determine the efficacy of treatment. While sputum often remains smear and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA positive early in the course of efficacious antituberculous treatment, we predict that both breath and phage tests will rapidly become negative. If this hypothesis proves correct, phage assays and breath tests could become important surrogate markers in early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies of new antibiotics.

  4. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Majuta, Lisa A.; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N.; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain–related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti–nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains. PMID:25599311

  5. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Majuta, Lisa A; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain-related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti-nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains.

  6. Scutellarin Attenuates Hypertension-Induced Expression of Brain Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingyong; Shi, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Xu; Lei, Huixin; Long, Simei; Su, Huanxing; Pei, Zhong; Huang, Ruxun

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with low-grade inflammation, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be linked to the development and maintenance of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of scutellarin (administered by oral gavage daily for 2 weeks) on brain TLR4/nuclear factor kappa B-(NF-κB-) mediated inflammation and blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive (using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method) rats. Immunofluorescence and western immunoblot analyses revealed that hypertension contributed to the activation of TLR4 and NF-κB, accompanied by significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Furthermore, expression of the antiapoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl1), was decreased, and the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and cleavedcaspase-3 p17 were increased in combined cerebral cortical/striatal soluble lysates. Scutellarin significantly lowered blood pressure and attenuated the number of activated microglia and macrophages in brains of hypertensive rats. Furthermore, scutellarin significantly reduced the expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 p17, and increased the expression of Mcl1. Overall, these results revealed that scutellarin exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and decreases blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Therefore, scutellarin may be a potential therapeutic agent in hypertension-associated diseases. PMID:24223475

  7. BMP-7 attenuates liver fibrosis via regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Xiong, Li-Jun; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zou, Zhuo-Lin; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Cao, Su-Ting; Lin, Zhuo; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in vivo and on the hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation in vitro. In vivo, thirty male ICR mice were randomly allocated to three groups, the control group (n = 6), the CCl4 group (n = 18) and the BMP-7+CCl4 group (n = 6). The model of liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection with CCl4 three times per week lasting for 12 weeks in CCl4 group and the BMP-7+CCl4 group. After 8 weeks injection with CCl4, mice were intraperitoneal injected with human recombinant BMP-7 in BMP-7+CCl4 group. Meanwhile, mice in the CCl4 group were only intraperitoneal injection with equal amount of saline. The degree of liver fibrosis was assessed by HE and Masson's staining. PCR and western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein levels. In BMP-7+CCl4 group, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aminotransferase (AST) were decreased and serum albumin (Alb) was increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were down-regulated by BMP-7 intervention as compared to the CCl4 group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BMP-7 also suppressed the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated-epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR). HE and Masson stain showed that liver damage was alleviated in BMP-7+CCl4 group. In vitro study, expression of EGFR, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were down regulated by BMP-7 dose-dependently, indicating it might effect on suppression of HSC activation. Therefore, our data indicate BMP-7 was capable of inhibiting liver fibrosis and suppressing HSCs activation, and these effects might rely on its crosstalk with EGFR and TGF-β1. We suggest that BMP-7 may be a potential reagentfor the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

  8. Evidence of Geobacter-associated phage in a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Williams, Kenneth H; Luef, Birgit; Wilkins, Michael J; Wrighton, Kelly C; Thompson, Courtney A; Comolli, Luis R; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Geobacter species may be important agents in the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface, but as yet unknown factors limit the in situ growth of subsurface Geobacter well below rates predicted by analysis of gene expression or in silico metabolic modeling. Analysis of the genomes of five different Geobacter species recovered from contaminated subsurface sites indicated that each of the isolates had been infected with phage. Geobacter-associated phage sequences were also detected by metagenomic and proteomic analysis of samples from a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing in situ bioremediation, and phage particles were detected by microscopic analysis in groundwater collected from sediment enrichment cultures. Transcript abundance for genes from the Geobacter-associated phage structural proteins, tail tube Gp19 and baseplate J, increased in the groundwater in response to the growth of Geobacter species when acetate was added, and then declined as the number of Geobacter decreased. Western blot analysis of a Geobacter-associated tail tube protein Gp19 in the groundwater demonstrated that its abundance tracked with the abundance of Geobacter species. These results suggest that the enhanced growth of Geobacter species in the subsurface associated with in situ uranium bioremediation increased the abundance and activity of Geobacter-associated phage and show that future studies should focus on how these phages might be influencing the ecology of this site. PMID:25083935

  9. Evidence of Geobacter-associated phage in a uranium-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Williams, Kenneth H; Luef, Birgit; Wilkins, Michael J; Wrighton, Kelly C; Thompson, Courtney A; Comolli, Luis R; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-02-01

    Geobacter species may be important agents in the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface, but as yet unknown factors limit the in situ growth of subsurface Geobacter well below rates predicted by analysis of gene expression or in silico metabolic modeling. Analysis of the genomes of five different Geobacter species recovered from contaminated subsurface sites indicated that each of the isolates had been infected with phage. Geobacter-associated phage sequences were also detected by metagenomic and proteomic analysis of samples from a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing in situ bioremediation, and phage particles were detected by microscopic analysis in groundwater collected from sediment enrichment cultures. Transcript abundance for genes from the Geobacter-associated phage structural proteins, tail tube Gp19 and baseplate J, increased in the groundwater in response to the growth of Geobacter species when acetate was added, and then declined as the number of Geobacter decreased. Western blot analysis of a Geobacter-associated tail tube protein Gp19 in the groundwater demonstrated that its abundance tracked with the abundance of Geobacter species. These results suggest that the enhanced growth of Geobacter species in the subsurface associated with in situ uranium bioremediation increased the abundance and activity of Geobacter-associated phage and show that future studies should focus on how these phages might be influencing the ecology of this site.

  10. Antirepression System Associated with the Life Cycle Switch in the Temperate Podoviridae Phage SPC32H

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsik

    2013-01-01

    Prophages switch from lysogenic to lytic mode in response to the host SOS response. The primary factor that governs this switch is a phage repressor, which is typically a host RecA-dependent autocleavable protein. Here, in an effort to reveal the mechanism underlying the phenotypic differences between the Salmonella temperate phages SPC32H and SPC32N, whose genome sequences differ by only two nucleotides, we identified a new class of Podoviridae phage lytic switch antirepressor that is structurally distinct from the previously reported Sipho- and Myoviridae phage antirepressors. The SPC32H repressor (Rep) is not cleaved by the SOS response but instead is inactivated by a small antirepressor (Ant), the expression of which is negatively controlled by host LexA. A single nucleotide mutation in the consensus sequence of the LexA-binding site, which overlaps with the ant promoter, results in constitutive Ant synthesis and consequently induces SPC32N to enter the lytic cycle. Numerous potential Ant homologues were identified in a variety of putative prophages and temperate Podoviridae phages, indicating that antirepressors may be widespread among temperate phages in the order Caudovirales to mediate a prudent prophage induction. PMID:23986584

  11. Gonadotropin Surge-inhibiting/attenuating Factors: A Review of Current Evidence, Potential Applications, and Future Directions for Research

    PubMed Central

    VEGA, MARIO G.; ZAREK, SHVETHA M.; BHAGWAT, MEDHA; SEGARS, JAMES H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal studies in the 1980s suggested the existence of an ovarian hormone, termed gonadotropin surge-inhibiting/attenuating factor (GnSIF/AF), that modulates pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Given the importance of identifying regulatory factors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the accumulating data suggesting its existence, we conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase to identify articles related to GnSIF/AF. The search generated 161 publications, of which 97 were included in this study. Several attempts have been made to identify and characterize this hormone and several candidates have been identified, but the protein sequences of these putative GnSIF/AF factors differ widely from one study to another. In addition, while the RF-amide RFRP-3 is known foremost as a neuropeptide, some research supports an ovarian origin for this non-steroidal hormone, thereby suggesting a role for RFRP-3 either as a co-modulator of GnSIF/AF or as a gonadotropin-inhibiting factor in the hypothalamus (GnIH). Discovery of the KNDy neurons that modulate GnRH secretion, on the other hand, further encourages the search for substance(s) that modulate their activity and that indirectly affect LH secretion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. While it has remained an elusive hormone, GnSIF/AF holds many potential applications for contraception, in vitro fertilization, and/or cancer as well as for understanding polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic diseases, and/or pubertal development. In this review, we rigorously examine the available evidence regarding the existence of GnSIF/AF, previous attempts at its identification, limitations to its discovery, future directions of research, and potential clinical applications. PMID:25581424

  12. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors attenuate transforming-growth-factor-beta 1-stimulated capillary organization in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Papapetropoulos, A.; Desai, K. M.; Rudic, R. D.; Mayer, B.; Zhang, R.; Ruiz-Torres, M. P.; García-Cardeña, G.; Madri, J. A.; Sessa, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involving endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and organization into patent capillary networks. Nitric oxide (NO), an EC mediator, has been reported to be antigenic as well as proangiogenic in different models of in vivo angiogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the role of NO in capillary organization using rat microvascular ECs (RFCs) grown in three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels. RFCs placed in 3D cultures exhibited extensive tube formation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 1. Addition of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors L-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 1 mmol/L) or L-monomethyl-nitro-l-arginine (1 mmol/L) inhibited tube formation and the accumulation of nitrite in the media by approximately 50%. Incubation of the 3D cultures with excess L-arginine reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on tube formation. In contrast to the results obtained in 3D cultures, inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME did not influence RFC proliferation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or antagonize the ability of transforming growth factor-beta 1 to suppress EC proliferation in 2D cultures. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed the constitutive expression of all three NOS isoforms, neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOSs, in 2D and 3D cultures. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive protein for all NOS isoforms in 3D cultures of RFCs. In addition, in the face of NOS blockade, co-treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the stable analog of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP, restored capillary tube formation. Thus, the autocrine production of NO and the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase are necessary events in the process of differentiation and in vitro capillary tube organization of RFCs. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9137106

  13. Nerve growth factor attenuates cholinergic deficits following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C E; Flinn, P; Bao, J; Venya, R; Hayes, R L

    1997-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in chronic derangements in central cholinergic neurotransmission that may contribute to posttraumatic memory deficits. Intraventricular cannula (IVC) nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion can reduce axotomy-induced spatial memory deficits and morphologic changes observed in medial septal cholinergic neurons immunostained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). We examined the efficacy of NGF to (1) ameliorate reduced posttraumatic spatial memory performance, (2) release of hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), and (3) ChAT immunoreactivity in the rat medial septum. Rats (n = 36) were trained prior to TBI on the functional tasks and retested on Days 1-5 (motor) and on Day 7 (memory retention). Immediately following injury, an IVC and osmotic pump were implanted, and NGF or vehicle was infused for 7 days. While there were no differences in motor performance, the NGF-treated group had significantly better spatial memory retention (P < 0.05) than the vehicle-treated group. The IVC cannula was then removed on Day 7, and a microdialysis probe was placed into the dorsal hippocampus. After a 22-h equilibration period, samples were collected prior to and after administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg), which evoked ACh release by blocking autoreceptors. The posttraumatic reduction in scopolamine-evoked ACh release was completely reversed with NGF. Injury produced a bilateral reduction in the number and cross-sectional area of ChAT immunopositive medial septal neurons that was reversed by NGF treatment. These data suggest that cognitive but not motor deficits following TBI are, in part, mediated by chronic deficits in cholinergic systems that can be modulated by neurotrophic factors such as NGF.

  14. Connective tissue growth factor hammerhead ribozyme attenuates human hepatic stellate cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Run-Ping; Brigstock, David R

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) on human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function. METHODS: CCN2 hammerhead ribozyme cDNA plus two self-cleaving sequences were inserted into pTriEx2 to produce pTriCCN2-Rz. Each vector was individually transfected into cultured LX-2 human HSCs, which were then stimulated by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to the culture medium. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels for CCN2 or collagen I, while protein levels of each molecule in cell lysates and conditioned medium were measured by ELISA. Cell-cycle progression of the transfected cells was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In pTriEx2-transfected LX-2 cells, TGF-β1 treatment caused an increase in the mRNA level for CCN2 or collagen I, and an increase in produced and secreted CCN2 or extracellular collagen I protein levels. pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells showed decreased basal CCN2 or collagen mRNA levels, as well as produced and secreted CCN2 or collagen I protein. Furthermore, the TGF-β1-induced increase in mRNA or protein for CCN2 or collagen I was inhibited partially in pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells. Inhibition of CCN2 using hammerhead ribozyme cDNA resulted in fewer of the cells transitioning into S phase. CONCLUSION: Endogenous CCN2 is a mediator of basal or TGF-β1-induced collagen I production in human HSCs and regulates entry of the cells into S phase. PMID:19673024

  15. Nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate attenuates gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    El Eter, Eman; Hagar, Hanan H; Al-Tuwaijiri, Ali; Arafa, Maha

    2005-06-01

    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The present study examined the impact of PDTC preconditioning on gastric protection in response to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the rat stomach. Male Wistar rats were recruited and divided into 3 groups (n = 7). One group was subjected to gastric ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 1 hour. The second group of rats was preconditioned with PDTC (200 mg/kg body mass i.v.) 15 min prior to ischemia and before reperfusion. The third group of rats was sham-operated and served as the control group. Gastric I/R injury increased serum lactate dehydrogenase level, vascular permeability of gastric mucosa (as indicated by Evans blue dye extravasation) and gastric content of inflammatory cytokine; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Moreover, oxidative stress was increased as indicated by elevated lipid peroxides formation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and depleted reduced glutathione in gastric tissues. NF-kappaB translocation was also detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Microscopically, gastric tissues subjected to I/R injury showed ulceration, hemorrhages, and neutrophil infiltration. Immunohistochemical studies of gastric sections revealed increased expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. PDTC pretreatment reduced Evans blue extravasation, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, gastric TNF-alpha levels, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, and increased gastric glutathione content. Moreover, PDTC pretreatment abolished p53 expression and inhibited NF-kappaB translocation. Finally, histopathological changes were nearly restored by PDTC pretreatment. These results clearly demonstrate that NF-kappaB activation and pro-apoptotic protein p53 induction are involved in gastric I/R injury. PDTC protects against gastric I/R injury by an antioxidant, NF-kappaB inhibition, and by reduction of pro

  16. Three New Escherichia coli Phages from the Human Gut Show Promising Potential for Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Marion; Strain, Ronan; Neve, Horst; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Cousin, Fabien J.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria the use of bacteriophages (phages) is gaining renewed interest as promising anti-microbial agents. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize phages from human fecal samples. Three new coliphages, ɸAPCEc01, ɸAPCEc02 and ɸAPCEc03, were isolated. Their phenotypic and genomic characteristics, and lytic activity against biofilm, and in combination with ciprofloxacin, were investigated. All three phages reduced the growth of E. coli strain DPC6051 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) between 10−3 and 105. A cocktail of all three phages completely inhibited the growth of E. coli. The phage cocktail also reduced biofilm formation and prevented the emergence of phage-resistant mutants which occurred with single phage. When combined with ciprofloxacin, phage alone or in cocktail inhibited the growth of E. coli and prevented the emergence of resistant mutants. These three new phages are promising biocontrol agents for E. coli infections. PMID:27280590

  17. Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics stimulate virulent phage growth.

    PubMed

    Comeau, André M; Tétart, Françoise; Trojet, Sabrina N; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Krisch, H M

    2007-08-29

    Although the multiplication of bacteriophages (phages) has a substantial impact on the biosphere, comparatively little is known about how the external environment affects phage production. Here we report that sub-lethal concentrations of certain antibiotics can substantially stimulate the host bacterial cell's production of some virulent phage. For example, a low dosage of cefotaxime, a cephalosporin, increased an uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain's production of the phage PhiMFP by more than 7-fold. We name this phenomenon Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS). A related effect was observed in diverse host-phage systems, including the T4-like phages, with beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics, as well as mitomycin C. A common characteristic of these antibiotics is that they inhibit bacterial cell division and trigger the SOS system. We therefore examined the PAS effect within the context of the bacterial SOS and filamentation responses. We found that the PAS effect appears SOS-independent and is primarily a consequence of cellular filamentation; it is mimicked by cells that constitutively filament. The fact that completely unrelated phages manifest this phenomenon suggests that it confers an important and general advantage to the phages.

  18. An improved helper phage system for efficient isolation of specific antibody molecules in phage display.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyunjung; Suk, Kyoung-ho; Kim, Yong-hwan; Cha, Sanghoon

    2002-03-01

    Phage display technology has been applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences to study molecular interactions and especially in the generation of monoclonal antibodies of human origin. However, extremely low display level of antibody molecules on the surface of phage is an intrinsic problem of a phagemid-based display system resulting in low success rate of isolating specific binding molecules. We show here that display of single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) generated with pIGT3 phagemid can be increased dramatically by using a genetically modified Ex-phage. Ex-phage has a mutant pIII gene that produces a functional wild-type pIII in suppressing Escherichia coli strains but does not make any pIII in non-suppressing E.coli strains. Packaging phagemids encoding antibody-pIII fusion in F+ non-suppressing E.coli strains with Ex-phage enhanced the display level of antibody fragments on the surfaces of recombinant phage particles resulting in an increase of antigen-binding reactivity >100-fold compared to packaging with M13KO7 helper phage. Thus, the Ex-phage and pIGT3 phagemid vector provides a system for the efficient enrichment of specific binding antibodies from a phage display library and, thereby, increases the chance of obtaining more diverse antibodies specific for target antigens.

  19. Phage as a modulator of immune responses: practical implications for phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Górski, Andrzej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Piotr; Ohams, Monika; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Olszowska-Zaremba, Natasza; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzena; Kłak, Marlena; Jończyk, Ewa; Kaniuga, Ewelina; Gołaś, Aneta; Purchla, Sylwia; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Fortuna, Wojciech; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłosowska, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Although the natural hosts for bacteriophages are bacteria, a growing body of data shows that phages can also interact with some populations of mammalian cells, especially with cells of the immune system. In general, these interactions include two main aspects. The first is the phage immunogenicity, that is, the capacity of phages to induce specific immune responses, in particular the generation of specific antibodies against phage antigens. The other aspect includes the immunomodulatory activity of phages, that is, the nonspecific effects of phages on different functions of major populations of immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. These functions include, among others, phagocytosis and the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, the production of cytokines, and the generation of antibodies against nonphage antigens. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the interactions between phages and cells of the immune system, along with their implications for phage therapy. These topics are presented based on the results of experimental studies and unique data on immunomodulatory effects found in patients with bacterial infections treated with phage preparations.

  20. Fenofibrate attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation through suppression of nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingyun; Emmett, Nerimiah; Mann, David; Zhao, Xueying

    2011-01-01

    Fibrates, the ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, have been shown to have a renal protective action in diabetic models of renal disease, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. In the present study, we sought to investigate in greater detail the effect of fenofibrate and its mechanism of action on renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twelve-week-old non-diabetic Zucker lean (ZL) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZD) rats were treated with vehicle or fenofibrate for 10 weeks. mRNA and protein analyses were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunostaining. The diabetic condition of ZD rats was associated with an increase in collagen and α-smooth muscle actin accumulation in the kidney, which was significantly reduced by fenofibrate. Chronic treatment of ZD rats with fenofibrate attenuated renal inflammation and tubular injury as evidenced by a decrease in mRNA and protein expression of secreted phosphoprotein-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and kidney injury molecule-1 in the kidneys. Renal interstitial macrophage infiltration was also significantly reduced in the kidneys of fenofibrate-treated diabetic animals. Moreover, renal nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA-binding activity, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and phospho-Smad3 proteins were significantly higher in ZD animals compared with ZL ones. This increase in NF-κB activity, TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation was greatly attenuated by fenofibrate in the diabetic kidneys. Taken together, fenofibrate suppressed NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathways and reduced renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic ZD animals. PMID:20404057

  1. The SMAC mimetic birinapant attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation in Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiang; Liao, Rui; He, Kun; Zhu, Xiwen; Li, Peizhi; Gong, Jianping

    2017-03-09

    It was demonstrated that second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic inhibites tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) degradation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. However, the effect of Smac mimetic in vivo is not clear. The present study was to investigate the role of Smac mimetic in LPS-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanism. An animal model of LPS-induced liver injury was established by intraperitoneally injecting mice with 10mg/kg LPS pretreatment with or without Smac mimetic birinapant (30mg/kg body weight). Birinapant significantly improved the survival rate of endotoxemic mice (P<0.05) and attenuated LPS-induced liver pathologic damage and inflammatory response. IL-1 and TNF-α levels in the serum were markedly decreased in birinapant pretreatment mice compared with control mice (P<0.05).The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) expression in liver resident macrophage (Kupffer cells, KCs) was significantly decreased in the Birinapant group compared to the Vehicle group (P<0.05). At the same time, total TRAF3 protein abundance in KCs rapidly declined after LPS stimulation in the Vehicle group. However, it remained constant in the Birinapant group. Moreover, K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 in KCs was markedly impressed in the birinapant group compared with the control group. At last, the JNK and p38 MAPK activation in KCs was significantly inhibited by birinapant pretreatment (P<0.05). These results suggested that birinapant attenuated liver injury and improved survival rates in endotoxemic mice by inhibited the expression of cIAP1, degradation of TRAF3 and aviation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  2. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates triglyceride and inflammatory factors level in hfat-1 transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingxing; Pang, Daxin; Yuan, Ting; Li, Zhuang; Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Mingjun; Ren, Wenzhi; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-10

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important to human health, especially in cases of cardiovascular disease. Although beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs have been observed in a number of studies, the mechanisms involved in these effects have yet to be discovered. We generated hfat-1 transgenic pigs with traditional somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The fatty acid composition in ear tissue of pigs were detected with gas chromatography. The cholesterol, triglycerides (TAG) and inflammation mediators in circulation were investigated. The hfat-1 transgenic pigs were developed which accumulate high levels of n-3 PUFAs than wild-types pigs. Gas chromatography results demonstrated that the total n-3 PUFAs in the ear tissues of the transgenic founders were 2-fold higher than the wild-type pigs. A lipid analysis demonstrated that the levels of TAG in the transgenic pigs were decreased significantly. The basal levels of the inflammation mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transgenic pigs were inhibited markedly compared with the wild-type pigs. These results suggest that n-3 PUFAs accumulation in vivo may have beneficial effects on vascular and hfat-1 transgenic pigs may be a useful tool for investigating the involved mechanisms.

  3. Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vipul; Shukla, Ashima; Joshi, Shantaram S; Lu, Runqing

    2016-07-05

    Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4-/-Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4-/-Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4-/-Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development.

