Science.gov

Sample records for atypical behavioural effects

  1. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  2. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  3. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic…

  4. Negative and Atypical Story Content Themes Depicted by Children with Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific thematic content arising from children's doll play is often considered to give clinically meaningful information regarding their mental state, but has received little systematic enquiry. This exploratory study examined the negative and atypical content themes in the attachment story narratives of children with behaviour…

  5. Differences among conventional, atypical and novel putative D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics on catalepsy-associated behaviour in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Agnès L; Kleven, Mark S; Barret-Grévoz, Catherine; Barreto, Martine; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Depoortère, Ronan

    2009-11-01

    Typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol exert their therapeutic effects via blockade of dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, leading to extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in humans and catalepsy in rodents. In contrast, atypical antipsychotics and new generation D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics have low cataleptogenic potential. However, there has been no systematic comparative study on the effects of these different classes of antipsychotics in non-human primates, a species displaying a more sophisticated repertoire of behavioural/motor activity than rats. Once weekly, six young adult female non-haloperidol-sensitised cynomolgus monkeys were treated i.m. with a test compound and videotaped to score catalepsy-associated behaviour (CAB: static postures, unusual positions and crouching). Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, nemonapride and remoxipride induced, to different extents, an increase in unusual positions (a response akin to dystonia), some crouching and static postures. In contrast, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole produced much lower or no unusual positions; clozapine also produced marked increases in static postures and crouching. Among novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, SLV313 and F15063 augmented the number of unusual positions, albeit at doses 16-63 times higher than those of haloperidol for approximately the same score. SSR181507 and bifeprunox produced moderate static postures, little crouching and negligible unusual positions. These data provide the first comparative analysis in cynomolgus monkeys of EPS liability of conventional, atypical and novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics. They indicate that the latter are less prone than haloperidol to produce CAB, and provide a basis for comparison with rodent catalepsy studies. PMID:19464324

  6. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  7. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Transdermal Rotigotine in Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide Vito; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapies for the so-called atypical parkinsonian syndrome (APS) such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) are not available. Dopamine agonists (DA) are not often used in APS because of inefficacy and in a minority of case, their side effects, like dyskinesias, impairment of extrapyramidal symptoms or the appearance of psychosis, and REM sleep behavioral disorders (RBD). Transdermal rotigotine (RTG) is a non-ergot dopamine agonist indicated for use in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease with a good tolerability and safety. Moreover, its action on a wide range of dopamine receptors, D1, D2, D3, unlike other DA, could make it a good option in APS, where a massive dopamine cell loss is documented. In this pilot, observational open-label study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of RTG in patients affected by APS. Thirty-two subjects with diagnosis of APS were treated with transdermal RTG. APS diagnosis was: MSA parkinsonian type (MSA-P), MSA cerebellar type (MSA-C), PSP, and CBS. Patients were evaluated by UPDRS-III, neuropsychiatric inventory, mini mental state examination at baseline, and after 6, 12, and 18 months. The titration schedule was maintained very flexible, searching the major clinical effect and the minor possible adverse events (AEs) at each visit. AEs were recorded. APS patients treated with RTG show an overall decrease of UPDRS-III scores without increasing behavioral disturbances. Only three patients were dropped out of the study. Main AEs were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and tachycardia. The electroencephalographic recording power spectra analysis shows a decrease of theta and an increase of low alpha power. In conclusion, transdermal RTG seems to be effective and well tolerated in APS patients. PMID:24926284

  8. Behaviours of Effective Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhead, Roslyn; Nediger, William

    The purpose of this 2-year-long qualitative and quantitative field study was to investigate the behaviors of effective secondary school principals in their respective school districts, to find commonalities in the behavior of principals who were deemed by their peers to preside over effective schools, and to report the interim results. The…

  9. Effectiveness of an Inpatient Movement Disorders Program for Patients with Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Hohler, Anna D.; Tsao, Jyeming M.; Katz, Douglas I.; DiPiero, T. Joy; Hehl, Christina L.; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  10. Effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Hohler, Anna D; Tsao, Jyeming M; Katz, Douglas I; Dipiero, T Joy; Hehl, Christina L; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  11. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  12. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  13. [Atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Escande, M; Boucard, J

    1999-04-01

    The principal atypical aspects of depressive disease are: minor and attenued aspects, monosymptomatic and atypical aspects (food disorders and sleep disorders), masqued aspects (somatoform, anxious, characterial and addict disorders), atypical aspects of child (anxious nevrotical disorder), pseudo-demented and characterial aspects of aged subjects. Facing to these aspects, the diagnosis of depression is evoqued on: the recent and fast advent of these disorders, their morning predominance, their recurrent character, the state of attenued depressive symptoms (anhedonia), the positive responsiveness to treatment.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials. PMID:22668246

  16. The effects of yohimbine and neuroleptics on apomorphine-induced pecking behaviour in the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Akbas, O; Verimer, T; Onur, R; Kayaalp, S O

    1984-11-01

    The effects of yohimbine and some neuroleptics were investigated on pecking behaviour, induced by apomorphine. The total pecking counts, recorded for 18 min, elicited by a standard dose of apomorphine (1 mg/kg) were inhibited dose-dependently by yohimbine and the neuroleptics. Haloperidol was found to be the most potent, trifluoperazine, yohimbine, chlorpromazine and the atypical neuroleptics were less effective in decreasing order. Chronic treatment with yohimbine (2.5 mg/kg per day for 20 days) caused an increase in pecking behaviour. These results suggest that apomorphine-induced pecking behaviour in the pigeon could be used as a reliable method for screening neuroleptic drugs and the antidopaminergic activity of yohimbine is verified in this model.

  17. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arun, Priti; Jain, Rajan; Tripathi, Vaibhav

    2013-10-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  18. Minimizing cardiovascular adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Khasawneh, Fadi T; Shankar, Gollapudi S

    2014-01-01

    The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has rapidly increased in the United States and worldwide in the last decade. Nonetheless, many health care practitioners do not appreciate the significance of the cardiovascular side effects that may be associated with their use and the means to minimize them. Thus, atypical antipsychotic medications can cause cardiovascular side effects such as arrhythmias and deviations in blood pressure. In rare cases, they may also cause congestive heart failure, myocarditis, and sudden death. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than healthy individuals, possibly because of excessive smoking, the underlying disorder itself, or a combination of both factors. Increased awareness of these potential complications can allow pharmacists and physicians to better manage and monitor high risk patients. Accurate assessments are very important to avoid medications from being given to patients inappropriately. Additionally, monitoring patients regularly via blood draws and checking blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram can help catch any clinical problems and prevent further complications. Finally, patient and family-member education, which pharmacists in particular can play key roles in, is central for the management and prevention of side effects, which is known to reflect positively on morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:24649390

  19. Behavioral and Metabolic Effects of the Atypical Antipsychotic Ziprasidone on the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gubert, Priscila; Aguiar, Gabriel Costa; Mourão, Tácito; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; Barros, Alexandre Guimarães; Soares, Félix Alexandre; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic syndrome, primarily associated with weight gain. The effects of Ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, on metabolic syndrome has yet to be evaluated. Here in, we evaluated lipid accumulation and behavioral changes in a new experimental model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Behavioral parameters in the worms were evaluated 24 h after Ziprasidone treatment. Subsequently, lipid accumulation was examined using Nile red, LipidTox green and BODIPY labeling. Ziprasidone at 40 µM for 24 h effectively decreased the fluorescence labeling of all markers in intestinal cells of C. elegans compared to control (0.16% dimethyl sulfoxide). Ziprasidone did not alter behaviors related to energetic balance, such as pharynx pumping, defecation cycles and movement. There was, however, a reduction in egg-production, egg-laying and body-length in nematodes exposed to Ziprasidone without any changes in the progression of larval stages. The serotoninergic pathway did not appear to modulate Ziprasidone’s effects on Nile red fluorescence. Additionally, Ziprasidone did not alter lipid accumulation in daf-16 or crh-1 deletion mutants (orthologous of the transcription factors DAF-16 and CREB, respectively). These results suggest that Ziprasidone alters reproductive behavior, morphology and lipid reserves in the intestinal cells of C. elegans. Our results highlight that the DAF-16 and CREB transcription factors are essential for Ziprasidone-induced fat store reduction. PMID:24069346

  20. Atypical Antipsychotics for Older Adults: Are They Safe and Effective As We Once Thought?

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Maglione, Jeanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The initial enthusiasm for atypical antipsychotics as being safe and effective for treating older adults with psychotic disorders has diminished. Despite multiple short-term double-blind trials, these drugs have not been approved by the FDA for the most common form of psychosis in this population – i.e., psychosis associated with dementia. On the contrary, these drugs have received FDA warnings for adverse cerebrovascular events and mortality in these patients. Our pragmatic clinical trial failed to show evidence of either safety or effectiveness of the four most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics in middle-aged and older patients with different psychotic disorders – schizophrenia as well as psychosis associated with mood disorders, dementia or PTSD. A reconsideration of the common use of these medications, especially off-label use, in older patients is warranted. Unfortunately, there are no evidence-based alternatives to these agents in the target population. Wider employment of psychosocial interventions, cautious and limited use of medications, shared decision making, and greater research on developing better treatments are the order of the day. PMID:24236673

  1. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  2. Effects of female steroid hormones on A-type K+ currents in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Elizabeth A H; McCloskey, Conor; O'Kane, Neil; Sanders, Kenton M; Don Koh, Sang

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic constipation is higher in women of reproductive age than postmenopausal women or men, suggesting that female steroid hormones influence gastrointestinal motility. How female hormones affect motility is unclear. Colonic motility is regulated by ion channels in colonic myocytes. Voltage-dependent K+ channels serve to set the excitability of colonic muscles. We investigated regulation of Kv4.3 channel expression in response to acute or chronic changes in female hormones. Patch clamp experiments and quantitative PCR were used to compare outward currents and transcript expression in colonic myocytes from male, non-pregnant, pregnant and ovariectomized mice. Groups of ovariectomized mice received injections of oestrogen or progesterone to investigate the effects of hormone replacement. The capacitance of colonic myocytes from non-pregnant females was larger than in males. Net outward current density in male and ovariectomized mice was higher than in non-pregnant females and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Current densities in late pregnancy were lower than in female controls. Progesterone had no effect on outward currents. A-type currents were decreased in non-pregnant females compared with ovariectomized mice, and were further decreased by pregnancy or oestrogen replacement. Kv4.3 transcripts did not differ significantly between groups; however, expression of the potassium channel interacting protein KChIP1 was elevated in ovariectomized mice compared with female controls and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Delayed rectifier currents were not affected by oestrogen. In the mouse colon, oestrogen suppresses A-type currents, which are important for regulating excitability. These observations suggest a possible link between female hormones and altered colonic motility associated with menses, pregnancy and menopause. PMID:16581861

  3. Long-term cost-effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia in the US

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Ken; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Meyer, Kellie; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness (including hospitalizations and cardiometabolic consequences) of atypical antipsychotics among adults with schizophrenia. Methods A 5-year Markov cohort cost-effectiveness model, from a US payer perspective, was developed to compare lurasidone, generic risperidone, generic olanzapine, generic ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and quetiapine extended-release. Health states included in the model were patients: on an initial atypical antipsychotic; switched to a second atypical antipsychotic; and on clozapine after failing a second atypical antipsychotic. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) assessed incremental cost/hospitalization avoided. Effectiveness inputs included discontinuations, hospitalizations, weight change, and cholesterol change from comparative clinical trials for lurasidone and for aripiprazole, and the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness for other comparators. Atypical antipsychotic-specific relative risk of diabetes obtained from a retrospective analysis was used to predict cardiometabolic events per Framingham body mass index risk equation. Mental health costs (relapsing versus nonrelapsing patients) and medical costs associated with cardiometabolic consequences (cardiovascular events and diabetes management) were obtained from published sources. Atypical antipsychotic costs were estimated from Red Book® prices at dose(s) reported in clinical data sources used in the model (weighted average dose of lurasidone and average dose for all other comparators). Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%, and model robustness was tested using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Ziprasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine extended-release, and aripiprazole were dominated by other comparators and removed from the comparative analysis. ICER for lurasidone versus risperidone was $25,884/relapse-related hospitalization avoided. At a $50

  4. Effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment in a nationwide cohort of patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stargardt, Tom; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Ebert, Andreas; Busse, Reinhard; Juckel, Georg; Gericke, Christian A

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness and cost of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in a nationwide German cohort of patients with schizophrenia. The study sample consisted of patients insured with 4 sickness funds (n = 8,610) who were followed up for 12 months after hospital discharge with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in 2003. Multivariate regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between outcome variables (rehospitalization, bed-days, prescriptions against adverse effects, cost) and medication type, sex, age, and severity. Severity was assessed by prior bed-days due to schizophrenia during 2000 to 2002. Risk of rehospitalization did not differ between groups but within each group severity (P = 0.0003). Males (P = 0.0016) and patients younger than 35 years (P < 0.0001) had a higher risk of rehospitalization. Number of bed-days was lower for treatment with typicals compared with atypicals (P < 0.0001); furthermore, bed-days depended on severity of disease (P < 0.0001). Prescriptions of drugs against extrapyramidal symptoms, anxiety, and agitation were higher for patients treated with typicals (P < 0.0001 for each). Mean predicted treatment cost per year was € 6442 for atypicals versus € 4443 for typicals (P < 0.0001). This study does not support unconditional superiority of atypicals over typicals, neither in terms of effectiveness nor in terms of cost. PMID:22926592

  5. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  6. Selective action of an atypical neuroleptic on the mechanisms related to the development of cocaine addiction: a pre-clinical behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Eduardo A V; Oliveira-Lima, Alexandre J; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Santos, Renan; Baldaia, Marilia A; Hollais, André W; Longo, Beatriz M; Berro, Laís F; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    An increased function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system has been extensively associated with the rewarding effects of both natural stimuli and drugs of abuse. Thus, dopamine receptor blockers, such as neuroleptic drugs, can be proposed as candidates for potential therapeutic approaches to treat drug dependence. Notwithstanding, this therapeutic potential of neuroleptics critically depends on a selective action on the specific mechanisms related to the development of addiction. We compared the effects of different doses of haloperidol, ziprasidone and aripiprazole (first-, second- and third-generation neuroleptics, respectively) on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment, hyperlocomotion induced by acute cocaine administration and cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Whereas high doses of haloperidol abolished the three behavioural paradigms without selectivity, low doses of ziprasidone selectively abolished the development of the behavioural sensitization phenomenon. Finally, low doses of aripiprazole inhibited acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioural sensitization without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. Thus, aripiprazole at lower doses was the most selective antipsychotic drug concerning the inhibition of the development of behavioural sensitization to cocaine. Because locomotor sensitization in rodents has been proposed to share plastic mechanisms with drug addiction in humans, our data provide relevant suggestions to the clinical practice.

  7. Mediation of most atypical effects by species homologues of the beta 3-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Blin, N.; Nahmias, C.; Drumare, M. F.; Strosberg, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    1. A wide panel of compounds acting on beta-adrenoceptors active either in mammalian heart or in rodent digestive tract and adipose tissues, were investigated for their effects on Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human or murine beta 3-adrenoceptor gene. 2. The beta 3-agonists, bucindolol, CGP 12177A and pindolol exhibited the highest binding affinities; BRL 37344, LY 79771, ICI 201651 and SR 58611A presented high potencies in stimulating adenylyl cyclase; bupranolol appeared as the most efficient beta 3-antagonist. 3. This pharmacological analysis further established that the beta 3-adrenoceptor is the prototype of the adipose tissue atypical beta-adrenoceptor, since these receptors share a number of pharmacological properties which differ strikingly from those of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors: low affinities for conventional beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists, high potencies for novel compounds active in adipose tissues, partial agonistic activities for several beta 1/beta 2-antagonists. 4. Although the pharmacological profiles of the human and murine beta 3-receptor were very similar, some quantitative or even qualitative differences were observed for particular compounds such as propranolol, which exhibited weak and partial agonistic effects at the human beta 3-receptors and antagonistic effects at the murine beta 3-receptors. These differences may result from key amino-acid substitutions between the human and the murine beta 3-receptor sequences, which may alter the binding site or signal processing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921620

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Conventional and Atypical Antipsychotics in Patients With Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Sweet, Robert A.; Aizenstein, Howard; Snitz, Beth; Saxton, Judith; McDade, Eric; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; DeKosky, Steven T.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Klunk, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to determine the effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotic use on time to nursing home admission and time to death in a group of outpatients with mild to moderate probable Alzheimer’s disease. Method The authors examined time to nursing home admission and time to death in 957 patients with the diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease who had at least one follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time, 4.3 years [SD=2.7]; range, 0.78–18.0 years) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, education level, dementia severity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, extrapyramidal signs, depression, psychosis, aggression, agitation, and dementia medication use. Results A total of 241 patients (25%) were exposed to antipsychotics at some time during follow-up (conventional, N=138; atypical, N=95; both, N=8). Nursing home admission (63% compared with 23%) and death (69% compared with 34%) were more frequent in individuals taking conventional than atypical antipsychotics. In amodel that included demographic and cognitive variables, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, incident strokes, and extrapyramidal signs, only conventional antipsychotic use was associated with time to nursing home admission. However, the association was no longer significant after adjustment for psychiatric symptoms. Psychosis was strongly associated with nursing home admission and time to death, but neither conventional nor atypical antipsychotics were associated with time to death. Conclusions The use of antipsychotic medications, both conventional and atypical, was not associated with either time to nursing home admission or time to death after adjustment for relevant covariates. Rather, it was the presence of psychiatric symptoms, including psychosis and agitation, that was linked to increased risk of institutionalization and death after adjustment for exposure to antipsychotics. PMID:23896958

  9. Behavioural impacts of torpor expression: a transient effect in captive eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy B; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Humphries, Murray M

    2013-02-17

    Species use torpor, an extreme form of heterothermy, to survive periods of limited resource supply. Studies of hibernating animals have shown that torpor causes major structural and physiological changes in the brain, many of which are reversed during periodic arousals. This suggests that behaviour may change during and following the hibernation period. Here we investigate individual performance in behavioural tests prior to and during hibernation by captive eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Results indicate an association between deep torpor expression and atypical habituation patterns tested directly following torpor arousals. However, no association was found between torpor expression and spatial maze performance tested more than 24h post-arousal. Therefore, any behavioural impairment induced by torpor appears to be highly transient. The detected association between torpor and behaviour may be driven by previously confirmed effects of torpor on brain structure and function, though other potential covariates, such as the activation and deactivation of the stress axis, warrant consideration. Thus, our results are consistent with transient behavioural impairments following torpor arousals, but the causes and longer-term consequences of these transient impairments remain unclear. PMID:23313403

  10. EFFECTS OF FOSSIL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CONVECTIVE CORE DYNAMOS IN A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2009-11-01

    The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M {sub sun} A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is

  11. Effect of Teriparatide on Healing of Atypical Femoral Fractures: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used anti-osteoporotic drugs, which have been proven to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, use of BPs, particularly for long periods of time, is associated with an increased risk of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). Healing of BP-associated AFF is usually delayed because of suppressed bone turnover. Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), enhances bone healing in patients with delayed healing or non-union. Methods In this study, we summarized and performed a systemic review of the published literature on treatment of AFF using TPTD. Results Although there is a lack of level 1 studies on the evidence of TPTD in promoting bone union in AFFs, this systemic review of the available literature revealed that TPTD works positively in AFFs, and we put together the evidence that TPTD is a viable treatment option for enhancing fracture healing in AFFs. Conclusions While anecdotal evidence of beneficial effects of TPTD on fracture healing offer limited guidance for clinical decision making, a better understanding of the role of TPTD in fracture healing may be elucidated with future prospective trials. PMID:26713309

  12. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations.