  4. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor attenuates endothelial hyperpermeability after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingling; Chen, Lei; Shu, Bin; Tang, Jinming; Zhang, Lijun; Xie, Julin; Liu, Xusheng; Xu, Yingbin; Qi, Shaohai

    2015-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability followed by burn injury is the main cause of shock, and cardiovascular collapse can result if the condition is treated improperly. Our previous studies demonstrated that granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) clearly reduces microvascular permeability and protects microvessels against burn injury. However, the mechanism underlying the protective function of GM-CSF on burn-injured microvessels remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of GM-CSF on endothelial cells after exposure to burn serum. We demonstrated that GM-CSF reduced post-burn endothelial "capillary leak" by inhibiting the activity of RhoA and maintaining the membrane localization of VE-cadherin. Membranous VE-cadherin enhances adherens junctions between endothelial cells and co-localizes with and activates VEGFR2, which protect cells from burn serum-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the protective mechanism of GM-CSF on burn serum-injured endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability is achieved by strengthening cell adherens junctions and improving cell viability.

  5. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates atherosclerosis via decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lintao; Huang, Zhouqing; Huang, Weijian; Chen, Xuemei; Shan, Peiren; Zhong, Peng; Khan, Zia; Wang, Jingying; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Guang; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. In the present study, we have elucidated the role of EGFR in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. We show increased EGFR phosphorylation and activity in atherosclerotic lesion development. EGFR inhibition prevented oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and SMC proliferation within the lesions. We further show that EGFR is activated through toll-like receptor 4. Disruption of toll-like receptor 4 or the EGFR pathway led to reduced inflammatory activity and foam cell formation. These studies provide evidence that EGFR plays a key role on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggests that EGFR may be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of atherosclerosis development. PMID:28374780

  6. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A Attenuation of CpG-Induced Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Saifee, Jessica F.; Torres, Raul M.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) had previously been shown to act as a damage associated molecular pattern with the ability to enhance CpG-A phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-mediated stimulation of IFNα production from human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Examination of the mechanism by which TFAM might influence CpG ODN mediated innate immune responses revealed that TFAM binds directly, tightly and selectively to the structurally related CpG-A, -B, and -C ODN. TFAM also modulated the ability of the CpG-B or -C to stimulate the production of antibodies from human B cells. TFAM showed a dose-dependent modulation of CpG-B, and -C -induced antibody production from human B cells in vitro, with enhancement of high dose and inhibition of low doses of CpG stimulation. This effect was linked to the ability of TFAM to directly inhibit the binding of CpG ODNs to B cells, in a manner consistent with the relative binding affinities of TFAM for the ODNs. These data suggest that TFAM alters the free concentration of the CpG available to stimulate B cells by sequestering this ODN in a TFAM-CpG complex. Thus, TFAM has the potential to decrease the pathogenic consequences of exposure to natural CpG-like hypomethylated DNA in vivo, as well as such as that found in traumatic injury, infection, autoimmune disease and during pregnancy. PMID:27280778

  7. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A Attenuation of CpG-Induced Antibody Production.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, Christopher S; Gustafson, Claire E; Saifee, Jessica F; Torres, Raul M; Churchill, Mair E A; Janoff, Edward N

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) had previously been shown to act as a damage associated molecular pattern with the ability to enhance CpG-A phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-mediated stimulation of IFNα production from human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Examination of the mechanism by which TFAM might influence CpG ODN mediated innate immune responses revealed that TFAM binds directly, tightly and selectively to the structurally related CpG-A, -B, and -C ODN. TFAM also modulated the ability of the CpG-B or -C to stimulate the production of antibodies from human B cells. TFAM showed a dose-dependent modulation of CpG-B, and -C -induced antibody production from human B cells in vitro, with enhancement of high dose and inhibition of low doses of CpG stimulation. This effect was linked to the ability of TFAM to directly inhibit the binding of CpG ODNs to B cells, in a manner consistent with the relative binding affinities of TFAM for the ODNs. These data suggest that TFAM alters the free concentration of the CpG available to stimulate B cells by sequestering this ODN in a TFAM-CpG complex. Thus, TFAM has the potential to decrease the pathogenic consequences of exposure to natural CpG-like hypomethylated DNA in vivo, as well as such as that found in traumatic injury, infection, autoimmune disease and during pregnancy.

  8. Multipronged attenuation of macrophage-colony stimulating factor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus BARF1

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; Chang, Rhoda Ahn; Chen, Xiaoyan; Longnecker, Richard; He, Xiaolin

    2014-10-02

    The ubiquitous EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several types of cancers. The EBV genome encodes an early gene product, BARF1, which contributes to pathogenesis, potentially through growth-altering and immune-modulating activities, but the mechanisms for such activities are poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of BARF1 in complex with human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a hematopoietic cytokine with pleiotropic functions in development and immune response. BARF1 and M-CSF form a high-affinity, stable, ring-like complex in both solution and the crystal, with a BARF1 hexameric ring surrounded by three M-CSF dimers in triangular array. The binding of BARF1 to M-CSF dramatically reduces but does not completely abolish M-CSF binding and signaling through its cognate receptor FMS. A three-pronged down-regulation mechanism is proposed to explain the biological effect of BARF1 on M-CSF:FMS signaling. These prongs entail control of the circulating and effective local M-CSF concentration, perturbation of the receptor-binding surface of M-CSF, and imposition of an unfavorable global orientation of the M-CSF dimer. Each prong may reduce M-CSF:FMS signaling to a limited extent but in combination may alter M-CSF:FMS signaling dramatically. The downregulating mechanism of BARF1 underlines a viral modulation strategy, and provides a basis for understanding EBV pathogenesis.

  9. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates atherosclerosis via decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lintao; Huang, Zhouqing; Huang, Weijian; Chen, Xuemei; Shan, Peiren; Zhong, Peng; Khan, Zia; Wang, Jingying; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Guang; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-04

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. In the present study, we have elucidated the role of EGFR in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. We show increased EGFR phosphorylation and activity in atherosclerotic lesion development. EGFR inhibition prevented oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and SMC proliferation within the lesions. We further show that EGFR is activated through toll-like receptor 4. Disruption of toll-like receptor 4 or the EGFR pathway led to reduced inflammatory activity and foam cell formation. These studies provide evidence that EGFR plays a key role on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggests that EGFR may be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of atherosclerosis development.

  10. Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Receptor Deletion or Antagonism Attenuates Severe HSV-1 Meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Pedroso, Vinicius Sousa Pietra; de Miranda, Aline Silva; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Campos, Marco Antônio; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that may cause severe encephalitis. The exacerbated immune response against the virus contributes to the disease severity and death. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a mediator capable of inducing increase in vascular permeability, production of cytokines on endothelial cells and leukocytes. We aimed to investigate the activation of PAF receptor (PAFR) and its contribution to the severity of the inflammatory response in the brain following HSV-1 infection. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and PAFR deficient (PAFR(-/-)) mice were inoculated intracranially with 10(4) plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1. Visualization of leukocyte recruitment was performed using intravital microscopy. Cells infiltration in the brain tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. Brain was removed for chemokine assessment by ELISA and for histopathological analysis. The pharmacological inhibition by the PAFR antagonist UK-74,505 was also analyzed. In PAFR(-/-) mice, there was delayed lethality but no difference in viral load. Histopathological analysis of infected PAFR(-/-) mice showed that brain lesions were less severe when compared to their WT counterparts. Moreover, PAFR(-/-) mice showed less TCD4(+), TCD8(+) and macrophages in brain tissue. This reduction of the presence of leukocytes in parenchyma may be mechanistically explained by a decrease in leukocytes rolling and adhesion. PAFR(-/-) mice also presented a reduction of the chemokine CXCL9 in the brain. In addition, by antagonizing PAFR, survival of C57BL/6 infected mice increased. Altogether, our data suggest that PAFR plays a role in the pathogenesis of experimental HSV-1 meningoencephalitis, and its blockade prevents severe disease manifestation.

  11. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases.

  12. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  13. Triptolide Upregulates Myocardial Forkhead Helix Transcription Factor p3 Expression and Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jing-Mei; Guo, Feng-Jie; Liu, Ya; Tong, Yang-Fei; Pan, Xi-Chun; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ye, Wen; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Fox) p3 can regulate the expression of various genes, and it has been reported that the transfer of Foxp3-positive T cells could ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Triptolide (TP) can elevate the expression of Foxp3, but its effects on cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) were isolated and stimulated with angiotensin II (1 μmol/L) to induce hypertrophic response. The expression of Foxp3 in NRVM was observed by using immunofluorescence assay. Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups and received vehicle (control), isoproterenol (Iso, 5 mg/kg, s.c.), one of three doses of TP (10, 30, or 90 μg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days, respectively. The pathological morphology changes were observed after Hematoxylin and eosin, lectin and Masson’s trichrome staining. The levels of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and troponin I were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of α- myosin heavy chain (MHC), β-MHC and Foxp3 were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. It was shown that TP (1, 3, 10 μg/L) treatment significantly decreased cell size, mRNA and protein expression of β-MHC, and upregulated Foxp3 expression in NRVM. TP also decreased heart weight index, left ventricular weight index and, improved myocardial injury and fibrosis; and decreased the cross-scetional area of the myocardium, serum cardiac troponin and BNP. Additionally, TP markedly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of myocardial β-MHC and elevated the mRNA and protein expression of α-MHC and Foxp3 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TP can effectively ameliorate myocardial damage and inhibit cardiac hypertrophy, which is at least partly related to the elevation of Foxp3 expression in cardiomyocytes. PMID:27965581

  14. Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail†

    PubMed Central

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae λ has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with λ with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with λ and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures. PMID:16707689

  15. Anatomy of a lactococcal phage tail.

    PubMed

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F M L; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Vogensen, Finn K; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-06-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae lambda has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with lambda with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with lambda and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures.

  16. Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium Phage Waterfoul

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Paige N.; Embry, Ella K.; Johnson, Christa O.; Watson, Tiara L.; Weast, Sayre K.; DeGraw, Caroline J.; Douglas, Jessica R.; Sellers, J. Michael; D’Angelo, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfoul is a newly isolated temperate siphovirus of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. It was identified as a member of the K5 cluster of Mycobacterium phages and has a 61,248-bp genome with 95 predicted genes. PMID:27856585

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 participates in adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress and attenuates obesity-induced hepatic metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Back, Sung Hoon; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone that exhibits anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activity. FGF21 expression is increased in patients with and mouse models of obesity or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the functional role and molecular mechanism of FGF21 induction in obesity or NAFLD are not clear. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered in obesity and NAFLD, we investigated whether ER stress affects FGF21 expression or whether FGF21 induction acts as a mechanism of the unfolded protein response (UPR) adaptation to ER stress induced by chemical stressors or obesity. Hepatocytes or mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in UPR signalling pathways and liver-specific eIF2α mutant mice were employed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of ER stress on FGF21 expression, respectively. The in vivo importance of FGF21 induction by ER stress and obesity was determined using inducible Fgf21-transgenic mice and Fgf21-null mice with or without leptin deficiency. We found that ER stressors induced FGF21 expression, which was dependent on a PKR-like ER kinase-eukaryotic translation factor 2α-activating transcription factor 4 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Fgf21-null mice exhibited increased expression of ER stress marker genes and augmented hepatic lipid accumulation after tunicamycin treatment. However, these changes were attenuated in inducible Fgf21-transgenic mice. We also observed that Fgf21-null mice with leptin deficiency displayed increased hepatic ER stress response and liver injury, accompanied by deteriorated metabolic variables. Our results suggest that FGF21 plays an important role in the adaptive response to ER stress- or obesity-induced hepatic metabolic stress.

  18. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  19. Probing ADAMTS13 substrate specificity using phage display.

    PubMed

    Desch, Karl C; Kretz, Colin; Yee, Andrew; Gildersleeve, Robert; Metzger, Kristin; Agrawal, Nidhi; Cheng, Jane; Ginsburg, David

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large, multimeric protein that regulates hemostasis by tethering platelets to the subendothelial matrix at sites of vascular damage. The procoagulant activity of plasma VWF correlates with the length of VWF multimers, which is proteolytically controlled by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. To probe ADAMTS13 substrate specificity, we created phage display libraries containing randomly mutated residues of a minimal ADAMTS13 substrate fragment of VWF, termed VWF73. The libraries were screened for phage particles displaying VWF73 mutant peptides that were resistant to proteolysis by ADAMTS13. These peptides exhibited the greatest mutation frequency near the ADAMTS13 scissile residues. Kinetic assays using mutant and wild-type substrates demonstrated excellent agreement between rates of cleavage for mutant phage particles and the corresponding mutant peptides. Cleavage resistance of selected mutations was tested in vivo using hydrodynamic injection of corresponding full-length expression plasmids into VWF-deficient mice. These studies confirmed the resistance to cleavage resulting from select amino acid substitutions and uncovered evidence of alternate cleavage sites and recognition by other proteases in the circulation of ADAMTS13 deficient mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the key role of specific amino acids residues including P3-P2' and P11', for substrate specificity and emphasize the importance in flowing blood of other ADAMTS13-VWF exosite interactions outside of VWF73.

  20. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. PMID:23239510

  1. Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasifar, Reza; Griffiths, Mansel W.; Sabour, Parviz M.; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Vandersteegen, Katrien; Lavigne, Rob; Noben, Jean-Paul; Alanis Villa, Argentina; Abbasifar, Arash; Nash, John H.E.; Kropinski, Andrew M.

    2014-07-15

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663 bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.

  2. Recombinant Phage Probes for Salmonella Typhimurium Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    food safety analysis that are slower, labor-intensive, and cost-inefficient. Confirmation of presence in food products can take as long as 48 hours by conventional culture. Current rapid detection initiatives include biosensors that routinely incorporate antibodies as the biorecognition unit. Although sensitive and specific, antibodies are costly and may degrade under unfavorable environmental conditions. We believe that a stable, inexpensive substitute for antibodies is filamentous phage manipulated through phage display technique then affinity selected for specificity to

  3. Ecological Basis for Rational Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Golomidova, A.K.; Tarasyan, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mutual interactions of bacterial and phage populations in the environment of a human or animal body is essential in any attempt to influence these complex processes, particularly for rational phage therapy. Current knowledge on the impact of naturally occurring bacteriophages on the populations of their host bacteria, and their role in the homeostasis maintenance of a macro host, is still sketchy. The existing data suggest that different mechanisms stabilize phage–bacteria coexistence in different animal species or different body sites. The defining set of parameters governing phage infection includes specific physical, chemical, and biological conditions, such as pH, nutrient densities, host prevalence, relation to mucosa and other surfaces, the presence of phage inhibiting substances, etc. Phage therapy is also an ecological process that always implies three components that form a complex pattern of interactions: populations of the pathogen, the bacteriophages used as antibacterial agents, and the macroorganism. We present a review of contemporary data on natural bacteriophages occuring in human– and animal–body associated microbial communities, and analyze ecological and physiological considerations that determine the success of phage therapy in mammals. PMID:22649629

  4. Diversity and censoring of landscape phage libraries

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmicheva, G.A.; Jayanna, P.K.; Sorokulova, I.B.; Petrenko, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Libraries of random peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous phages are a valuable source for biospecific ligands. However, their successful use can be hindered by a disproportionate representation of different phage clones and fluctuation of their composition that arises during phage reproduction, which have potential to affect efficiency of selection of clones with an optimal binding. Therefore, there is a need to develop phage display libraries with extended and varied repertoires of displayed peptides. In this work, we compared the complexity, evolution and representation of two phage display libraries displaying foreign octamers and nonamers in 4000 copies as the N-terminal part of the major coat protein pVIII of phage fd–tet (landscape libraries). They were obtained by replacement of amino acids 2–4 and 2–5 of pVIII with random octa- and nonamers, respectively. Statistical analysis of the libraries revealed their dramatic censoring and evolution during amplification. Further, a survey of both libraries for clones that bind common selectors revealed the presence of different non-overlapping families of target-specific clones in each library justifying the concept that different landscape libraries cover different areas of a sequence space. PMID:18988692

  5. Phage life cycles behind bacterial biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Olszak, Tomasz; Latka, Agnieszka; Roszniowski, Bartosz; Valvano, Miguel Angel; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-04-13

    Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine. The genetic flow, however, depends on the fate of the viral DNA injected into the bacterial cell. The archetypal notion of phages only engaging in predator-prey relationships is slowly fading. Because of their varied development cycles, environmental conditions, and the diversity of microorganisms they parasitize, phages form a dense and highly complex web of dependencies, which has important consequences for life on Earth. The sophisticated phage-bacteria interplay includes both aggressive action (bacterial lysis) and "diplomatic negotiations (prophage domestication). Here, we review the most important mechanisms of interactions between phages and bacteria and their evolutionary consequences influencing their biodiversity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Dynamic and static light scattering analysis of DNA ejection from the phage λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löf, David; Schillén, Karin; Jönsson, Bengt; Evilevitch, Alex

    2007-07-01

    With the aid of time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS), we have analyzed the ejection kinetics from the bacterial virus bacteriophage (or phage) λ , triggered in vitro by its receptor. We have used DLS to investigate the kinetics in such a system. Furthermore, we have shown that both SLS and DLS can be interchangeably used to study the process of phage DNA release. DLS is superior to SLS in that it also allows the change in the light scattering arising from each of the components in the system to be monitored under conditions such that the relaxation times are separable. With help of these two methods we present a model explaining the reason for the observed decrease in the scattering intensity accompanying DNA ejection from phage. We emphasize that ejection from phage capsid occurs through a very long tail (which is nearly three times longer than the capsid diameter), which significantly separates ejected DNA from the scattering volume of the capsid. The scattering intensity recorded during the DNA ejection process is the result of a change in the form factor of the phage particle, i.e., the change in the interference effects between the phage capsid and the DNA confined in the phage particle. When the DNA molecule is completely ejected it remains in the proximity of the phage for some time, thus contributing to the scattering signal as it diffuses away from the phage capsid, into the scattering volume and returns to its unperturbed chain conformation in bulk solution. The free DNA chain does not contribute to the scattered intensity, when measured at a large angle, due to the DNA form factor and the low concentration. Although the final diffusion-controlled step can lead to overestimation of the real ejection time, we can still use both scattering methods to estimate the initial DNA ejection rates, which are mainly dependent on the pressure-driven DNA ejection from the phage, allowing studies of the effects of various

  7. Astragalus extract attenuates allergic airway inflammation and inhibits nuclear factor κB expression in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao-Chuan; Qu, Zheng-Hai; Yi, Ming-Ji; Wang, Chong; Ran, Ni; Xie, Ning; Fu, Peng; Feng, Xue-Ying; Lv, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Astragalus membranaceus from traditional Chinese herbal medicines previously showed that it possesses a strong anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of astragalus on allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness and investigate its possible molecular mechanisms. Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts and cytokine and chemokine levels. In vivo airway responsiveness to increasing concentrations of methacholine was measured 24 hours after the last OVA challenge using whole-body plethysmography. The expression of inhibitory κB-α and p65 in lung tissues was measured by Western blotting. Astragalus extract attenuated lung inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-induced asthma and decreased eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, astragalus extract treatment reduced expression of the key initiators of allergic T(H)2-associated cytokines (interleukin 4, interleukin 5) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, astragalus extract could inhibit nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression and suppress NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in lung tissue samples. Taken together, our current study demonstrated a potential therapeutic value of astragalus extract in the treatment of asthma and it may act by inhibiting the expression of the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Resveratrol attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Jincai; Li, Jing; Yang, Liang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yinan; Kang, Licheng; Shen, Yanna; Qi, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR. We found that RSV was responsible for the up-regulation of VEGF-B mRNA and protein level, which caused the activation of Akt and the inhibition of GSK3β. Additionally, RSV prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up-regulating the expression of MnSOD either in vitro or ex vivo. We also found that the inhibition of VEGF-B abolished the cardioprotective effect of RSV, increased apoptosis, and led to the down-regulation of phosphorylated Akt, GSK3β, and MnSOD in H9c2 cells. These results demonstrated that RSV was able to attenuate myocardial IR injury via promotion of VEGF-B/antioxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, the up-regulation of VEGF-B can be a promising modality for clinical myocardial IR injury therapy.

  9. Silencing stem cell factor attenuates stemness and inhibits migration of cancer stem cells derived from Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, JianTao; Li, Zhixi; Liu, YanYang; Jiang, Ming; Li, Yan; Cao, Dan; Zhao, Maoyuan; Wang, Feng; Luo, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the function of SCF in regulating stemness and migration of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains largely undefined. Here, we report that non-adhesive culture system can enrich and expand CSCs derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and that the expression level of SCF in CSCs was higher than those in LLC cells. Silencing SCF via short hairpin (sh) RNA lentivirus transduction attenuated sphere formation and inhibited expressions of stemness genes, ALDH1, Sox2, and Oct4 of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SCF-silenced CSCs inhibited the migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, with decreased expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and increased expression of E-cadherin in vitro and in vivo. Finally, SCF-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus transduction suppressed tumorigenicity of CSCs. Taken together, our findings unraveled an important role of SCF in CSCs derived from LLC cells. SCF might serve as a novel target for lung cancer therapy.

  10. Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Mediated by Attenuated Salmonella in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ha, Xiaoqin; Peng, Junhua; Zhao, Hongbin; Deng, Zhiyun; Dong, Juzi; Fan, Hongyan; Zhao, Yong; Li, Bing; Feng, Qiangsheng; Yang, Zhihua

    2017-02-01

    The present study developed an oral hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene therapy strategy for gastric ulcers treatment. An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that stably expressed high HGF (named as TPH) was constructed, and the antiulcerogenic effect of TPH was evaluated in a rat model of gastric ulcers that created by acetic acid subserosal injection. From day 5 after injection, TPH (1 × 10⁹ cfu), vehicle (TP, 1 × 10⁹ cfu), or sodium bicarbonate (model control) was administered orally every alternate day for three times. Then ulcer size was measured at day 21 after ulcer induction. The ulcer area in TPH-treated group was 10.56 ± 3.30 mm², which was smaller when compared with those in the TP-treated and model control groups (43.47 ± 4.18 and 56.25 ± 6.38 mm², respectively). A higher level of reepithelialization was found in TPH-treated group and the crawling length of gastric epithelial cells was significantly longer than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The microvessel density in the ulcer granulation tissues of the TPH-treated rats was 39.9 vessels/mm², which was greater than in the TP-treated and model control rats, with a significant statistical difference. These results suggest that TPH treatment significantly accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via stimulating proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis on gastric ulcer site.

  11. Inhibition of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling attenuates the development of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Saldana, Sandra M; Lee, Heng-Huan; Lowery, Frank J; Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Xia, Weiya; Zhang, Chenyu; Chang, Shih-Shin; Chou, Chao-Kai; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a common cause of mortality in cancer patients, yet potential therapeutic targets remain largely unknown. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is known to play a role in the progression of breast cancer and is currently being investigated in the clinical setting for various types of cancer. The present study demonstrates that IGF-IR is constitutively autophosphorylated in brain-seeking breast cancer sublines. Knockdown of IGF-IR results in a decrease of phospho-AKT and phospho-p70s6k, as well as decreased migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231Br brain-seeking cells. In addition, transient ablation of IGFBP3, which is overexpressed in brain-seeking cells, blocks IGF-IR activation. Using an in vivo experimental brain metastasis model, we show that IGF-IR knockdown brain-seeking cells have reduced potential to establish brain metastases. Finally, we demonstrate that the malignancy of brain-seeking cells is attenuated by pharmacological inhibition with picropodophyllin, an IGF-IR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Together, our data suggest that the IGF-IR is an important mediator of brain metastasis and its ablation delays the onset of brain metastases in our model system.