  13. The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M; Young, P I; Bateman, D N; Smith, J M; Thomas, S H L

    1999-01-01

    . Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about £56 M. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined. PMID:10073734

  14. Effect of local anesthesia on atypical odontalgia--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Helkimo, Martti; Oster, Anders; Svensson, Peter

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of lidocaine in a double-blind, controlled multi-center study on patients with atypical odontalgia (AO)--a possible orofacial neuropathic pain condition. Thirty-five consecutive AO patients (range 31-81 years) with a mean pain duration of 7.2 years (range 1-30 years) were recruited from four different orofacial pain clinics in Sweden. In a randomized cross-over design, 1.5 ml local anesthesia (20mg/ml lidocaine and 12.5 microg/ml adrenaline) or 1.5 ml saline (9 mg/ml NaCl solution) (placebo) was injected to block the painful area. The VAS pain scores showed an overall effect of time (ANOVA: P<0.001) and treatment (ANOVA: P=0.018) with a significant interaction between the factors (ANOVA: P<0.001). Overall, VAS pain relief was significantly greater at 15-120 min following the lidocaine injections compared to the placebo injections (Tukey: P<0.05). All patients demonstrated significant disturbances in somatosensory function on the painful side compared to the non-painful side as revealed by quantitative sensory tests, however, only one significant inverse correlation was found between percentage pain relief and the magnitude of brush-evoked allodynia (Spearman: P<0.01). In conclusion, AO patients experienced significant, but not complete, pain relief from administration of local anesthetics compared with placebo. The findings indicate that the spontaneous pain in AO patients only to some extent is dependent on peripheral afferent inputs and that sensitization of higher order neurons may be involved in the pathophysiology of AO.

  15. Strange Couples: Mood Effects on Judgments and Memory about Prototypical and Atypical Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgas, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed whether feelings have a disproportionate impact on the way people perceive and remember unusual, atypical people. The results of four experiments suggest that mood has a significantly greater influence on judgments when the targets do not fit a prototypical pattern, thus requiring more lengthy, extensive processing. (RJM)

  16. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  17. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  18. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. Methods: A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2–4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. Conclusions: This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. PMID:25770098

  19. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  20. A novel insulin sensitizer drug candidate-BGP-15-can prevent metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Literati-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Tory, Kálmán; Literáti-Nagy, Botond; Kolonics, Attila; Vígh, László; Vígh, László; Mandl, József; Szilvássy, Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD) are widely used to treat severe psychiatric disorders, have well documented metabolic side effects such as disturbances in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and weight gain. It has been shown that BGP-15, a hydroxylamine derivative with insulin sensitizing activity can prevent AAPD provoked fat accumulation in adipocyte cultures, and insulin resistance in animal experiments and in healthy volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effect of BGP-15 with conventional oral antidiabetics on metabolic side effects of AAPDs. We found that BGP-15 that does not belong to either conventional insulin sensitizers or oral antidiabetics, is able to counteract insulin resistance and weight gain provoked by antipsychotic agents in rats while rosiglitazone and metformin were not effective in the applied doses. Our results confirm that BGP-15 is a promising new drug candidate to control the metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics. Data indicate that this rat model is suitable to analyze the metabolic side effects of AAPDs and the protective mechanism of BGP-15.

  1. The HSP co-inducer BGP-15 can prevent the metabolic side effects of the atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Literáti-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Tory, Kálmán; Literáti-Nagy, Botond; Kolonics, Attila; Török, Zsolt; Gombos, Imre; Balogh, Gábor; Vígh, László; Horváth, Ibolya; Mandl, József; Sümegi, Balázs; Hooper, Philip L; Vígh, László

    2012-07-01

    Weight gain and dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism are well-known side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD). Here, we address the question whether a heat-shock protein (HSP) co-inducer, insulin sensitizer drug candidate, BGP-15, can prevent AAPD-induced glucose, lipid, and weight changes. We also examined how an AAPD alters HSP expression and whether BGP-15 alters that expression. Four different experiments are reported on the AAPD BGP-15 interventions in a human trial of healthy men, a rodent animal model, and an in vitro adipocyte cell culture system. Olanzapine caused rapid insulin resistance in healthy volunteers and was associated with decreased level of HSP72 in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Both changes were restored by the administration of BGP-15. In Wistar rats, weight gain and insulin resistance induced by clozapine were abolished by BGP-15. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, clozapine increased intracellular fat accumulation, and BGP-15 inhibited this process. Taken together, our results indicate that BGP-15 inhibits multiple metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics, and this effect is likely to be related to its HSP co-inducing ability.

  2. How to Support Colleagues With...Effective Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate behaviour from students and/or a teacher's inability to manage such behaviour effectively is one of the major contributors to stress amongst teachers and to poor learning by students. It is important for science leaders to support members of their department, and, critically, have systems that work. Their aim should be to create an…

  3. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect.

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect. PMID:26209208

  5. [Effect of atypical pathogen colonization on cervical priming in cervix insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Kesternich, P; Jung, H; Markos-Pusztai, S; Schmitz, F J; Hauspy, F

    1988-01-01

    In a prospective study the cervical bacterial flora of pregnant women with insufficiency of the cervix is compared with the flora of asymptomatic pregnant women. It could be demonstrated, that in case of insufficiency of the cervix a different bacterial flora is found: in addition to the incidence of pathological bacterial groups, a shift of the physiological flora with Doederlein's bacilli to a mixed flora is observed. New findings in the cervical priming lead to the idea, that an atypical cervical flora could influence the cervical priming. The changing of the cervical environment is able to induce an increased production of prostaglandins with cervical dilatation of its structure. Regarding the different cervical flora in case of cervical insufficiency, the importance of the circular suture in the prophylactic management of premature delivery will be discussed. The results lead to the necessity of precise vaginal check-up and therapy of genital infections during pregnancy.

  6. Osmotic stress mimics effects of vasopressin on learned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Koob, G F; Dantzer, R; Rodriguez, F; Bloom, F E; Le Moal, M

    It has been suggested that arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the retention of learned responses, in addition to its classical physiological functions of water retention and modulation of blood pressure. AVP administered subcutaneously (s.c.), intraventricularly or intracerebrally can prolong extinction of active avoidance behaviour and can enhance retention in inhibitory (passive) avoidance. These effects have been interpreted as a direct action of AVP on the central nervous system to facilitate memory consolidation. AVP also has facilitatory effects on cognitive function in humans, and marked deficits in AVP function have been associated with certain types of psychopathology. Alternative hypotheses for the behavioural actions of AVP have involved motivational constructs such as arousal, and our recent work has focused on the role of arousal resulting from the activation of peripheral visceral signals in the behavioural effects of peripherally administered AVP. The development of a specific antagonist for AVP, 1-deaminopenicillamine-2-O-methyl tyrosine arginine vasopressin (dPTyr(Me)AVP), which can reverse the behavioural effects of exogenously administered AVP, has provided a powerful tool for examining the role of AVP in the behavioural responses produced by physiological challenges known to release vasopressin. However, the relationship between the behavioural effects of exogenously administered AVP and the behavioural function of endogenously released AVP has not been evaluated. We report here that a potent peripheral osmotic stimulus, the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of hypertonic saline, at doses known to release AVP both centrally and peripherally, will produce behavioural effects similar to those of exogenously administered AVP. Furthermore, the prolongation of active avoidance induced by this osmotic stimulus is reversed by pretreatment with dPTyr(Me)AVP, suggesting that endogenously released AVP may also produce behavioural effects.

  7. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2013-08-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and

  8. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded worldwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community- and ecosystem level, oxygen depletions threaten marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychaetes on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, for example the circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia

  9. Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and

  10. Lipidomics Reveals Early Metabolic Changes in Subjects with Schizophrenia: Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Joseph; Baillie, Rebecca A.; Zhu, Hongjie; Buckley, Peter; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Nasrallah, Henry A.; Dougherty, George G.; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for mapping early metabolic changes in schizophrenia to capture failures in regulation of biochemical pathways and networks. This information could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms, trajectory of disease progression, and diagnostic biomarkers. We used a lipidomics platform to measure individual lipid species in 20 drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FE group), 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia that had not adhered to prescribed medications (RE group), and 29 race-matched control subjects without schizophrenia. Lipid metabolic profiles were evaluated and compared between study groups and within groups before and after treatment with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and aripiprazole. Finally, we mapped lipid profiles to n3 and n6 fatty acid synthesis pathways to elucidate which enzymes might be affected by disease and treatment. Compared to controls, the FE group showed significant down-regulation of several n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 within the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid classes. Differences between FE and controls were only observed in the n3 class PUFAs; no differences where noted in n6 class PUFAs. The RE group was not significantly different from controls, although some compositional differences within PUFAs were noted. Drug treatment was able to correct the aberrant PUFA levels noted in FE patients, but changes in re patients were not corrective. Treatment caused increases in both n3 and n6 class lipids. These results supported the hypothesis that phospholipid n3 fatty acid deficits are present early in the course of schizophrenia and tend not to persist throughout its course. These changes in lipid metabolism could indicate a metabolic vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia that occurs early in development of the disease. PMID:23894336

  11. [Atypical antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Yazdani, Renè; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of atypical antipsychotics in psychopharmacology represented a major advance in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, there have been numerous studies that certain atypical antipsychotics may be associated with a greater risk of metabolic abnormalities than others, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia and new-onset typ 2 diabetes mellitus. A G-Protein beta3 subunit Gen (C825T) polymorphism, an increased carbohydrate metabolism and dyshormonism are discussed as pathogenetic mechanisms. High risk patients (adiposity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, preexisting diabetes) should maintain an antipsychotic agent with a favourable side effect profile. In these cases a periodical diabetes screening and blood lipid controls are required. Clinicans must balance the significant benefits of atypical antipsychotics against the risk of metabolic disturbances. In this article recent findings are reviewed.

  12. Differential effects of trait anger on optimism and risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pietruska, Karin; Armony, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that angry people exhibit optimistic risk estimates about future events and, consequently, are biased towards making risk-seeking choices. The goal of this study was to directly test the hypothesised effect of trait anger on optimism and risk-taking behaviour. One hundred healthy volunteers completed questionnaires about personality traits, optimism and risk behaviour. In addition their risk tendency was assessed with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), which provides an online measure of risk behaviour. Our results partly confirmed the relation between trait anger and outcome expectations of future life events, but suggest that this optimism does not necessarily translate into actual risk-seeking behaviour. PMID:22780446

  13. Differential effects of safety behaviour subtypes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, M Leili; Alden, Lynn E; Taylor, Charles T

    2011-10-01

    Clinical observations indicate that individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) use a variety of safety behaviours; however, virtually no research has examined the functional effect of different safety-seeking strategies. Accordingly, we conducted two studies to address this issue. Study 1 measured global patterns of safety behaviour use in a large analogue sample. Factor analysis revealed two primary safety behaviour categories, avoidance and impression management. Study 2 assessed situational use of safety behaviours during a controlled social interaction in a clinical sample of 93 patients with Generalised SAD. Factor analysis again revealed support for avoidance and impression-management subtypes. Notably, the two types of safety behaviours were associated with different social outcomes. Avoidance safety behaviours were associated with higher state anxiety during the interaction and negative reactions from participants' interaction partners. Impression-management strategies appeared to impede corrections in negative predictions about subsequent interactions. These findings suggest that it may be beneficial to consider the unique effects of different safety-seeking strategies when assessing and treating SAD. PMID:21831356

  14. Behavioural effects of histamine and its antagonists: a review.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Rumbold, G R

    1988-01-01

    This review focuses on the behavioural effects of histamine and drugs which affect histaminergic function, particularly the H1- and H2-receptors antagonists. Research in this area has assumed considerable importance with increasing interest in the role of brain histamine, the clinical use of both H1 and H2 antagonists and evidence of nonmedical use of H1 antagonists. Results from a number of studies show that H1 and H2 antagonists have clear, but distinct subjective effects and that H1 antagonists have discriminative effects in animals. While H1 antagonists are reinforcers in certain conditions, histamine itself is a punisher. Moderate doses of H1 antagonists affect psychomotor performance in some situations, but the results are variable. The exceptions are terfenadine and astemizole, which do not seem to penetrate the blood-brain barrier readily. In studies of schedule-controlled behaviour, marked changes in response rate have been observed following administration of H1 antagonists, with the magnitude and direction dependent on the dose and the baseline behaviour. Histamine reduces avoidance responding, an effect mediated via H1-receptors. Changes in drinking and aggressive behaviour have also been observed following histamine administration and distinct roles for H1- and H2-receptors have been delineated. Separate H1- and H2-receptor mechanisms have also been suggested to account for changes in activity level. While the H2 antagonists do not always have strong behavioural effects when administered peripherally, there is evidence that cimetidine has a depressant effect on sexual function. These and other findings reveal an important role for histaminergic systems in a wide range of behaviour. PMID:3133686

  15. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József

    2015-05-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society.

  16. 2-Substituted 3β-Aryltropane Cocaine Analogs Produce Atypical Effects without Inducing Inward-Facing Dopamine Transporter Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Weimin C.; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Xu, Lifen; Lomenzo, Stacey A.; Jean, Bernandie; Madura, Jeffry D.; Surratt, Christopher K.; Trudell, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies indicate that a series of cocaine analogs, 3β-aryltropanes with 2β-diarylmethoxy substituents, selectively bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with nanomolar affinities that are 10-fold greater than the affinities of their corresponding 2α-enantiomers. The present study compared these compounds to cocaine with respect to locomotor effects in mice, and assessed their ability to substitute for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Despite nanomolar DAT affinity, only the 2β-Ph2COCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog fully substituted for cocaine-like discriminative effects. Whereas all of the 2β compounds increased locomotion, only the 2β-(4-ClPh)PhCOCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog had cocaine-like efficacy. None of the 2α-substituted compounds produced either of these cocaine-like effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms of these drugs, their effects on DAT conformation were probed using a cysteine-accessibility assay. Previous reports indicate that cocaine binds with substantially higher affinity to the DAT in its outward (extracellular)- compared with inward-facing conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors, such as benztropine, have greater similarity in affinity to these conformations, and this is postulated to explain their divergent behavioral effects. All of the 2β- and 2α-substituted compounds tested altered cysteine accessibility of DAT in a manner similar to cocaine. Furthermore, molecular dynamics of in silico inhibitor-DAT complexes suggested that the 2-substituted compounds reach equilibrium in the binding pocket in a cocaine-like fashion. These behavioral, biochemical, and computational results show that aryltropane analogs can bind to the DAT and stabilize outward-facing DAT conformations like cocaine, yet produce effects that differ from those of cocaine. PMID:26769919

  17. 2-Substituted 3β-Aryltropane Cocaine Analogs Produce Atypical Effects without Inducing Inward-Facing Dopamine Transporter Conformations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Weimin C; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Xu, Lifen; Lomenzo, Stacey A; Jean, Bernandie; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K; Trudell, Mark L; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies indicate that a series of cocaine analogs, 3β-aryltropanes with 2β-diarylmethoxy substituents, selectively bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with nanomolar affinities that are 10-fold greater than the affinities of their corresponding 2α-enantiomers. The present study compared these compounds to cocaine with respect to locomotor effects in mice, and assessed their ability to substitute for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Despite nanomolar DAT affinity, only the 2β-Ph2COCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog fully substituted for cocaine-like discriminative effects. Whereas all of the 2β compounds increased locomotion, only the 2β-(4-ClPh)PhCOCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog had cocaine-like efficacy. None of the 2α-substituted compounds produced either of these cocaine-like effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms of these drugs, their effects on DAT conformation were probed using a cysteine-accessibility assay. Previous reports indicate that cocaine binds with substantially higher affinity to the DAT in its outward (extracellular)- compared with inward-facing conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors, such as benztropine, have greater similarity in affinity to these conformations, and this is postulated to explain their divergent behavioral effects. All of the 2β- and 2α-substituted compounds tested altered cysteine accessibility of DAT in a manner similar to cocaine. Furthermore, molecular dynamics of in silico inhibitor-DAT complexes suggested that the 2-substituted compounds reach equilibrium in the binding pocket in a cocaine-like fashion. These behavioral, biochemical, and computational results show that aryltropane analogs can bind to the DAT and stabilize outward-facing DAT conformations like cocaine, yet produce effects that differ from those of cocaine. PMID:26769919

  18. 2-Substituted 3β-Aryltropane Cocaine Analogs Produce Atypical Effects without Inducing Inward-Facing Dopamine Transporter Conformations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Weimin C; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Xu, Lifen; Lomenzo, Stacey A; Jean, Bernandie; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K; Trudell, Mark L; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies indicate that a series of cocaine analogs, 3β-aryltropanes with 2β-diarylmethoxy substituents, selectively bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with nanomolar affinities that are 10-fold greater than the affinities of their corresponding 2α-enantiomers. The present study compared these compounds to cocaine with respect to locomotor effects in mice, and assessed their ability to substitute for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Despite nanomolar DAT affinity, only the 2β-Ph2COCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog fully substituted for cocaine-like discriminative effects. Whereas all of the 2β compounds increased locomotion, only the 2β-(4-ClPh)PhCOCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog had cocaine-like efficacy. None of the 2α-substituted compounds produced either of these cocaine-like effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms of these drugs, their effects on DAT conformation were probed using a cysteine-accessibility assay. Previous reports indicate that cocaine binds with substantially higher affinity to the DAT in its outward (extracellular)- compared with inward-facing conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors, such as benztropine, have greater similarity in affinity to these conformations, and this is postulated to explain their divergent behavioral effects. All of the 2β- and 2α-substituted compounds tested altered cysteine accessibility of DAT in a manner similar to cocaine. Furthermore, molecular dynamics of in silico inhibitor-DAT complexes suggested that the 2-substituted compounds reach equilibrium in the binding pocket in a cocaine-like fashion. These behavioral, biochemical, and computational results show that aryltropane analogs can bind to the DAT and stabilize outward-facing DAT conformations like cocaine, yet produce effects that differ from those of cocaine.

  19. Effectiveness of Rufinamide in the Treatment of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy With Atypical Evolution: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Albini, Mariarita; Morano, Alessandra; Fanella, Martina; Lapenta, Leonardo; Casciato, Sara; Fattouch, Jinane; Manfredi, Mario; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Rufinamide (RFD) is a novel drug that was recently approved as an adjunctive treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Despite its reported effectiveness in generalized seizures (tonic, atonic, or tonic-clonic) in this syndrome, few data on its use in idiopathic generalized epilepsy are available. Indeed, the scientific evidence to date is limited to anecdotal cases or isolated clinical experiences. We report an uncommon, though paradigmatic, case of a woman affected by juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) who, following a prolonged seizure-freedom period and the consequent withdrawal of valproate, presented a seizure relapse accompanied by a worsening in her electroclinical pattern. In view of this atypical evolution of JAE, characterized by drug-resistant seizures (absence and generalized tonic-clonic) and the progressive increase in electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities, several antiepileptic drugs were used, though to no benefit. The use of RFD instead led to a gradual control of the seizures and normalization of the EEG findings. In addition to this clinical experience, we briefly review the literature on the use of RFD in refractory generalized epilepsy. PMID:25420625

  20. Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; ElFakih, Yamily; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Sandia, Ignacio; Tálamo, Eduardo; Araujo de Baptista, Enma; Beaulieu, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Excessive bodyweight gain was reported during the 1950s as an adverse effect of typical antipsychotic drug treatment, but the magnitude of bodyweight gain was found to be higher with the atypical antipsychotic drugs that were introduced after 1990. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest bodyweight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole have a neutral influence, and quetiapine and risperidone cause an intermediate effect. In the CATIE study, the percentage of patients with bodyweight gain of >7% compared with baseline differed significantly between the antipsychotic drugs, i.e. 30%, 16%, 14%, 12% and 7% for olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, perphenazine (a typical antipsychotic) and ziprasidone, respectively (p<0.001). Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of bodyweight gain, but genetic polymorphisms modify the bodyweight response during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. In addition to nutritional advice, programmed physical activity, cognitive-behavioural training and atypical antipsychotic switching, pharmacological adjunctive treatments have been assessed to counteract excessive bodyweight gain. In some clinical trials, nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine and metformin proved effective in preventing or reversing atypical antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain; however, the results are inconclusive since few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been conducted. Indeed, most studies were short-term trials without adequate statistical power and, in the case of metformin, nizatidine and sibutramine, the results are contradictory. The tolerability profile of these agents is adequate. More studies are needed before formal recommendations on the use of these drugs can be made. Meanwhile, clinicians are advised to use any of these adjunctive treatments according to their individual pharmacological and tolerability profiles, and the patient's personal and family history of bodyweight gain and metabolic dysfunction.