  12. Lack of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Attenuates Experimental Food Allergy but Not Its Metabolic Alterations regarding Adipokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Perez, Denise; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; de Lima Alves, Juliana; Pinho, Vanessa; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to be an important mediator of anaphylaxis. However, there is a lack of information in the literature about the role of PAF in food allergy. The aim of this work was to elucidate the participation of PAF during food allergy development and the consequent adipose tissue inflammation along with its alterations. Our data demonstrated that, both before oral challenge and after 7 days receiving ovalbumin (OVA) diet, OVA-sensitized mice lacking the PAF receptor (PAFR) showed a decreased level of anti-OVA IgE associated with attenuated allergic markers in comparison to wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, there was less body weight and adipose tissue loss in PAFR-deficient mice. However, some features of inflamed adipose tissue presented by sensitized PAFR-deficient and WT mice after oral challenge were similar, such as a higher rate of rolling leukocytes in this tissue and lower circulating levels of adipokines (resistin and adiponectin) in comparison to nonsensitized mice. Therefore, PAF signaling through PAFR is important for the allergic response to OVA but not for the adipokine alterations caused by this inflammatory process. Our work clarifies some effects of PAF during food allergy along with its role on the metabolic consequences of this inflammatory process. PMID:27314042

  13. Attenuation of radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by epidermal growth factor and bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Jaroslav; Šinkorová, Zuzana; Tichý, Aleš; Kmochová, Adéla; Ďurišová, Kamila; Kubelková, Klára; Pohanka, Miroslav; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuča, Kamil; Vávrová, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on gastrointestinal damage after high-dose irradiation of mice. C57Black/6 mice were used. Two survival experiments were performed (12 and 13 Gy; (60)Co, 0.59-0.57 Gy/min). To evaluate BMT and EGF action, five groups were established - 0 Gy, 13 Gy, 13 Gy + EGF (at 2 mg/kg, first dose 24 h after irradiation and then every 48 h), 13 Gy + BMT (5 × 10(6) cells from green fluorescent protein [GFP] syngenic mice, 4 h after irradiation), and 13 Gy + BMT + EGF. Survival data, blood cell counts, gastrointestine and liver parameters and GFP positive cell migration were measured. BMT and EGF (three doses, at 2 mg/kg, administered 1, 3 and 5 days after irradiation) significantly increased survival (13 Gy). In blood, progressive cytopenia was observed with BMT, EGF or their combination having no improving effect early after irradiation. In gastrointestinal system, BMT, EGF and their combination attenuated radiation-induced atrophy and increased regeneration during first week after irradiation with the combination being most effective. Signs of systemic inflammatory reaction were observed 30 days after irradiation. Our data indicate that BMT together with EGF is a promising strategy in the treatment of high-dose whole-body irradiation damage.

  14. Lack of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Attenuates Experimental Food Allergy but Not Its Metabolic Alterations regarding Adipokine Levels.

    PubMed

    Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Perez, Denise; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; de Lima Alves, Juliana; Pinho, Vanessa; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to be an important mediator of anaphylaxis. However, there is a lack of information in the literature about the role of PAF in food allergy. The aim of this work was to elucidate the participation of PAF during food allergy development and the consequent adipose tissue inflammation along with its alterations. Our data demonstrated that, both before oral challenge and after 7 days receiving ovalbumin (OVA) diet, OVA-sensitized mice lacking the PAF receptor (PAFR) showed a decreased level of anti-OVA IgE associated with attenuated allergic markers in comparison to wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, there was less body weight and adipose tissue loss in PAFR-deficient mice. However, some features of inflamed adipose tissue presented by sensitized PAFR-deficient and WT mice after oral challenge were similar, such as a higher rate of rolling leukocytes in this tissue and lower circulating levels of adipokines (resistin and adiponectin) in comparison to nonsensitized mice. Therefore, PAF signaling through PAFR is important for the allergic response to OVA but not for the adipokine alterations caused by this inflammatory process. Our work clarifies some effects of PAF during food allergy along with its role on the metabolic consequences of this inflammatory process.

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated induction of WISP-2 contributes to attenuated progression of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fuady, Jerry H; Bordoli, Mattia R; Abreu-Rodríguez, Irene; Kristiansen, Glen; Hoogewijs, David; Stiehl, Daniel P; Wenger, Roland H

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway trigger the expression of several genes involved in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Transcriptionally active HIF-1 and HIF-2 regulate overlapping sets of target genes, and only few HIF-2 specific target genes are known so far. Here we investigated oxygen-regulated expression of Wnt-1 induced signaling protein 2 (WISP-2), which has been reported to attenuate the progression of breast cancer. WISP-2 was hypoxically induced in low-invasive luminal-like breast cancer cell lines at both the messenger RNA and protein levels, mainly in a HIF-2α-dependent manner. HIF-2-driven regulation of the WISP2 promoter in breast cancer cells is almost entirely mediated by two phylogenetically and only partially conserved functional hypoxia response elements located in a microsatellite region upstream of the transcriptional start site. High WISP-2 tumor levels were associated with increased HIF-2α, decreased tumor macrophage density, and a better prognosis. Silencing WISP-2 increased anchorage-independent colony formation and recovery from scratches in confluent cell layers of normally low-invasive MCF-7 cancer cells. Interestingly, these changes in cancer cell aggressiveness could be phenocopied by HIF-2α silencing, suggesting that direct HIF-2-mediated transcriptional induction of WISP-2 gene expression might at least partially explain the association of high HIF-2α tumor levels with prolonged overall survival of patients with breast cancer.

  16. Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Mediated by Attenuated Salmonella in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study developed an oral hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene therapy strategy for gastric ulcers treatment. An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that stably expressed high HGF (named as TPH) was constructed, and the antiulcerogenic effect of TPH was evaluated in a rat model of gastric ulcers that created by acetic acid subserosal injection. From day 5 after injection, TPH (1 × 109 cfu), vehicle (TP, 1 × 109 cfu), or sodium bicarbonate (model control) was administered orally every alternate day for three times. Then ulcer size was measured at day 21 after ulcer induction. The ulcer area in TPH-treated group was 10.56 ± 3.30 mm2, which was smaller when compared with those in the TP-treated and model control groups (43.47 ± 4.18 and 56.25 ± 6.38 mm2, respectively). A higher level of reepithelialization was found in TPH-treated group and the crawling length of gastric epithelial cells was significantly longer than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The microvessel density in the ulcer granulation tissues of the TPH-treated rats was 39.9 vessels/mm2, which was greater than in the TP-treated and model control rats, with a significant statistical difference. These results suggest that TPH treatment significantly accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via stimulating proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis on gastric ulcer site. PMID:28049228

  17. Gremlin-1 is an inhibitor of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and attenuates atherosclerotic plaque growth in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Iris; Schönberger, Tanja; Schneider, Martina; Borst, Oliver; Ziegler, Melanie; Seizer, Peter; Leder, Christoph; Müller, Karin; Lang, Michael; Appenzeller, Florian; Lunov, Oleg; Büchele, Berthold; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Olbrich, Marcus; Langer, Harald; Geisler, Tobias; Lang, Florian; Chatterjee, Madhumita; de Boer, Jan Freark; Tietge, Uwe J F; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Simmet, Thomas; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2013-11-01

    Monocyte infiltration and macrophage formation are pivotal steps in atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability. Gremlin-1/Drm is crucial in embryo-/organogenesis and has been shown to be expressed in the adult organism at sites of arterial injury and to inhibit monocyte migration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the role of Gremlin-1 in atherosclerosis. Here we report that Gremlin-1 is highly expressed primarily by monocytes/macrophages in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and is secreted from activated monocytes and during macrophage development in vitro. Gremlin-1 reduces macrophage formation by inhibiting macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine critically involved in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. Gremlin-1 binds with high affinity to MIF (KD = 54 nm), as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, and reduces MIF-induced release of TNF-α from macrophages. Treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice with a dimeric recombinant fusion protein, mGremlin1-Fc, but not with equimolar control Fc or inactivated mGremlin1-Fc, reduced TNF-α expression, the content of monocytes/macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions, and attenuated atheroprogression. The present data disclose that Gremlin-1 is an endogenous antagonist of MIF and define a role for Gremlin-1/MIF interaction in atherosclerosis.

  18. Intranasal basic fibroblast growth factor attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and brain injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhenlang; Hu, Yingying; Wang, Zhouguang; Pan, Shulin; Zhang, Hao; Ye, Libing; Zhang, Hongyu; Fang, Mingchu; Jiang, Huai; Ye, Junming; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Brain injury secondary to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disability in newborns. Intranasal drug administration enables agents to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain directly. In this study, we determined whether intranasal basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could exert neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury and assessed whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was associated with these neuroprotective effects. Rats were subjected to HI brain injury via unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia and then treated with intranasal bFGF or vehicle immediately after HI injury. We found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) was strongly activated after HI injury and that bFGF significantly reduced the levels of the ER stress signalling proteins GRP78 and PDI. bFGF also decreased brain infarction volumes and conferred long-term neuroprotective effects against brain atrophy and neuron loss after HI brain injury. Taken together, our results suggest that intranasal bFGF provides neuroprotection function partly by inhibiting HI injury-induced ER stress. bFGF may have potential as a therapy for human neonates after birth asphyxia. PMID:28337259

  19. An experimental study of phage mediated bactericidal selection & emergence of the El Tor Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Waise, Zaved; Kamruzzaman, M.; Ghosh, A.N.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Bashar, S.A.M. Khairul; Mekalanos, John J.; Faruque, Shah M.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Factor causing the elimination of the classical biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1, and its replacement by the El Tor biotype causing the 7th cholera pandemic are unclear. Possible ability of the El Tor strains to adapt better than the classical strains to undefined environmental forces have been largely implicated for the change. Here we describe an environmental bacteriophage designated JSF9 which might have contributed to the range of factors. Methods: Competition assays were conducted in the infant mice model and in microcosms between representative El Tor and classical biotype strains in the absence or in the presence of JSF9 phage. Results: The JSF9 phage was found to kill classical strains and favour enrichment of El Tor strains, when mixtures containing strains of the two biotypes and JSF9 phage were subjected to alternate passage in infant mice and in samples of environmental water. Spontaneous derivatives of the classical biotype strains, as well as transposon mutants which developed resistance to JSF9 phage were found to be defective in colonization in the infant mouse model. Interpretation & conclusions: These results suggest that in addition to other factors, the inherent ability of El Tor biotype strains to evade predation by JSF9 or similar phages which kill classical biotype strains, might have enhanced the emergence of El Tor strains as the predominant pandemic biotype. PMID:21415498

  20. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  1. Resveratrol attenuates renal injury and fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β pathway on matrix metalloproteinase 7.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhou; Chen, Chen; Meng, Ting; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhou, Qiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury has a strong relationship to the subsequent development of renal fibrosis. In developing renal fibrosis, tubular epithelial cells in the kidney underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) was reported to reduce E-cadherin and induce EMT by up-regulation of β-catenin/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) signaling. In this research, we tried to evaluate the role of resveratrol (RSV) on EMT process in renal injury and fibrosis. Human tubular epithelial cell HK-2 cells were treated with aristolochic acid (AAs) and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) to induce EMT with or without the administration of RSV. The inhibitory role of RSV on EMT in renal injury and fibrosis was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunofluorescence staining. The EMT repressing role of RSV was also evaluated in vivo by renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) models. The underlying mechanism was investigated by shRNA interfering MMP7 and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. The results indicated that RSV reversed human kidney 2 (HK-2) cell EMT, renal I/R injury, and renal fibrosis. MMP7 inhibition was responsible for RSV-induced EMT repression. SIRT1 was up-regulated by RSV inhibited TGF-β pathway on MMP7 via deacetylating Smad4. In conclusion, RSV attenuated renal injury and fibrosis by inhibiting EMT process which was attributed to the fact that the up-regulated SIRT1 by RSV deacetylated Smad4 and inhibited MMP7 expression. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Selective Lesioning of Nuclear Factor kB Activated Cells in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Attenuates Alcohol Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Nennig, S E; Fulenwider, H D; Chimberoff, S H; Smith, B M; Eskew, J E; Sequeira, M K; Karlsson, C; Liang, C; Chen, J; Heilig, M; Schank, J R

    2017-09-13

    Nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a transcription factor commonly associated with innate immunity, and is activated by infection and inflammation. NFkB has recently gained attention as a mediator of complex psychiatric phenomena like stress and addiction. In regards to alcohol, most research on NFkB has focused on neurotoxicity, and few studies have explored the role of NFkB in alcohol reward, reinforcement, or consumption. In these studies, we used conditioned place preference to assess the activity of NFkB in response to rewarding doses of alcohol. To measure NFkB activity we used a line of transgenic mice that express the LacZ gene under the control of an NFkB regulated promoter. In these animals, staining for β-galactosidase (β-gal) identifies cells in which NFkB has been activated. We then used the Daun02 inactivation method to specifically silence NFkB expressing cells during place preference conditioning. Daun02 is an inactive prodrug that is converted to the inhibitory molecule daunorubicin by β-gal. After alcohol place conditioning, we observed increased β-gal staining in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), and found that disruption of NFkB expressing cells using Daun02 attenuated the development of alcohol place preference when infused into the NAC shell following conditioning sessions. We found this effect to be regionally and temporally specific. These results suggest that, in addition to its role in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity, NFkB mediates the development of alcohol place preference via its actions in the NAC shell.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 13 September 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.214.

  3. Spatial variability of UVR attenuation and bio-optical factors in shallow coral-reef waters of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, V. S.; Nakajima, R.; Othman, B. H. R.; Kushairi, M. R. M.; Toda, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biologically diverse coral-reef ecosystems are both directly and indirectly susceptible to changes in the spectral ultraviolet radiation (UVR) distribution. The purpose of this study was to (1) measure the variability of UVR and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetration in the water above coral reefs around the Malaysian peninsula, (2) measure the variability and distribution of UVR-specific biogeochemical factors, and (3) determine the impact of biogeochemical variability as it affects the UVR:PAR ratio. Downwelling UVR and PAR irradiance and bio-optically derived biogeochemical factors were measured at 14 coral survey stations around the Malaysian peninsula from August 10-29, 2007. The West Coast was characterized by relatively shallow mean 10% UV-B (320 nm) penetration (1.68 ± 1.12 m), high chlorophyll (3.00 ± 4.72 μg l-1), high chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 6.61 ± 3.31 ppb), high particulate organic carbon (POC; 190.65 ± 97.99 mg m-3), and low dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 1.34 ± 0.65 mg m-3). By contrast, the East Coast was characterized by relatively deep mean 10% UV-B penetration (5.03 ± 2.19 m), low chlorophyll (0.34 ± 0.22 μg l-1), low CDOM (1.45 ± 0.44 ppb), low POC (103.21 ± 37.93 mg m-3), and relatively high DOC (1.91 ± 1.03 mg m-3). The UVR:PAR ratio was relatively higher on the East Coast relative to the West Coast, suggesting variable concentrations of UVR-specific absorbing components. At all sites, UVR attenuation coefficients showed significant correlations with CDOM, but were spatially dependent with regard to chlorophyll a, POC, and DOC. The results suggest that bio-optically significant CDOM and DOC factors are uncoupled in coral-reef communities of Malaysia. Furthermore, the results support prior studies that show chromophorically active concentrations of DOM and POC are significantly altering the amount of UVR penetration above coral reefs and may be notable factors in regulating intricate

  4. Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping

  5. LYSIS-FROM-WITHOUT OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS BY COMBINATIONS OF SPECIFIC PHAGES AND PHAGE-INDUCED LYTIC ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Doris J.; McIvor, Mary

    1964-01-01

    Ralston, Doris J. (University of California, Berkeley) and Mary McIvor. Lysis-from-without of Staphylococcus aureus strains by combinations of specific phages and phage-induced lytic enzymes. J. Bacteriol. 88:676–681. 1964—Several typing phages, adsorbed in sufficient concentrations to their homologous propagating strains, altered the cell surface so as to render the cells sensitive to rapid and synergistic lysis by extra-cellular additions of wall lysins. Lysis was effected both by lysins induced by the individual phages and by phage K1 virolysin. Phage K1 also rendered cells sensitive to the lysins of the typing phages. With the exception of lysins from PS 53, 70, and 77, none of the lysins nor purified phages tested separately caused significant lysis of living cells. Lysis-from-without in Staphylococcus aureus appears to be a stepwise process: sensitization by phage followed by digestion of the wall by lysin. PMID:14208506

  6. Burkholderia cepacia Complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): Antibiotics Stimulate Lytic Phage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing. PMID:25452284

  7. Burkholderia cepacia complex Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): antibiotics stimulate lytic phage activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Fatima; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of at least 18 species of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that can cause chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bcc organisms possess high levels of innate antimicrobial resistance, and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. One proposed alternative treatment is phage therapy, the therapeutic application of bacterial viruses (or bacteriophages). Recently, some phages have been observed to form larger plaques in the presence of sublethal concentrations of certain antibiotics; this effect has been termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Those reports suggest that some antibiotics stimulate increased production of phages under certain conditions. The aim of this study is to examine PAS in phages that infect Burkholderia cenocepacia strains C6433 and K56-2. Bcc phages KS12 and KS14 were tested for PAS, using 6 antibiotics representing 4 different drug classes. Of the antibiotics tested, the most pronounced effects were observed for meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. When grown with subinhibitory concentrations of these three antibiotics, cells developed a chain-like arrangement, an elongated morphology, and a clustered arrangement, respectively. When treated with progressively higher antibiotic concentrations, both the sizes of plaques and phage titers increased, up to a maximum. B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with phage KS12 and low-dose meropenem demonstrated increased survival over controls treated with KS12 or antibiotic alone. These results suggest that antibiotics can be combined with phages to stimulate increased phage production and/or activity and thus improve the efficacy of bacterial killing.

  8. Genome analysis of the staphylococcal temperate phage DW2 and functional studies on the endolysin and tail hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Keary, Ruth; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; O’Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the genome of temperate Siphoviridae phage DW2, which is routinely propagated on Staphylococcus aureus DPC5246. The 41941 bp genome revealed an open reading frame (ORF1) which has a high level of homology with members of the resolvase subfamily of site-specific serine recombinase, involved in chromosomal integration and excision. In contrast, the majority of staphylococcal phages reported to date encode tyrosine recombinases. Two putative genes encoded by phage DW2 (ORF15 and ORF24) were highly homologous to the NWMN0273 and NWMN0280 genes encoding virulence factors carried on the genome of ϕNM4, a prophage in the genome of S. aureus Newman. Phage DW2 also encodes proteins highly homologous to two well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island derepressors encoded by the staphylococcal helper phage 80α indicating that it may similarly act as a helper phage for mobility of pathogenicity islands in S. aureus. This study also focused on the enzybiotic potential of phage DW2. The structure of the putative endolysin and tail hydrolase were investigated and used as the basis for a cloning strategy to create recombinant peptidoglycan hydrolyzing proteins. After overexpression in E. coli, four of these proteins (LysDW2, THDW2, CHAPE1-153, and CHAPE1-163) were demonstrated to have hydrolytic activity against peptidoglycan of S. aureus and thus represent novel candidates for exploitation as enzybiotics. PMID:25105056

  9. Replications of Two Closely Related Groups of Jumbo Phages Show Different Level of Dependence on Host-encoded RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takeru; Yoshikawa, Genki; Mihara, Tomoko; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakano, Miyako; Fujie, Makoto; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phages ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 are jumbo phages isolated in Thailand. Here we show that they exhibit similar virion morphology, genome organization and host range. Genome comparisons as well as phylogenetic and proteomic tree analyses support that they belong to the group of ΦKZ-related phages, with their closest relatives being R. solanacearum phages ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1. Compared with ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 possess larger genomes (ca. 280 kbp, 25% larger). The replication of ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 was not affected by rifampicin treatment (20 μg/ml), suggesting that phage-encoded RNAPs function to start and complete the infection cycle of these phages without the need of host-encoded RNAPs. In contrast, ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, encoding the same set of RNAPs, did not produce progeny phages in the presence of rifampicin (5 μg/ml). This observation opens the possibility that some ΦRP12/ΦRP31 factors that are absent in ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1 are involved in their host-independent transcription. PMID:28659872

  10. Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

  11. Characterization of two virulent phages of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea; Moineau, Sylvain

    2012-12-01

    We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria.

  12. On The Influence Of Vector Design On Antibody Phage Display

    PubMed Central

    Soltes, Glenn; Hust, Michael; Ng, Kitty K.Y.; Bansal, Aasthaa; Field, Johnathan; Stewart, Donald I.H.; Dübel, Stefan; Cha, Sanghoon; Wiersma, Erik J

    2007-01-01

    Phage display technology is an established technology particularly useful for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The isolation of phagemid-encoded mAb fragments depends on several features of a phage preparation. The aims of this study were to optimize phage display vectors, and to ascertain if different virion features can be optimized independently of each other. Comparisons were made between phagemid virions assembled by g3p-deficient helper phage, Hyperphage, Ex-phage or Phaberge, or corresponding g3p-sufficient helper phage, M13K07. All g3p-deficient helper phage provided a similar level of antibody display, significantly higher than that of M13K07. Hyperphage packaged virions at least 100-fold more efficiently than did Ex-phage or Phaberge. Phaberge's packaging efficiency improved by using a SupE strain. Different phagemids were also compared. Removal of a 56 base pair fragment from the promoter region resulted in increased display level and increased virion production. This critical fragment encodes a lacZ'-like peptide and is also present in other commonly used phagemids. Increasing display level did not show statistical correlation with phage production, phage infectivity or bacterial growth rate. However, phage production was positively correlated to phage infectivity. In summary, this study demonstrates simultaneously optimization of multiple and independent features of importance for phage selection. PMID:16996161

  13. The morphology and nucleotide composition of DNA of Citrobacter phages.

    PubMed

    Gabrilovich, I M; Kirillova, F M; Khakesheva, T A

    1987-01-01

    Citrobacter phages 38/37, 31/37, 40/1 and 8/5, isolated from lysogenic cultures, were concentrated and purified by 2 cycles of differential centrifugation. Electron microscopy of the phages has shown that their particles have similar morphology and that they relate to the morphological group A1. The heads of the phages are hexagonal, 50 +/- 2 nm in diameter. The tail of the phage is straight, 112-152 nm in length, with a contracting sheath 11.5-12.5 nm wide. The tails of the phages 38/37 and 40/1 were found to be slightly longer in comparison with the phages 31/37 and 8/5. Chromatographic investigation of DNA preparations of the phages revealed the presence of 4 nitrous bases. Identification of the latter permitted us to relate them to common nitrous bases. DNA of the phages is double-stranded and belongs to a weakly expressed guanine-cytosine type. The content of guanine and cytosine in DNA of the phage 38/37 amounts to 56.68%, that of the phage 31/37 to 56.75, of the phage 40/1 to 57.36% and of the phage 8/5 to 55.58%. No substantial variations were observed in the DNA composition of the phages.

  14. Connective tissue growth factor inhibition attenuates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Magga, Johanna; Alakoski, Tarja; Ulvila, Johanna; Piuhola, Jarkko; Vainio, Laura; Kivirikko, Kari I; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Lipson, Kenneth E; Signore, Pierre; Kerkelä, Risto

    2014-06-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic disorders. However, its role in the heart is not clear. To investigate the role of CTGF in regulating the development of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure, we subjected mice to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion, and antagonized the function of CTGF with CTGF monoclonal antibody (mAb). After 8 weeks of TAC, mice treated with CTGF mAb had significantly better preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and reduced LV dilatation compared with mice treated with control immunoglobulin G. CTGF mAb-treated mice exhibited significantly smaller cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and reduced expression of hypertrophic marker genes. CTGF mAb treatment reduced the TAC-induced production of collagen 1 but did not significantly attenuate TAC-induced accumulation of interstitial fibrosis. Analysis of genes regulating extracellular matrix proteolysis showed decreased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in mice treated with CTGF mAb. In contrast to TAC, antagonizing the function of CTGF had no effect on LV dysfunction or LV hypertrophy in mice subjected to 4-week angiotensin II infusion. Further analysis showed that angiotensin II-induced expression of hypertrophic marker genes or collagens was not affected by treatment with CTGF mAb. In conclusion, CTGF mAb protects from adverse LV remodeling and LV dysfunction in hearts subjected to pressure overload by TAC. Antagonizing the function of CTGF may offer protection from cardiac end-organ damage in patients with hypertension.

  15. Gene silencing of endothelial von Willebrand Factor attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dushpanova, Anar; Agostini, Silvia; Ciofini, Enrica; Cabiati, Manuela; Casieri, Valentina; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Clerico, Aldo; Berti, Sergio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Since von Willebrand Factor (vWF) blockade improves endothelial function in coronary patients, we hypothesized that targeting endothelial vWF with short interference RNA (siRNA) prevents Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation. Nearly 65 ± 2% silencing of vWF in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) was achieved with vWF-specific siRNA without affecting cell viability and growth. While showing ET-1 similar to wild type cells at rest, vWF-silenced cells did not present ET-1 upregulation during exposure to Ang II (100 nM/24 h), preserving levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity similar to wild type. vWF silencing prevented AngII-induced increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity and superoxide anion (O2−) levels, known triggers of ET-1 expression. Moreover, no increase in O2− or ET-1 levels was found in silenced cells treated with AngII or NOX-agonist phorbol ester (PMA 5 nM/48 h). Finally, vWF was required for overexpression of NOX4 and NOX2 in response to AngII and PMA. In conclusion, endothelial vWF knockdown prevented Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation through attenuation of NOX-mediated O2− production. Our findings reveal a new role of vWF in preventing of Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27443965

  16. Curcumin attenuates lipolysis stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α or isoproterenol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-yun; Kong, Po-Ren; Wu, Jin-feng; Li, Ying; Li, Yan-xiang

    2012-12-15

    Curcumin, an active component derived from dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been demonstrated antihyperglycemic, antiinflammatory and hypocholesterolemic activities in obesity and diabetes. These effects are associated with decreased level of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), however the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. The flux of FFA and glycerol from adipose tissue to the blood stream primarily depends on the lipolysis of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes. Adipocyte lipolysis is physiologically stimulated by catecholamine hormones. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulates chronic lipolysis in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the role of curcumin in inhibiting lipolytic action upon various stimulations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release from TNFα or isoproterenol-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the absence or presence of curcumin was determined using a colorimetric assay (GPO-Trinder). Western blotting was used to investigate the TNFα-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and perilipin expression. Fatcake and cytosolic fractions were prepared to examine the isoproterenol-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase translocation. Treatment with curcumin attenuated TNFα-mediated lipolysis by suppressing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and reversing the downregulation of perilipin protein in TNFα-stimulated adipocytes (p<0.05). The acute lipolytic response to adrenergic stimulation of isoproterenol was also restricted by curcumin (10-20 μM, p<0.05), which was compatible with reduced perilipin phosphorylation(29%, p<0.05) and hormone-sensitive lipase translocation(20%, p<0.05). This study provides evidence that curcumin acts on adipocytes to suppress the lipolysis response to TNFα and catecholamines. The antilipolytic effect could be a cellular basis for curcumin decreasing plasma FFA levels and improving insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor 1 attenuates aging-induced changes in hepatic function: role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xihui; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ren, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a pivotal role in mediating the aging process. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of liver IGF-1 deficiency (LID) on aging-induced changes in hepatic function and underlying mechanisms, with a focus on autophagy. Plasma and liver samples were obtained from young (3-mo) and aged (24-mo) wild type (WT) and LID mice. Levels of AST, ALT, triglyceride, hepatic lipofuscin, steatosis, fibrosis, and nuclear morphology were analyzed. Western blot was employed to evaluate autophagy. Human HepG2 cells were treated with free fatty acid (FFA) to mimic hepatic aging in the absence or presence of IGF-1 siRNA. SA-β-gal activity was detected using flow cytometry and a fluorescence microplate reader. GFP-LC3 was used to assess autophagy activity in HepG2 cells. Median survival was longer in LID mice compared with WT mice. Aging was associated with elevated levels of triglyceride, AST and ALT, lipofuscin accumulation, steatosis, fibrosis and nuclear injury, which were significantly attenuated by liver IGF-1 deficiency. Levels of autophagy were suppressed in senescent livers, the effect was reversed in the liver of IGF-1 deficient mice. In HepG2 cells, FFA induced the accumulation of β-gal, which was dramatically suppressed by IGF-1 knockdown. Importantly, inhibiting autophagy using 3-methyladenine mitigated IGF-1 knockdown-induced preservation of autophagic vacuole formation and inhibition of β-gal accumulation in the presence of FFA in HepG2 cells. Our data revealed that IGF-1 deficiency ameliorated aging-induced hepatic injury, possibly through preventing a concomitant diminution in autophagy. These data provide new insight into the role of IGF-1 and autophagy in the management of aging-induced hepatic injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eric J; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Flynn, James; Schild, Stefan; Bourassa, Lori; Shao, Yue; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable) because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  19. Gnotobiotic mouse model of phage-bacterial host dynamics in the human gut.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alejandro; Wu, Meng; McNulty, Nathan P; Rohwer, Forest L; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-12-10

    Bacterial viruses (phages) are the most abundant biological group on Earth and are more genetically diverse than their bacterial prey/hosts. To characterize their role as agents shaping gut microbial community structure, adult germ-free mice were colonized with a consortium of 15 sequenced human bacterial symbionts, 13 of which harbored one or more predicted prophages. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, was represented by a library of isogenic transposon mutants that covered 90% of its genes. Once assembled, the community was subjected to a staged phage attack with a pool of live or heat-killed virus-like particles (VLPs) purified from the fecal microbiota of five healthy humans. Shotgun sequencing of DNA from the input pooled VLP preparation plus shotgun sequencing of gut microbiota samples and purified fecal VLPs from the gnotobiotic mice revealed a reproducible nonsimultaneous pattern of attack extending over a 25-d period that involved five phages, none described previously. This system allowed us to (i) correlate increases in specific phages present in the pooled VLPs with reductions in the representation of particular bacterial taxa, (ii) provide evidence that phage resistance occurred because of ecological or epigenetic factors, (iii) track the origin of each of the five phages among the five human donors plus the extent of their genome variation between and within recipient mice, and (iv) establish the dramatic in vivo fitness advantage that a locus within a B. cellulosilyticus prophage confers upon its host. Together, these results provide a defined community-wide view of phage-bacterial host dynamics in the gut.

  20. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P S; Lindbäck, Toril

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ϕ734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ϕ734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ϕ734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ϕ734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak.

  1. Transcription of the toxin genes present within the Staphylococcal phage phiSa3ms is intimately linked with the phage's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Paul; Waldor, Matthew K

    2003-12-01

    phiSa3ms, a lysogenic bacteriophage encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEG, and SEK and the fibrinolytic enzyme staphylokinase (Sak), was identified in the unannotated genome sequence of the hypervirulent community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain 476. We found that mitomycin C induction of phiSa3ms led to increased transcription of all four virulence factors. The increase in sea and sak transcription was a result of read-through transcription from upstream latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy number. The majority of the seg2 and sek2 transcripts were shown to initiate from the upstream phage cI promoter and hence were regulated by factors influencing cI transcription. The lysogeny module of phiSa3ms was shown to have some lambda-like features with divergent cI and cro genes. Band shift assays were used to identify binding sites for both CI and Cro within the region between these genes, suggesting a mechanism of control for the phiSa3ms lytic-lysogenic switch. Our findings suggest that the production of phage-encoded virulence factors in S. aureus may be regulated by processes that govern lysogeny.

  2. Phage diversity in a methanogenic digester.

    PubMed

    Park, M-O; Ikenaga, H; Watanabe, K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that phages are present in natural and engineered ecosystems and influence the structure and performance of prokaryotic communities. However, little has been known about phages occurring in anaerobic ecosystems, including those in methanogenic digesters for waste treatment. This study investigated phages produced in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket methanogenic digester treating brewery wastes. Phage-like particles (PLPs) in the influent and effluent of the digester were concentrated and purified by sequential filtration and quantified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence assay, and field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Results indicate that numbers of PLPs in the effluent of the digester exceeded 1 x 10(9) L-1 and at least 10 times greater than those in the influent, suggesting that substantial amounts of PLPs were produced in the digester. A production rate of the PLPs was estimated at least 5.2 x 10(7) PLPs day-1 L-1. TEM and FIGE showed that a variety of phages were produced in the digester, including those affiliated with Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Cystoviridae.

  3. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-04-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment.

  4. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms with Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment. PMID:25662974

  5. Network models of phage-bacteria coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosvall, Martin; Dodd, Ian B.; Krishna, Sandeep; Sneppen, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria and their bacteriophages are the most abundant, widespread, and diverse groups of biological entities on the planet. In an attempt to understand how the interactions between bacteria, virulent phages, and temperate phages might affect the diversity of these groups, we developed a stochastic network model for examining the coevolution of these ecologies. In our approach, nodes represent whole species or strains of bacteria or phages, rather than individuals, with “speciation” and extinction modeled by duplication and removal of nodes. Phage-bacteria links represent host-parasite relationships and temperate-virulent phage links denote prophage-encoded resistance. The effect of horizontal transfer of genetic information between strains was also included in the dynamical rules. The observed networks evolved in a highly dynamic fashion but the ecosystems were prone to collapse (one or more entire groups going extinct). Diversity could be stably maintained in the model only if the probability of speciation was independent of the diversity. Such an effect could be achieved in real ecosystems if the speciation rate is primarily set by the availability of ecological niches.

  6. Recombinant AAV-PR39-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α gene expression attenuates myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Hao, Yuewen; Nie, Xiaowei; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhenwu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xuexin

    2014-01-01

    PR39 is an angiogenic masterswitch protein, belonging to the second generation of angiogenic growth factors. However, the role of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the PR39 fusion gene (AAV-PR39) in acute myocardial infarction remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of AAV-PR39 in an experimental animal model of acute myocardial infarction. The PR39 gene was fused with the transmembrane peptide, TAT, 6xHis‑tag and NT4 signal sequences. AAV-PR39 was then obtained by calcium phosphate co-precipitation. A total of 18 healthy Chinese mini pigs were randomly divided into an experimental groups (the AAV-PR39-treated group) and a control group [phosphated-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group]. Following the induction of myocardial infarction, enhanced 3.0T MR imaging was performed to observe the changes in myocardial signal intensity at 0 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor‑1α (HIF-1α) in the myocardial tissues was determined by SABC immunohistochemistry. In addition, in vitro experiments using CRL-1730 endothelial cells transfected with AAV vector containing NT4-TAT-His-PR39 revealed that the AAV-PR39-treated group had a significantly higher expression of HIF-1α compared with the control group. Moreover, PR39 regulated the HIF-1α-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors. Under hypoxic conditions, the anti-apoptotic effects in the AAV-PR39 group were more pronounced than those observed in the control (PBS-treated) group. In vivo, the enforced expression of recombinant PR39 elevated the level of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions and decreased the size of the infarcted areas by upregulating the expression of HIF-1α in the areas surrounding the infarct area. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the recombinant AAV-PR39-mediated HIF-1α expression attenuates myocardial infarction, indicating that AAV-PR39 may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  7. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Tailed Phage Utah

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Heitkamp, Alexandra J.; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli bacteriophage Utah is a member of the chi-like tailed phage cluster in the Siphoviridae family. We report here the complete 59,024-bp sequence of the genome of phage Utah. PMID:28360173

  8. Phage display—A powerful technique for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Justyna; Całkosiński, Ireneusz; Gamian, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    One of the most effective molecular diversity techniques is phage display. This technology is based on a direct linkage between phage phenotype and its encapsulated genotype, which leads to presentation of molecule libraries on the phage surface. Phage display is utilized in studying protein-ligand interactions, receptor binding sites and in improving or modifying the affinity of proteins for their binding partners. Generating monoclonal antibodies and improving their affinity, cloning antibodies from unstable hybridoma cells and identifying epitopes, mimotopes and functional or accessible sites from antigens are also important advantages of this technology. Techniques originating from phage display have been applied to transfusion medicine, neurological disorders, mapping vascular addresses and tissue homing of peptides. Phages have been applicable to immunization therapies, which may lead to development of new tools used for treating autoimmune and cancer diseases. This review describes the phage display technology and presents the recent advancements in therapeutic applications of phage display. PMID:22906939

  9. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE MECHANISM OF PHAGE ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, A. P.; Scribner, E. J.; Brown, B. B.

    1946-01-01

    1. The reaction between an antistaphlycoccal phage and the homologous bacterium has been studied, applying the following experimental technics not used in earlier work reported from this laboratory: (a) Both the activity assay and the plaque count were utilized for determining [phage]. (b) Sampling was done at short intervals; i.e., every 0.1 hour. (c) Extracellular phage was separated from the cell-bound fraction by a filtration procedure permitting passage of < 95 per cent of free phage. 2. Using these technics, the reaction was followed: (a) with pH maintained at 6.10 and temperature at 28°C. to slow the process; (b) with pH maintained at 7.2 and temperature at 36°C. 3. In addition separate experiments were performed on the sorption of phage by bacteria at 30°, 23°, and 0°C. 4. At pH 6.10 and 28°C. the phage-bacterium reaction proceeds in the following sequence: (a) There is an initial phase of rapid logarithmic sorption of phage to susceptible cells, during which the total phage activity and the plaque numbers in the mixtures remain constant. (b) When 90 per cent of the phage has been bound, there is a sudden very rapid increase in phage activity not paralleled by an increase in plaques; i.e., phage is formed intracellularly, but is retained within cellular confines. (c) After a further drop in the extracellular phage fraction there occurs a pronounced increase in the total phage plaque count not accompanied by any increase in total activity. This indicates a redistribution of phage formed intracellularly. At the same time there is a rise in the extracellular phage curves (both activity and plaque). (d) With the concentrations of phage and bacteria used in the experiment carried out at pH 6.1 and 28°C. there are two further increments in [phage]act. before massive lysis begins. (e) During terminal lysis there are sharp rises in the curves for [total phage]plaq., [extracellular phage]act., and [extracellular phage]plaq.. (f) Immediately after the

  10. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp., and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species. PMID:24478767

  11. Aerosol Phage Therapy Efficacy in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Semler, Diana D.; Goudie, Amanda D.; Finlay, Warren H.

    2014-01-01

    Phage therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as the species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). To address this hypothesis, experimental B. cenocepacia respiratory infections were established in mice using a nebulizer and a nose-only inhalation device. Following infection, the mice were treated with one of five B. cenocepacia-specific phages delivered as either an aerosol or intraperitoneal injection. The bacterial and phage titers within the lungs were assayed 2 days after treatment, and mice that received the aerosolized phage therapy demonstrated significant decreases in bacterial loads. Differences in phage activity were observed in vivo. Mice that received phage treatment by intraperitoneal injection did not demonstrate significantly reduced bacterial loads, although phage particles were isolated from their lung tissue. Based on these data, aerosol phage therapy appears to be an effective method for treating highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by BCC bacteria. PMID:24798268

  12. Aerosol phage therapy efficacy in Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Semler, Diana D; Goudie, Amanda D; Finlay, Warren H; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2014-07-01

    Phage therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as the species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). To address this hypothesis, experimental B. cenocepacia respiratory infections were established in mice using a nebulizer and a nose-only inhalation device. Following infection, the mice were treated with one of five B. cenocepacia-specific phages delivered as either an aerosol or intraperitoneal injection. The bacterial and phage titers within the lungs were assayed 2 days after treatment, and mice that received the aerosolized phage therapy demonstrated significant decreases in bacterial loads. Differences in phage activity were observed in vivo. Mice that received phage treatment by intraperitoneal injection did not demonstrate significantly reduced bacterial loads, although phage particles were isolated from their lung tissue. Based on these data, aerosol phage therapy appears to be an effective method for treating highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by BCC bacteria.

  13. Repeated intravenous administrations of teneurin-C terminal associated peptide (TCAP)-1 attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in rats.

    PubMed

    Erb, Suzanne; McPhee, Matthew; Brown, Zenya J; Kupferschmidt, David A; Song, Lifang; Lovejoy, David A

    2014-08-01

    The teneurin c-terminal associated peptides (TCAP) have been implicated in the regulation of the stress response, possibly via a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related mechanism. We have previously shown that repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of TCAP-1 attenuate the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by CRF in rats. Here, we determined whether intravenous (IV) administrations of TCAP-1 would likewise attenuate CRF-induced reinstatement, and whether this effect would vary depending on the rat's history of cocaine self administration. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days, during once daily sessions that were either 3h ("short access"; ShA) or 6h ("long access"; LgA). Rats were then given five daily injections of TCAP-1 (0, 300, or 3,000 pmol, IV) in their home cage. Subsequently, they were returned to the self-administration chambers where extinction of cocaine seeking and testing for CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was carried out. Repeated IV administrations of TCAP-1 were efficacious in attenuating CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but at different doses in ShA and LgA rats. Taken together, the findings extend previous work showing a consistent effect of repeated ICV TCAP-1 on CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, and point to a potential therapeutic benefit of TCAP-1 in attenuating cocaine seeking behaviors.

  14. European regulatory conundrum of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, Gilbert; De Vos, Daniel; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Merabishvili, Maya; Zizi, Martin; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    The treatment of infectious diseases with antibiotics is becoming increasingly challenging. Very few new antimicrobials are in the pharmaceutical industry pipeline. One of the potential alternatives for antibiotics is phage therapy. Major obstacles for the clinical application of bacteriophages are a false perception of viruses as 'enemies of life' and the lack of a specific frame for phage therapy in the current Medicinal Product Regulation. Short-term borderline solutions under the responsibility of a Medical Ethical Committee and/or under the umbrella of the Declaration of Helsinki are emerging. As a long-term solution, however, we suggest the creation of a specific section for phage therapy under the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product Regulation.

  15. Phage therapy in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Endersen, Lorraine; O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

  16. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  17. Transmission of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Phage by Pristionchus Iheriteiri

    PubMed Central

    Chantanao, A.; Jensen, H. J.

    1969-01-01

    Pristionchus lheriteiri (Maupas) Paramonov, a saprozoic nematode, served as a carrier of an unnamed phage of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn. Viable phage particles passed through the nematode, caused lysis and formed typical plaques on agar plates seeded to A. tumefaciens. Phage retention by carrier nematodes was extended several hr by restricting food intake. Female nematodes accumulated phage in greater quantities and more rapidly than male nematodes. PMID:19325671

  18. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Capra, María L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-10-16

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts.

  19. Pterostilbene attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative injury in hippocampal neuronal cells by activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chongxi; Wang, Bodong; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dongjin; Gong, Bing; Di, Shouyin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yue; Li, Tian; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Erping

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were used to investigate the mechanisms mediating the potential protective effects of pterostilbene (PTE) against mitochondrial metabolic impairment and oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia for mimicking the diabetic encephalopathy. High glucose medium (100mM) decreased cellular viability after 24h incubation which was evidenced by: (i) reduced mitochondrial complex I and III activities; (ii) reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C; (iii) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; (iv) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); and (v) increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. PTE (2.5, 5, and 10μM for 24h) was nontoxic and induced the nuclear transition of Nrf2. Pretreatment of PTE (2.5, 5, and 10μM for 2h) displayed a dose-dependently neuroprotective effect, as indicated by significantly prevented high glucose-induced loss of cellular viability, generation of ROS, reduced mitochondrial complex I and III activities, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C, decreased ΔΨm, and increased LDH levels. Moreover, the levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were elevated after PTE treatment. In addition, the elevation of nuclear Nrf2 by PTE treatment (10μM for 2h) was abolished by Nrf2 siRNA. Importantly, Nrf2 siRNA induced the opposite changes in mitochondrial complex I and III activities, mitochondrial cytochrome C, reactive species generation, ΔΨm, and LDH. Overall, the present findings were the first to show that pterostilbene attenuated high glucose-induced central nervous system injury in vitro through the activation of Nrf2 signaling, displaying protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress.

  20. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuates paraquat-induced acute pulmonary poisoning in vivo via transforming growth factor β1 and nuclear factor κB pathway interaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, M; Lou, D; Li, H-H; Cai, Q; Wang, Y-P; Yang, H-F

    2016-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) exposure could cause pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in an acute PQ poison model. One hundred and forty-four Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into three experimental groups: control group, PQ group, and PQ + PDTC group. At days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 of treatment, the serum levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), the levels of hydroxyproline, the protein expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, and histopathological change in lung tissue were assessed. The survival rate of rats treated with PQ + PDTC was increased compared with that of rats treated only with PQ (p < 0.05), and the occurrence of pathological changes was dramatically attenuated in the PQ + PDTC group. The serum levels of TGF-β1 and the hydroxyproline levels in the PQ group were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner compared with those in the control and PQ + PDTC groups on days 7, 14, 28, and 56 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the protein levels of NF-κB proteins p65, inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKKβ, and IκB-α were significantly downregulated in the PQ + PDTC group as determined by array analysis. The present findings suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 may play an important role in PQ-induced lung injury and that PDTC, a strong NF-κB inhibitor, can rescue PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis by influencing the protein expression of NF-κB pathway. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Chronic sleep restriction elevates brain interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and attenuates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Kim, Youngsoo; Karpova, Svetlana A; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Gerashchenko, Dmitry

    2014-09-19

    Acute sleep loss increases pro-inflammatory and synaptic plasticity-related molecules in the brain, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These molecules enhance non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave activity (SWA), also known as electroencephalogram delta power, and modulate neurocognitive performance. Evidence suggests that chronic sleep restriction (CSR), a condition prevalent in today's society, does not elicit the enhanced SWA that is seen after acute sleep loss, although it cumulatively impairs neurocognitive functioning. Rats were continuously sleep deprived for 18h per day and allowed 6h of ad libitum sleep opportunity for 1 (SR1), 3 (SR3), or 5 (SR5) successive days (i.e., CSR). IL-1β, TNF-α, and BDNF mRNA levels were determined in the somatosensory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain. Largely, brain IL-1β and TNF-α expression were significantly enhanced throughout CSR. In contrast, BDNF mRNA levels were similar to baseline values in the cortex after 1 day of SR and significantly lower than baseline values in the hippocampus after 5 days of SR. In the basal forebrain, BDNF expression remained elevated throughout the 5 days of CSR, although IL-1β expression was significantly reduced. The chronic elevations of IL-1β and TNF-α and inhibition of BDNF might contribute to the reported lack of SWA responses reported after CSR. Further, the CSR-induced enhancements in brain inflammatory molecules and attenuations in hippocampal BDNF might contribute to neurocognitive and vigilance detriments that occur from CSR.