  1. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  2. Effect of Long-Term Use of Bisphosphonates on Forearm Bone: Atypical Ulna Fractures in Elderly Woman with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Atbasi, Zafer; Kavadar, Gülis; Demiralp, Bahtiyar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common musculoskeletal disease of the elderly population characterized by decreased bone mineral density and subsequent fractures. Bisphosphonates are a widely accepted drug therapy which act through inhibition of bone resorption and prevent fractures. However, in long-term use, atypical bisphosphonate induced fractures may occur, particularly involving the lower weight bearing extremity. Atypical ulna fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate use is rarely reported in current literature. We present a 62-year-old woman with atypical ulna due to long-term alendronate therapy without a history of trauma or fall. Clinicians should be aware of stress fracture in a patient who has complaints of upper extremity pain and history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27595031

  3. Effect of Long-Term Use of Bisphosphonates on Forearm Bone: Atypical Ulna Fractures in Elderly Woman with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Yusuf; Atbasi, Zafer; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus; Kavadar, Gülis; Demiralp, Bahtiyar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common musculoskeletal disease of the elderly population characterized by decreased bone mineral density and subsequent fractures. Bisphosphonates are a widely accepted drug therapy which act through inhibition of bone resorption and prevent fractures. However, in long-term use, atypical bisphosphonate induced fractures may occur, particularly involving the lower weight bearing extremity. Atypical ulna fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate use is rarely reported in current literature. We present a 62-year-old woman with atypical ulna due to long-term alendronate therapy without a history of trauma or fall. Clinicians should be aware of stress fracture in a patient who has complaints of upper extremity pain and history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27595031

  4. Atypical cardiostimulant β-adrenoceptor in the rat heart: stereoselective antagonism by bupranolol but lack of effect by some bupranolol analogues

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Barbara; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Flau, Karsten; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kozłowska, Hanna; Kathmann, Markus; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Atypical β-adrenoceptors resistant to propranolol, but blocked by bupranolol, increase contractile force and/or frequency of the heart in humans and rats. We compared the potencies of the enantiomers of bupranolol and examined the possible effects of seven bupranolol analogues including bevantolol (BEV) at this receptor in pithed and vagotomized rats.CGP 12177, an agonist of the atypical β-adrenoceptor, increased heart rate dose-dependently. Its dose–response curve was shifted to the right by S-(−)-bupranolol 10 μmol kg−1 by a factor of 8.4, but not affected by the same dose of R-(+)-bupranolol.Desmethylbupranolol and compounds BK-21, BK-22, BK-23 and BK-25 also increased heart rate dose-dependently. The β1-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712 given in combination with the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (0.1 μmol kg−1 each) reduced the positive chronotropic action of the five bupranolol analogues without affecting that of CGP 12177. The potencies of the bupranolol analogues to increase heart rate were correlated (r=0.91, P<0.05) with their affinities for β1-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat brain cortex membranes labelled with [3H]CGP 12177 (in the presence of ICI 118,551).BK-26 and BEV, 10 μmol kg−1 each, had only minor effects on heart rate by themselves and did not antagonize the effect of CGP 12177. However, at 1 μmol kg−1, they antagonized the increase in heart rate elicited by the β1-adrenoceptor agonist prenalterol.In conclusion, bupranolol is a stereoselective antagonist at the atypical cardiostimulant β-adrenoceptor. The effects of the bupranolol analogues are related to the activation or blockade of β1-adrenoceptors, but not of atypical β-adrenoceptors. PMID:12922943

  5. Atypical cardiostimulant beta-adrenoceptor in the rat heart: stereoselective antagonism by bupranolol but lack of effect by some bupranolol analogues.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Barbara; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Flau, Karsten; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kozłowska, Hanna; Kathmann, Markus; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2003-08-01

    1. Atypical beta-adrenoceptors resistant to propranolol, but blocked by bupranolol, increase contractile force and/or frequency of the heart in humans and rats. We compared the potencies of the enantiomers of bupranolol and examined the possible effects of seven bupranolol analogues including bevantolol (BEV) at this receptor in pithed and vagotomized rats. 2. CGP 12177, an agonist of the atypical beta-adrenoceptor, increased heart rate dose-dependently. Its dose-response curve was shifted to the right by S-(-)-bupranolol 10 micro mol kg(-1) by a factor of 8.4, but not affected by the same dose of R-(+)-bupranolol. 3. Desmethylbupranolol and compounds BK-21, BK-22, BK-23 and BK-25 also increased heart rate dose-dependently. The beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712 given in combination with the beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (0.1 micro mol kg(-1) each) reduced the positive chronotropic action of the five bupranolol analogues without affecting that of CGP 12177. The potencies of the bupranolol analogues to increase heart rate were correlated (r=0.91, P<0.05) with their affinities for beta(1)-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat brain cortex membranes labelled with [(3)H]CGP 12177 (in the presence of ICI 118,551). 4. BK-26 and BEV, 10 micro mol kg(-1) each, had only minor effects on heart rate by themselves and did not antagonize the effect of CGP 12177. However, at 1 micro mol kg(-1), they antagonized the increase in heart rate elicited by the beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist prenalterol. 5. In conclusion, bupranolol is a stereoselective antagonist at the atypical cardiostimulant beta-adrenoceptor. The effects of the bupranolol analogues are related to the activation or blockade of beta(1)-adrenoceptors, but not of atypical beta-adrenoceptors.

  6. Classroom Behaviour Management: Educational Psychologists' Views on Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of children and young people in schools is a perennial concern to educators and the wider public alike. It also represents a significant focus for the work of educational psychologists (EPs). Research evidence has identified a number of strategies that teachers, students and school inspectors believe contribute to effective classroom…

  7. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  8. Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  9. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.

  10. Effect of in utero exposure to the atypical anti-psychotic risperidone on histopathological features of the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Singh, Manoj K; Gautam, Shrikant

    2016-04-01

    For clinical management of different forms of psychosis, both classical and atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are available. These drugs are widely prescribed, even during pregnancy considering their minimal extra-pyramidal side effects and teratogenic potential compared to classical APDs. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) is a first-line drug of choice by physicians. The molecular weight of RIS is 410.49 g/mol; hence, it can easily cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal bloodstream. It is not known whether or not AAPDs like RIS may affect the developing placenta and foetus adversely. Reports on this issue are limited and sketchy. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS on placental growth, histopathological and cytoarchitectural changes, and to establish a relationship between placental dysfunction and foetal outcomes. Pregnant rats (n = 24) were exposed to selected doses (0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of RIS from gestation days 6-21. These dams were sacrificed; their placentas and foetuses were collected, morphometrically examined and further processed for histopathological examination. This study revealed that in utero exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS during organogenesis-induced placental dystrophy (size and weight), disturbed cytoarchitectural organization (thickness of different placental layers), histopathological lesions (necrosis in trophoblast with disruption of trophoblastic septa and rupturing of maternal-foetal interface) and intrauterine growth restriction of the foetuses. It may be concluded that multifactorial mechanisms might be involved in the dysregulation of structure and function of the placenta and of poor foetal growth and development. PMID:27256515

  11. Discovery of drugs to treat cocaine dependence: behavioral and neurochemical effects of atypical dopamine transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Gianluigi; Newman, Amy H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2009-01-01

    Stimulant drugs acting at the dopamine transporter (DAT), like cocaine, are widely abused, yet effective medical treatments for this abuse have not been found. Analogs of benztropine (BZT) that, like cocaine, act at the DAT have effects that differ from cocaine and in some situations block the behavioral, neurochemical, and reinforcing actions of cocaine. Neurochemical studies of dopamine levels in brain and behavioral studies have demonstrated that BZT analogs have a relatively slow onset and reduced maximal effects compared to cocaine. Pharmacokinetic studies, however, indicated that the BZT analogs rapidly access the brain at concentrations above their in vitro binding affinities, while binding in vivo demonstrates apparent association rates for BZT analogs lower than that for cocaine. Additionally, the off-target effects of these compounds do not fully explain their differences from cocaine. Initial structure-activity studies indicated that BZT analogs bind to DAT differently from cocaine and these differences have been supported by site-directed mutagenesis studies of the DAT. In addition, BZT analog-mediated inhibition of uptake was more resistant to mutations producing inward conformational DAT changes than cocaine analogs. The BZT analogs have provided new insights into the relation between the molecular and behavioral actions of cocaine and the diversity of effects produced by dopamine transport inhibitors. Novel interactions of BZT analogs with the DAT suggest that these drugs may have a pharmacology that would be useful in their development as treatments for cocaine abuse.

  12. 2-Isoxazol-3-Phenyltropane Derivatives of Cocaine: Molecular and Atypical System Effects at the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Hong, Weimin C.; Zou, Mu-Fa; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Soto, Paul L.; Lupica, Carl R.; Newman, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined RTI-371 [3β-(4-methylphenyl)-2β-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane], a phenyltropane cocaine analog with effects distinct from cocaine, and assessed potential mechanisms for those effects by comparison with its constitutional isomer, RTI-336 [3β-(4-chlorophenyl)-2β-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane]. In mice, RTI-371 was less effective than cocaine and RTI-336 in stimulating locomotion, and incompletely substituted (∼60% maximum at 5 minutes or 1 hour after injection) in a cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.)/saline discrimination procedure; RTI-336 completely substituted. In contrast to RTI-336, RTI-371 was not self-administered, and its pretreatment (1.0–10 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently decreased maximal cocaine self-administration more potently than food-maintained responding. RTI-336 pretreatment dose-dependently left-shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve. Both RTI-336 and RTI-371 displaced [3H]WIN35,428 [[3H](−)-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester tartrate] binding to striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) with Ki values of 10.8 and 7.81 nM, respectively, and had lower affinities at serotonin or norepinephrine transporters, or muscarinic and σ receptors. The relative low affinity at these sites suggests the DAT as the primary target of RTI-371 with minimal contributions from these other targets. In biochemical assays probing the outward-facing DAT conformation, both RTI-371 and RTI-336 had effects similar to cocaine, suggesting little contribution of DAT conformation to the unique pharmacology of RTI-371. The locomotor-stimulant effects of RTI-371 (3.0–30 mg/kg i.p.) were comparable in wild-type and knockout cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) mice, indicating that previously reported CB1 allosteric effects do not decrease cocaine-like effects of RTI-371. DAT occupancy in vivo was most rapid with cocaine and least with RTI-371. The slow apparent association rate may allow

  13. Treatment of Morbidity with Atypical Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The appropriate management of atypical chest pain requires an integration of medical and behavioural treatments. Unnecessary medicalization can increase morbidity. A sensitivity to the behavioural factors contributing to symptoms and disability may reduce both. The purpose of this paper is to provide physicians with a cognitive-behavioural perspective of the nature of morbidity and disability associated with chronic chest discomfort; some strategies for detecting heretofore unsuspected disability associated with chronic chest pain and related discomfort in patients with organic findings (both cardiac and non-cardiac), as well those with no identifiable disease process or organic cause; and some simple behavioural and cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques for treating and preventing such problems. PMID:21263912

  14. Closure of autobiographical memories moderates their directive effect on behaviour.

    PubMed

    Beike, Denise R; Adams, Laura P; Naufel, Karen Z

    2010-01-01

    Specific autobiographical memories have been theorised to serve a directive function, whereby the content of the memory directs behaviour outside awareness. The present research tested whether the extent to which a memory feels low in closure, or psychologically not in the past, moderates this directive effect. A total of 163 participants in an online experiment were asked to recollect a specific autobiographical memory of a time they had failed to donate to charity, or were not asked to recollect a memory. Those who recollected a memory were randomly assigned to think of the memory as high versus low in closure. Recollecting an autobiographical memory made to feel low in closure led to more memory-relevant behaviour than either recollecting a memory made to feel high in closure, or no memory at all. Moreover, the directive effect of a low-closure memory occurred whether participants were made aware of an upcoming behavioural opportunity or not. Discussion centres on possible processes linking low closure and behaviour, as well as implications for the self-memory system theory of autobiographical memory.

  15. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  16. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  17. Do Atypical Antipsychotics Have Antisuicidal Effects? A Hypothesis-Generating Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Forte, Alberto; Erbuto, Denise; Serafini, Gianluca; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modern antipsychotic drugs are employed increasingly in the treatment of mood disorders as well as psychoses, stimulating interest in their possible contributions to altering suicidal risk. Clozapine remains the only treatment with an FDA-recognized indication for reducing suicidal risk (in schizophrenia). We carried out a systematic, computerized search for reports of studies involving antipsychotic drug treatment and suicidal behaviors. A total of 19 reports provide data with preliminary support for potential suicide risk-reducing effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in addition to clozapine, and provide some support for antipsychotic drug treatment in general. These preliminary findings encourage further testing of antipsychotics for effects on suicidal behavior, making use of explicit, pre-planned assessments of suicidal behavior. PMID:27727180

  18. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Anna M; Kakulas, Foteini; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-09-30

    Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks) collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454) were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184). However, larger feed volumes (>105 g) were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009). There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313) or lactose levels (p = 0.587) between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056). Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001) indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng) was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232). Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  19. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  20. Dual aminergic regulation of central beta adrenoceptors. Effect of atypical antidepressants and 5-hydroxytryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    Manier, D.H.; Gillespie, D.D.; Sulser, F.

    1989-06-01

    Nonlinear regression analysis of agonist competition binding curves reveals that the (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol-labeled receptor population with low affinity for isoproterenol is increased by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and this increase is abolished by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in vivo. Desipramine (DMI) decreased the beta adrenoceptor population with high agonist affinity to the same degree in PCPA-treated animals as in control animals, thus explaining the reported discrepancy between beta adrenoceptor number and responsiveness of the beta adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system. Mianserin also selectively reduced the beta adrenoceptor population with high agonist affinity in membrane preparations of normal animals, whereas fluoxetine selectively abolished the upregulation of the low affinity sites in reserpinized animals and had no effect on either receptor population from brain of normal animals. The results emphasize the importance of nonlinear regression analysis of agonist competition binding for the interpretation of drug action and encourage the pursuit of the molecular neurobiology of the serotonin (5-HT)/norepinephrine (NE) link in brain.

  1. Behavioural and endocrine effects of naltrexone in male talapoin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Meller, R E; Keverne, E B; Herbert, J

    1980-11-01

    The effect of treating captive male talapoin monkeys with naltrexone hydrochloride (500 micrograms/kg intra-muscular injection twice daily) was studied both in socially living and singly caged animals. The behaviour of the group males and endocrine changes in all treated animals were monitored during the course of treatment and on drug withdrawal. Naltrexone significantly reduced sexual behaviour in previously active males, while increasing grooming interactions. Aggressive behaviour did not change. There was an overall significant elevation in testosterone, LH and cortisol during drug treatment and a significant decrease on withdrawal. Changes in prolactin in response to naltrexone depended upon the pre-treatment level of this hormone: in males in which levels were low, there was a significant elevation in prolactin, while in those with high pre-treatment prolactin, levels were unchanged by the drug. The behavioural changes reported for this primate are in direct contrast to changes reported in rodents, while the hormonal changes, except for prolactin, are comparable to others reported. PMID:7192404

  2. Atypical autoerotic deaths

    SciTech Connect

    Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. )

    1992-06-01

    So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

  3. Atypical Self-Focus Effect on Interoceptive Accuracy in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Pollatos, Olga; Herbert, Beate M.; Berberich, Götz; Zaudig, Michael; Krauseneck, Till; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interoceptive abilities are known to be affected in anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies could show that private self-focus can enhance interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) in healthy participants. As body dissatisfaction is high in AN, confrontation with bodily features such as the own face might have a directly opposed effect in AN. Whether patients with AN can benefit from self-focus in their IAcc and whether this pattern changes over the time-course of cognitive behavioral therapy was investigated in this study. Methods: Fifteen patients with AN from the Psychosomatic Clinic in Windach were assessed three times in the time course of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy. They were compared to 15 controls, recruited from Ulm University and tested in a comparable setting. Both groups performed the heartbeat perception task assessing IAcc under two conditions either enhancing (“Self”) or decreasing (“Other”) self-focused attention. Furthermore, body dissatisfaction was assessed by a subscale of the Eating Disorder (ED) Inventory 2. Results: Patients with AN scored higher in IAcc when watching others’ faces as compared to one’s own face while performing the heartbeat perception task. The opposite pattern was observed in controls. IAcc remained reduced in AN as compared to controls in the time-course of cognitive-behavioral therapy, while body-dissatisfaction improved in AN. High body dissatisfaction was related to poorer IAcc in the “Self” condition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that using self-focused attention reduces IAcc in AN while the opposite pattern was observed in controls. Confronting anorexic patients with bodily features might increase body-related avoidance and therefore decrease IAcc. The current study introduces a new perspective concerning the role of interoceptive processes in AN and generates further questions regarding the therapeutic utility of methods targeting self-focus in the treatment of AN. PMID:27729855

  4. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, I: atypical radiation and the edge vial effect.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Shailaja; Pikal, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether radiation heat transfer is responsible for the position dependence of heat transfer known as the edge vial effect. Freeze drying was performed on a laboratory-scale freeze dryer using pure water with vials that were fully stoppered but had precision cut metal tubes inserted in them to ensure uniformity in resistance to vapor flow. Sublimation rates were determined gravimetrically. Vials were sputter-coated with gold and placed at selected positions on the shelf. Average sublimation rates were determined for vials located at the front, side, and center of an array of vials. Sublimation rates were also determined with and without the use of aluminum foil as a radiation shield. The effect of the guardrail material and its contribution to the edge vial effect by conduction heat transfer was studied by replacing the stainless steel band with a low-thermal conductivity material (styrofoam). The emissivities (epsilon) of relevant surfaces were measured using an infrared thermometer. Sublimation rate experiments were also conducted with vials suspended off the shelf to study the role of convection heat transfer. It was found that sublimation rates were significantly higher for vials located in the front compared to vials in the center. Additional radiation shields in the form of aluminum foil on the inside door resulted in a decrease in sublimation rates for the front vials and to a lesser extent, the center vials. There was a significant decrease in sublimation rate for gold-coated vials (epsilon approximately 0.4) placed at the front of an array when compared to that of clear vials (epsilon approximately 0.9). In the case of experiments with vials suspended off the shelf, the heat transfer coefficient was found to be independent of chamber pressure, indicating that pure convection plays no significant role in heat transfer. Higher sublimation rates were observed when the steel band was used instead of Styrofoam while the

  5. Atypical presentation of atypical mycobacteria in atypical diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sugata Narayan; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Satpathi, Partha Sarathi; Patra, Shinjan

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old, non-obese male presented with low-grade, remittent fever and a fluctuant swelling over the posterior aspect of his lower left flank. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, raised ESR, hyperglycemia and raised HbA1C levels. Light microscopy of Ziehl–Neelsen-stained pus sample revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. After 72 h of incubating aspirated pus in Löwenstein–Jensen media, non-pigmented, cream-colored colonies were observed, suggestive of rapid-growing atypical forms of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction of isolated bacteria identified Mycobacterium chelonae as causative organism. Abdominal skiagram revealed extensive pancreatic intraductal calcifications suggestive of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes and lumbar vertebral body destruction with evidence of paravertebral abscess. The patient was prescribed a split-mixed insulin regimen, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin with complete resolution of the subcutaneous abscess at 6 months. Diabetic patients are prone to infections. Mycobacteria, especially atypical ones, involving the spine and subcutaneous tissues have rarely been reported. PMID:27127641

  6. The effects of brain serotonin deficiency on behavioural disinhibition and anxiety-like behaviour following mild early life stress.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Siesser, William B; Kenan, Alexander; Royer, Elizabeth L; Jacobsen, Jacob P R; Wetsel, William C; Caron, Marc G

    2013-10-01

    Aberrant serotonin (5-HT) signalling and exposure to early life stress have both been suggested to play a role in anxiety- and impulsivity-related behaviours. However, whether congenital 5-HT deficiency × early life stress interactions influence the development of anxiety- or impulsivity-like behaviour has not been established. Here, we examined the effects of early life maternal separation (MS) stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition, a type of impulsivity-like behaviour, in wild-type (WT) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) knock-in (Tph2KI) mice, which exhibit ~60-80% reductions in the levels of brain 5-HT due to a R439H mutation in Tph2. We also investigated the effects of 5-HT deficiency and early life stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, plasma corticosterone levels and several signal transduction pathways in the amygdala. We demonstrate that MS slightly increases anxiety-like behaviour in WT mice and induces behavioural disinhibition in Tph2KI animals. We also demonstrate that MS leads to a slight decrease in cell proliferation within the hippocampus and potentiates corticosterone responses to acute stress, but these effects are not affected by brain 5-HT deficiency. However, we show that 5-HT deficiency leads to significant alterations in SGK-1 and GSK3β signalling and NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala in response to MS. Together, these findings support a potential role for 5-HT-dependent signalling in the amygdala in regulating the long-term effects of early life stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition.

  7. Personalising nutritional guidance for more effective behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Lara, Jose; Mathers, John C

    2015-05-01

    Improving diet and other lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing wellbeing. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Evidence-based, personalised (or stratified) interventions which incorporate effective behaviour change techniques (BCT) and which are delivered digitally are likely to be an important route to scalable and sustainable interventions. Progress in developing such interventions will depend on the outcomes of research on: (i) the best bases for personalisation of dietary advice; (ii) identification of BCT which are proven to enhance intervention efficacy; (iii) suitable platforms (digital-based tools) for collection of relevant participant characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic information, current diet and lifestyle and dietary preferences) linked with intelligent systems which use those characteristics to offer tailored feedback and advice in a cost-effective and acceptable manner. Future research should focus on such interventions aiming to reduce health inequalities and to improve overall public health.

  8. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.

  9. Coupler rotation behaviour and its effect on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. Q.; Ma, W. H.; Wu, Q.; Luo, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    When a locomotive coupler rotates at an angle, the lateral component of the coupler force has an adverse effect on the locomotive's safety, particularly in heavy haul trains. In this paper, a model of a head-mid configuration, a 20,000-t heavy haul train is developed to analyse the rotation behaviour of the locomotive's coupler system and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of such a train's middle locomotive when operating on tangent and curved tracks. The train model includes detailed coupler and draft gear with which to consider the hysteretic characteristics of the rubber draft gear model, the friction characteristics of the coupler knuckles, and the alignment-control characteristics of the coupler shoulder. The results indicate that the coupler's rotation behaviour differs between the tangent and curved tracks, significantly affecting the locomotive's running performance under the braking condition. A larger coupler rotation angle generates a larger lateral component, which increases the wheelset's lateral force and the derailment coefficient. Decreasing the maximum coupler free angle can improve the locomotive's operational performance and safety. Based on these results, the recommended maximum coupler free angle is 4°.

  10. Atypical parkinsonism: an update

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Hoeglinger, Guenter U.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This update discusses novel aspects on genetics, diagnosis, and treatments of atypical parkinsonism published over the past 2 years. Recent findings A genome-wide association study identified new genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy and new genetic conditions presenting with atypical parkinsonism have been described. The clinical criteria for diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration have been revised, and for progressive supranuclear palsy are under revision. Novel molecular techniques to identify possible biomarkers, as in other neurodegenerative disorders, have started being studied on atypical parkinsonian conditions, and although preliminary results seem promising, further studies are urgently warranted. Therapeutic trials based on disease-specific targets have shown no clinical improvement. Summary The knowledge obtained recently on atypical parkinsonian conditions points out the major deficits in this field. With the expanding phenotypical spectrum of atypical parkinsonian conditions, the early identification of patients has become difficult. The inability of conventional methods to identify these disorders earlier and better than clinicians, and the recent failure of promising therapeutic compounds, highlight the fact that the lack of biomarkers is probably the greatest limitation for developing treatments for these disorders. Thus, current and future research in this direction will be crucial. PMID:23812308

  11. (S)-amisulpride as a discriminative stimulus in C57BL/6 mice and its comparison to the stimulus effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Timothy J; Hillhouse, Todd M; Webster, Kevin A; Young, Richard; De Oliveira, Eliseu O; Porter, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    Amisulpride, a substituted benzamide derivative, exerts atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant clinical effects and its (S)-stereoisomer is thought to underlie these actions. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice were trained to discriminate (S)-amisulpride (10mg/kg, s.c.) from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task for food reward. The (S)-amisulpride stimulus was rapidly acquired and was shown to be dose-related, time dependent (effective between 30 and 120min) and stereoselective: (S)-amisulpride (ED50=1.77mg/kg; 4.2µmol/kg) was about three times more potent than rac-amisulpride (ED50=4.94mg/kg; 13.4µmol/kg) and ten times more potent than (R)-amisulpride (ED50=15.84mg/kg; 42.9µmol/kg). In tests of stimulus generalization, the (S)-amisulpride stimulus generalized completely to sulpiride (ED50=12.67mg/kg; 37.1µmol/kg), a benzamide analog that also is purported to be an atypical antipsychotic, but did not fully generalize to the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol (maximum of 45% drug-lever responding) nor to the atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine (partial substitution of 65% drug-lever responding) or aripiprazole (~30% drug-lever responding). These results demonstrated that (S)-amisulpride appears to exert a unique discriminative stimulus effect that is similar to other benzamides, but which differs from other structural classes of antipsychotic drugs.

  12. Evolving effective behaviours to interact with tag-based populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Osman; Crawford, Chad; Sen, Sandip

    2015-07-01

    Tags and other characteristics, externally perceptible features that are consistent among groups of animals or humans, can be used by others to determine appropriate response strategies in societies. This usage of tags can be extended to artificial environments, where agents can significantly reduce cognitive effort spent on appropriate strategy choice and behaviour selection by reusing strategies for interacting with new partners based on their tags. Strategy selection mechanisms developed based on this idea have successfully evolved stable cooperation in games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game but relies upon payoff sharing and matching methods that limit the applicability of the tag framework. Our goal is to develop a general classification and behaviour selection approach based on the tag framework. We propose and evaluate alternative tag matching and adaptation schemes for a new, incoming individual to select appropriate behaviour against any population member of an existing, stable society. Our proposed approach allows agents to evolve both the optimal tag for the environment as well as appropriate strategies for existing agent groups. We show that these mechanisms will allow for robust selection of optimal strategies by agents entering a stable society and analyse the various environments where this approach is effective.

  13. Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David; Goodship, Tim H.; Richards, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. The atypical form of HUS is a disease characterized by complement overactivation. Inherited defects in complement genes and acquired autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. Incomplete penetrance of mutations in all predisposing genes is reported, suggesting that a precipitating event or trigger is required to unmask the complement regulatory deficiency. The underlying genetic defect predicts the prognosis both in native kidneys and after renal transplantation. The successful trials of the complement inhibitor eculizumab in the treatment of atypical HUS will revolutionize disease management. PMID:24161037

  14. Atypical pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Imamura, S; Ozaki, M; Oguchi, M; Okamoto, H; Horiguchi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Six cases of pityriasis rosea with atypical morphology and distribution of the eruption are reported. The eruption did not show a typical 'Christmas-tree' arrangement, confined to the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. However, the histology of the eruption revealed dyskeratotic cells in the epidermis and extravasated erythrocytes in the dermis, which were recently reported as rather characteristic findings of this disease. Prodromal symptoms, course and response to therapy were compatible with pityriasis rosea. Histological examination is important and helpful for the diagnosis of atypical cases.

  15. Effects of fractal gating of potassium channels on neuronal behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, De-Jiang; Zeng, Shang-You; Zhang, Zheng-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The classical model of voltage-gated ion channels assumes that according to a Markov process ion channels switch among a small number of states without memory, but a bunch of experimental papers show that some ion channels exhibit significant memory effects, and this memory effects can take the form of kinetic rate constant that is fractal. Obviously the gating character of ion channels will affect generation and propagation of action potentials, furthermore, affect generation, coding and propagation of neural information. However, there is little previous research on this series of interesting issues. This paper investigates effects of fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state on neuronal behaviours. The obtained results show that fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state has important effects on neuronal behaviours, increases excitability, rest potential and spiking frequency of the neuronal membrane, and decreases threshold voltage and threshold injected current of the neuronal membrane. So fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state can improve the sensitivity of the neuronal membrane, and enlarge the encoded strength of neural information.

  16. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  17. Comparison of behavioural effects of venlafaxine and imipramine in rats.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Kus, Krzysztof; Chodera, Alfons

    2003-01-01

    The experiments outlined in this paper examined the effects of the novel antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) (CAS 9930-78-4) in several behavioural and memory tests in comparison with the classic antidepressant imipramine (IMI) (CAS 113-52-0). The tests were carried out on male Wistar rats of about 200 g. The drugs were administered orally 30 min before the tests during 14 days. The aim of the locomotor activity test was to select the doses without influence on the motility of the animals and active at least in two behavioural tests. Such dose was 20 mg/kg b.w. for both drugs--VEN and IMI. In the immobility test, which reflects antidepressant drug activity, the following differences were found: VEN shortened immobility time (IT) on days 1 and 7 (no activity on day 14), whereas IMI shortened IT on days 7 and 14 and displayed no activity on day 1. In the two-compartment exploratory test both drugs displayed distinct anxiolytic effect on days 1 and 7, yet on day 14 only IMI was still active. In the maze test only VEN shortened food finding time on day 1, on day 7 and on day 14 during chronic treatment. IMI was inactive in the maze test. The authors conclude that the general pattern of VEN activity is similar to that of IMI, but in some tests, especially in the memory test, the new drug is superior to IMI.

  18. Modelling the effect of temperature on unsaturated soil behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Matthieu; Taibi, Said; Fleureau, Jean-Marie; Abou Bekr, Nabil; Saouab, Abdelghani

    2010-12-01

    A simple thermohydromechanical (THM) constitutive model for unsaturated soils is described. The effective stress concept is extended to unsaturated soils with the introduction of a capillary stress. This capillary stress is based on a microstructural model and calculated from attraction forces due to water menisci. The effect of desaturation and the thermal softening phenomenon are modelled with a minimal number of material parameters and based on existing models. THM process is qualitatively and quantitatively modelled by using experimental data and previous work to show the application of the model, including a drying path under mechanical stress with transition between saturated and unsaturated states, a heating path under constant suction and a deviatoric path with imposed suction and temperature. The results show that the present model can simulate the THM behaviour in unsaturated soils in a satisfactory way.

  19. The effect of road tunnel environment on car following behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jian Sheng; Wong, Yiik Diew

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this study, car following data are obtained from traffic video footages of open and tunnel expressways in Singapore. A total of 15,325 car following headways (with car as the follower) are analysed and significant factors affecting headways are found to be speed, and lane. Significant effect of leading vehicle type is only found for tunnel expressway. Headways are generally longer in the tunnel environment. Assessment of collision time measures and safety margins also reveal safer car following behaviour and lower rear-end collision risks in the tunnel expressway. The results are discussed from a behavioural perspective. Overall, the findings show that road tunnels are superior in terms of safety but at reduced traffic capacity . PMID:24713218

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive mediation and behaviour modification with hospitalized hyperactives.

    PubMed

    Konstantareas, M M; Homatidis, S

    1983-10-01

    This study examined the efficacy of behaviour modification and cognitive mediation in treating two groups of hyperactive boys in day treatment. The study marks a departure from other research in two main areas: a) the severity of the children's symptomatology was such that it necessitated their removal from school; b) the interventions employed were intensive and of long duration (10 months), as opposed to the brief, short-term efforts commonly reported. Multiple outcome measures were employed to assess the effectiveness of each of the behavioural treatments. The children were administered a battery of tests shortly after their admission and again prior to discharge, 10 months later. Six main areas, considered relevant to the syndrome of hyperactivity, were tapped. These were: impulsivity, motor activity, sustained attention, self-concept, field-dependence/independence, and an overall hyperactivity rating independently assessed by a clinician. Results indicated that the two groups of children made comparable gains in each of the main areas studied. Moreover, the children of both groups were considered sufficiently improved by their clinical team to be discharged back to the regular school system.

  1. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  2. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals.

  3. Environmental effects of dredging. Routine and atypical wetland determinations according to ce wetlands delineation manual. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods for delineating wetlands that have been published as the Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. It provides an abbreviated version of the manual and lists the wetland indicators and steps in the basic procedure for making routine and atypical wetlands determinations. This procedure does not replace that described in the manual, but serves as a reminder of steps required for making wetland determinations. The user should be familiar with both the manual and the terms used in this reference; many details and cautionary statements contained in the manual are omitted here. The user is referred to the manual for details. This abbreviated version is also being printed on waterproof paper in a size that will fit into the loose leaf binder used for the Munsell soil color charts and will serve as a field reference.

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of off-label atypical antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD who have failed stimulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Minji; Talbert, Jeffery; Moga, Daniela C; Blumenschein, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the expected health outcomes of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and other non-stimulant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of AAPs compared to other non-stimulant ADHD medications. We used decision analysis to compare three alternatives for treating children and adolescents with ADHD who failed initial stimulant treatment: (1) AAPs, (2) a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine), and (3) selective α2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine and guanfacine). Probability estimates and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) weights were derived from a literature review. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using the expected health outcomes derived from the decision analysis and expected costs from the literature. The study was conducted from the third-party payer perspective, and the study period was 1 year. One-way deterministic sensitivity analysis and a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Over the course of 1 year of ADHD pharmacotherapy, the highest QALY was for clonidine/guanfacine (expected QALY = 0.95) followed by atomoxetine (expected QALY = 0.94). Atypical antipsychotics yielded the lowest health outcome with an expected QALY of 0.84. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the AAP strategy was dominated as it was less effective and more costly than other two strategies. Compared to clonidine/guanfacine, AAPs provided lower QALYs (0.11 QALY lost) at an additional cost of $2186 on average. Compared to atomoxetine, AAPs resulted in 0.10 QALYs lost at an additional cost of $2186. In this decision analysis model, AAPs provide lower expected health outcomes than other ADHD medications in children and adolescents who failed prior stimulant therapy. Furthermore, AAPs were not a cost-effective option. PMID:27143026

  5. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  6. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive. PMID:26549151

  7. Aging Effects on Behavioural Estimates of Suppression with Short Suppressors.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Erica L; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Auditory two-tone suppression is a nearly instantaneous reduction in the response of the basilar membrane to a tone or noise when a second tone or noise is presented simultaneously. Previous behavioural studies provide conflicting evidence on whether suppression changes with increasing age, and aging effects may depend on whether a suppressor above (high-side) or below (low-side) the signal frequency is used. Most previous studies have measured suppression using stimuli long enough to elicit the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR), a sound-elicited reflex that reduces cochlear amplification or gain. It has a "sluggish" onset of approximately 25 ms. There is physiological evidence that suppression may be reduced or altered by elicitation of the MOCR. In the present study, suppression was measured behaviourally in younger adults and older adults using a forward-masking paradigm with 20-ms and 70-ms maskers and suppressors. In experiment 1, gain was estimated by comparing on-frequency (2 kHz) and off-frequency (1.2 kHz) masker thresholds for a short, fixed-level 2-kHz signal. In experiment 2, the fixed-level signal was preceded by an off-frequency suppressor (1.2 or 2.4 kHz) presented simultaneously with the on-frequency masker. A suppressor level was chosen that did not produce any forward masking of the signal. Suppression was measured as the difference in on-frequency masker threshold with and without the suppressor present. The effects of age on gain and suppression estimates will be discussed.

  8. Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

    2014-01-01

    Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

  9. Part II--the effect of data on waste behaviour: the South African waste information system.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  10. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leppämäki, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Vakkuri, Olli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partinen, Markku; Laudon, Moshe

    2003-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of melatonin on sleep, waking up and well being in subjects with varying degrees of seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Fifty-eight healthy adults exhibiting subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (s-SAD) and/or the negative or positive type of weather-associated syndrome (WAS) were randomised to either 2 mg of sustained-release melatonin or placebo tablets 1-2 h before a desired bedtime for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes from baseline in sleep quality, sleepiness after waking, atypical depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life by week three. Early morning salivary melatonin concentrations were measured at baseline and treatment cessation in all subjects. Melatonin administration significantly improved the quality of sleep (P=0.03) and vitality (P=0.02) in the subjects with s-SAD, but attenuated the improvement of atypical symptoms and physical parameters of quality of life compared to placebo in the subjects with WAS, positive type. PMID:12729938

  11. Antidepressants but not antipsychotics have antiepileptogenic effects with limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Citraro, Rita; Leo, Antonio; De Fazio, Pasquale; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Two of the most relevant unmet needs in epilepsy are represented by the development of disease-modifying drugs able to affect epileptogenesis and/or the study of related neuropsychiatric comorbidities. No systematic study has investigated the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants on epileptogenesis. However, such drugs are known to influence seizure threshold. Experimental Approach We evaluated the effects of an early long-term treatment (ELTT; 17 weeks), started before seizure onset (P45), with fluoxetine (selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor), duloxetine (dual-acting 5-HT-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor), haloperidol (typical antipsychotic drug), risperidone and quetiapine (atypical antipsychotic drugs) on the development of absence seizures and comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model. Furthermore, we studied the effects of these drugs on established absence seizures in adult (6-month-old) rats after a chronic 7 weeks treatment. Key Results ELTT with all antipsychotics did not affect the development of seizures, whereas, both ELTT haloperidol (1 mg·kg−1 day−1) and risperidone (0.5 mg·kg−1 day−1) increased immobility time in the forced swimming test and increased absence seizures only in adult rats (7 weeks treatment). In contrast, both fluoxetine (30 mg·kg−1 day−1) and duloxetine (10–30 mg·kg−1 day−1) exhibited clear antiepileptogenic effects. Duloxetine decreased and fluoxetine increased absence seizures in adult rats. Duloxetine did not affect immobility time; fluoxetine 30 mg·kg−1 day−1 reduced immobility time while at 10 mg·kg−1 day−1 an increase was observed. Conclusions and Implications In this animal model, antipsychotics had no antiepileptogenic effects and might worsen depressive-like comorbidity, while antidepressants have potential antiepileptogenic effects even though they have limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour. PMID

  12. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…

  13. Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical…

  14. 'Atypical' antipsychotics: where does ziprasidone fit?

    PubMed

    Remington, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Identified as the prototype of 'atypicality', clozapine heralded a new generation of antipsychotics intent on providing greater efficacy than 'typical' antipsychotics, while diminishing the risk of D2-related side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia. Ziprasidone is the most recent in this new class of antipsychotics to enter the clinical market. PMID:19811011

  15. [Atypical presentation of preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Ditisheim, A; Boulvain, M; Irion, O; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2015-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome, which still represents one of the major causes of maternal-fetal mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis can be made difficult due to the complexity of the disorder and its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to provide an efficient diagnostic tool to the clinician, medical societies regularly rethink the definition criteria. However, there are still clinical presentations of preeclampsia that escape the frame of the definition. The present review will address atypical forms of preeclampsia, such as preeclampsia without proteinuria, normotensive preeclampsia, preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation and post-partum preeclampsia.

  16. Do atypical antipsychotics really enhance smoking reduction more than typical ones?: the effects of antipsychotics on smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Jian; Chen, Hsing-Kang; Lee, Shin-Min

    2013-06-01

    Whether atypical antipsychotics (AAs) can enhance smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients remains controversial because of methodological limitations in existing studies. This study explored whether certain types of antipsychotics predict smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients. Three hundred eight smoking, predominantly male schizophrenic patients (271/308 [88.9%]) participated in an 8-week open-label study with antismoking medications (high-dose, low-dose nicotine transdermal patch and bupropion). Antipsychotics were classified into (1) typical antipsychotics (TAs) and (2) AAs, including multiacting receptor-targeted antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine), serotonin-dopamine antagonists (risperidone), D2/D3 receptor antagonists (amisulpride), and partial dopamine receptor agonists (aripiprazole). A general linear model was used to explore whether types of antipsychotic predict changes in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the score of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) while controlling for confounding factors. The type of antipsychotic (TAs or AAs) was not significantly associated with smoking cessation (n = 21; χ = 1.8; df = 4; P = 0.77). Regarding smoking reduction, the type of antipsychotic was significantly predictive of a change in the CPD (P = 0.027; partial eta square = 0.055) and FTND scores (P = 0.002; partial eta square = 0.073). The 95% confidence intervals of the estimated means of change in the CPD and FTND scores did not contain zero only among subjects on TAs or clozapine.These findings suggest that TAs and clozapine enhance smoking reduction compared with nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. The mechanisms underlying the effects of various antipsychotics on smoking reduction remain unclear and warrant future study.

  17. Noradrenaline effects on social behaviour, intergroup relations, and moral decisions.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, S; Savulescu, J; Chesterman, L P; Cowen, P J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has begun to elucidate the neural basis of higher order social concepts, such as the mechanisms involved in intergroup relations, and moral judgments. Most theories have concentrated on higher order emotions, such as guilt, shame, or empathy, as core mechanisms. Accordingly, psychopharmacological and neurobiological studies have investigated the effects of manipulating serotonin or oxytocin activity on moral and social decisions and attitudes. However, recently it has been determined that changes in more basic emotions, such as fear and anger, might also have a significant role in social and moral cognition. This article summarizes psychopharmacological and fMRI research on the role of noradrenaline in higher order social cognition suggesting that indeed noradrenergic mediated affective changes might play key - and probably causal - role in certain social attitudes and moral judgments. Social judgments may also be directly influenced by numerous neurotransmitter manipulations but these effects could be mediated by modulation of basic emotions which appear to play an essential role in the formation of social concepts and moral behaviour. PMID:27126289

  18. Temporal effects of separation on suicidal thoughts and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Butterworth, Peter; Calear, Alison L; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2014-06-01

    Divorce has been identified as a risk factor for suicide. However, little research has been conducted on the time trajectory of the influence of relationship separation on suicidal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the effects over time of relationship breakdown and separation on suicidality. Data were drawn from 6616 Australian adults participating in the PATH through Life Project, a population-based longitudinal study. Suicidal ideation was reported by 406 participants (6.1%), and 99 (1.5%) reported a suicide plan or attempt in the past year. The effects of separation on suicidality were strongest soon after separation, with a nearly three-fold increase in ideation (adjusted OR = 2.73, p < 0.001) and an eight-fold increase in plans/attempts (adjusted OR = 7.75, p < 0.001) in the two years following separation, gradually diminishing subsequently. The period up to four years before a separation was also found to be a time of increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, while marriage was protective. Separation is a strong risk factor for suicidality and mental health services should target recently separated individuals.