  2. A satellite phage-encoded antirepressor induces repressor aggregation and cholera toxin gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brigid M; Kimsey, Harvey H; Kane, Anne V; Waldor, Matthew K

    2002-08-15

    CTXphi is a filamentous bacteriophage whose genome encodes cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae. We have found that the CTXphi-related element RS1 is a satellite phage whose transmission depends upon proteins produced from a CTX prophage (its helper phage). However, unlike other satellite phages and satellite animal viruses, RS1 can aid the CTX prophage as well as exploit it, due to the RS1-encoded protein RstC. RstC, whose function previously was unknown, is an antirepressor that counteracts the activity of the phage repressor RstR. RstC promotes transcription of genes required for phage production and thereby promotes transmission of both RS1 and CTXphi. Antirepression by RstC also induces expression of the cholera toxin genes, ctxAB, and thus may contribute to the virulence of V.cholerae. In vitro, RstC binds directly to RstR, producing unusual, insoluble aggregates containing both proteins. In vivo, RstC and RstR are both found at the cell pole, where they again appear to form stable complexes. The sequestration/inactivation process induced by RstC resembles those induced by mutant polyglutamine-containing proteins implicated in human neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Propagation method for persistent high yield of diverse Listeria phages on permissive hosts at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Radford, Devon R; Ahmadi, Hanie; Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Balamurugan, Sampathkumar

    2016-10-01

    The efficient production of a high concentration of bacteriophage in large volumes has been a limiting factor in the exploration of the true potential of these organisms for biotechnology, agriculture and medicine. Traditional methods focus on generating small volumes of highly concentrated samples as the end product of extensive mechanical and osmotic processing. To function at an industrial scale mandates extensive investment in infrastructure and input materials not feasible for many smaller facilities. To address this, we developed a novel, scalable, generic method for producing significantly higher titer psychrophilic phage (P < 2.0 × 10(-6)), 2- to 4-fold faster than traditional methods. We generate renewable high yields from single source cultures by propagating phage under refrigeration conditions in which Listeria, Yersinia and their phages grow in equilibrium. Diverse Yersinia and Listeria phages tested yielded averages of 3.49 × 10(8) to 3.36 × 10(12) PFU/ml/day compared to averages of 1.28 × 10(5) to 1.30 × 10(10) PFU/ml/day by traditional methods. Host growth and death kinetics made this method ineffective for extended propagation of mesophilic phages. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The filamentous phage ϕRSS1 enhances virulence of phytopathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato.

    PubMed

    Addy, Hardian S; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops. ϕRSS1 is a filamentous phage that infects R. solanacearum strains. Upon infection, it alters the physiological state and the behavior of host cells. Here, we show that R. solanacearum infected by ϕRSS1 becomes more virulent on host plants. Some virulence and pathogenicity factors, such as extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and twitching motility, increased in the bacterial host cells infected with ϕRSS1, resulting in early wilting. Tomato plants inoculated with ϕRSS1-infected bacteria wilted 2 to 3 days earlier than those inoculated with wild-type bacteria. Infection with ϕRSS1 induced early expression of phcA, the global virulence regulator. phcA expression was detected in ϕRSS1-infected cells at cell density as low as 10(4) CFU/ml. Filamentous phages are assembled on the host cell surface and many phage particles accumulate on the cell surface. These surface-associated phage particles (phage proteins) may change the cell surface nature (hydrophobicity) to give high local cell densities. ϕRSS1 infection also enhanced PilA and type IV pilin production, resulting in increased twitching motility.

  5. A satellite phage-encoded antirepressor induces repressor aggregation and cholera toxin gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brigid M.; Kimsey, Harvey H.; Kane, Anne V.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2002-01-01

    CTXφ is a filamentous bacteriophage whose genome encodes cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae. We have found that the CTXφ-related element RS1 is a satellite phage whose transmission depends upon proteins produced from a CTX prophage (its helper phage). However, unlike other satellite phages and satellite animal viruses, RS1 can aid the CTX prophage as well as exploit it, due to the RS1-encoded protein RstC. RstC, whose function previously was unknown, is an antirepressor that counteracts the activity of the phage repressor RstR. RstC promotes transcription of genes required for phage production and thereby promotes transmission of both RS1 and CTXφ. Antirepression by RstC also induces expression of the cholera toxin genes, ctxAB, and thus may contribute to the virulence of V.cholerae. In vitro, RstC binds directly to RstR, producing unusual, insoluble aggregates containing both proteins. In vivo, RstC and RstR are both found at the cell pole, where they again appear to form stable complexes. The sequestration/inactivation process induced by RstC resembles those induced by mutant polyglutamine-containing proteins implicated in human neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12169626

  6. Inferring phage-bacteria infection networks from time-series data.

    PubMed

    Jover, Luis F; Romberg, Justin; Weitz, Joshua S

    2016-11-01

    In communities with bacterial viruses (phage) and bacteria, the phage-bacteria infection network establishes which virus types infect which host types. The structure of the infection network is a key element in understanding community dynamics. Yet, this infection network is often difficult to ascertain. Introduced over 60 years ago, the plaque assay remains the gold standard for establishing who infects whom in a community. This culture-based approach does not scale to environmental samples with increased levels of phage and bacterial diversity, much of which is currently unculturable. Here, we propose an alternative method of inferring phage-bacteria infection networks. This method uses time-series data of fluctuating population densities to estimate the complete interaction network without having to test each phage-bacteria pair individually. We use in silico experiments to analyse the factors affecting the quality of network reconstruction and find robust regimes where accurate reconstructions are possible. In addition, we present a multi-experiment approach where time series from different experiments are combined to improve estimates of the infection network. This approach also mitigates against the possibility of evolutionary changes to relevant phenotypes during the time course of measurement.

  7. Cancer immunotherapy by a recombinant phage vaccine displaying EGFR mimotope: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Ghaemmaghami, Mohamad; Klimka, Alexander; Javanmardi, Masoud; Navari, Mohsen; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2015-06-01

    To date, several small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal-antibodies (like ICR-62) have been used to treat tumors over-expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the limitations associated with these conventional applications accentuate the necessity of alternative approaches. Mimotopes as compelling molecular tools could rationally be employed to circumvent these drawbacks. In the present study, an M13 phage displaying ICR-62 binding peptide mimotope is exploited as a vaccine candidate. It exhibited high affinity towards ICR62 and polyclonal anti-P-BSA antibodies. Following the mice immunization, phage-based mimotope vaccine induced humoral immunity. Elicited anti-EGFR mimotope antibodies were detected using ELISA method. Moreover, the phage vaccine was tested on the Lewis lung carcinoma mice model to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects. The tumor volume was measured and recorded in different animal groups to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of the vaccine. Our data indicate that the reported phage-based mimotope could potentially elicit specific antibodies resulting in low titers of EGFR-specific antibodies and reduced tumor growth. However, in vivo experiments of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination showed no specific advantage. Furthermore, phage-mimotope vaccine might be a promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Lysogenic conversion and phage resistance development in phage exposed Escherichia coli biofilms.

    PubMed

    Moons, Pieter; Faster, David; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-01-11

    In this study, three-day old mature biofilms of Escherichia coli were exposed once to either a temperate Shiga-toxin encoding phage (H-19B) or an obligatory lytic phage (T7), after which further dynamics in the biofilm were monitored. As such, it was found that a single dose of H-19B could rapidly lead to a near complete lysogenization of the biofilm, with a subsequent continuous release of infectious H-19B particles. On the other hand, a single dose of T7 rapidly led to resistance development in the biofilm population. Together, our data indicates a profound impact of phages on the dynamics within structured bacterial populations.

  9. Vi I typing phage for generalized transduction of Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed Central

    Cerquetti, M C; Hooke, A M

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhi Vi typing phages were used to transduce temperature-sensitive (Ts) mutants of Salmonella typhi. Antibiotic resistance and Ts+ markers were transduced at high frequency (> 10(-4) per virulent phage). Several markers were cotransduced by phage Vi I, suggesting that it may be useful for mapping studies of the S. typhi genome. PMID:8349572

  10. Phage therapy in clinical practice: treatment of human infections.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Elizabeth; De Vos, Daniel; Gvasalia, Guram; Alavidze, Zemphira; Gogokhia, Lasha; Kuhl, Sarah; Abedon, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the application of bacteria-specific viruses with the goal of reducing or eliminating pathogenic or nuisance bacteria. While phage therapy has become a broadly relevant technology, including veterinary, agricultural, and food microbiology applications, it is for the treatment or prevention of human infections that phage therapy first caught the world's imagination--see, especially, Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis (1925)--and which today is the primary motivator of the field. Nonetheless, though the first human phage therapy took place in the 1920s, by the 1940s the field, was in steep decline despite early promise. The causes were at least three-fold: insufficient understanding among researchers of basic phage biology; over exuberance, which led, along with ignorance, to carelessness; and the advent of antibiotics, an easier to handle as well as highly powerful category of antibacterials. The decline in phage therapy was neither uniform nor complete, especially in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia, where phage therapy traditions and practice continue to this day. In this review we strive toward three goals: 1. To provide an overview of the potential of phage therapy as a means of treating or preventing human diseases; 2. To explore the phage therapy state of the art as currently practiced by physicians in various pockets of phage therapy activity around the world, including in terms of potential commercialization; and 3. To avert a recapitulation of phage therapy's early decline by outlining good practices in phage therapy practice, experimentation, and, ultimately, commercialization.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-08-25

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames.

  12. Genetic and Physical Structure of Salmonella-coli Phage Hybrids and Development of New Generalized Transducing Hybrid Phages for E. Coli.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    coli chromosome although the parental phage Mu80, is a specialized transducing phage for the E . coli trp operon. Phage P22 can recombine with coli...mutator phage Mu. Genetic analysis of Mu80immP22 hybrid genomes led us to isolate high specialized transducing phages for argF and proAB genes of the E

  13. Effect of experimental magnetic storm on the production of lambda phage.

    PubMed

    Chervinets, V M

    1979-01-01

    1. Sharp fluctuation of the intensity of the vertical component of the MF amounting to +/- 0.1 Oe changing the sign over each 3 min causes variability of both lysogenic and indicator strains of E. coli. This testifies to an extremely low threshold of their magnetic susceptibility and to biological importance of fluctuations of natural parameters of the geomagnetic field as an ecological factor of the environment. 2. A change in the intensity of the vertical component of the MF, not any higher than +/-0.1 Oe, inhibits phage production in the lysogenic system of E. coli K = 12 lambda and is also reflected in the morphological peculiarities of negative phage colonies as well as in the phage-susceptibility of the E. coli indicator strain.

  14. Fibulin-2 deficiency attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by reducing transforming growth factor-β signalling

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hangxiang; Wu, Jing; DONG, Hailong; KHAN, Shaukat A.; CHU, Mon-Li; TSUDA, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    AngII (angiotensin II) is a potent neurohormone responsible for cardiac hypertrophy, in which TGF (transforming growth factor)-β serves as a principal downstream mediator. We recently found that ablation of fibulin-2 in mice attenuated TGF-β signalling, protected mice against progressive ventricular dysfunction, and significantly reduced the mortality after experimental MI (myocardial infarction). In the present study, we investigated the role of fibulin-2 in AngII-induced TGF-β signalling and subsequent cardiac hypertrophy. We performed chronic subcutaneous infusion of AngII in fibulin-2 null (Fbln2−/− ), heterozygous (Fbln2+/− ) and WT (wild-type) mice by a mini-osmotic pump. After 4 weeks of subpressor dosage of AngII infusion (0.2 μg/kg of body weight per min), WT mice developed significant hypertrophy, whereas the Fbln2−/− showed no response. In WT, AngII treatment significantly up-regulated mRNAs for fibulin-2, ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), TGF-β1, Col I (collagen type I), Col III (collagen type III), MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 and MMP-9, and increased the phosphorylation of TGF-β-downstream signalling markers, Smad2, TAK1 (TGF-β-activated kinase 1) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), which were all unchanged in AngII-treated Fbln2−/− mice. The Fbln2+/− mice consistently displayed AngII-induced effects intermediate between WT and Fbln2−/− . Pressor dosage of AngII (2 mg/kg of body weight per min) induced significant fibrosis in WT but not in Fbln2−/− mice with comparable hypertension and hypertrophy in both groups. Isolated CFs (cardiac fibroblasts) were treated with AngII, in which direct AngII effects and TGF-β-mediated autocrine effects was observed in WT. The latter effects were totally abolished in Fbln2−/− cells, suggesting that fibulin-2 is essential for AngII-induced TGF-β activation. In conclusion our data indicate that fibulin-2 is essential for AngII-induced TGF-β-mediated cardiac

  15. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  16. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  17. Diversity and geographical distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and their phages: patterns of susceptibility to phage infection and phage host range.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen worldwide that causes cold water disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS). Phage therapy has been suggested as an alternative method for the control of this pathogen in aquaculture. However, effective use of bacteriophages in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates and Danish host isolates and vice versa was observed. Development of resistance to certain bacteriophages led to susceptibility to other phages suggesting that "enhanced infection" is potentially an important cost of resistance in F. psychrophilum, possibly contributing to the observed co-existence of phage-sensitive F. psychrophilum strains and lytic phages across local and global scales. Overall, our results showed that despite the identification of local communities of phages and hosts, some key properties determining phage infection patterns seem to be globally distributed.

  18. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  19. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  20. Biological characterization of induced phages from Saccharopolyspora hirsuta 367 and comparison with phage JHJ-1.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, L R; Lavoie, J M; Déry, C V

    1991-10-01

    Phages JHJ-2 and JHJ-3 were isolated from Saccharopolyspora hirsuta 367 UC 8106 following induction with mitomycin C and amplified on S. hirsuta NRRL B-5792. Their properties were compared with those of phage JHJ-1, isolated previously from S. hirsuta 367 NRRL 12045. The DNA restriction patterns appeared to be identical. One-step growth experiments showed no differences between the replication cycles. Burst sizes ranged from 100 to 110 p.f.u. per cell. However, the three phages showed some differences in their behaviour in different hosts. The host range of phage JHJ-1, on non-lysogenic strains, was emended to include all of the Saccharopolyspora strains tested; the host range of phage JHJ-2 was shown to be identical to JHJ-1. Phage JHJ-3 did not form detectable plaques on strains of S. rectivirgula or S. erythraea except S. erythraea NRRL 2359. Neither phage JHJ-2 nor JHJ-3 formed plaques on any lysogenic strains, while JHJ-1 formed plaques on all such strains except S. hirsuta 367 UC8106. Phage JHJ-3 was characterized as a temperate bacteriophage because it formed turbid, self-limiting plaques and lysogenized S. hirsuta NRRL B-5792. It was spontaneously released from UC8106. Both JHJ-1 and JHJ-2 formed clear and invasive (Inv+ phenotype: the property to grow on old mycelium) plaques on some Saccharopolyspora strains but clear and self-limiting plaques on others. Thus, the expression of the Inv+ phenotype encoded by JHJ-1 and JHJ-2 appears to be modulated by the host cell.

  1. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2013-07-01

    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology.

  2. DeltaPhage--a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Nicolay R; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2012-09-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems.

  3. 2004 ASM Conference on the New Phage Biology: the 'Phage Summit'.

    PubMed

    Adhya, Sankar; Black, Lindsay; Friedman, David; Hatfull, Graham; Kreuzer, Kenneth; Merril, Carl; Oppenheim, Amos; Rohwer, Forest; Young, Ry

    2005-03-01

    In August, more than 350 conferees from 24 countries attended the ASM Conference on the New Phage Biology, in Key Biscayne, Florida. This meeting, also called the Phage Summit, was the first major international gathering in decades devoted exclusively to phage biology. What emerged from the 5 days of the Summit was a clear perspective on the explosive resurgence of interest in all aspects of bacteriophage biology. The classic phage systems like lambda and T4, reinvigorated by structural biology, bioinformatics and new molecular and cell biology tools, remain model systems of unequalled power and facility for studying fundamental biological issues. In addition, the New Phage Biology is also populated by basic and applied scientists focused on ecology, evolution, nanotechnology, bacterial pathogenesis and phage-based immunologics, therapeutics and diagnostics, resulting in a heightened interest in bacteriophages per se, rather than as a model system. Besides constituting another landmark in the long history of a field begun by d'Herelle and Twort during the early 20th century, the Summit provided a unique venue for establishment of new interactive networks for collaborative efforts between scientists of many different backgrounds, interests and expertise.

  4. Comparative phage genomics and the evolution of Siphoviridae: insights from dairy phages.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, H; Desiere, F

    2001-01-01

    Comparative phage genomics can retrace part of the evolutionary history of phage modules encoding phage-specific functions such as capsid building or establishment of the lysogenic state. The diagnosis of relatedness is not based exclusively on sequence similarity, but includes topological considerations of genome organization. The gene maps from the lambda-, psiM2-, L5-, Sfi21-, Sfi11-, phiC31-, sk1- and TM4-like phages showed a remarkable synteny of their structural genes defining a lambda supergroup within Siphoviridae (Caudovirales with long non-contractile tails). A hierarchy of relatedness within the lambda supergroup suggested elements of vertical evolution in the capsid module of Siphoviridae. Links to P22-like Podoviridae and P2-like Myoviridae were also detected. Numerous cases of horizontal gene transfer were observed, but recent transfers were limited to interbreeding phage populations. We suggest that tailed phages are the result of both vertical and horizontal evolution and are thus a good model system for web-like phylogenies.

  5. Characterization and adsorption of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Xi, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Fan, M; Liu, Y; Wu, W

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria is considered an important problem worldwide in the food fermentation industry, as it may produce low quality or unsafe foods, cause fermentation failure, and result in economic losses. To increase current knowledge on the properties of Lactobacillus virulent phages, we evaluated the effect of divalent cations, temperature, pH, and chloramphenicol on the adsorption ability of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1. Phage P1 was isolated from the abnormal fermentation liquid of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10120. The results showed that this phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The latent period of this phage was 45min, and the burst time was 90min. Burst size was 132.88±2.37 phage counts expressed per milliliter per infective center. This phage showed good tolerance at different temperatures, but incubation at 50°C only affected its adsorption. Adsorption rate reached a maximum value between 30 and 42°C. A high adsorption value of phage infectivity was obtained from pH 6 to 8. Moreover, calcium ions promoted and increased the adsorption capacity of phage P1, but magnesium ions had negative effects. Chloramphenicol had no effect on phage adsorption. This study increased current knowledge on the characterization and biological aspects of Lactobacillus virulent phages, and may provide some basic information that can be used to design successful antiphage strategies in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermophilic lactic acid bacteria phages isolated from Argentinian dairy industries.

    PubMed

    Suárez, V B; Quiberoni, A; Binetti, A G; Reinheimer, J A

    2002-10-01

    Sixty-one natural phages (59 of Streptococcus thermophilus and 2 of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) were isolated from Argentinian dairy plants from November 1994 to July 2000. Specifically, 17 yogurt samples (18% of all samples) and 26 cheese samples (79%) contained phages lytic to S. thermophilus strains. The number of viral particles found in samples ranged from 10(2) to 10(9) PFU/ml. The phages belonged to Bradley's group B or the Siphoviridae family (morphotype B1). They showed high burst size values and remarkably short latent periods. The results of this study show that phages were found more frequently in cheesemaking processes than in yogurt-making processes. The commercial streptococcus strains appeared to propagate more phages, whereas the natural strains propagated fewer phage strains. These results suggest that the naturally occurring cultures are inherently more phage resistant.

  7. Phage display technology: clinical applications and recent innovations.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Highsmith, W Edward

    2002-09-01

    Phage display is a molecular diversity technology that allows the presentation of large peptide and protein libraries on the surface of filamentous phage. Phage display libraries permit the selection of peptides and proteins, including antibodies, with high affinity and specificity for almost any target. A crucial advantage of this technology is the direct link that exists between the experimental phenotype and its encapsulated genotype, which allows the evolution of the selected binders into optimized molecules. Phage display facilitates engineering of antibodies with regard to their size, valency, affinity, and effector functions. The selection of antibodies and peptides from libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous phage has proven significant for routine isolation of peptides and antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review serves as an introduction to phage display, antibody engineering, the development of phage-displayed peptides and antibody fragments into viable diagnostic reagents, and recent trends in display technology.

  8. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  9. Mast Cell and M1 Macrophage Infiltration and Local Pro-Inflammatory Factors Were Attenuated with Incretin-Based Therapies in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Yuan, Geheng; Cheng, Fangxiao; Zhang, Junqing; Guo, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    The global increase of obesity parallels the obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) epidemic. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists were well recognized to attenuate renal injury independent of glucose control in diabetic nephropathy. There are limited studies focusing on their effects on ORG. We explored the effects of incretin-based therapies on early ORG and the inflammatory responses involved mainly concentrated on mast cell (MC) and macrophage (M) infiltration and local pro-inflammatory factors. ORG rat models were induced by high-fat diet and then divided into ORG vehicle, vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day, qd) and liraglutide (200 μg/kg, bid) treated groups. After 8 weeks of treatments, albuminuria, glomerular histology, renal inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory factors were analyzed. Early ORG model was demonstrated by albuminuria, glomerulomegaly, foot process fusion, and mesangial and endothelial mild proliferation. Incretin-based therapies limited body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity. ORG was alleviated, manifested by decreased average glomerular area, attenuated mesangial and endothelial cell proliferation, and revived cell-to-cell propagation of podocytes, which contributed to reduced albuminuria. Compared with ORG vehicle, MC and M1 macrophage (pro-inflammatory) infiltration and M1/M2 ratio were significantly decreased; M2 macrophage (anti-inflammatory) was not significantly increased after incretin-based treatments. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in renal cortex were significantly downregulated, while transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) remained unchanged. Incretin-based treatments could alleviate high-fat diet-induced ORG partly through the systemic insulin sensitivity improvement and the attenuated local inflammation, mainly by the decrease of MC and M1 macrophage infiltration and reduction of TNF-α and IL-6.

  10. Phage-bacterial interactions in the evolution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Shah M.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the emergence of new clones of pathogenic bacteria is vital to develop preventive measures. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics represents a paradigm for this process in that this organism evolved from environmental non-pathogenic strains by acquisition of virulence genes. The major virulence factors of V. cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) are encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage (CTXφ) and a pathogenicity island, respectively. Additional phages which cooperate with the CTXφ in horizontal transfer of genes in V. cholerae have been characterized, and the potential exists for discovering yet new phages or genetic elements which support the transfer of genes for environmental fitness and virulence leading to the emergence of new epidemic strains. Phages have also been shown to play a crucial role in modulating seasonal cholera epidemics. Thus, the complex array of natural phenomena driving the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae includes, among other factors, phages that either participate in horizontal gene transfer or in a bactericidal selection process favoring the emergence of new clones of V. cholerae. PMID:23076327

  11. Phage-bacterial interactions in the evolution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Shah M; Mekalanos, John J

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the emergence of new clones of pathogenic bacteria is vital to develop preventive measures. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics represents a paradigm for this process in that this organism evolved from environmental non-pathogenic strains by acquisition of virulence genes. The major virulence factors of V. cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) are encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage (CTXφ) and a pathogenicity island, respectively. Additional phages which cooperate with the CTXφ in horizontal transfer of genes in V. cholerae have been characterized, and the potential exists for discovering yet new phages or genetic elements which support the transfer of genes for environmental fitness and virulence leading to the emergence of new epidemic strains. Phages have also been shown to play a crucial role in modulating seasonal cholera epidemics. Thus, the complex array of natural phenomena driving the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae includes, among other factors, phages that either participate in horizontal gene transfer or in a bactericidal selection process favoring the emergence of new clones of V. cholerae.

  12. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  13. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  14. Role of phages in the epidemiology of cholera.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Shah M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the periodic emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae causing outbreaks of cholera in regions where the disease is endemic, is vital to develop preventive measures. Besides environmental factors which are not precisely defined, bacteriophages, and horizontally transmissible genetic elements are known to have a significant role in the epidemiology and evolution of the pathogen. Cholera epidemics are also known to be self-limiting, and hence identifying natural factors which contribute to the collapse of epidemics may have important implications in controlling the disease. Phages have been shown to play a crucial role in modulating cholera epidemics, and enhance V. cholerae evolution through a bactericidal selection process which favors the emergence of new clones.

  15. Insights of Phage-Host Interaction in Hypersaline Ecosystem through Metagenomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Goel, Ramesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most abundant biological entities on Earth, place significant predation pressure on their hosts. This pressure plays a critical role in the evolution, diversity, and abundance of bacteria. In addition, phages modulate the genetic diversity of prokaryotic communities through the transfer of auxiliary metabolic genes. Various studies have been conducted in diverse ecosystems to understand phage-host interactions and their effects on prokaryote metabolism and community composition. However, hypersaline environments remain among the least studied ecosystems and the interaction between the phages and prokaryotes in these habitats is poorly understood. This study begins to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing bacteriophage-host interactions in the Great Salt Lake, the largest prehistoric hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere. Our metagenomics analyses allowed us to comprehensively identify the bacterial and phage communities with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant bacterial species and Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae as the most dominant viral families found in the metagenomic sequences. We also characterized interactions between the phage and prokaryotic communities of Great Salt Lake and determined how these interactions possibly influence the community diversity, structure, and biogeochemical cycles. In addition, presence of prophages and their interaction with the prokaryotic host was studied and showed the possibility of prophage induction and subsequent infection of prokaryotic community present in the Great Salt Lake environment under different environmental stress factors. We found that carbon cycle was the most susceptible nutrient cycling pathways to prophage induction in the presence of environmental stresses. This study gives an enhanced snapshot of phage and prokaryote abundance and diversity as well as their interactions in a hypersaline complex ecosystem, which can pave the way for

  16. Excess production of phage lambda delayed early proteins under conditions supporting high Escherichia coli growth rates.

    PubMed

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Wegrzyn, A; Szalewska-Pałasz, A; Thomas, M S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-08-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is unable to lysogenize Escherichia coli hosts harbouring the rpoA341 mutation due to a drastic reduction in transcription from CII-activated lysogenic promoters (pE, pI and paQ). In addition, the level of early transcripts involved in the lytic pathway of lambda development is also decreased in this genetic background due to impaired N-dependent antitermination. Here, it is demonstrated that despite the reduced level of early lytic pL- and pR-derived transcripts, lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda is not affected in rich media. The level of the late lytic, pR-derived transcripts also remains unaffected by the rpoA341 mutation under these conditions. However, it was found that whilst there is no significant difference in the phage burst size in rpoA+ and rpoA341 hosts growing in rich media, phage lambda is not able to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant growing in minimal medium, in contrast to otherwise isogenic rpoA+ bacteria. Provision of an excess of the phage replication proteins O and P in trans or overproduction of the antitermination protein N restore the ability of phage lambda to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant under the latter conditions. These results suggest that in rich media phage lambda produces some early proteins in excess of that needed for its effective propagation and indicate that replication proteins may be limiting factors for phage lytic growth in poor media.

  17. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces phage-mediated gene transfer in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, Bradley L.; Allen, Heather K.; Brunelle, Brian W.; Lee, In Soo; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Stanton, Thaddeus B.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox is a veterinary antibiotic used in the US during the starter phase of swine production for improved feed efficiency and control of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis. Carbadox has been shown in vitro to induce phage-encoded Shiga toxin in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and a phage-like element transferring antibiotic resistance genes in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the effect of carbadox on prophages in other bacteria is unknown. This study examined carbadox exposure on prophage induction and genetic transfer in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human foodborne pathogen that frequently colonizes swine without causing disease. S. Typhimurium LT2 exposed to carbadox induced prophage production, resulting in bacterial cell lysis and release of virions that were visible by electron microscopy. Carbadox induction of phage-mediated gene transfer was confirmed by monitoring the transduction of a sodCIII::neo cassette in the Fels-1 prophage from LT2 to a recipient Salmonella strain. Furthermore, carbadox frequently induced generalized transducing phages in multidrug-resistant phage type DT104 and DT120 isolates, resulting in the transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA that included antibiotic resistance genes. Our research indicates that exposure of Salmonella to carbadox induces prophages that can transfer virulence and antibiotic resistance genes to susceptible bacterial hosts. Carbadox-induced, phage-mediated gene transfer could serve as a contributing factor in bacterial evolution during animal production, with prophages being a reservoir for bacterial fitness genes in the

  18. Evolution of parasitism and mutualism between filamentous phage M13 and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Elizabeth S.C.P.; Turner, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. How host-symbiont interactions coevolve between mutualism and parasitism depends on the ecology of the system and on the genetic and physiological constraints of the organisms involved. Theory often predicts that greater reliance on horizontal transmission favors increased costs of infection and may result in more virulent parasites or less beneficial mutualists. We set out to understand transitions between parasitism and mutualism by evolving the filamentous bacteriophage M13 and its host Escherichia coli. Results. The effect of phage M13 on bacterial fitness depends on the growth environment, and initial assays revealed that infected bacteria reproduce faster and to higher density than uninfected bacteria in 96-well microplates. These data suggested that M13 is, in fact, a facultative mutualist of E. coli. We then allowed E. coli and M13 to evolve in replicated environments, which varied in the relative opportunity for horizontal and vertical transmission of phage in order to assess the evolutionary stability of this mutualism. After 20 experimental passages, infected bacteria from treatments with both vertical and horizontal transmission of phage had evolved the fastest growth rates. At the same time, phage from these treatments no longer benefited the ancestral bacteria. Conclusions. These data suggest a positive correlation between the positive effects of M13 on E. coli hosts from the same culture and the negative effects of the same phage toward the ancestral bacterial genotype. The results also expose flaws in applying concepts from the virulence-transmission tradeoff hypothesis to mutualism evolution. We discuss the data in the context of more recent theory on how horizontal transmission affects mutualisms and explore how these effects influence phages encoding virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27257543

  19. Artificial Neural Networks Trained to Detect Viral and Phage Structural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Seguritan, Victor; Raymond, Amy; Lorimer, Don; Burgin, Alex B.; Salamon, Peter; Segall, Anca M.

    2012-01-01

    Phages play critical roles in the survival and pathogenicity of their hosts, via lysogenic conversion factors, and in nutrient redistribution, via cell lysis. Analyses of phage- and viral-encoded genes in environmental samples provide insights into the physiological impact of viruses on microbial communities and human health. However, phage ORFs are extremely diverse of which over 70% of them are dissimilar to any genes with annotated functions in GenBank. Better identification of viruses would also aid in better detection and diagnosis of disease, in vaccine development, and generally in better understanding the physiological potential of any environment. In contrast to enzymes, viral structural protein function can be much more challenging to detect from sequence data because of low sequence conservation, few known conserved catalytic sites or sequence domains, and relatively limited experimental data. We have designed a method of predicting phage structural protein sequences that uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). First, we trained ANNs to classify viral structural proteins using amino acid frequency; these correctly classify a large fraction of test cases with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. Subsequently, we added estimates of protein isoelectric points as a feature to ANNs that classify specialized families of proteins, namely major capsid and tail proteins. As expected, these more specialized ANNs are more accurate than the structural ANNs. To experimentally validate the ANN predictions, several ORFs with no significant similarities to known sequences that are ANN-predicted structural proteins were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Some of these self-assembled into structures strongly resembling virion structures. Thus, our ANNs are new tools for identifying phage and potential prophage structural proteins that are difficult or impossible to detect by other bioinformatic analysis. The networks will be valuable when sequence is

  20. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Hoskisson, Paul A; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C M

    2015-03-01

    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl(+) host but normal in a Pgl(-) strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl(+) cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of phiLLS, a Novel Phage with Potential Biocontrol Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Amarillas, Luis; Rubí-Rangel, Lucia; Chaidez, Cristobal; González-Robles, Arturo; Lightbourn-Rojas, Luis; León-Félix, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a serious and growing problem, and the incidence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne pathogens is reported to have increased. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains demands novel strategies to counteract this epidemic. In this regard, lytic bacteriophages have reemerged as an alternative for the control of pathogenic bacteria. However, the effective use of phages relies on appropriate biological and genomic characterization. In this study, we present the isolation and characterization of a novel bacteriophage named phiLLS, which has shown strong lytic activity against generic and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains. Transmission electron microscopy of phiLLS morphology revealed that it belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Furthermore, this phage exhibited a relatively large burst size of 176 plaque-forming units per infected cell. Phage phiLLS significantly reduced the growth of E. coli under laboratory conditions. Analyses of restriction profiles showed the presence of submolar fragments, confirming that phiLLS is a pac-type phage. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of large terminase subunits confirmed that this phage uses a headful packaging strategy to package their genome. Genomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis showed that phiLLS is a novel bacteriophage that is most closely related to T5-like phages. In silico analysis indicated that the phiLLS genome consists of 107,263 bp (39.0 % GC content) encoding 160 putative ORFs, 16 tRNAs, several potential promoters and transcriptional terminators. Genome analysis suggests that the phage phiLLS is strictly lytic without carrying genes associated with virulence factors and/or potential immunoreactive allergen proteins. The bacteriophage isolated in this study has shown promising results in the biocontrol of bacterial growth under in vitro conditions, suggesting that it may prove useful as an alternative agent for the

  2. Genes essential for the morphogenesis of the Shiga toxin 2-transducing phage from Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Sawaguchi, Akira; Asadulghani, Md; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-12-14

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), one of the most important virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), is encoded by phages. These phages (Stx2 phages) are often called lambda-like. However, most Stx2 phages are short-tailed, thus belonging to the family Podoviridae, and the functions of many genes, especially those in the late region, are unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic genetic and morphological analysis of genes with unknown functions in Sp5, the Stx2 phage from EHEC O157:H7 strain Sakai. We identified nine essential genes, which, together with the terminase genes, determine Sp5 morphogenesis. Four of these genes most likely encoded portal, major capsid, scaffolding and tail fiber proteins. Although exact roles/functions of the other five genes are unknown, one was involved in head formation and four were required for tail formation. One of the four tail genes encoded an unusually large protein of 2,793 amino-acid residues. Two genes that are likely required to maintain the lysogenic state were also identified. Because the late regions of Stx2 phages from various origins are highly conserved, the present study provides an important basis for better understanding the biology of this unique and medically important group of bacteriophages.

  3. A novel strategy for the functional cloning of enzymes using filamentous phage display: the case of nucleotidyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Erika; Chauvin, Camille; Choumet, Valérie; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    In vitro selections for catalytic activity have been designed for the isolation of genes encoding enzymes from libraries of proteins displayed on filamentous phages. The proteins are generally expressed as C-terminal fusions with the N-terminus of the minor coat protein p3 for display on phages. As full-length cDNAs generally contain several stop codons near their 3′ end, this approach cannot be used for their expression on the surface of phages. Here we show that in vitro selection for catalytic activity is compatible with a system for expression of proteins as N-terminal fusions on the surface of bacteriophages. It is highlighted for the Stoffel fragment of Taq DNA polymerase I and makes use of (p3–Jun/Fos–Stoffel fragment) fusions. The efficiency of the selection is measured by an enrichment factor found to be about 55 for a phage polymerase versus a phage not expressing a polymerase. This approach could provide a method for the functional cloning of nucleotidyl transferases from cDNA libraries using filamentous phage display. PMID:11972355

  4. Genes essential for the morphogenesis of the Shiga toxin 2-transducing phage from Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Sawaguchi, Akira; Asadulghani, Md; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), one of the most important virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), is encoded by phages. These phages (Stx2 phages) are often called lambda-like. However, most Stx2 phages are short-tailed, thus belonging to the family Podoviridae, and the functions of many genes, especially those in the late region, are unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic genetic and morphological analysis of genes with unknown functions in Sp5, the Stx2 phage from EHEC O157:H7 strain Sakai. We identified nine essential genes, which, together with the terminase genes, determine Sp5 morphogenesis. Four of these genes most likely encoded portal, major capsid, scaffolding and tail fiber proteins. Although exact roles/functions of the other five genes are unknown, one was involved in head formation and four were required for tail formation. One of the four tail genes encoded an unusually large protein of 2,793 amino-acid residues. Two genes that are likely required to maintain the lysogenic state were also identified. Because the late regions of Stx2 phages from various origins are highly conserved, the present study provides an important basis for better understanding the biology of this unique and medically important group of bacteriophages. PMID:27966628

  5. Stumbling across the Same Phage: Comparative Genomics of Widespread Temperate Phages Infecting the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Kalatzis, Panos G.; Rørbo, Nanna; Castillo, Daniel; Mauritzen, Jesper Juel; Jørgensen, Jóhanna; Kokkari, Constantina; Zhang, Faxing; Katharios, Pantelis; Middelboe, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Nineteen Vibrio anguillarum-specific temperate bacteriophages isolated across Europe and Chile from aquaculture and environmental sites were genome sequenced and analyzed for host range, morphology and life cycle characteristics. The phages were classified as Siphoviridae with genome sizes between 46,006 and 54,201 bp. All 19 phages showed high genetic similarity, and 13 phages were genetically identical. Apart from sporadically distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genetic diversifications were located in three variable regions (VR1, VR2 and VR3) in six of the phage genomes. Identification of specific genes, such as N6-adenine methyltransferase and lambda like repressor, as well as the presence of a tRNAArg, suggested a both mutualistic and parasitic interaction between phages and hosts. During short term phage exposure experiments, 28% of a V. anguillarum host population was lysogenized by the temperate phages and a genomic analysis of a collection of 31 virulent V. anguillarum showed that the isolated phages were present as prophages in >50% of the strains covering large geographical distances. Further, phage sequences were widely distributed among CRISPR-Cas arrays of publicly available sequenced Vibrios. The observed distribution of these specific temperate Vibriophages across large geographical scales may be explained by efficient dispersal of phages and bacteria in the marine environment combined with a mutualistic interaction between temperate phages and their hosts which selects for co-existence rather than arms race dynamics. PMID:28531104

  6. T-cell factor-4 and MHC upregulation in pigs receiving a live attenuated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccine strain with interferon-gamma adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y-H; Lin, Y-L; Hwang, Y-C; Yang, H-C; Chiu, H-C; Chiou, S-H; Jong, M-H; Chow, K-C; Lin, C-C

    2016-10-01

    The effect of co-administration of interferon (IFN)-γ in pigs undergoing vaccination with an attenuated strain (LPC) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was investigated. Unvaccinated pigs demonstrated pyrexia and died 7-9 days after challenge with virulent CSFV. Pigs receiving the attenuated vaccine remained healthy after virus challenge, except for mild, transient pyrexia, whereas pigs receiving IFN-γ simultaneously with the vaccine demonstrated normal body temperatures after virus challenge. Examination by nested RT-PCR revealed greater viral load in the spleens of the pigs vaccinated with the attenuated CSFV, compared with those that had additionally received IFN-γ. Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules was upregulated in the spleens of the IFN-γ treated vaccinated pigs, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Based on Western blot analysis, anti-CSFV IgG2 antibodies were elevated in vaccinated pigs by co-administration of IFN-γ (IFN-γ(Hi): P < 0.01; IFN-γ(Lo): P <0.05). By employing the suppression subtractive hybridization technique, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, T-cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) mRNA and protein expression were found to be upregulated in the spleens of vaccinated pigs that had received IFN-γ. This study suggests involvement of Tcf-4 in IFN-γ-mediated immune regulation following CSFV vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autophagy induction by SIRT6 through attenuation of insulin-like growth factor signaling is involved in the regulation of human bronchial epithelial cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Takasaka, Naoki; Araya, Jun; Hara, Hiromichi; Ito, Saburo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Kurita, Yusuke; Wakui, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yutaka; Yumino, Yoko; Fujii, Satoko; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Tsurushige, Chikako; Kojima, Jun; Numata, Takanori; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Kawaishi, Makoto; Kaneko, Yumi; Kamiya, Noriki; Hirano, Jun; Odaka, Makoto; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Stephen L; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cellular senescence has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, antagonizes this senescence, presumably through the attenuation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-Akt signaling. Autophagy controls cellular senescence by eliminating damaged cellular components and is negatively regulated by IGF-Akt signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). SIRT1, a representative sirtuin family, has been demonstrated to activate autophagy, but a role for SIRT6 in autophagy activation has not been shown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the regulatory role for SIRT6 in autophagy activation during CS-induced cellular senescence. SIRT6 expression levels were modulated by cDNA and small interfering RNA transfection in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and Western blotting of p21 were performed to evaluate senescence. We demonstrated that SIRT6 expression levels were decreased in lung homogenates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, and SIRT6 expression levels correlated significantly with the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity. CS extract (CSE) suppressed SIRT6 expression in HBECs. CSE-induced HBEC senescence was inhibited by SIRT6 overexpression, whereas SIRT6 knockdown and mutant SIRT6 (H133Y) without histone deacetylase activity enhanced HBEC senescence. SIRT6 overexpression induced autophagy via attenuation of IGF-Akt-mTOR signaling. Conversely, SIRT6 knockdown and overexpression of a mutant SIRT6 (H133Y) inhibited autophagy. Autophagy inhibition by knockdown of ATG5 and LC3B attenuated the antisenescent effect of SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 is involved in CSE-induced HBEC senescence via autophagy regulation, which can be attributed to attenuation of IGF-Akt-mTOR signaling.

  8. Humoral immune responses against gonadotropin releasing hormone elicited by immunization with phage-peptide constructs obtained via phage display.

    PubMed

    Samoylov, Alexandre; Cochran, Anna; Schemera, Bettina; Kutzler, Michelle; Donovan, Caitlin; Petrenko, Valery; Bartol, Frank; Samoylova, Tatiana

    2015-12-20

    Phage display is based on genetic engineering of phage coat proteins resulting in fusion peptides displayed on the surface of phage particles. The technology is widely used for generation of phages with novel characteristics for numerous applications in biomedicine and far beyond. The focus of this study was on development of phage-peptide constructs that stimulate production of antibodies against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Phage-peptide constructs that elicit production of neutralizing GnRH antibodies can be used for anti-fertility and anti-cancer applications. Phage-GnRH constructs were generated via selection from a phage display library using several types of GnRH antibodies as selection targets. Such phage constructs were characterized for sequence similarities to GnRH peptide and frequency of their occurrence in the selection rounds. Five of the constructs with suitable characteristics were tested in mice as a single dose 5×10(11) virions (vir) vaccine and were found to be able to stimulate production of GnRH-specific antibodies, but not to suppress testosterone (indirect indicator of GnRH antibody neutralizing properties). Next, one of the constructs was tested at a higher dose of 2×10(12) vir per mouse in combination with a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based adjuvant. This resulted in multifold increase in GnRH antibody production and significant reduction of serum testosterone, indicating that antibodies produced in response to the phage-GnRH immunization possess neutralizing properties. To achieve optimal immune responses for desired applications, phage-GnRH constructs can be modified with respect to flanking sequences of GnRH-like peptides displayed on phage. Anticipated therapeutic effects also might be attained using optimized phage doses, a combination of several constructs in a single treatment, or application of adjuvants and advanced phage delivery systems.