  19. Effects of meteorological factors on defensive behaviour of honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwick, E. E.; Moritz, R. F. A.

    1987-09-01

    The defensive behaviour of honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.) was quantitated in the field throughout a three month season by the use of a standardized test in which numbers of stings in a leather target were counted after single colonies were opened and exposed to alarm pheromone. The main results show how the defensive behaviour of honey bees is highly dependent on weather factors. Eliminating genetic variance, the following meteorological variables account for 92.4% of the variation in defensive behaviour: air temperature, solar radiation intensity, wind velocity, relative humidity, and barometric pressure.

  20. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

  1. Domain Knowledge, Search Behaviour, and Search Effectiveness of Engineering and Science Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Anghelescu, Hermina G. B.; Yuan, Xiaojun

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to answer three questions: 1) Would the level of domain knowledge significantly affect the user's search behaviour? 2) Would the level of domain knowledge significantly affect search effectiveness, and 3) What would be the relationship between search behaviour and search effectiveness? Method: Participants were…

  2. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  3. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour.

  4. Authentic leadership and its effect on employees' organizational citizenship behaviours.

    PubMed

    Edú Valsania, Sergio; Moriano León, Juan A; Molero Alonso, Fernando; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela

    2012-11-01

    The studies that have verified the positive association of authentic leadership with organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs), have used global measures of both constructs. Therefore, the goal of this work is to analyze the effect of authentic leadership on employees' OCBs, specifically focusing on the relations of the four components of authentic leadership with the individual and organizational dimensions of the OCBs. The participants of this study were 220 Spanish employees (30.9% men and 69.1% women) who completed a questionnaire that included the variables of interest in this study: Authentic Leadership, OCB and Sociobiographical control variables. The results, obtained with stepwise multiple regression analysis, show that two components of authentic leadership-moral perspective and relational transparency-present significant relationships with OCB. Moreover, authentic leadership is a better predictor of employees' OCB when these behaviors are impersonal and directed towards the organization than when they are directed towards other people. These results have practical implications for human resources management in organizations, especially in selection processes and when training top executives.

  5. Preparation of Methylated Products of A-type Procyanidin Trimers in Cinnamon Bark and Their Protective Effects on Pancreatic β-Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Chen, Liang; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Pulong; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Heyao; Li, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenols are partial metabolized to methylated conjugations in vivo, and then could modify bioavailability and bioactivity related to the uptake of parent compounds. Our previous studies have found that the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon barks are mainly related to polyphenol components, particularly A-type procyanidin trimer cinnamtannin-1 (CT1). It is necessary to understand the antidiabetic activity of methylations of CT1, nevertheless, sufficient amounts of methylated CT1 are difficult to obtain from metabolites in vivo. In this study, O-methyl derivatives of CT1 were prepared through one-pot methyl iodide reaction and isolation via column chromatography and RP-HPLC semipreparation. The structures of O-methyl substituents were determined through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and HPLC-ESI-MS (High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry). Five purified O-methyl substituents and 2 isomers of CT1 were obtained. Their protective effects on a palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis model were then evaluated. Results showed that the protective effects on pancreatic β-cell of O-methyl substituents were weaker than those of CT1. The results suggested that the methylation of catechol groups could be a relevant factor contributing to the decline of protective effects on pancreatic β-cell of CT1 via obstructing quinone intermediate formation and affecting antioxidant abilities. The antidiabetic effects of O-methyl derivatives of CT1 should be further determined by other antidiabetic models. PMID:27074527

  6. Effect of Embelin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Sickness Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ashique; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S; Thippeswamy, B S; Patil, Jagadevappa S

    2016-05-01

    Sickness behaviour is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioural changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection. It is relevant to understanding depression and some aspects of the suffering that in cancer. Embelin has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and anxiolytic assets and has been shown to inhibit nuclear factor κB pathway and cytokine production. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes Burm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were pre-treated with embelin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then challenged with LPS (400 µg/kg, i.p.). At different time intervals of post-LPS challenge, sickness behaviour was evaluated in the animals by battery of behavioural tests (plus maze, open field, light-dark box, forced swim, social behaviour assessment, sucrose preference and food and water intake). Levels of oxidative stress makers (reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation) in mice brain were also analysed. LPS induced behavioural alterations, anhedonia and anorexia, in mice. Pre-treatment with embelin attenuated behavioural changes induced by LPS. In addition, embelin prevented anhedonia, anorexia and ameliorated brain oxidative stress markers. The experimental outcomes of the present study demonstrated protective effect of embelin in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Effects of Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teacher job satisfaction. The population of this study is 29 primary schools in Duzce, Turkey. Data were collected from 595 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce province of Turkey. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were determined…

  8. Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

  9. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  10. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  11. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  12. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  13. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  14. Unusual atypical language lateralization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad T; Oghlakian, Roger; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2016-01-01

    Determining the language-dominant hemisphere is essential for planning epilepsy surgery. A 60-year-old right-handed woman with epilepsy since age 16 failed a partial right anterior lobectomy at age 21. Later, a brain MRI found extensive right-sided cortical dysplasia and periventricular heterotopia. Subsequently, prolonged video-EEG monitoring localized her seizures to the right temporoparietal region. Functional MRI was inconclusive in lateralizing her language, prompting a Wada test, which strongly lateralized language to the right. This unique case of atypical language representation in a right-handed individual with an extensive right-hemispheric congenital malformation and seizure focus illustrates the important thorough presurgical language assessment. PMID:27668182

  15. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  16. The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the behaviour of cats

    PubMed Central

    Hoyland, Valerie J.; Shillito, Elizabeth E.; Vogt, Marthe

    1970-01-01

    1. Male and female kittens and adult cats were given p-chlorophenylalanine orally. 2. After treatment, some of the male cats showed mounting behaviour and the kittens and non-oestrous females showed an increase in treading and rubbing which was similar to one aspect of pro-oestrus behaviour. 3. The treated animals also appeared to suffer from skin irritation and showed increased restlessness which accompanied sleep deprivation. 4. Injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan stopped abnormal sexual activity and restored normal sleep for about 5 hours. 5. It is concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurones inhibit sexual behaviour in cats and that this role can be seen in male and, to some extent, also in female animals. PMID:5312896

  17. Effects of Conformism on the Cultural Evolution of Social Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner’s Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23874528

  18. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  19. Atypical antipsychotics in first admission schizophrenia: medication continuation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Lavelle, Janet; Gibson, P Joseph; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic medications on treatment continuation and outcomes in a first admission sample of patients with schizophrenia treated in usual practice settings. In a sample of 189 participants with a research diagnosis of DSM-IV schizophrenia drawn from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, we compared the effects of atypical and conventional agents on change of medication, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. For these analyses we used the method of survival analysis for recurrent events, in which the episodes of treatment rather than individual subjects are the units of analysis. In addition, we compared improvement in positive and negative symptoms from intake to 24- or 48-month followups for subjects who stayed on one type of medication or changed to atypicals from conventional antipsychotics. Atypical agents were associated with lower risk of medication change, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. Both conventional and atypical agents were associated with improvement of positive symptoms at followup, but only subjects on atypical agents at followup experienced a significant improvement in negative symptoms. We conclude that in usual practice settings, as in randomized clinical trials, atypical agents are associated with improved treatment continuation and outcomes.

  20. Atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Massara, Matteo; Bonavita, Ornella; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine system is a fundamental component of cancer-related inflammation involved in all stages of cancer development. It controls not only leukocyte infiltration in primary tumors but also angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and migration to metastatic sites. Atypical chemokine receptors are a new, emerging class of regulators of the chemokine system. They control chemokine bioavailability by scavenging, transporting, or storing chemokines. They can also regulate the activity of canonical chemokine receptors with which they share the ligands by forming heterodimers or by modulating their expression levels or signaling activity. Here, we summarize recent results about the role of these receptors (atypical chemokine receptor 1/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine, atypical chemokine receptor 2/D6, atypical chemokine receptor 3/CXC-chemokine receptor 7, and atypical chemokine receptor 4/CC-chemokine receptor-like 1) on the tumorigenesis process, indicating that their effects are strictly dependent on the cell type on which they are expressed and on their coexpression with other chemokine receptors. Indeed, atypical chemokine receptors inhibit tumor growth and progression through their activity as negative regulators of chemokine bioavailability, whereas, on the contrary, they can promote tumorigenesis when they regulate the signaling of other chemokine receptors, such as CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Thus, atypical chemokine receptors are key components of the regulatory network of inflammation and immunity in cancer and may have a major effect on anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26908826

  1. Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

  2. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease.

  3. Effect of beta-adrenoceptors on the behaviour induced by the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Attademo, Andrés; Baiardi, Gustavo; Celis, María Ester

    2007-07-30

    Excessive grooming behaviour is induced by intracerebroventricular injections of the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide (neuropeptide-EI), via the activation of A-10 dopaminergic neurons and the noradrenergic system. Our object was to study the latter system involved in these behaviours, using male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g with i.c.v. implants. The results show that all the adrenoceptor antagonists "per se" do not affect excessive grooming behaviour or motor activity. Intracerebroventricular administration of propranolol, a general beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, before neuropeptide-EI, inhibited the induced excessive grooming behaviour in a dose dependent manner. Metoprolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, also blocked this behaviour. However, intracerebroventricular injections of phentolamine, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, and ((+/-)-1-[2,3-(Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), a beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, had no effect on the behaviour induced by neuropeptide-EI induced behaviour for any of the doses tested. On the other hand, isoproterenol, a general beta-adrenoceptor agonist and dobutamine, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, both elicited similar behaviours as those induced by neuropeptide-EI. These results support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between neuropeptide-EI and beta-adrenoceptors, more specifically the beta(1)-adrenoceptor, as found with other similar endogenous peptides such as neurotensin, cholecystin, substance P and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Hence, neuropeptide-EI could probably be exerting a neuromodulating effect on the central nervous system.

  4. Atypical antipsychotics to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip E; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in older adults with dementia and can be associated with a rapid decline in cognitive and functional status. This article reviews the current literature supporting the use of atypical antipsychotic medications in this population. Among the currently available atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and olanzapine have been the most widely studied in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Despite the common use of other atypical antipsychotic medications, their efficacy and safety in older adults with dementia has not been as extensively studied. Some controversy surrounds the use of atypical antipsychotic agents in older adults with the suggestion that they may increase the incidence of stroke or even death. Despite the potential for increased risk of harm from the use of these medications, atypical antipsychotics are often effective in treating troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms refractory to other treatments. Whenever possible, these atypical antipsychotic drug treatments should be combined with non-pharmacological treatments to limit the need and dose of antipsychotic drugs and constant monitoring for potential harms should be maintained. The choice of which atypical antipsychotic agent can be guided by the nature and severity of the target symptom and the medication least likely to cause harm to the patient. PMID:19412500

  5. Contextual Mediators influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioural Change Interventions: A Case of HIV/AIDS Prevention Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although Uganda had recorded declines in HIV infection rates around 1990’s, it is argued that HIV/AIDS risk sexual behaviour, especially among the youth, started increasing again from early 2000. School-based computer-assisted HIV interventions can provide interactive ways of improving the youth’s HIV knowledge, attitudes and skills. However, these interventions have long been reported to have limited success in improving the youth’s sexual behaviours, which is always the major aim of implementing such interventions. This could be because the commonly used health promotion theories employed by these interventions have limited application in HIV prevention. These theories tend to lack sufficient attention to contextual mediators that influence ones sexual behaviours. Moreover, literature increasingly expresses dissatisfaction with the dominant prevailing descriptive survey-type HIV/AIDS-related research. Objective and Methods: The objective of this research was to identify contextual mediators that influence the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention. To achieve this objective, this research employed qualitative method, which provided in-depth understanding of how different contexts interact to influence the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions. The research question was: What contextual mediators are influencing the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention? To answer this research question, 20 youth who had previously completed the WSWM intervention when they were still in secondary schools were telephone interviewed between Sept.08 and Dec.08. The collected data was then analysed, based on grounded theory’s coding scheme. Results: Findings demonstrate that although often ignored by HIV interventionists and researchers, variety of contextual mediators influence individual uptake of

  6. Effect of automotive gas oil composition on elastomer behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, S.D.; Price, D.R.; Wolveridge, P.E.; Grigg, H.C.; Holmes, D.; West, M.R.; Butterfield, R.J.; Stewart, G.

    1994-10-01

    Significant differences have been observed in the behaviour of elastomeric seals exposed to various automotive diesel fuels. This behaviour is governed not only by the chemistry of the elastomer but also by the aromatic content of the fuel and is typical of elastomer/fluid interactions occurring under diffusion control. Although no significant differences were observed in the response of nitrile elastomers exposed to peroxides, the use of antioxidant additives in `low` aromatic diesel fuel needs to be considered. The normal seal housing design criterion is such that seal integrity should not be compromised by the use of `low` aromatic fuels in normal operating circumstances. Some three years` experience in the Swedish market supports this view. 14 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Domestication effects on behavioural synchronization and individual distances in chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Eklund, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2011-02-01

    Behavioural synchrony (allelomimetic behaviour), and inter-individual distances are aspects of social and anti-predator strategies which may have been affected by domestication. Chickens are known to adjust synchronization and inter-individual distances depending on behaviour. We hypothesized that White Leghorn (WL) chickens would show less synchronized behaviour than the ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Sixty birds, 15 female and 15 male WL and the same number of RJF (28 weeks old) were studied in groups of three in furnished pens (1 m×2 m) for 24 consecutive hours per group, following 24 h of habituation. Video tapes covering 4 h per group (dawn, 9-10 am, 1-2 pm and dusk) were analysed. Red junglefowl perched significantly more, but there were no breed effects on the frequency or daily rhythm of any other activities, or on average inter-individual distances. Red junglefowl were more synchronized during perching and a tendency for the same was found for social behaviour. After performance of the two most synchronized behaviours, perching and comfort behaviour, individual distance increased more for RJF than WL. According to this study domestication of chickens appears not to have significantly altered the relative frequencies of different activities or average inter-individual distances, but have caused some changes in behavioural synchronization and maintenance of activity-specific inter-individual distances in chickens. The changes may indicate an adaptive response to captivity and domestication. PMID:21187131

  8. Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Chater, A; Lorencatto, F

    2013-10-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 body mass index (BMI) units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups). We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention

  9. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  10. Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

  11. [Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Blasco Pelicano, Miquel; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Campistol Plana, Josep M

    2015-11-20

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, non-immune hemolytic anemia and renal impairment. Kidney pathology shows thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with endothelial cell injury leading to thrombotic occlusion of arterioles and capillaries. Traditionally, HUS was classified in 2 forms: Typical HUS, most frequently occurring in children and caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, and atypical HUS (aHUS). aHUS is associated with mutations in complement genes in 50-60% of patients and has worse prognosis, with the majority of patients developing end stage renal disease. After kidney transplantation HUS may develop as a recurrence of aHUS or as de novo disease. Over the last years, many studies have demonstrated that complement dysregulation underlies the endothelial damage that triggers the development of TMA in most of these patients. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of aHUS, together with the availability of novel therapeutic options, will enable better strategies for the early diagnosis and etiological treatment, which are changing the natural history of aHUS. This review summarizes the aHUS clinical entity and describes the role of complement dysregulation in the pathogenesis of aHUS. Finally, we review the differential diagnosis and the therapeutic options available to patients with aHUS.

  12. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Pawaria, Arti; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica; Meena, Jagdish

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed case records of 40 in-patients (22 boys) with serologically confirmed dengue fever between 1st October and 30th November, 2013. Severe dengue was seen in 30, out of which 12 (30%) had compensated shock. Splenomegaly (6,15%) and encephalopathy (4,10%) were the commonest atypical features. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever were more common than that reported in the past.

  13. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  14. KINOMIC ALTERATIONS IN ATYPICAL MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Taylor, Robert B.; Fiveash, John B.; de Wijn, Rik; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Willey, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to profile Atypical Meningioma in a high-throughput manner to better understand the altered signaling within these tumors and specifically the kinases altered in recurrent atypical meningioma. Kinomic Profiles could be used to identify prognostic biomarkers for responders/non-responders to classify future patients that are unlikely to benefit from current therapies. Directly these results could be used to identify drug-actionable kinase targets as well. Methods Peptide-substrate microarray kinase activity analysis was conducted with a PamStation®12 analyzing the tyrosine kinome in each tumor kinetically against ~144 target peptides. These data were then analyzed relative to clinical outcome (e.g., tumor recurrence). Results 3 major clusters of atypical meningiomas were identified with highly variant peptides primarily being targets of EGFR family, ABL, BRK and BMX kinases. Kinomic analysis of recurrent atypical meningiomas indicated patterns of increased phosphorylation of BMX, TYRO3 and FAK substrates as compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion The atypical meningiomas profiled here exhibited molecular sub-clustering that may have phenotypic corollaries predictive of outcome. Recurrent tumors had increases in kinase activity that may predict resistance to current therapies, and may guide selection of directed therapies. Taken together these data further the understanding of kinomic alteration in atypical meningioma, and the processes that may not only mediate recurrence, but additionally may identify kinase targets for intervention. PMID:27158663

  15. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  16. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species. PMID:21880086

  17. Effect of railway safety education on the safety knowledge and behaviour intention of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether railway safety lessons are effective in increasing schoolchildren's safety knowledge and behaviour intention. The railway safety education in schools included a 45-min lesson on safe behaviour in a railway environment directed at 8-11 year old schoolchildren. The lessons were held in four schools located near railway lines in Finland. The effectiveness of this measure was evaluated based on a short survey directed at pupils before the lesson (base level) and around 2-3 months later (post-lesson) based on three variables which are considered as strong determinants of actual behaviour: behaviour intention, estimated dangerousness of the behaviour, and level of knowledge on the legality of the behaviour. The results show that the change in the share of correct answers was positive regarding all questions except for one question in which the difference was not significant. Based on this we can reasonably assume that railway safety education in schools can have a positive effect for all the measured variables, although the effect is not necessarily large. The results indicate that these positive changes can have a positive effect on the frequency of trespassing (i.e. fewer unsafe crossings in the future). We can further assume that reduction in the frequency of trespassing would reduce the frequency of trespassing accidents. PMID:26690273

  18. Effect of railway safety education on the safety knowledge and behaviour intention of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether railway safety lessons are effective in increasing schoolchildren's safety knowledge and behaviour intention. The railway safety education in schools included a 45-min lesson on safe behaviour in a railway environment directed at 8-11 year old schoolchildren. The lessons were held in four schools located near railway lines in Finland. The effectiveness of this measure was evaluated based on a short survey directed at pupils before the lesson (base level) and around 2-3 months later (post-lesson) based on three variables which are considered as strong determinants of actual behaviour: behaviour intention, estimated dangerousness of the behaviour, and level of knowledge on the legality of the behaviour. The results show that the change in the share of correct answers was positive regarding all questions except for one question in which the difference was not significant. Based on this we can reasonably assume that railway safety education in schools can have a positive effect for all the measured variables, although the effect is not necessarily large. The results indicate that these positive changes can have a positive effect on the frequency of trespassing (i.e. fewer unsafe crossings in the future). We can further assume that reduction in the frequency of trespassing would reduce the frequency of trespassing accidents.

  19. Rate-decreasing effects of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone attenuated by conditions of reinforcement in a woman with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, J Helen; Williams, Dean C; Napolitano, Deborah A; Peyton, Robert T; Baer, Donald M; Schroeder, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    Effects of two doses of risperidone on the performance of a matching task under tangible reinforcement and nonreinforcement conditions were measured in a woman with mental retardation. In both conditions, time to complete the task increased and response rates decreased under two doses of risperidone. Accuracy was generally unchanged. These changes were much smaller in the tangible reinforcement condition; thus, reinforcement seemed to protect performance from the rate-decreasing effects of risperidone.