  9. Soluble toll-like receptor 4 reversed attenuating effect of Chinese herbal Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang on allergen induced nerve growth factor and thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, REN-SHIU; WANG, YU-CHIN; KAO, SHUNG-TE

    2013-01-01

    Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) is known to regulate allergic immune reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of XQLT on allergen-induced cytokines and associated signaling pathways. An acute allergic mouse model was used to investigate the effects of XQLT on nerve growth factor (NGF) during an allergic reaction, while human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) were used to investigate the effects of XQLT on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 (Der p 2)-induced NGF, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression. XQLT was demonstrated to inhibit NGF- and p75NTR-related allergic reactions in the mouse model. XQLT also reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the lungs of the model mice. XQLT inhibited Der p 2-induced NGF, TSLP and p75NTR expression in the HPAEpiC cell line. The use of recombinant soluble TLR4 (sTLR4) in a competitive assay partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of XQLT on NGF, TSLP and p75NTR expression in HPAEpiC cells. The inhibitory effect of XQLT on the Ser536 phosphorylation of p65 (nuclear factor-κB; NF-κB), a TLR4-induced factor, was also attenuated by sTLR4. In conclusion, XQLT inhibited Der p allergen-induced NGF, p75NTR and TSLP expression. This inhibition was attenuated by sTLR4. The mechanism of action of XQLT may be correlated with TLR4, a primary receptor in the innate immune system. The findings of this study may focus the search for pharmacological targets of XQLT onto TLR4, which is important in the allergen presentation pathway. PMID:24223644

  10. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Proteinuria in Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis via Downregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Smad2/3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Ming; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Yang, Yalin; Lai, Chun-Fu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Shuei-Liong

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis is a rat nephritis model closely simulating human mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. It affects primarily the mesangium, yet displays substantial proteinuria during the course. This study investigated the molecular signals underlying proteinuria in this disease and the modulation of which by the known antiproteinuric agent, pentoxifylline. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group and nephritic groups with or without treatment with IMD-0354 (an IκB kinase inhibitor), SB431542 (an activin receptor–like kinase inhibitor) or pentoxifylline. Kidney sections were prepared for histological examinations. Glomeruli were isolated for mRNA and protein analysis. Urine samples were collected for protein and nephrin quantitation. One day after nephritis induction, proteinuria developed together with ultrastructural changes of the podocyte and downregulation of podocyte mRNA and protein expression. These were associated with upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/activins mRNAs and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and Smad2/3. IMD-0354 attenuated proteinuria on d 1, whereas SB431542 decreased proteinuria on d 3 and 5, in association with partial restoration of downregulated podocyte mRNA and protein expression. Pentoxifylline attenuated proteinuria and nephrinuria through the course, plus inhibition of p-NF-κB p65 (d 1) and p-Smad2/3 (d 5) and partial reversal of downregulated podocyte mRNA and protein. Our data show that the pathogenesis of proteinuria in anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis involves TNF-α and TGF-β/activin pathways, and the evolution of this process can be attenuated by pentoxifylline via downregulation of NF-κB and Smad signals and restoration of the podocyte component of the glomerular filtration barrier. PMID:25879629

  11. A phagemid vector using the E. coli phage shock promoter facilitates phage display of toxic proteins.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, J; Rakonjac, J; Jongsma, M; Bosch, D

    1999-03-04

    Phage display is a powerful tool with which to adapt the specificity of protease inhibitors. To this end, a library of variants of the potato protease inhibitor PI2 was introduced in a canonical phagemid vector. Although PI2 is a natural trypsin inhibitor, we were unable to select trypsin-binding variants from the library. Instead, only mutants carrying deletions or amber stop codons were found. Bacteria carrying these mutations had a much faster growth rate than those carrying the wt PI2-encoding gene, even when the promoter was repressed. To overcome these problems, two new phagemid vectors for g3-mediated phage display were constructed. The first vector has a lower plasmid copy number, as compared to the canonical vector. Bacteria harboring this new vector are much less affected by the presence of the PI2-g3 fusion gene, which appears from a markedly reduced growth retardation. A second vector was equipped with the promoter of the Escherichia coli psp operon, instead of the lac promoter, to control the PI2-g3 gene fusion expression. The psp promoter is induced upon helper phage infection. A phagemid vector with this promoter controlling a PI2-g3 gene fusion did not affect the viability of the host. Furthermore, both new vectors were shown to produce phage particles that display the inhibitor protein and were therefore considered suitable for phage display. The inhibitor library was introduced in both new vectors. Trypsin-binding phages with inhibitory sequences were selected, instead of sequences with stop codons or deletions. This demonstrates the usefulness of these new vectors for phage display of proteins that affect the viability of E. coli.

  12. Phages and the Evolution of Bacterial Pathogens: from Genomic Rearrangements to Lysogenic Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald; Canchaya, Carlos; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be distinguished: Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. These prophages behave like “swarms” of related prophages. Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. In many cases, they actually represent a large fraction of the strain-specific DNA sequences. In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework. PMID:15353570

  13. Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald; Canchaya, Carlos; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2004-09-01

    Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be distinguished: Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. These prophages behave like "swarms" of related prophages. Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. In many cases, they actually represent a large fraction of the strain-specific DNA sequences. In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework.

  14. Convergent evolution of pathogenicity islands in helper cos phage interference

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Keith A.; Dokland, Terje; Marina, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their helper phages for their own benefit. Most SaPIs are packaged by their helper phages using a headful (pac) packaging mechanism. These SaPIs interfere with pac phage reproduction through a variety of strategies, including the redirection of phage capsid assembly to form small capsids, a process that depends on the expression of the SaPI-encoded cpmA and cpmB genes. Another SaPI subfamily is induced and packaged by cos-type phages, and although these cos SaPIs also block the life cycle of their inducing phages, the basis for this mechanism of interference remains to be deciphered. Here we have identified and characterized one mechanism by which the SaPIs interfere with cos phage reproduction. This mechanism depends on a SaPI-encoded gene, ccm, which encodes a protein involved in the production of small isometric capsids, compared with the prolate helper phage capsids. As the Ccm and CpmAB proteins are completely unrelated in sequence, this strategy represents a fascinating example of convergent evolution. Moreover, this result also indicates that the production of SaPI-sized particles is a widespread strategy of phage interference conserved during SaPI evolution. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672154

  15. Efficacy of two Staphylococcus aureus phage cocktails in cheese production.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Roy, Jean-Pierre; Khalil, Georges E; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Labrie, Steve; Moineau, Sylvain

    2016-01-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogenic bacteria contaminating dairy products. In an effort to reduce food safety risks, virulent phages are investigated as antibacterial agents to control foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare sets of virulent phages, design phage cocktails, and use them in a cocktail to control pathogenic staphylococci in cheese. Six selected phages belonging to the three Caudovirales families (Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae) were strictly lytic, had a broad host range, and did not carry genes coding for virulence traits in their genomes. However, they were sensitive to pasteurization. At MOI levels of 15, 45, and 150, two anti-S. aureus phage cocktails, each containing three phages, one from each of the three phage families, eradicated a 10(6)CFU/g S. aureus population after 14 days of Cheddar cheese curd ripening at 4°C. The use of these phages did not trigger over-production of S. aureus enterotoxin C. The use of phage cocktails and their rotation may prevent the emergence of phage resistant bacterial strains.

  16. Engineering resistance to phage GVE3 in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Taylor, Mark Paul; Trindade, Marla

    2016-02-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a promising platform organism for the production of biofuels and other metabolites of interest. G. thermoglucosidasius fermentations could be subject to bacteriophage-related failure and financial loss. We develop two strains resistant to a recently described G. thermoglucosidasius-infecting phage GVE3. The phage-encoded immunity gene, imm, was overexpressed in the host leading to phage resistance. A phage-resistant mutant was isolated following expression of a putative anti-repressor-like protein and phage challenge. A point mutation was identified in the polysaccharide pyruvyl transferase, csaB. A double crossover knockout mutation of csaB confirmed its role in the phage resistance phenotype. These resistance mechanisms appear to prevent phage DNA injection and/or lysogenic conversion rather than just reducing efficiency of plating, as no phage DNA could be detected in resistant bacteria challenged with GVE3 and no plaques observed even at high phage titers. Not only do the strains developed here shed light on the biological relationship between the GVE3 phage and its host, they could be employed by those looking to make use of this organism for metabolite production, with reduced occurrence of GVE3-related failure.

  17. Maximizing filamentous phage yield during computer-controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Sung-Hye H; Lee, Seungil; Dunbar, W Scott; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Curtis, Susan B

    2009-10-01

    Filamentous phage such as M13 and fd consist of a circular, single-stranded DNA molecule surrounded by several different coat proteins. These phages have been used extensively as vectors in phage display where one of the phage coat proteins is genetically engineered to contain a unique peptide surface loop. Through these peptide sequences, a phage collection can be screened for individual phage that binds to different macromolecules or small organic and inorganic molecules. Here, we use computer-controlled bioreactors to produce large quantities of filamentous phage in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. By measuring phage yield and bacterial growth while changing the growth medium, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, we found that the optimal conditions for phage yield were NZY medium with pH maintained at 7.4, the dO(2) held at 100% and agitation at 800 rpm. These computer-controlled fermentations result in a minimum of a tenfold higher filamentous phage production compared to standard shake flask conditions.

  18. Assembling filamentous phage occlude pIV channels.

    PubMed

    Marciano, D K; Russel, M; Simon, S M

    2001-07-31

    Filamentous phage f1 is exported from its Escherichia coli host without killing the bacterial cell. Phage-encoded protein pIV, which is required for phage assembly and secretion, forms large highly conductive channels in the outer membrane of E. coli. It has been proposed that the phage are extruded across the bacterial outer membrane through pIV channels. To test this prediction, we developed an in vivo assay by using a mutant pIV that functions in phage export but whose channel opens in the absence of phage extrusion. In E. coli lacking its native maltooligosacharride transporter LamB, this pIV variant allowed oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane. This entry of oligosaccharide was decreased by phage production and still further decreased by production of phage that cannot be released from the cell surface. Thus, exiting phage block the pIV-dependent entry of oligosaccharide, suggesting that phage occupy the lumen of pIV channels. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for viral exit through a large aqueous channel.

  19. Convergent evolution of pathogenicity islands in helper cos phage interference.

    PubMed

    Carpena, Nuria; Manning, Keith A; Dokland, Terje; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2016-11-05

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their helper phages for their own benefit. Most SaPIs are packaged by their helper phages using a headful (pac) packaging mechanism. These SaPIs interfere with pac phage reproduction through a variety of strategies, including the redirection of phage capsid assembly to form small capsids, a process that depends on the expression of the SaPI-encoded cpmA and cpmB genes. Another SaPI subfamily is induced and packaged by cos-type phages, and although these cos SaPIs also block the life cycle of their inducing phages, the basis for this mechanism of interference remains to be deciphered. Here we have identified and characterized one mechanism by which the SaPIs interfere with cos phage reproduction. This mechanism depends on a SaPI-encoded gene, ccm, which encodes a protein involved in the production of small isometric capsids, compared with the prolate helper phage capsids. As the Ccm and CpmAB proteins are completely unrelated in sequence, this strategy represents a fascinating example of convergent evolution. Moreover, this result also indicates that the production of SaPI-sized particles is a widespread strategy of phage interference conserved during SaPI evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  20. Precisely modulated pathogenicity island interference with late phage gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Ram, Geeta; Chen, John; Ross, Hope F; Novick, Richard P

    2014-10-07

    Having gone to great evolutionary lengths to develop resistance to bacteriophages, bacteria have come up with resistance mechanisms directed at every aspect of the bacteriophage life cycle. Most genes involved in phage resistance are carried by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages and their relatives. A very special case of phage resistance is exhibited by the highly mobile phage satellites, staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), which carry and disseminate superantigen and other virulence genes. Unlike the usual phage-resistance mechanisms, the SaPI-encoded interference mechanisms are carefully crafted to ensure that a phage-infected, SaPI-containing cell will lyse, releasing the requisite crop of SaPI particles as well as a greatly diminished crop of phage particles. Previously described SaPI interference genes target phage functions that are not required for SaPI particle production and release. Here we describe a SaPI-mediated interference system that affects expression of late phage gene transcription and consequently is required for SaPI and phage. Although when cloned separately, a single SaPI gene totally blocks phage production, its activity in situ is modulated accurately by a second gene, achieving the required level of interference. The advantage for the host bacteria is that the SaPIs curb excessive phage growth while enhancing their gene transfer activity. This activity is in contrast to that of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which totally block phage growth at the cost of phage-mediated gene transfer. In staphylococci the SaPI strategy seems to have prevailed during evolution: The great majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains carry one or more SaPIs, whereas CRISPRs are extremely rare.

  1. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    PubMed Central

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in “unknowns” dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage–host systems for experimental hypothesis testing. PMID:23858439

  2. Cytotoxic Tumor-Targeting Peptides From In Vivo Phage Display.

    PubMed

    Northup, Jessica R Newton; Deutscher, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    We previously utilized an in vivo peptide phage display selection technique, which included the use of detergent elution of phage from excised tumor, to obtain tumor-targeting phage with the ability to extravasate the vasculature and bind directly to prostate tumor tissue. It is hypothesized that this same in vivo phage selection technique can be used to functionally select for molecules that not only bind to cancer cells but also kill them. Here we analyzed two different in vivo phage display selected phage clones, G1 and H5, retrieved from PC-3 human prostate carcinoma xenografted tumors. First, cell de-attachment as an endpoint criterion for apoptosis and cell cycle was examined. After 2.5 hours incubation with G1 phage, PC-3 cell attachment was reduced by 23.8% and the percent of cell population in M phase reduced by 32.1%. In comparison, PC-3 cells incubated with H5 phage had a reduction of 25.0% cell attachment and 33.6% of cell population in M phase. These changes in combination with elevated caspase activation within cells in M phase, and no significant changes to G1/G0 or S phase cell populations suggest that the cytotoxic phages are targeting actively dividing PC-3 cells. Microscopic studies were also performed to further analyze the nature of cytotoxicity of these two phage clones. It was found that G1 phage induced and co- localized with tubulin based projections within apoptotic cells, while H5 phage did not. These phage may form the foundation for a new class of targeted prostate cancer therapeutic agents.

  3. Novel regulatory factors of HSF-1 activation: facts and perspectives regarding their involvement in the age-associated attenuation of the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Shamovsky, Ilya; Gershon, David

    2004-01-01

    An attenuated response to stress is characteristic of senescence. Heat shock (HS), a significant form of stress, is delayed and reduced in aging organisms. In the response to heat shock, heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) is activated by trimerization of its monomeric subunits. This then initiates the transcription of a series of heat shock genes (hsp genes) that encode chaperone proteins protective against heat stress. Using a promoter binding electromobility shift assay (EMSA), we have found no activation of this transcription factor in the brains of old (36 months) rats in response to exposure to 41 degrees C for 1h while strong activation is elicited in young (6 months) animals. Since brains of young and old rats had approximately the same amount of HSF-1 subunits, we anticipated the presence of auxiliary regulatory factors essential for the activation of HSF-1 and the initiation of heat shock gene transcription. We describe three novel auxiliary factors--the proteins I-HSF [HSF inhibitor] and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) and a large non-coding RNA (HSR)--that participate in regulation and activation of HSF-1 in early stages of heat shock gene transcription. I-HSF inhibits trimerization of HSF-1 at normal temperatures. HSR and EF-1alpha form a complex with HSF-1 and facilitate its trimerization and binding to heat shock element (HSE) in the promoters of hsps. It is proposed that structural changes in any one or a combination of these factors in response to heat shock may contribute to the age-associated attenuation in the response to stress.

  4. Progress in lactic acid bacterial phage research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advanced significantly over the past number of decades and these developments have been driven by the parallel advances in technologies such as genomics, bioinformatics, protein expression systems and structural biology, combined with the ever increasing commercial relevance of this group of microorganisms. Some of the more significant and impressive outputs have been in the domain of bacteriophage-host interactions which provides a prime example of the cutting-edge model systems represented by LAB research. Here, we present a retrospective overview of the key advances in LAB phage research including phage-host interactions and co-evolution. We describe how in many instances this knowledge can be pivotal in creating real improvements in the application of LAB cultures in commercial practice. PMID:25185514

  5. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  6. PHAGE FORMATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS MUSCAE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1952-01-01

    1. Under a variety of conditions in which cells are infected with one or a few virus particles and the host cells are killed, but no infective particles or virus material is formed as indicated by plaque count, one-step growth curve, or protein or desoxyribonucleic determinations, the cells neither lyse nor release ribonucleic acid into the medium. 2. The "killing" effect of S. muscae phage is separate from its lytic property. 3. The release of ribonucleic acid into the medium is not simply due to the killing of the cell by the virus, and ribonucleic acid is never found in the medium unless virus material is synthesized. 4. Infected cells of S. muscae synthesizing virus release ribonucleic acid into the medium before cellular lysis begins and before any virus is liberated. 5. The higher the phage yield the more ribonucleic acid is released into the medium before any virus is released. 6. Phage may be released from one strain of Staphylococcus muscae without cellular lysis, although bacterial lysis begins shortly after the virus is released. In another strain, infected under similar conditions, virus liberation occurs simultaneously with cellular lysis. 7. The viruses liberated from both bacterial strains appear to be the same in so far as they cannot be distinguished by serological tests, have the same plaque type and plaque size, and need the same amino acids added to the medium in order to grow. Furthermore, the virus liberated from one strain can infect and multiply in the other strain and vice versa. 8. It is suggested that virus synthesis, in S. muscae cells infected with one or a few phage particles, leads to a disturbance of the normal cellular metabolism, resulting in lysis of the host cell. PMID:14898025

  7. Phage therapy: delivering on the promise.

    PubMed

    Harper, D R; Anderson, J; Enright, M C

    2011-07-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and, in many cases, destroy their bacterial targets. Within a few years of their initial discovery they were being investigated as therapeutic agents for infectious disease, an approach known as phage therapy. However, the nature of these exquisitely specific agents was not understood and much early use was both uninformed and unsuccessful. As a result they were replaced by chemical antibiotics once these became available. Although work on phage therapy continued (and continues) in Eastern Europe, this was not conducted to a standard allowing it to support clinical uses in areas regulated by the European Medicines Agency or the US FDA. To develop phage therapy for these areas requires work carried out in accordance with the requirements of these agencies, and, driven by the current crisis of antibiotic resistance, such clinical trials are now under way. The first Phase I clinical trial of safety was reported in 2005, and the results of the first Phase II clinical trial of efficacy of a bacteriophage therapeutic was published in 2009. While the delivery of these relatively large and complex agents to the site of disease can be more challenging than for conventional, small-molecule antibiotics, bacteriophages are then able to multiply locally even from an extremely low (picogram range) initial dose. This multiplication where and only where they are needed underlies the potential for bacteriophage therapeutics to become a much needed and powerful weapon against bacterial disease.

  8. Silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene attenuates chronic ischemic renal injury in two-kidney, one-clip rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengchao; Zhu, Qing; Li, Pin-Lan; Dhaduk, Romesh; Zhang, Fan; Gehr, Todd W; Li, Ningjun

    2014-05-15

    Overactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is implicated as a pathogenic factor in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, controversy exists regarding the roles of HIF-1α in CKD. Additionally, although hypoxia and HIF-1α activation are observed in various CKD and HIF-1α has been shown to stimulate fibrogenic factors, there is no direct evidence whether HIF-1α is an injurious or protective factor in chronic renal hypoxic injury. The present study determined whether knocking down the HIF-1α gene can attenuate or exaggerate kidney damage using a chronic renal ischemic model. Chronic renal ischemia was induced by unilaterally clamping the left renal artery for 3 wk in Sprague-Dawley rats. HIF-1α short hairpin (sh) RNA or control vectors were transfected into the left kidneys. Experimental groups were sham+control vector, clip+control vector, and clip+HIF-1α shRNA. Enalapril was used to normalize blood pressure 1 wk after clamping the renal artery. HIF-1α protein levels were remarkably increased in clipped kidneys, and this increase was blocked by shRNA. Morphological examination showed that HIF-1α shRNA significantly attenuated injury in clipped kidneys: glomerular injury indices were 0.71 ± 0.04, 2.50 ± 0.12, and 1.34 ± 0.11, and the percentage of globally damaged glomeruli was 0.02, 34.3 ± 5.0, and 6.3 ± 1.6 in sham, clip, and clip+shRNA groups, respectively. The protein levels of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin also dramatically increased in clipped kidneys, but this effect was blocked by HIF-1α shRNA. In conclusion, long-term overactivation of HIF-1α is a pathogenic factor in chronic renal injury associated with ischemia/hypoxia.

  9. A century of the phage: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophages; also known as phages) were discovered 100 years ago. Since then, phage research has transformed fundamental and translational biosciences. For example, phages were crucial in establishing the central dogma of molecular biology - information is sequentially passed from DNA to RNA to proteins - and they have been shown to have major roles in ecosystems, and help drive bacterial evolution and virulence. Furthermore, phage research has provided many techniques and reagents that underpin modern biology - from sequencing and genome engineering to the recent discovery and exploitation of CRISPR-Cas phage resistance systems. In this Timeline, we discuss a century of phage research and its impact on basic and applied biology.

  10. Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment

    PubMed Central

    Meaden, Sean; Koskella, Britt

    2013-01-01

    Interest in using bacteriophages to control the growth and spread of bacterial pathogens is being revived in the wake of widespread antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about the ecological effects that high concentrations of phages in the environment might have on natural microbial communities. We review the current evidence suggesting phage-mediated environmental perturbation, with a focus on agricultural examples, and describe the potential implications for human health and agriculture. Specifically, we examine the known and potential consequences of phage application in certain agricultural practices, discuss the risks of evolved bacterial resistance to phages, and question whether the future of phage therapy will emulate that of antibiotic treatment in terms of widespread resistance. Finally, we propose some basic precautions that could preclude such phenomena and highlight existing methods for tracking bacterial resistance to phage therapeutic agents. PMID:24348468

  11. Temperate phages enhance pathogen fitness in chronic lung infection.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emily V; James, Chloe E; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Levesque, Roger C; Brockhurst, Michael A; Winstanley, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) is a polylysogenic, transmissible strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, capable of superinfecting existing P. aeruginosa respiratory infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). The LES phages are highly active in the CF lung and may have a role in the competitiveness of the LES in vivo. In this study, we tested this by competing isogenic PAO1 strains that differed only by the presence or absence of LES prophages in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Lysogens invaded phage-susceptible populations, both in head-to-head competition and when invading from rare, in the spatially structured, heterogeneous lung environment. Appreciable densities of free phages in lung tissue confirmed active phage lysis in vivo. Moreover, we observed lysogenic conversion of the phage-susceptible competitor. These results suggest that temperate phages may have an important role in the competitiveness of the LES in chronic lung infection by acting as anti-competitor weapons.

  12. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Lohse, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection. Here, we report selected critical challenges from our own phage display experiments associated with biotinylation of antigens, clone picking, and the presence of amber codons within antibody fragment structures in some phage display libraries. These challenges may be detrimental to the outcome of phage display experiments, and we aim to help other researchers avoiding these pitfalls by presenting their solutions.

  13. An early granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment attenuates neuropathic pain through activation of mu opioid receptors on the injured nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-Feng; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Lo, Ai-Lun; Chao, Po-Kuan; Lee, Yun-Lin; Hung, Yu-Hui; Lu, Kwok-Tung; Ro, Long-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the mu opioid receptor (MOR) located in the peripheral nerves can be activated after nerve injury and that it attenuates peripheral nociceptive signals to the spinal dorsal horn. Various cytokines and phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) activation in the dorsal horn also play an important role in neuropathic pain development. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is a growth factor that can stimulate granulocyte formation and has been shown to exert an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through recruiting opioid-containing leukocytes to the injured nerve. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, the results of behavior tests in addition to MOR levels in the injured sciatic nerve and the levels of p-p38 and various cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn were studied in vehicle-treated or GCSF-treated chronic constriction injured (CCI) rats at different time points (i.e., 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively) after nerve injury. The results showed that a single early systemic GCSF treatment after nerve injury can up-regulate MORs in the injured nerve, which can decrease peripheral nociceptive signals. Thereafter, those changes suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 but enhance the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, followed by decreases in p-p38 in the dorsal horn, and thus further attenuate neuropathic pain. PMID:27180600

  14. Diversity of phage integrases in Enterobacteriaceae: development of markers for environmental analysis of temperate phages.

    PubMed

    Balding, Claire; Bromley, Stephen A; Pickup, Roger W; Saunders, Jon R

    2005-10-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in aquatic systems. Temperate bacteriophages have enormous influences on microbial diversity, genetic exchange and bacterial population dynamics. However, development of molecular tools for their detection in the environment has been problematic. The integrase gene is used here as a molecular marker to analyse the diversity of temperate bacteriophages in a population of freshwater bacteria. Interrogation of the GenBank database revealed 32 non-cryptic enteric phage integrase sequences, leading to the development of a suite of 11 degenerate primer sets specific to the extant sequences elucidated. Application of these primer sets to enterobacterial isolates recovered from a freshwater pond and the temperate phages induced from them revealed a number of diverse integrase genes, including novel integrase-like sequences not represented in the databases. This highlights the potential of utilizing the integrase gene family as a marker for phage diversity.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the giant Pseudomonas phage Lu11.