  20. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently

  1. Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Niwant, Premeshwar; Motwani, Mukta; Naik, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain that lasts from few seconds to few minutes in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed. More than one nerve branch can be affected by the disorder. We report an unusual case of trigeminal neuralgia affecting right side of face presenting atypical features of neuralgia and not responding to the usual course of treatment. The magnetic resonance imaging study of brain revealed a large extra-axial mass involving right cerebellopontine angle region causing moderate pressure effect on trigeminal nerve and brain stem. The aim of this case report is to show a tumor of cerebellopontine angle, presenting clinically as atypical trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:26664753

  2. Sintering behaviour of feldspar and influence of electric charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, W.; Gaied, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    The characterization of feldspar for electric porcelain and the behaviour of these materials after heating at 1230°C were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the present phases and the densification level. Feldspar sand was treated by flotation. The floated feldspar is constituted by microcline, quartz, and minor amounts of albite. The microstructure of sintered feldspar at 1230°C is essentially vitreous with open microporosities. The dielectrical properties of composites were characterized by using the induced courant method (ICM), which indicates that the charge trapping capacity depends on the mineralogical and chemical composition of feldspar.

  3. The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Psychotic Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Devi

    2007-01-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

  4. The effects of the atypical antipsychotic asenapine in a strain-specific battery of tests for mania-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ene, Hila M; Kara, Nirit Z; Einat, Haim

    2015-06-01

    Asenapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes in bipolar disorder (BPD). There is a paucity of information on the effects of asenapine in animal models of BPD, but such work is essential to discover its scope of effects and its mechanisms of therapeutic action. This study evaluated the effects of asenapine in a validated test battery for manic-like behaviors in Black Swiss mice. Male Black Swiss mice received asenapine at 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days and were tested for spontaneous activity, sweet solution preference, forced-swim test, social interaction, and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Asenapine treatment resulted in dose-dependent, clinically relevant plasma levels. Asenapine, at the 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg doses, reduced activity, with the 0.3 mg/kg dose also resulting in increased time in the center of an open field, increased immobility in the forced-swim test, and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Asenapine exerted no effects in the social interaction or sweet solution preference tests. The results suggest that asenapine exerts antimanic-like effects in some of the behavioral tests performed in Black Swiss mice. These data support the utilization of asenapine in the treatment of BPD.

  5. Effectiveness of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training with individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Vonderen, A

    2004-03-01

    The effect of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training sessions with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) was assessed. Trainers were six undergraduate university students majoring in psychology. The procedure consisted of interrupting the sequence of trials of training by the supervisor and then giving brief corrective feedback. Feedback was focused on the accuracy of the following procedural aspects: (1) entry behaviour; (2) prompt level and order of presenting response prompts; (3) use of reinforcement; (4) pace of presenting trials; and (5) if this occurred, handling trainee's disruptive behaviour during training. Data were collected in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Results indicated a statistically significant increase of the percentage correct trainer behaviour as compared to the baseline phase. Maintenance of effect of feedback was recorded during post-training and follow-up.

  6. [Youth drinking as en example of relationship between risk behaviour and knowledge on its effects].

    PubMed

    Wrona-Wolny, Weronika; Brudecki, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Using psychoactive substances like smoking, drinking or drugs are most common risky behaviour. In the article only drinking as an examples was analysed. Knowledge about alcohol health effects and its dependence on undertaking risky behaviour, alcohol-advertisement perception, sex and group were analysed. Between 2001 and 2005 343 sportsmen and 400 students as a control group were participated in research. Questionnaire diagnosed alcohol-related behaviour and alcohol-advertisement perceptions were used. Knowledge about effects of alcohol acting contains 11 questions. Chi-square test and multifactor analysis of variances were used. Results show that knowledge level depends only from group belonging and is higher in students than sportsmen. Susceptibility to undertaking risky behaviour occurs more frequently in control than in sport group, in man then woman, and in person with who pay attention to alcohol advertisements.

  7. Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Furiak, Nicolas M; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Lawson, Anthony H; Conley, Robert R; Culler, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system. Methods A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained. Results The results of the microsimulation model indicated that olanzapine had the lowest mean annual direct health care cost ($8,544) followed by generic risperidone ($9,080). In addition, olanzapine resulted in more QALYs than risperidone (0.733 vs. 0.719). The base case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine to be the dominant choice in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness per QALY gained. Conclusion The utilization of olanzapine is predicted in this model to result in better clinical outcomes and lower total direct health care costs compared to generic risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Olanzapine

  8. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  9. Effects of measurement aggregation on predicting externalizing problems from preschool behaviour.

    PubMed

    Zentner, Marcel; Smolkina, Milana; Venables, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In long-term studies of psychological development, the initial assessment of etiologically significant child behaviours is often carried out at a single point in time only. However, one-time assessments of behaviour are likely to possess limited reliability, leading to attenuated longitudinal correlation coefficient magnitudes. How much this bias might have affected behavioural continuity estimates in longitudinal research is presently unknown. Using a data set from the Mauritius Child Health Project, we particularize the attenuating effects of single-occasion behavioural assessments on consistency estimates of impulsive-aggressive behaviour over time. Specifically, two nursery teachers provided 15 consecutive weekly ratings of the aggressive behaviour of 99 four-year-old children. The same children were reassessed for the presence of externalizing behaviour problems at the ages of 8 and 10. There were substantial increases in both reliability and predictive correlation coefficient magnitudes when the preschool scores were aggregated across several weekly ratings. A further increase resulted after the two outcome assessments were combined into a composite score of school-age externalizing symptoms. A generalized procedure, developed from the correction for attenuation formula, is introduced to describe the relation of aggregation to predictive validity in longitudinal research.

  10. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  11. Fertility-preserving treatment in complex atypical hyperplasia and early endometrial cancer in young women with oral progestin: Is it effective?

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Wan Ho; Kang, Woo Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oral progestin treatment in women diagnosed with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) or grade 1 endometrial cancer (G1EC), who desire to preserve their fertility, as alternative treatment to a hysterectomy. Methods We reviewed the medical records of women younger than 45 years old that had been diagnosed with CAH or G1EC, who expressed a desire to preserve their fertility using alternative treatment at our institution. Women without evidence of myometrial invasion on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans were included. The study period was between 2004 and 2014. Endometrial biopsies were taken at follow-up appointments. Results We identified 31 young women with CAH or G1EC. The median age was 33 years old (range, 20 to 41), and the median period of time undertaking the treatment was 5 months (range, 1 to 12). Twenty-three patients (74.2%) achieved complete remission (CR; median time to CR was 3 months; range, 1 to 22), 16 patients (88.9%) with CAH and 7 (53.8%) with G1EC achieved CR. 6 patients (26.1%) who had achieved CR, had recurrence of the disease (median time from CR to recurrence was 12.5 months; range, 4 to 18). Eight patients (25.8%) finally underwent a hysterectomy. Conclusion Oral progestin therapy is an alternative treatment for women with CAH or G1EC who desire fertility preservation. However, more prospective studies are needed for standard progestin regimen. Also, there still remains a risk of disease progression and recurrence. Therefore, close follow-up is important during treatment and after CR. In addition, a hysterectomy is recommended as a definitive treatment after completion of childbearing. PMID:26866032

  12. Atypical audio-visual speech perception and McGurk effects in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leybaert, Jacqueline; Macchi, Lucie; Huyse, Aurélie; Champoux, François; Bayard, Clémence; Colin, Cécile; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development (TLD) was compared in two experiments using /aCa/ syllables presented in the context of a masking release paradigm. Children had to repeat syllables presented in auditory alone, visual alone (speechreading), audiovisual congruent and incongruent (McGurk) conditions. Stimuli were masked by either stationary (ST) or amplitude modulated (AM) noise. Although children with SLI were less accurate in auditory and audiovisual speech perception, they showed similar auditory masking release effect than children with TLD. Children with SLI also had less correct responses in speechreading than children with TLD, indicating impairment in phonemic processing of visual speech information. In response to McGurk stimuli, children with TLD showed more fusions in AM noise than in ST noise, a consequence of the auditory masking release effect and of the influence of visual information. Children with SLI did not show this effect systematically, suggesting they were less influenced by visual speech. However, when the visual cues were easily identified, the profile of responses to McGurk stimuli was similar in both groups, suggesting that children with SLI do not suffer from an impairment of audiovisual integration. An analysis of percent of information transmitted revealed a deficit in the children with SLI, particularly for the place of articulation feature. Taken together, the data support the hypothesis of an intact peripheral processing of auditory speech information, coupled with a supra modal deficit of phonemic categorization in children with SLI. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24904454

  13. The Detrimental Effects of Atypical Nonverbal Behavior on Older Adults’ First Impressions of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hemmesch, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    After viewing short video clips of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who varied in the symptoms of facial masking (reduced expressivity) and abnormal bodily movement (ABM: including tremor and related movement disorders), older adult observers provided their first impressions of targets’ social positivity. Impressions of targets with higher masking or ABM were more negative than impressions of targets with lower masking or ABM. Furthermore, masking was more detrimental for impressions of women and when observers considered emotional relationship goals, whereas ABM was more detrimental for instrumental relationship goals. This study demonstrated the stigmatizing effects of both reduced and excessive movement. PMID:25244472

  14. The detrimental effects of atypical nonverbal behavior on older adults' first impressions of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hemmesch, Amanda R

    2014-09-01

    After viewing short video clips of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who varied in the symptoms of facial masking (reduced expressivity) and abnormal bodily movement (ABM: including tremor and related movement disorders), older adult observers provided their first impressions of targets' social positivity. Impressions of targets with higher masking or ABM were more negative than impressions of targets with lower masking or ABM. Furthermore, masking was more detrimental for impressions of women and when observers considered emotional relationship goals, whereas ABM was more detrimental for instrumental relationship goals. This study demonstrated the stigmatizing effects of both reduced and excessive movement.

  15. Interventional trials in atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Eschlböck, S; Krismer, F; Wenning, G K

    2016-01-01

    Atypical parkinson disorders (APD) are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases with a variable clinical presentation that may even mimic Parkinson's disease. Multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are commonly summarized under this umbrella term. Significant developments in research have expanded knowledge and have broadened available symptomatic treatments, particularly for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Nonetheless, symptomatic support still remains limited in all of these disorders. Currently, there exists no effective treatment to delay disease progression and disease-modifying trials have failed to provide coherent and convincing results. Recent trials of rasagiline (in MSA), rifampicin (in MSA), tideglusib (in PSP) and davunetide (in PSP) reported negative results. Nevertheless, large cohorts of patients were recruited for interventional studies in the last few years which improved our understanding of trial methodology in APDs immensely. In addition, remarkable progress in basic research has been reported recently and will provide a solid foundation for future therapeutic trials. In this review, we will summarize published randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in APDs. Additionally, the design of ongoing and unpublished interventions will be presented.

  16. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  17. Effects of rearing conditions on behaviour and endogenous opioids in rats with alcohol access during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palm, Sara; Daoura, Loudin; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  18. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  19. Behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on fertility in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper analyses the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on birth intervals in Kenya. Analysing the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on fertility independent of its biological effects has been considered a difficult task. In this paper, a procedure for analysing these effects separately is developed and applied to the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The results of the analysis suggests that women in Kenya adopt various strategies such as curtailing the duration of breastfeeding, increasing frequency of coitus, and to a lesser extent use of contraception in order to replace infant or children who have died or to insure against those who are likely to die. These findings suggest the existence of behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on fertility in Kenya.

  20. Plasticity of spatial hearing: behavioural effects of cortical inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Nodal, Fernando R; Bajo, Victoria M; King, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of auditory cortex to spatial information processing was explored behaviourally in adult ferrets by reversibly deactivating different cortical areas by subdural placement of a polymer that released the GABAA agonist muscimol over a period of weeks. The spatial extent and time course of cortical inactivation were determined electrophysiologically. Muscimol-Elvax was placed bilaterally over the anterior (AEG), middle (MEG) or posterior ectosylvian gyrus (PEG), so that different regions of the auditory cortex could be deactivated in different cases. Sound localization accuracy in the horizontal plane was assessed by measuring both the initial head orienting and approach-to-target responses made by the animals. Head orienting behaviour was unaffected by silencing any region of the auditory cortex, whereas the accuracy of approach-to-target responses to brief sounds (40 ms noise bursts) was reduced by muscimol-Elvax but not by drug-free implants. Modest but significant localization impairments were observed after deactivating the MEG, AEG or PEG, although the largest deficits were produced in animals in which the MEG, where the primary auditory fields are located, was silenced. We also examined experience-induced spatial plasticity by reversibly plugging one ear. In control animals, localization accuracy for both approach-to-target and head orienting responses was initially impaired by monaural occlusion, but recovered with training over the next few days. Deactivating any part of the auditory cortex resulted in less complete recovery than in controls, with the largest deficits observed after silencing the higher-level cortical areas in the AEG and PEG. Although suggesting that each region of auditory cortex contributes to spatial learning, differences in the localization deficits and degree of adaptation between groups imply a regional specialization in the processing of spatial information across the auditory cortex. PMID:22547635

  1. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  2. Transpupillary thermotherapy for atypical central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ryosuke; Ideta, Hidenao; Hori, Hideyuki; Yuki, Kenya; Uno, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Tatsurou; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kawasaki, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Background Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been traditionally treated with laser photocoagulation. We thought that transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) utilizing a lower temperature than that of conventional laser photocoagulation might minimize permanent retinal and choroidal damage. Studies suggest that undesirable effects on vision due to TTT are minimal even if it is applied to foveal and/or parafoveal lesions when TTT requires a larger irradiation spot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TTT in the management of atypical CSC. Methods We defined atypical CSC as bullous retinal detachment with diffuse or several leakages, severe leakage with fibrin formation under serous retinal detachment, or leakage within a pigment epithelium detachment. Eight consecutive patients with atypical CSC underwent visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography to evaluate the results of transpupillary thermotherapy. Retreatment of atypical CSC was based on ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. TTT was performed on the leaking spots shown in fluorescein angiography, with a power of 50–250 mW, spot size of 500–1200 μm, and exposure time of 13–60 seconds to minimize retinal damage. Results In five of eight affected eyes, serous detachments completely resolved within 1 month after the initial TTT. One eye had persistent subretinal fluid and required a second TTT treatment. Two eyes showed no resolution of CSC and were treated by conventional photocoagulation. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/600 to 20/20 (mean, 20/40; median, 20/30). Final BCVA ranged from 20/200 to 20/20 (mean, 20/25; median, 20/20). BCVA improved in all cases. Only two eyes with persistent subretinal fibrin and existing retinal pigment epithelial alternations in macular area showed limited improvement of BCVA despite the absence of

  3. The Effect of Azaperone on the Agonistic Behaviour of Boars: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Previously unacquainted adult boars are often penned together and transported over long distances. This study examined the effect of azaperone, a drug used to reduce fighting in young pigs, on the behaviour of adult boars in close confinement. Five groups of six adult boars were used. Three groups were treated with 4% azaperone at 1.5 mg/kg, the other two groups served as controls. Behaviour was monitored for 24 hours. Azaperone reduced the intensity and ferocity of fighting during the peak activity of the drug but it did not eliminate aggressive behaviour. There was an increase in threat behaviour and the number (but not the intensity) of fights greater than one minute in the treated animals. This drug could be used when transporting boars in close confinement for short periods (less than four hours) if the boars are detusked. PMID:17422677

  4. Atypical spatiotemporal signatures of working memory brain processes in autism.

    PubMed

    Urbain, C M; Pang, E W; Taylor, M J

    2015-08-11

    Working memory (WM) impairments may contribute to the profound behavioural manifestations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous behavioural results are discrepant as are the few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results collected in adults and adolescents with ASD. Here we investigate the precise temporal dynamics of WM-related brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 20 children with ASD and matched controls during an n-back WM task across different load levels (1-back vs 2-back). Although behavioural results were similar between ASD and typically developing (TD) children, the between-group comparison performed on functional brain activity showed atypical WM-related brain processes in children with ASD compared with TD children. These atypical responses were observed in the ASD group from 200 to 600 ms post stimulus in both the low- (1-back) and high- (2-back) memory load conditions. During the 1-back condition, children with ASD showed reduced WM-related activations in the right hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus compared with TD children who showed more activation in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the insulae. In the 2-back condition, children with ASD showed less activity in the left insula and midcingulate gyrus and more activity in the left precuneus than TD children. In addition, reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was correlated with symptom severity in children with ASD. Thus, this MEG study identified the precise timing and sources of atypical WM-related activity in frontal, temporal and parietal regions in children with ASD. The potential impacts of such atypicalities on social deficits of autism are discussed.

  5. Atypical spatiotemporal signatures of working memory brain processes in autism

    PubMed Central

    Urbain, C M; Pang, E W; Taylor, M J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments may contribute to the profound behavioural manifestations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous behavioural results are discrepant as are the few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results collected in adults and adolescents with ASD. Here we investigate the precise temporal dynamics of WM-related brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 20 children with ASD and matched controls during an n-back WM task across different load levels (1-back vs 2-back). Although behavioural results were similar between ASD and typically developing (TD) children, the between-group comparison performed on functional brain activity showed atypical WM-related brain processes in children with ASD compared with TD children. These atypical responses were observed in the ASD group from 200 to 600 ms post stimulus in both the low- (1-back) and high- (2-back) memory load conditions. During the 1-back condition, children with ASD showed reduced WM-related activations in the right hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus compared with TD children who showed more activation in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the insulae. In the 2-back condition, children with ASD showed less activity in the left insula and midcingulate gyrus and more activity in the left precuneus than TD children. In addition, reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was correlated with symptom severity in children with ASD. Thus, this MEG study identified the precise timing and sources of atypical WM-related activity in frontal, temporal and parietal regions in children with ASD. The potential impacts of such atypicalities on social deficits of autism are discussed. PMID:26261885

  6. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  7. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease. PMID:26708562

  8. Visualising future behaviour: Effects for snacking on biscuit bars, but no effects for snacking on fruit.

    PubMed

    Adams, Catherine; Rennie, Laura; Uskul, Ayse K; Appleton, Katherine M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, participants (N = 223) were randomised to visualise snacking on fruit, visualise snacking on biscuit bars or no visualisation, and intentions and attitudes towards fruit and biscuit bars, immediate selection of fruit or biscuit bars and subsequent consumption were measured. No effects of visualising snacking on fruit were found once background variables were taken into account. Visualising snacking on biscuit bars, however, resulted in greater intentions to consume biscuit bars (smallest β = 0.19, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that specifics of the visualised target behaviour may be important in visualisation. Further investigation is needed before recommending visualisation for increasing fruit consumption.

  9. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  10. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on behavioural responses of captive female hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Guy, Amanda J; Schuerch, Franziska S; Heffernan, Scott; Thomson, Peter C; O'Brien, Justine K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2008-11-01

    Female hormonal contraception is considered here as an alternative to vasectomy for population control in social groups of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). While female hormonal contraceptive methods have been successful, behavioural effects of such agents represent a potential welfare concern. This study examined the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 3.5mg/kg) on perineal tumescence and behaviour in three social groups (total of 3 males, 22 females) of captive hamadryas baboons. The agent had little effect on social interactions such as grooming relationships, aggression and affiliation (all P>0.05), but did cause a reduction in sexual behaviour (P<0.001). Females-mounting-females and females receiving mounting was decreased during MPA treatment compared with the minimal tumescence phase (P<0.001). Age strongly influenced the contraceptive's duration: there was a significant correlation between age and latency of return to oestrus post-MPA (r=0.832, P<0.001) with the latency increasing by 2.61 days per year of age on average. Age also influenced the frequency of behaviours such as affiliation and aggression (P<0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The absence of adverse behavioural effects further supports the use of MPA in the hamadryas baboon, and its potential use in other non-human primates.

  11. Effects of altered gravity on the swimming behaviour of fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, R.; Anken, R. H.; Sonntag, G.; Höhne, S.; Henneberg, J.; Kretschmer, N.; Rahmann, H.

    Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness-phenomena (SMS, a kinetosis). It has been argued that SMS during PAFs might not be based on microgravity alone but rather on changing accelerations from 0g to 2g. We test here the hypothesis that PAF-induced kinetosis is based on asymmetric statoliths (i.e., differently weighed statoliths on the right and the left side of the head), with asymmetric inputs to the brain being disclosed at microgravity. Since fish frequently reveal kinetotic behaviour during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses), we investigated (1) whether or not kinetotically swimming fish at microgravity would have a pronounced inner ear otolith asymmetry and (2) whether or not slow translational and continuously changing linear (vertical) acceleration on ground induced kinetosis. These latter accelerations were applied using a specially developed parabel-animal-container (PAC) to stimulate the cupular organs. The results suggest that the fish tested on ground can counter changing accelerations successfully without revealing kinetotic swimming patterns. Kinetosis could only be induced by PAFs. This finding suggests that it is indeed microgravity rather than changing accelerations, which induces kinetosis. Moreover, we demonstrate that fish swimming kinetotically during PAFs correlates with a higher otolith asymmetry in comparison to normally behaving animals in PAFs.

  12. Effects of two types of restraint stress on the spontaneous behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Trnecková, Lenka; Sída, Pavel; Hynie, Sixtus; Krejcí, Ivan; Hlinák, Zdenek; Klenerová, Vera

    2004-01-01

    Our previous findings suggested the existence of stressor-specific behavioural and cognitive responses in rats. In the present study, restraint stressor (immobilization, IMO) and restraint stressor combined with partial immersion of rats into water (IMO+C) were applied for 1 hour to Wistar male rats and their spontaneous behaviour was examined in the open field test. The classic behavioural parameters were recorded: crossing, rearing, and resting. When tested 1 and 4 hours after IMO+C, animals exhibited strong suppression of locomotor and exploratory activity (crossing and rearing); partial inhibition of both behavioural variables was found after IMO. Thus, substantial differences were observed in dependence on the length of period between the end of stressor application and the start of testing. In testing performed one week later, the locomotor and exploratory activity levels of both IMO and IMO+C animals corresponded to the control ones. These data suggest a differential behavioural response to both used stressors that may result from their different proportion of psychical and physical components. In conclusion, our results provide other data for the support of differential effects of two types of restraint stressors on spontaneous behaviour of animals exposed to a novel environment.

  13. Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems—impacts through behavioural alterations

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Tomas; Piovano, Susanna; Fick, Jerker; Klaminder, Jonatan; Heynen, Martina; Jonsson, Micael

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes. PMID:25405968

  14. Interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour: studying cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Conner, M; McMillan, B

    1999-06-01

    This study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate the factors underlying intentions and frequency of use of cannabis over a three-month period in a population of students (N = 249). In addition, several hypotheses in relation to the TPB were investigated. The TPB provided good predictions of both intentions (R2 = 0.653; attitude, injunctive norms and perceived behavioural control significant) and behaviour (R2 = 0.711; intentions significant). Other norm measures (descriptive and moral norms) explained additional variance in intentions (p < .01). In addition, habit strength and self-identity explained significant additional portions of the variance in intentions (p < .001), but not behaviour, over and above the TPB variables. Several interactions among these variables were also tested. Attitude moderated the impact of perceived behavioural control (PBC) on intentions (p < .001). Moral norms moderated the impact of attitudes on intentions (p < .001). Habit strength moderated the impact of self-identity on intentions (p < .001). PBC was found to moderate the impact of intentions on behaviour (p < .05). The findings are discussed in relation to how interaction effects further our understanding of the social processes by which variables are related in the TPB. PMID:10392450

  15. [Effects of a benzodiazepine derivative, MS4101, on emotional behaviour of untamed cats].

    PubMed

    Anezaki, K; Sakurada, S; Ando, R; Kisara, K; Nakahama, H

    1976-09-01

    Effects of MS4101 on emotional behaviour in untamed cats were studied and compared with those of diazepam. Offensive behaviour, i.e., whine response to a rod presented in front of the snout and blowing air on back hair was markedly observed, and whine, attacking and biting responses to tapping with a rod on the back in these cats were marked. Defensive behaviour, i.e., hissing, crouching body, ear flattening to blowing air on back hair, a rod presented and tapping was markedly observed. From 30 min after MS4101 and diazepam in doses of 2 approximately 4 mg/kg i.p., offensive behaviour in untamed cats was depressed. ID50 (50% of inhibition dose) of offensive behaviour for MS4101 and diazepam was 2.40 (1.95 approximately 2.95) mg/kg i.p. and 0.96 (0.69 approximately 1.34) mg/kg i.p., respectively. MS4101 and diazepam in doses of 2 approximately 4 mg/kg i.p. decreased the offensive behaviour. ID50 of defensive behaviour for MS4101 and diazepam was 3.00 (2.46 approximately 3.66) mg/kg i.p. and 1.45 (1.14 approximately 1.84) mg/kg i.p., respectively. Both MS4101 and diazepam exhibited muscle relaxant effects. Here, diazepam was more effective than MS4101. ED50 of muscle relaxant activity for MS4101 and diazepam was 4.30 (3.03 approximately 6.11) mg/kg i.p., 7.40 (5.04 approximately 10.66) mg/kg i.p., respectively. A single administration of MS4101 and of diazepam in doses 2 mg/kg i.p. enhanced food intake. PMID:13029

  16. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  17. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  18. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  19. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here.

  20. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O; Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1-9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation.

  1. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O; Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1-9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  2. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change.

  3. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26267501

  4. Reprint of: The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44 °C ± 0.4 °C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26615722

  5. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  6. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O.; Vinson, Gavin P.; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1–9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  7. Atypical SARS in Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Helen M.L.; Hui, K.P.; Lien, Christopher T.C.; Narendran, K.; Heng, B.H.; Ling, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an atypical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a geriatric patient with multiple coexisting conditions. Interpretation of radiographic changes was confounded by cardiac failure, with resolution of fever causing delayed diagnosis and a cluster of cases. SARS should be considered even if a contact history is unavailable, during an ongoing outbreak. PMID:15030694

  8. Effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kulkarni, K.; Gurao, N. P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al- Cu-Mg-Si alloy was investigated. Two different types of crystallographic textures were produced by changing the strain path during rolling. The deformed samples were subjected to a short recrystallization treatment and ageing to identify the effect of strain path change manifested in terms of crystallographic texture on precipitation behaviour. Preliminary characterization indicates that ageing kinetics as well as precipitate morphology vary depending upon the mode of rolling. The coherency strains associated with a coherent interface is relieved in a unlike manner for differently rolled samples.

  9. The effects of emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour on emergency staff nurses' workplace empowerment and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Young-Ritchie, Carol; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model exploring the relationships among emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour, workplace empowerment and commitment. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 300 emergency staff nurses working in Ontario. A path analysis supported the fully mediated hypothesized model (chi(2)=2.3, df=1, p > .05; CFI=.99, IFI=.99, RMSEA=.08). Perceived emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour had a strong direct effect on structural empowerment (beta=.54), which in turn had a strong direct effect on organizational commitment (beta=.61).

  10. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  11. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  12. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  13. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  14. The effect of behavioural states on cerebral oxygenation during endotracheal suctioning of preterm babies.

    PubMed

    Bernert, G; von Siebenthal, K; Seidl, R; Vanhole, C; Devlieger, H; Casaer, P

    1997-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to investigate the effect of behavioural states on changes of oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) and total haemoglobin (tHb), during endotracheal suctioning. In an open prospective design, NIRS measurements have been done during 20 suctioning episodes in 13 preterm neonates. Heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and carbon dioxide tension were monitored continuously. Behavioural state (BS) observations were made and documented as well. The statistical analysis showed that in patients who were active, with crying periods during suctioning (behavioural states 4-5), changes of oxygenated (p < 0.005) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (p < 0.05), as well as of arterial oxygen saturation (p < 0.05) and heart rate (p < 0.05) were significantly greater than in patients who were quiet with predominant behavioural state 1, 2 and 3. These results underline the influence of behavioural states on the physiological answers to endotracheal suctioning. NIRS proved to be a valuable tool to evaluate possible harmful effects of different suctioning techniques.

  15. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit complex biparental care, but offspring can survive without parental provisioning. By removing parents just prior to hatching, while holding the nutritional environment constant, we investigated the downstream consequences for offspring morphology and behaviour. Larvae that developed in the absence of their parents had relatively long and more slender wings than those that developed in their parents' presence. Flight mill tests revealed that flight performance was dependent on the presence of parents during development but not on wing shape. Our results demonstrate that parents have long-lasting effects on the behaviour of their offspring, by influencing the morphology and flight behaviour of their young even after they have matured into adults. PMID:26681810

  16. Effects of drugs that potentiate GABA on extinction of positively-reinforced operant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Julian C; Shaw, David; McCabe, Ciara; Reynolds, David S; Dawson, Gerard R

    2004-05-01

    Extinction following positively reinforced operant conditioning reduces response frequency, at least in part through the aversive or frustrative effects of non-reinforcement. According to J.A. Gray's theory, non-reinforcement activates the behavioural inhibition system which in turn causes anxiety. As predicted, anxiolytic drugs including benzodiazepines affect the operant extinction process. Recent studies have shown that reducing GABA-mediated neurotransmission retards extinction of aversive conditioning. We have shown in a series of studies that anxiolytic compounds that potentiate GABA facilitate extinction of positively reinforced fixed-ratio operant behaviour in C57B1/6 male mice. This effect does not occur in the early stages of extinction, nor is it dependent on cumulative effects of the compound administered. Potentiation of GABA at later stages has the effect of increasing sensitivity to the extinction contingency and facilitates the inhibition of the behaviour that is no longer required. The GABAergic hypnotic, zolpidem, has the same selective effects on operant extinction in this procedure. The effects of zolpidem are not due to sedative action. There is evidence across our series of experiments that different GABA-A subtype receptors are involved in extinction facilitation and anxiolysis. Consequently, this procedure may not be an appropriate model for anxiolytic drug action, but it may be a useful technique for analysing the neural bases of extinction and designing therapeutic interventions in humans where failure to extinguish inappropriate behaviours can lead to pathological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder.

  17. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  18. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  19. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and fruit consumption: exploring mediator and moderator effects in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Brug, Johannes; Van Lenthe, Frank J

    2009-11-01

    Integrating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the five-factor model (FFM) of personality may provide insight into the cognitive and motivational mechanisms linking personality with health behaviour, but this issue has received very little attention regarding fruit consumption. Mediator effects of TPB concepts in the personality-fruit consumption link, as well as moderator effects of personality in the intention-fruit consumption link, were therefore investigated in the present study. Data on fruit consumption, TPB concepts and FFM dimensions were gathered among 405 respondents in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediator and moderator effects. The direct effect of conscientiousness on fruit consumption was mediated by attitude and perceived behavioural control, while no direct effect of neuroticism on fruit consumption was found. Neuroticism moderated the intention-fruit consumption relationship with the weakest relationship for those scoring high on neuroticism. Conscientiousness did not moderate the intention-fruit consumption relationship. TPB variables are mediators in the conscientiousness-fruit consumption link. Whether fruit consumption is intentional may be dependent upon the personality dimension neuroticism. Personality dimensions may be a useful addition to the TPB and should be considered in health behaviour change interventions.

  20. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Antoine O. H. C.; Munday, Philip L.; Brown, Grant E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  1. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Munday, Philip L; Brown, Grant E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices.

  2. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Munday, Philip L; Brown, Grant E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  3. The effects of lithium chloride on spontaneous alternation behaviour in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, F N

    1980-01-01

    Spontaneous alternation behaviour of goldfish was observed in a two-unit T maze. Whilst significant degrees of alternation occurred under both lithium and sodium treatment, alternation under lithium was significantly lower than under sodium. In a second experiment it was shown that lithium increased the amount of random or erratic behaviour demonstrated by fish. The effects of lithium on spontaneous alternation were fully explained by a lithium-induced increase in randomness of activity, without recourse to any assumption that lithium affected memory traces.

  4. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing "leadership and…

  5. The Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, S.; Sohanpal, S. K.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Psychopharmacological intervention in the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) has become a common treatment strategy. This has become a cause for concern, given that the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain and most drugs are not licensed for this use. Methods: A comprehensive…

  6. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  7. The Effects of Using a Model-Reinforced Video on Information-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing a ten-minute model-reinforced video on careers information-seeking behaviour of 280 students in ten sections of a university careers course randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. The video portrayed an undergraduate student seeking careers counselling services and a counsellor using…

  8. Effectiveness of Immediate Verbal Feedback on Trainer Behaviour During Communication Training with Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vonderen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training sessions with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) was assessed. Trainers were six undergraduate university students majoring in psychology. The procedure consisted of interrupting the sequence of trials of training by the supervisor and then giving…

  9. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  10. The Effect of Light Intensity and Noise on the Classroom Behaviour of Pupils with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzinger, Bernhard; Jackson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the study reported in this article is the behavioural response of pupils with Asperger syndrome to light and sound intensity and the development of ways to help them to cope with such sensory stimuli. A number of practical ways of minimising the negative effects of various sensory stimuli are noted: (1) the establishment of "a place…

  11. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  12. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin JM; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07340.001 PMID:26393686

  13. Effects of Test Format, Self Concept and Anxiety on Item Response Changing Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, E. R. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the effects of item format, self-concept and anxiety on response changing behaviour. Four hundred undergraduate students who offered a counseling psychology course in a Nigerian university participated in the study. Students' answers in multiple--choice and true--false formats of an achievement test were observed for response…

  14. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  15. Effects of Variations in Toy Presentation on Social Behaviour of Infants and Toddlers in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Cilly; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of variations in presentation of play materials on social behaviour of 18- to 30-month-old children. The study group included 102 children attending infant and toddler classes in 14 public childcare centres in Israel. Play materials were presented to the children either in a suggestive manner…

  16. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  17. Behavioural effects of hashish in mice in comparison with other psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Sieber, B; Frischknecht, H R; Waser, P G

    1982-01-01

    1. The behavioural effects of hashish extract (10 mg delta 9-THC/kg) were compared to those of morphine (20 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg), imipramine (10/kg), amphetamine (10 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (10 mg/kg) by testing male mice in a resident-intruder situation. 2. The drugs were given either to the resident or to the intruder male. 3. Hashish extract similar to diazepam and chlorpromazine reduced social activities in resident and intruder males. 4. Intruder males treated with hashish or diazepam were more frequently attacked and submission and light was increased. 5. Amphetamine and morphine stimulated locomotion and non-social activities but impaired social behaviour especially in residents. 6. Imipramine increased aggressive behaviour in resident and intruder males.

  18. Habitat-former effects on prey behaviour increase predation and non-predation mortality.

    PubMed

    Gribben, Paul E; Wright, Jeffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Habitat-forming species can influence mortality on associated species via altering structural and non-structural abiotic conditions. Importantly, these effects can occur simultaneously and in opposite directions, although how they contribute to the net outcomes for predator-prey interactions remain unexplored. Seagrasses often have positive effects on associated fauna because their structure directly reduces predator encounter rates. However, we identified a 'risky' behaviour (shallower burial) in an infaunal bivalve at a high seagrass cover--likely induced by non-structural abiotic change--suggesting positive effects may be outweighed by risky behaviours. We determined whether the physical structure of the seagrass interacted with burial behaviour of clams to determine the predation and non-predation mortality and whether these interactions were mediated by the cover of the seagrass. Surveys on an intertidal sand flat in Tasmania, Australia showed that the highest densities of a dominant bivalve, Katelysia scalarina, occurred at low (33%) seagrass cover, but the lowest densities and the highest proportion of unburied clams occurred at high (100%) cover. A field experiment manipulating burial depth, seagrass cover and predator access demonstrated that unburied clams suffered very high predation and non-predation mortality compared to buried clams (~4x higher), which outweighed any positive effects of the seagrass structure in reducing predator access. Being unburied also had non-lethal consequences with surviving unburied clams having a reduced tissue biomass compared to buried clams. In this system, predation was driven by the availability of prey when they undertake a risky behaviour (shallow burial). However, significant changes in behaviour may only occur once a threshold of habitat-former density is reached. In this instance, changes in behaviour were likely due to seagrass effects on sediment redox potential, which decreased significantly above 33% seagrass

  19. Development and effectiveness of an integrated inpatient and community service for challenging behaviour in late life: From Confused and Disturbed Elderly to Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Katrina; Bird, Michael; Blair, Annaliese; MacPherson, Sarah

    2014-11-26

    A common method of managing challenging behaviour associated with dementia is long-stay special care units, though models are very diverse. In New South Wales, Australia, the five remaining state-run long-stay special care units for this population were funded to adopt a shorter-term model which had been trialled by one of the units. Transitional Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Service Units, incorporating an integrated outreach team, were to provide multi-disciplinary assessments, develop individualised bio-psychosocial management plans for, and appropriately discharge people with significant levels of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia. The current study assessed both the effects of the change and the clinical effectiveness of the model.

  20. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  1. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  2. Effects of Nonintellective Student Behaviour Upon Essay Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heapy, Nelson

    Two experiments were undertaken to study the effects of nonintellective behavior upon essay grades. In the first experiment teachers were exposed to information depicting a stimulus boy as either aggressive or non-aggressive. Following this information subject marked either a creative or noncreative essay. The subjects consisted of eight teachers…

  3. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  4. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  5. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  6. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  7. Novel antipsychotics: issues and controversies. Typicality of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E

    2000-01-01

    The typicality of atypical antipsychotic drugs remains debatable. Preclinical studies and findings from randomized, controlled and open trials of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone and a substituted benzamide were examined. A MEDLINE search was conducted using key words, including "extrapyramidal side effects," "cognition," "schizophrenia" and the generic drug names. Over 140 articles from peer-reviewed journals were reviewed, some of which were based on a meta-analysis. New-generation neuroleptic agents were found to have greater efficacy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and to cause fewer unwanted extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) than the traditional antipsychotic drugs. On one hand, atypical neuroleptic agents could be strictly defined as any neuroleptic agent with antipsychotic effects at a dosage that does not cause extrapyramidal side effects. Thus, clozapine is regarded as the "standard" atypical antipsychotic drug. On the other hand, typicality is about dimension rather than category, and we suggest the use of the term "spectrum of atypicality." For example, an emphasis is placed on quetiapine to illustrate where a new compound fits in this spectrum. Although dose-related, atypicality may be more a question of prescription attitude than of a specific characteristic of a compound. The degree to which a new compound is clinically superior to another atypical antipsychotic drug, in terms of improving positive, negative or affective symptoms, cognitive function and long-term outcome, will require further a priori hypotheses based on conceptual frameworks that are clinically meaningful. In addition, the results from industry-sponsored trials should be more comparable to those obtained from investigator-leading trials. Finally, the patient characteristics that define a patient's response to a specific antipsychotic drug are unknown. PMID:10740987

  8. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Family-Centred Positive Behaviour Support of Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…

  9. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  10. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included studies will describe study design

  11. U.S. tobacco taxes: behavioural effects and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lewit, E M

    1989-10-01

    This paper examines U.S. tobacco taxation, the effect of cigarette taxes on smoking and on the health effects of smoking, and equity and efficiency considerations that arise when cigarette excise taxes are used to reduce smoking. Cigarette excise taxes, imposed by the Federal Government, all State governments, and nearly 400 cities and counties, add approximately 34 cents per pack to the price of cigarettes. Real cigarette excise tax rates have fallen because tax increases have not kept pace with inflation. Increases in the price of cigarettes decrease smoking, particularly by adolescents. An estimated 100,000 additional persons may live to the age of 65 as a result of doubling the Federal cigarette tax in 1983. Because cigarette taxes are regressive and are borne primarily by smokers, inequities may arise when they are used to reduce smoking. Success in achieving a tobacco-free society will require that tobacco taxes be replaced with alternative sources of revenue. PMID:2819277

  12. The effects of different modes of supervision on vigilance behaviour.

    PubMed

    Putz, V R

    1975-05-01

    Experiment I was run to determine if a closed-circuit television and a one-way window mode of supervision were as effective as the direct physical presence of an experimenter in inducing enhanced levels of signal detection in a Mackworth-type vigilance task. A control condition of complete subject privacy was also examined. The results indicated that both the television and the window conditions had a positive effect on overall performance which was similar to that observed in the experimenter-presence condition; however, the performance decrement over the 90 min vigil was equivalent for the four modes. A second experiment involving the variable of camera position with an addition of a fourth 30 min. period yielded no significant differences between the camera positions, but overall performance in the television condition was again better than in the control condition. This study suggested that performance can be enhanced even without the physical presence of the experimenter. PMID:1156737

  13. U.S. tobacco taxes: behavioural effects and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lewit, E M

    1989-10-01

    This paper examines U.S. tobacco taxation, the effect of cigarette taxes on smoking and on the health effects of smoking, and equity and efficiency considerations that arise when cigarette excise taxes are used to reduce smoking. Cigarette excise taxes, imposed by the Federal Government, all State governments, and nearly 400 cities and counties, add approximately 34 cents per pack to the price of cigarettes. Real cigarette excise tax rates have fallen because tax increases have not kept pace with inflation. Increases in the price of cigarettes decrease smoking, particularly by adolescents. An estimated 100,000 additional persons may live to the age of 65 as a result of doubling the Federal cigarette tax in 1983. Because cigarette taxes are regressive and are borne primarily by smokers, inequities may arise when they are used to reduce smoking. Success in achieving a tobacco-free society will require that tobacco taxes be replaced with alternative sources of revenue.

  14. Atypical neuroimaging in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Patell, Rushad; Dosi, Rupal; Joshi, Harshal K; Storz, Dennis

    2014-06-06

    Wilson's disease is a rare metabolic disease involving copper metabolism. Neuroimaging plays an important part in evaluation of patients with a neuropsychiatric presentation. We present a case of a 14-year-old girl with atypical confluent white matter disease and cystic degeneration on MRI, with a rapidly progressive course, who succumbed to complications despite treatment with trientine. Wilson's disease should be considered as a differential for leucoencephalopathy in young patients with progressive neurological disease for its early recognition and optimum outcome.

  15. Persistent effect of broody hens on behaviour of chickens.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yuji; Fujino, Saori; Kamimura, Eriko; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    We reported previously that behavioral development of chicks was promoted remarkably by the presence of a broody hen. Here we report that these effects at an early age persist after maturity. A total of 60 female chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: six pens with five chicks (brooded group) each were reared by a broody hen and six pens with five chicks (non-brooded group) each were provided with an infrared heating lamp. We evaluated the persistent effects of broody hens by measures of behavior, physical condition and production at 9, 16, 35 and 55 weeks of age. The numbers of threatening, aggressive pecking, fighting and severe feather pecking behaviors were higher in non-brooded than in brooded chickens (all P < 0.05). Egg production was lower in brooded than in non-brooded chickens (P < 0.05), while the number of brooding chickens was higher in the brooded than in the non-brooded group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of broody hens at an early stage of chicks' lives has a persistent effect on behavior. Although brooded chickens showed more brooding and lower egg production than non-brooded chickens, feather pecking and aggressive interaction were decreased in brooded hens.

  16. Screening of Infants at Eight Months for Atypical Development in Primary Health Care in Southern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivberg, Bengt; Lundqvist, Pia; Johanson, Ingmarie; Nordström, Berit; Persson, Bengt A.

    2016-01-01

    Screening studies of a population in primary health care are sparsely reported. The aim was to describe observed atypical behaviours that may be associated with autism spectrum conditions, in a population (n?=?4,329) of infants at eight months. Observations were performed by paediatric nurses. An observational instrument, named SEEK developed for…

  17. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L.; Jo, Kyoung H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the “zombie” centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  18. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

  19. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  20. Automation of the social interaction test by a video-tracking system: behavioural effects of repeated phencyclidine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1995-07-01

    The social interaction test is a valuable behavioural model for testing anxiolytic and neuroleptic drugs. The test quantifies the level of social behaviour between pairs of rats and it is usually based on manual analysis of behaviour. Advances in computer technology have made it possible to track the movements of pairs of rats in an arena, and the present paper describes the automation of the social interaction test by the commercial video-tracking programme, the EthoVision system. The ability of the automated system to correctly measure the social behaviour of rats is demonstrated by determining a dose-response relationship in the social interaction test for phencyclidine, a psychotomimetic drug that reduces social behaviour between pairs of rats. These data are subsequently analysed by the manual and automated data-acquisition methods and the results are compared. The study shows that the automated data-acquisition method best describes the behavioural effects of phencyclidine in the social interaction test by the locomotor activity of the rats, how much time the rats spend in different sections of the testing arena, and the level of social behaviour. Correlation analysis of the results from the manual and automated data-acquisition methods shows that the social behaviour measured by the automated system corresponds correctly to the social behaviour measured by the manual analysis. The present study has shown that the automated data-acquisition method can quantify locomotor activity, how rats use a testing arena and the level of social behaviour between rats in the social interaction test. The system cannot distinguish between social and aggressive behaviours, and therefore the rats should be tested in an unfamiliar arena to reduce territorial behaviour. Taking this limitation into consideration, the social interaction test can be automated by this computer-based video-tracking system and can be used as a routine test for quantifying the effects of drugs on the

  1. Self-limiting Atypical Antipsychotics-induced Edema: Clinical Cases and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Musa Usman; Abdullahi, Aminu Taura

    2016-01-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotics have been associated with peripheral edema. The exact cause is not known. We report two cases of olanzapine-induced edema and a brief review of atypical antipsychotic-induced edema, possible risk factors, etiology, and clinical features. The recommendation is given on different methods of managing this side effect. PMID:27335511

  2. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.

  3. Mechanical preparation of nanocrystalline biocompatible single-phase Mn-doped A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp): effect of Mn doping on microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lala, S; Ghosh, M; Das, P K; Kar, T; Pradhan, S K

    2015-12-14

    Nanocrystalline biocompatible single-phase Mn-doped A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying of a stoichiometric mixture of CaCO3, CaHPO4·2H2O and MnO powder for 10 h at room temperature under open air. The A-type carbonation in HAp (substitution of CO3(2-) for OH(-)) is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Microstructure characterization in terms of lattice imperfections and phase quantification of ball milled samples are made by analyzing XRD patterns employing the Rietveld structure refinement method. Rietveld analysis of XRD patterns recorded from Mn-doped HAp samples has been used to locate Mn(2+) cations in HAp. The Ca2 vacancy site is found to be more favorable for Mn substitution. Microstructure characterization by HRTEM corroborates the findings of the X-ray analysis where the presence of a significant amount of amorphous phase of HAp analogous to indigenous bone mineral is clearly found. MTT assay shows sufficiently high percentage cell viability confirming the cytocompatibility of the sample.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, ShanShan; Qian, LinMao; Yu, HaiYang

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel. PMID:26099692

  6. Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. An update.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Wright, J E

    1996-12-01

    Endogenous testosterone levels have been linked to aggressive behaviour in both animals and humans. Studies administering moderate doses of exogenous testosterone for contraceptive and clinical purposes reveal essentially no adverse effects on male sexual and aggressive behaviour. However, investigations and case reports of athletes, usually involving higher doses, demonstrate an association between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and affective and psychotic syndromes and psychological dependence. Efforts to study the psychological and behavioural effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids are complicated by a variety of methodological limitations. Only 3 prospective, blinded studies demonstrating aggression or adverse overt behaviour resulting from anabolic-androgenic steroid use have been reported. With estimates of over 1 million past or current users in the US, an extremely small percentage of individuals using anabolic-androgenic steroids appear to experience mental disturbances severe enough to result in clinical treatment and medical case reports. Even among those so affected, the roles of previous psychiatric history, genetic susceptibility to addictions or mental disorders, environmental and peer influences, and individual expectations remain unclear.

  7. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels.

  8. Challenging Behaviour: Principals' Experience of Stress and Perception of the Effects of Challenging Behaviour on Staff in Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…

  9. Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Zachary T; Falkenberg, Erin A; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate. PMID:24937660

  10. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care in England: differential effects by level of initial antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for propensity and covariates and was statistically explained by the reduced antisocial behaviour ratings in MTFC. These analyses support the use of MTFC for youth in public care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour.Trial Registry Name: ISRCTNRegistry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570Registry URL: www.isrctn.com.

  11. Lifespan Psychomotor Behaviour Profiles of Multigenerational Prenatal Stress and Artificial Food Dye Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Zachary T.; Falkenberg, Erin A.; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate. PMID:24937660

  12. Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Zachary T; Falkenberg, Erin A; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.

  13. Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei.

    PubMed

    Olsén, K Håkan; Ask, Katarina; Olsén, Hanna; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1 μg L(-1). In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15 μg L(-1). They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.

  14. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  15. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes.

  16. A meta-analysis of predation risk effects on pollinator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Antiqueira, Pablo A P; Koricheva, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting animals are constantly under predation risk when foraging and hence might be expected to evolve behavioural adaptations to avoid predators. We reviewed the available published and unpublished data to assess the overall effects of predators on pollinator behaviour and to examine sources of variation in these effects. The results of our meta-analysis showed that predation risk significantly decreased flower visitation rates (by 36%) and time spent on flowers (by 51%) by pollinators. The strength of the predator effects depended neither on predator taxa and foraging mode (sit-and-wait or active hunters) nor on pollinator lifestyle (social vs. solitary). However, predator effects differed among pollinator taxa: predator presence reduced flower visitation rates and time spent on flowers by Squamata, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, but not by Diptera. Furthermore, larger pollinators showed weaker responses to predation risk, probably because they are more difficult to capture. Presence of live crab spiders on flowers had weaker effects on pollinator behaviour than presence of dead or artificial crab spiders or other objects (e.g. dead bees, spheres), suggesting that predator crypsis may be effective to some extent. These results add to a growing consensus on the importance of considering both predator and pollinator characteristics from a community perspective.

  17. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Predation Risk Effects on Pollinator Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gustavo Q.; Antiqueira, Pablo A. P.; Koricheva, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting animals are constantly under predation risk when foraging and hence might be expected to evolve behavioural adaptations to avoid predators. We reviewed the available published and unpublished data to assess the overall effects of predators on pollinator behaviour and to examine sources of variation in these effects. The results of our meta-analysis showed that predation risk significantly decreased flower visitation rates (by 36%) and time spent on flowers (by 51%) by pollinators. The strength of the predator effects depended neither on predator taxa and foraging mode (sit-and-wait or active hunters) nor on pollinator lifestyle (social vs. solitary). However, predator effects differed among pollinator taxa: predator presence reduced flower visitation rates and time spent on flowers by Squamata, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, but not by Diptera. Furthermore, larger pollinators showed weaker responses to predation risk, probably because they are more difficult to capture. Presence of live crab spiders on flowers had weaker effects on pollinator behaviour than presence of dead or artificial crab spiders or other objects (e.g. dead bees, spheres), suggesting that predator crypsis may be effective to some extent. These results add to a growing consensus on the importance of considering both predator and pollinator characteristics from a community perspective. PMID:21695187

  19. Effects of a Range-Expanding Sea Urchin on Behaviour of Commercially Fished Abalone

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Johnson, Craig R.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. Conclusions/Significance The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour. PMID:24073195

  20. Tonguing Behaviours in Persons with Down Syndrome: Moderator of the Effects of Negative Mood on Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Karen Caplovitz; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is concern that tongue protrusion may be maladaptive in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). However, tonguing and other self-manipulatory behaviours have been shown to contribute to emotion regulation in children without disabilities. Method: Sixty individuals with intellectual disability (40 with DS, 20 of mixed aetiology) and…

  1. Staff Attributions about the Causes of Challenging Behaviours: Effects of Longitudinal Training in Multi-Element Behaviour Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian M.; McClean, Brian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-four staff providing services to people with intellectual disabilities completed the Challenging Behaviour Attribution Scale with respect to a specific client before, during, and after completing a course in assessment and intervention for challenging behavior. Significantly more staff attributed challenging behavior to negative…

  2. Immediate effectiveness of single-session therapeutic interventions in pusher behaviour.

    PubMed

    Krewer, Carmen; Rieß, Katrin; Bergmann, Jeannine; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus; Koenig, Eberhard

    2013-02-01

    Some stroke patients with hemiparesis exhibit a so-called pusher behaviour, i.e., they actively push away from the unaffected side and lean towards the hemiparetic side. This impairs their postural balance to such a degree that they are often unable to sit or stand. Pusher behaviour thus substantially hampers the rehabilitation of these patients. So far only a few case studies on treatment strategies have been performed. This study investigated the immediate after-effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), machine-supported gait training with the Lokomat, and physiotherapy with visual feedback components (PT-vf). Fifteen pusher and 10 non-pusher patients participated in an observer-blinded cross-over pilot study. Patients were measured on the scale for contraversive pushing (SCP) and on the Burke lateropulsion scale (BLS) immediately before and after a single-session of the specific intervention. Compared to PT-vf, Lokomat therapy had a significant effect on the BLS of pusher patients but no significant effect on the SCP values. GVS had no significant effect on these values on either scale. BLS is more useful than SCP to detect small changes for clinical trials and routine treatment. Forced control of the upright position during locomotion seems to be an effective method for immediately reducing the pushing behaviour of stroke patients, probably because it recalibrates a biased sense of verticality, via the somatic graviception. This finding, however, does not allow prediction of its long-term effects. Furthermore, it would be interesting to evaluate repetitive, multi-session DGO therapy and the amount of therapy needed to effectively reduce the pusher behaviour.

  3. Interesting Asian Plants: Their Compounds and Effects on Electrophysiology and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-01-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  4. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  5. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate.

  6. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  7. Predator-Specific Effects on Incubation Behaviour and Offspring Growth in Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research. PMID:25830223

  8. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  9. Sex differences and serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of psilocin.

    PubMed

    Tylš, Filip; Páleníček, Tomáš; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Lipski, Michaela; Kubešová, Anna; Horáček, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle. The contribution of serotonin receptors in the behavioural action was tested in male rats with selective serotonin receptor antagonists: 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY100635 1 mg/kg), 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100907 0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB215505 1 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084 1 mg/kg). Psilocin induced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotion and suppression of normal behaviour in rats (behavioural serotonin syndrome, impaired PPI). The effects were more pronounced in male rats than in females. The inhibition of locomotion was normalized by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B/C antagonists; however, PPI was not affected significantly by these antagonists. Our findings highlight an important issue of sex-specific reactions to psilocin and that apart from 5-HT2A-mediated effects 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C/B receptors also play an important role. These findings have implications for recent clinical trials. PMID:26461483

  10. Effect of intracerebroventricular injection of TiO2 nanoparticles on complex behaviour in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-M; Palmer, P; Howard, V; Elsaesser, A; Taylor, A; Staats, G; O'Hare, E

    2013-12-01

    There are no data available on the behavioural effects of centrally administered nanoparticles in freely moving intact mammals. Consequently, in the current study male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond under an alternating-lever cyclic-ratio (ALCR) schedule of food reinforcement. Under this schedule, ascending and descending sequences of fixed-ratio (FR) lever press requirements for food reinforcement were presented over six cycles, with each discrete FR component completed on the alternate lever to the previous component. The final version of the schedule was comprised of an ascending followed by a descending sequence of the ratio values 2, 6, 12, 20, 30, 42 and 56, repeated over six cycles. When the rats were able to complete this version of the ALCR schedule in 40 min, each was implanted with a permanently indwelling ICV cannula aimed at the lateral ventricle of the brain, and allowed to recover for 7 days. On the first day of the experiment, all rats were injected with either titanium dioxide (TiO2, 9 nm, stabilised with gallic acid, 10 microl volume, 2 mg/ml) nanoparticles, or 10 microl saline (control). Two-hours after the ICV injections, the behaviour of all rats was measured using the ALCR schedule, and their behaviour was also measured (no ICV injection) for the next 7 days. Under the ALCR schedule, the number of lever-switching errors and incorrect lever perseverations significantly increased in the TiO2 group (p < 0.05). Other parameters of the ALCR schedule (RRRs and PRPs), which indicate the induction of malaise or general motor retardation, were not altered following ICV TiO2 injection. The findings of the current study indicate that central administration of TiO2 nanoparticles induced behavioural deterioration in freely moving intact animals, that the induced behavioural deterioration was a result of central rather than peripheral outcomes, and that this effect was chronic rather than acute.

  11. Assessing behavioural effects of chronic HPA axis activation using conditional CRH-overexpressing mice.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Nina; Touma, Chadi; Romanowski, Cristoph P; Schieven, Marcel; Kühne, Claudia; Ableitner, Martin; Lu, Ailing; Holsboer, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kimura, Mayumi; Deussing, Jan M

    2012-07-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its cognate receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Hypersecretion of central CRH and elevated glucocorticoid levels, as a consequence of impaired feedback control, have been shown to accompany mood and anxiety disorders. However, a clear discrimination of direct effects of centrally hypersecreted CRH from those resulting from HPA axis activation has been difficult. Applying a conditional strategy, we have generated two conditional CRH-overexpressing mouse lines: CRH-COE ( Del ) mice overexpress CRH throughout the body, while CRH-COE ( APit ) mice selectively overexpress CRH in the anterior and intermediate lobe of the pituitary. Both mouse lines show increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and consequently develop signs of Cushing's syndrome. However, while mice ubiquitously overexpressing CRH exhibited increased anxiety-related behaviour, overexpression of CRH in the pituitary did not produce alterations in emotional behaviour. These results suggest that chronic hypercorticosteroidism alone is not sufficient to alter anxiety-related behaviour but rather that central CRH hyperdrive on its own or in combination with elevated glucocorticoids is responsible for the increase in anxiety-related behaviour. In conclusion, the generated mouse lines represent valuable animal models to study the consequences of chronic CRH overproduction and HPA axis activation.

  12. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  13. Effects of sponge bathing on vagal tone and behavioural responses in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Kyung

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sponge bathing on physiological (vagal tone, heart rate, heart period, oxygen saturation) and behavioural responses in newly born premature infants in the intensive care unit of a university hospital in South Korea. A convenience sample was taken of 40 infants who were between 27 and 36 weeks gestational age at birth and free of congenital defects. The infants' physiological parameters were recorded 10 min before, during and after bathing. To determine behavioural status, tools were modified from the instruments used in a previous study by Scafidi et al. (1990). Analysis of the results showed that the premature infants reacted to sponge bathing with decreases in vagal tone and heart period and increases in heart rate. Oxygen saturation did not demonstrate any remarkable alteration during bathing. Also, there were no significant differences in behavioural signs, motor activity and behavioural distress. Results of this study indicated that nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit should decide according to a premature infant's physiological state whether or not to give a sponge bath. PMID:12100647

  14. Effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on childhood malnutrition in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Sunil, T S

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on childhood malnutrition in Yemen. The three anthropometric indicators such as height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age are used to examine the nutritional status of children aged less 5 years in Yemen. The independent variables include background characteristics, behavioural risk factors and illness characteristics. Data for the study come the most recent Yemen Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative sample, conducted in Yemen in 1997. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate the odds of being malnourished. The three anthropometric indicators show high to very high levels of child malnutrition in Yemen. The prevalence of stunting and underweight is so widespread that almost every other child under the age of 5 is either stunted or underweight. Social, economic and behavioural factors show very significant association with childhood malnutrition. The study results indicate the importance of social and behavioural factors in describing childhood malnutrition in Yemen. The study results will help develop nutritional and health promotion policies in order to improve childhood malnutrition in this country.

  15. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.

  16. Warming increases chlorpyrifos effects on predator but not anti-predator behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; Stoks, Robby

    2014-07-01

    Recent insights indicate that negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biota occur at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. We here address two, potentially interacting, mechanisms that may contribute to the underestimation of the impact of sublethal pesticide effects in single species tests at room temperature: the impairment of predator and antipredator behaviours and the stronger impact of organophosphate pesticides at higher temperatures. To address these issues we assessed the effects of chlorpyrifos on the predator and antipredator behaviours of larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans, important intermediate predators in aquatic food webs, in a common-garden warming experiment with replicated low- and high-latitude populations along the latitudinal gradient of this species in Europe. Chlorpyrifos reduced the levels of predator behavioural endpoints, and this reduction was stronger at the higher temperature for head orientations and feeding strikes. Chlorpyrifos also impaired two key antipredator behavioural endpoints, activity reductions in response to predator cues were smaller in the presence of chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos caused a lower escape swimming speed; these effects were independent of temperature. This suggests chlorpyrifos may impact food web interactions by changing predator-prey interactions both with higher (predators) and lower trophic levels (food). Given that only the interaction with the lower trophic level was more impaired at higher temperatures, the overall pesticide-induced changes in food web dynamics may be strongly temperature-dependent. These findings were consistent in damselflies from low- and high-latitude populations, illustrating that thermal adaptation will not mitigate the increased toxicity of pesticides at higher temperatures. Our study not only underscores the relevance of including temperature and prey-predator interactions in ecological risk assessment but also their potential

  17. Warming increases chlorpyrifos effects on predator but not anti-predator behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; Stoks, Robby

    2014-07-01

    Recent insights indicate that negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biota occur at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. We here address two, potentially interacting, mechanisms that may contribute to the underestimation of the impact of sublethal pesticide effects in single species tests at room temperature: the impairment of predator and antipredator behaviours and the stronger impact of organophosphate pesticides at higher temperatures. To address these issues we assessed the effects of chlorpyrifos on the predator and antipredator behaviours of larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans, important intermediate predators in aquatic food webs, in a common-garden