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, E M; Mattheus, W; Cornelissen, A; Shaburova, O; Krylov, V N; Kropinski, A M; Lavigne, R

    2012-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of the giant Pseudomonas phage Lu11 was determined, comparing 454 and Sanger sequencing. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome is 280,538 bp long and encodes 391 open reading frames (ORFs) and no tRNAs. The closest relative is Ralstonia phage ϕRSL1, encoding 40 similar proteins. As such, Lu11 can be considered phylogenetically unique within the Myoviridae and indicates the diversity of the giant phages within this family.

  16. Using Phage Lytic Enzymes to Destroy Pathogenic and BW Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-14

    B. anthracis than the gamma-phage since it will not recognize the occasional B. cereus strain yielding a false positive reaction. This phage is a...bacteriolytic agent that can rapidly and specifically detect and kill Bacillus anthracis. Nature. 418: 884– 889. Nelson, D., Schuch, R., S. Zhu, D...Djurkovic and V.A. Fischetti. 2003. The phage lytic enzyme Cpl-1 as a novel antimicrobial for pneumococcal bacteremia and sepsis. Infect. Immun.71:6199

  17. Evolutionary Rationale for Phages as Complements of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Hochberg, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage-antibiotic combined therapy.

  18. Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    peptides may result in an efficient probe for breast tumor imaging and therapy . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Carcinoma-associated fibroblast; phage display...In Vivo Phage Display PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Erkki Ruoslahti CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute...COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH

  19. Probing Tumor Microenvironment with in Vivo Phage Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Vivo Phage Display PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kazuki N. Sugahara, M.D., Ph.D...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0174 5c...cells and the matrix. The goal of our group is to make technical improvements in our phage display system, and find peptides that target carcinoma

  20. Attenuated P2X7 Pore Function as a Risk Factor for Virus-induced Loss of Asthma Control

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Loren C.; Shi, Lei; Guadarrama, Arturo; Schell, Kathy; Green, Dawn; Morrin, Alison; Hogan, Kirk; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Busse, William W.; Gern, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Upper respiratory tract infection is a guideline accepted risk domain for the loss of asthma control. The ionotrophic nucleotide receptor P2X7 regulates compartmentalized acute inflammation and the immune response to airway pathogens. Objectives: We hypothesized that variability in P2X7 function contributes to neutrophilic airway inflammation during a cold and thereby is linked to acute asthma. Methods: Research volunteers with asthma were enrolled at the onset of a naturally occurring cold and monitored through convalescence, assessing symptoms, lung function, and airway inflammation. P2X7 pore activity in whole blood samples was measured using a genomically validated flow cytometric assay. Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-five participants with mild to moderate allergic asthma were enrolled and 31 completed all visits. P2X7 pore function correlated with the change in nasal lavage neutrophil counts during the cold (Rs = 0.514, P = 0.004) and was inversely related to the change in asthma symptoms (Rs = −0.486, P = 0.009). The change in peak expiratory flow recordings, precold use of inhaled corticosteroids, and P2X7 pore function were multivariate predictors of asthma symptoms (P = 0.001, < 0.001 and = 0.003 respectively). Attenuated P2X7 activity was associated with the risk of losing asthma control (crude odds ratio, 11.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–106.4) even after adjustment for inhaled corticosteroids and rhinovirus (odds ratio, 15.0). Conclusions: A whole blood P2X7 pore assay robustly identifies participants with loss-of-function genotypes. Using this assay as an epidemiologic tool, attenuated P2X7 pore activity may be a novel biomarker of virus-induced loss of asthma control. PMID:19201928

  1. Rapid detection and simultaneous antibiotic susceptibility analysis of Yersinia pestis directly from clinical specimens by use of reporter phage.

    PubMed

    Vandamm, J P; Rajanna, C; Sharp, N J; Molineux, I J; Schofield, D A

    2014-08-01

    Yersinia pestis is a tier 1 agent due to its contagious pneumopathogenicity, extremely rapid progression, and high mortality rate. As the disease is usually fatal without appropriate therapy, rapid detection from clinical matrices is critical to patient outcomes. We previously engineered the diagnostic phage ΦA1122 with luxAB to create a "light-tagged" reporter phage. ΦA1122::luxAB rapidly detects Y. pestis in pure culture and human serum by transducing a bioluminescent signal response. In this report, we assessed the analytical specificity of the reporter phage and investigated diagnostic utility (detection and antibiotic susceptibility analysis) directly from spiked whole blood. The bioreporter displayed 100% (n = 59) inclusivity for Y. pestis and consistent intraspecific signal transduction levels. False positives were not obtained from species typically associated with bacteremia or those relevant to plague diagnosis. However, some non-pestis Yersinia strains and Enterobacteriaceae did elicit signals, albeit at highly attenuated transduction levels. Diagnostic performance was assayed in simple broth-enriched blood samples and standard aerobic culture bottles. In blood, <10(2) CFU/ml was detected within 5 h. In addition, Y. pestis was identified directly from positive blood cultures within 20 to 45 min without further processing. Importantly, coincubation of blood samples with antibiotics facilitated simultaneous antimicrobial susceptibility profiling. Consequently, the reporter phage demonstrated rapid detection and antibiotic susceptibility profiling directly from clinical samples, features that may improve patient prognosis during plague outbreaks.

  2. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

  3. Dispersal network structure and infection mechanism shape diversity in a coevolutionary bacteria-phage system.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Michael; Robb, Matthew; Forde, Samantha E; Gudelj, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability, dispersal and infection genetics all have the potential to fundamentally alter the coevolutionary dynamics of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. However, it remains unclear how these factors synergise to shape diversity within bacterial populations. We used a combination of laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling to test how the structure of a dispersal network affects host phenotypic diversity in a coevolving bacteria-phage system in communities of differential resource input. Unidirectional dispersal of bacteria and phage from high to low resources consistently increased host diversity compared with a no dispersal regime. Bidirectional dispersal, on the other hand, led to a marked decrease in host diversity. Our mathematical model predicted these opposing outcomes when we incorporated modified gene-for-gene infection genetics. To further test how host diversity depended on the genetic underpinnings of the bacteria-phage interaction, we expanded our mathematical model to include different infection mechanisms. We found that the direction of dispersal had very little impact on bacterial diversity when the bacteria-phage interaction was mediated by matching alleles, gene-for-gene or related infection mechanisms. Our experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that the effects of dispersal on diversity in coevolving host-parasite systems depend on an intricate interplay of the structure of the underlying dispersal network and the specifics of the host-parasite interaction.

  4. CORRECTION FACTORS FOR ATTENUATION AND SCATTERING OF THE WALL OF A CYLINDRICAL IONIZATION CHAMBER IN THE 6-7 MeV HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON REFERENCE FIELD.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2017-06-07

    In high-energy photon reference fields the value of the air kerma rate is determined by using ionization chambers (ICs). From the charge collected inside the IC the dose can be calculated using a set of calibration and correction factors according to ISO 4037-2. A crucial parameter is the correction for the attenuation and scattering of the primary radiation due to the chamber wall. This parameter can be determined using Monte Carlo calculations. The evaluation of the factor was performed for a commercially available IC of the type Victoreen 550-3 under different build-up conditions. The results were verified by measurements in the R-F high-energy photon fields according to ISO 4037-1 at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Quality and safety requirements for sustainable phage therapy products.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Blasdel, Bob G; Bretaudeau, Laurent; Buckling, Angus; Chanishvili, Nina; Clark, Jason R; Corte-Real, Sofia; Debarbieux, Laurent; Dublanchet, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Gabard, Jérôme; Garcia, Miguel; Goderdzishvili, Marina; Górski, Andrzej; Hardcastle, John; Huys, Isabelle; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lavigne, Rob; Merabishvili, Maia; Olchawa, Ewa; Parikka, Kaarle J; Patey, Olivier; Pouilot, Flavie; Resch, Gregory; Rohde, Christine; Scheres, Jacques; Skurnik, Mikael; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Van Parys, Luc; Verbeken, Gilbert; Zizi, Martin; Van den Eede, Guy

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide antibiotic crisis has led to a renewed interest in phage therapy. Since time immemorial phages control bacterial populations on Earth. Potent lytic phages against bacterial pathogens can be isolated from the environment or selected from a collection in a matter of days. In addition, phages have the capacity to rapidly overcome bacterial resistances, which will inevitably emerge. To maximally exploit these advantage phages have over conventional drugs such as antibiotics, it is important that sustainable phage products are not submitted to the conventional long medicinal product development and licensing pathway. There is a need for an adapted framework, including realistic production and quality and safety requirements, that allows a timely supplying of phage therapy products for 'personalized therapy' or for public health or medical emergencies. This paper enumerates all phage therapy product related quality and safety risks known to the authors, as well as the tests that can be performed to minimize these risks, only to the extent needed to protect the patients and to allow and advance responsible phage therapy and research.

  6. Ligand-directed profiling of organelles with internalizing phage libraries.

    PubMed

    Dobroff, Andrey S; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Roja, Liliana; Salmeron, Carolina C; Gelovani, Juri G; Sidman, Richard L; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-02-02

    Phage display is a resourceful tool to, in an unbiased manner, discover and characterize functional protein-protein interactions, create vaccines, and engineer peptides, antibodies, and other proteins as targeted diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. Recently, our group has developed a new class of internalizing phage (iPhage) for ligand-directed targeting of organelles and to identify molecular pathways within live cells. This unique technology is suitable for applications ranging from fundamental cell biology to drug development. This unit describes the methods for generating and screening the iPhage display system, and explains how to select and validate candidate internalizing homing peptide.

  7. Salmonella phages and prophages: genomics, taxonomy, and applied aspects.

    PubMed

    Switt, Andrea I Moreno; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Wiedmann, Martin; Kropinski, Andrew M; Wishart, David S; Poppe, Cornelis; Liang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Since this book was originally published in 2007 there has been a significant increase in the number of Salmonella bacteriophages, particularly lytic virus, and Salmonella strains which have been fully sequenced. In addition, new insights into phage taxonomy have resulted in new phage genera, some of which have been recognized by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The properties of each of these genera are discussed, along with the role of phage as agents of genetic exchange, as therapeutic agents, and their involvement in phage typing.

  8. The E. Coli Response To A Phage Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman-McQuiston, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2007-03-01

    Bacteria have evolved a variety of defenses against extreme environmental pressure. While a majority of the population dies during times of stress, a portion of the population continues to survive due to the cell's phenotypic state. We study the response of the bacterial system to attack by a particular virus called lambda phage. During times of phage attack bacteria continue to create and lose receptors making the bacteria more or less sensitive to the applied phage concentration. We use experiment and modeling to study how the creation and loss of receptors affects the response and recovery of the bacterial population due to an applied phage pressure.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Krasowska, Anna; Biegalska, Anna; Augustyniak, Daria; Łoś, Marcin; Richert, Malwina; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages) or noncontractile (ARπ phage) tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0) and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0) pH. PMID:26273592

  10. Bacteriophages and phage-derived proteins--application approaches.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the bacterial resistance, especially to most commonly used antibiotics has proved to be a severe therapeutic problem. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections are usually caused by multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, we are forced to develop an alternative or supportive treatment for successful cure of life-threatening infections. The idea of using natural bacterial pathogens such as bacteriophages is already well known. Many papers have been published proving the high antibacterial efficacy of lytic phages tested in animal models as well as in the clinic. Researchers have also investigated the application of non-lytic phages and temperate phages, with promising results. Moreover, the development of molecular biology and novel generation methods of sequencing has opened up new possibilities in the design of engineered phages and recombinant phage-derived proteins. Encouraging performances were noted especially for phage enzymes involved in the first step of viral infection responsible for bacterial envelope degradation, named depolymerases. There are at least five major groups of such enzymes - peptidoglycan hydrolases, endosialidases, endorhamnosidases, alginate lyases and hyaluronate lyases - that have application potential. There is also much interest in proteins encoded by lysis cassette genes (holins, endolysins, spanins) responsible for progeny release during the phage lytic cycle. In this review, we discuss several issues of phage and phage-derived protein application approaches in therapy, diagnostics and biotechnology in general.

  11. Landscape Phage as a Molecular Recognition Interface for Detection Devices.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Valery A

    2008-02-01

    Filamentous phages are thread-shaped bacterial viruses. Their outer coat is a tube formed by thousands equal copies of the major coat protein pVIII. Libraries of random peptides fused to pVIII domains were used for selection of phages probes specific for a panel of test antigens and biological threat agents. Because the viral carrier in the phage borne bio-selective probes is infective, they can be cloned individually and propagated indefinitely without needs of their chemical synthesis or reconstructing. As a new bioselective material, landscape phages combine unique characteristics of affinity reagents and self assembling proteins. Biorecognition layers formed by the phage-derived probes bind biological agents with high affinity and specificity and generate detectable signals in analytical platforms. The performance of phage-derived materials as biorecognition interface was illustrated by detection of Bacillus anthracis spores and Salmonella typhimurium cells. With further refinement, the phage-derived analytical platforms for detecting and monitoring of numerous threat agents may be developed, since phage interface against any bacteria, virus or toxin may be readily selected from the landscape phage libraries. As an interface in the field-use detectors, they may be superior to antibodies, since they are inexpensive, highly specific and strong binders, resistant to high temperatures and environmental stresses.

  12. Landscape Phage as a Molecular Recognition Interface for Detection Devices

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Valery A.

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous phages are thread-shaped bacterial viruses. Their outer coat is a tube formed by thousands equal copies of the major coat protein pVIII. Libraries of random peptides fused to pVIII domains were used for selection of phages probes specific for a panel of test antigens and biological threat agents. Because the viral carrier in the phage borne bio-selective probes is infective, they can be cloned individually and propagated indefinitely without needs of their chemical synthesis or reconstructing. As a new bioselective material, landscape phages combine unique characteristics of affinity reagents and self assembling proteins. Biorecognition layers formed by the phage-derived probes bind biological agents with high affinity and specificity and generate detectable signals in analytical platforms. The performance of phage-derived materials as biorecognition interface was illustrated by detection of Bacillus anthracis spores and Salmonella typhimurium cells. With further refinement, the phage-derived analytical platforms for detecting and monitoring of numerous threat agents may be developed, since phage interface against any bacteria, virus or toxin may be readily selected from the landscape phage libraries. As an interface in the field-use detectors, they may be superior to antibodies, since they are inexpensive, highly specific and strong binders, resistant to high temperatures and environmental stresses. PMID:19190724

  13. Phage display as a promising approach for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Nickho, Hamid; Yousefi, Mehdi; Majidi, Jafar

    2016-09-29

    Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period. The birth of phage display technology has been a turning point in the development of phage-based vaccines. Phage display vaccines are made by expressing multiple copies of an antigen on the surface of immunogenic phage particles, thereby eliciting a powerful and effective immune response. Also, the ability to produce combinatorial peptide libraries with a highly diverse pool of randomized ligands has transformed phage display into a straightforward, versatile and high throughput screening methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against different diseases in particular microbial infections. These libraries can be conveniently screened through an affinity selection-based strategy called biopanning against a wide variety of targets for the selection of mimotopes with high antigenicity and immunogenicity. Also, they can be panned against the antiserum of convalescent individuals to recognize novel peptidomimetics of pathogen-related epitopes. Phage display has represented enormous promise for finding new strategies of vaccine discovery and production and current breakthroughs promise a brilliant future for the development of different phage-based vaccine platforms.

  14. Bacteriophages and Phage-Derived Proteins – Application Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the bacterial resistance, especially to most commonly used antibiotics has proved to be a severe therapeutic problem. Nosocomial and community-acquired infections are usually caused by multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, we are forced to develop an alternative or supportive treatment for successful cure of life-threatening infections. The idea of using natural bacterial pathogens such as bacteriophages is already well known. Many papers have been published proving the high antibacterial efficacy of lytic phages tested in animal models as well as in the clinic. Researchers have also investigated the application of non-lytic phages and temperate phages, with promising results. Moreover, the development of molecular biology and novel generation methods of sequencing has opened up new possibilities in the design of engineered phages and recombinant phage-derived proteins. Encouraging performances were noted especially for phage enzymes involved in the first step of viral infection responsible for bacterial envelope degradation, named depolymerases. There are at least five major groups of such enzymes – peptidoglycan hydrolases, endosialidases, endorhamnosidases, alginate lyases and hyaluronate lyases – that have application potential. There is also much interest in proteins encoded by lysis cassette genes (holins, endolysins, spanins) responsible for progeny release during the phage lytic cycle. In this review, we discuss several issues of phage and phage-derived protein application approaches in therapy, diagnostics and biotechnology in general. PMID:25666799

  15. Ligand-directed profiling of organelles with internalizing phage libraries

    PubMed Central

    Dobroff, Andrey S.; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Roja, Liliana; Salmeron, Carolina C.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a resourceful tool to, in an unbiased manner, discover and characterize functional protein-protein interactions, to create vaccines, and to engineer peptides, antibodies, and other proteins as targeted diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. Recently, our group has developed a new class of internalizing phage (iPhage) for ligand-directed targeting of organelles and/or to identify molecular pathways within live cells. This unique technology is suitable for applications ranging from fundamental cell biology to drug development. Here we describe the method for generating and screening the iPhage display system, and explain how to select and validate candidate internalizing homing peptide. PMID:25640897

  16. Revisiting phage therapy: new applications for old resources.

    PubMed

    Nobrega, Franklin L; Costa, Ana Rita; Kluskens, Leon D; Azeredo, Joana

    2015-04-01

    The success of phage therapy is dependent on the development of strategies able to overcome the limitations of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents, the creation of an adequate regulatory framework, the implementation of safety protocols, and acceptance by the general public. Many approaches have been proposed to circumvent phages' intrinsic limitations but none have proved to be completely satisfactory. In this review we present the major hurdles of phage therapy and the solutions proposed to circumvent them. A thorough discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of these solutions is provided and special attention is given to the genetic modification of phages as an achievable strategy to shape bacteriophages to exhibit desirable biological properties.

  17. Learning from Bacteriophages - Advantages and Limitations of Phage and Phage-Encoded Protein Applications

    PubMed Central

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Maciejewska, Barbara; Delattre, Anne-Sophie; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics has become a critical therapeutic problem. The bacteria causing both hospital and community-acquired infections are most often multidrug resistant. In view of the alarming level of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species and difficulties with treatment, alternative or supportive antibacterial cure has to be developed. The presented review focuses on the major characteristics of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins affecting their usefulness as antimicrobial agents. We discuss several issues such as mode of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, resistance and manufacturing aspects of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins application. PMID:23305359

  18. Learning from bacteriophages - advantages and limitations of phage and phage-encoded protein applications.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Maciejewska, Barbara; Delattre, Anne-Sophie; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics has become a critical therapeutic problem. The bacteria causing both hospital and community-acquired infections are most often multidrug resistant. In view of the alarming level of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species and difficulties with treatment, alternative or supportive antibacterial cure has to be developed. The presented review focuses on the major characteristics of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins affecting their usefulness as antimicrobial agents. We discuss several issues such as mode of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, resistance and manufacturing aspects of bacteriophages and phage-encoded proteins application.

  19. Puerarin Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Partly Through Increasing Mir-15b/195 Expression and Suppressing Non-Canonical Transforming Growth Factor Beta (Tgfβ) Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuzhou; Liu, Yuxiang; Han, Qingliang

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated that puerarin has therapeutic effects on cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to explore whether the effect of puerarin on attenuating cardiac hypertrophy is related to regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signal pathway. Material/Methods The therapeutic effect of puerarin was assessed using an angiotensin (Ang) II-induced heart hypertrophy model in mice. The primary cardiomyocytes were used as an in vitro model. MiR-15 family expression was quantified using qRT-PCR analysis. The expression of the genes involved in canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signal pathways was measured using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In vitro cardiac hypertrophic features were assessed by quantifying cardiac hypertrophic genes and measurement of cell surface, protein synthesis, and total protein content. Results Puerarin attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and increased miR-15b and miR-195 expression in the mouse cardiac hypertrophy model and in primary cardiomyocytes. It suppressed both canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signal pathways, partially through miR-15b and miR-195. Puerarin reduced mRNA expression of cardiac hypertrophic genes, reduced cell surface area, and lowered the rate of protein synthesis and the total protein content induced by Ang II. Knockdown of endogenous miR-15b and miR-195 partly abrogated these effects. Knockdown of endogenous p38, but not Smad2/3/4, presented similar effects as miR-15b. Conclusions Puerarin administration enhances miR-15b and miR-195 expression in an Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy model, through which it suppresses both canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signal pathways at the same time. However, the effect of puerarin on attenuating cardiac hypertrophy is mainly through the non-canonical TGFβ pathway. PMID:27145790

  20. BZLF1 Attenuates Transmission of Inflammatory Paracrine Senescence in Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Cells by Downregulating Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xubing; Li, Yuqing; Yang, Mengtian; Huang, Lu; Gong, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that inflammatory responses trigger and transmit senescence to neighboring cells and activate the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces increased secretion of several inflammatory factors, whereas lytic infections evade the antiviral inflammatory response. However, the changes in and roles of the inflammatory microenvironment during the switch between EBV life cycles remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that latent EBV infection in EBV-positive cells triggers the SASP in neighboring epithelial cells. In contrast, lytic EBV infection abolishes this phenotype. BZLF1 attenuates the transmission of paracrine senescence during lytic EBV infection by downregulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion. A mutant BZLF1 protein, BZLF1Δ207-210, that cannot inhibit TNF-α secretion while maintaining viral transcription, fails to block paracrine senescence, whereas a neutralizing antibody against TNF-α is sufficient to restore its inhibition. Furthermore, latent EBV infection induces oxidative stress in neighboring cells, while BZLF1-mediated downregulation of TNF-α reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in neighboring cells, and ROS scavengers alleviate paracrine senescence. These results suggest that lytic EBV infection attenuates the transmission of inflammatory paracrine senescence through BZLF1 downregulation of TNF-α secretion and alters the inflammatory microenvironment to allow virus propagation and persistence. IMPORTANCE The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), an important tumorigenic process, is triggered and transmitted by inflammatory factors. The different life cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in EBV-positive cells employ distinct strategies to modulate the inflammatory response and senescence. The elevation of inflammatory factors during latent EBV infection promotes the SASP in uninfected cells. In

  1. Genome Characteristics of a Novel Phage from Bacillus thuringiensis Showing High Similarity with Phage from Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the “late” region, the “lysogeny-lysis” region and the “early” region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus phage Wβ and some variants of Wβ, in genome organization and the amino acid sequences of structural proteins. There were two ORFs, ORF22 and ORF35, in the genome of BtCS33 that were also found in the genomes of B. cereus phage Wβ and may be involved in regulating sporulation of the host cell. Based on these observations and analysis of phylogenetic trees, we deduced that B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 and B. cereus phage Wβ may have a common distant ancestor. PMID:22649540

  2. Genome characteristics of a novel phage from Bacillus thuringiensis showing high similarity with phage from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the "late" region, the "lysogeny-lysis" region and the "early" region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus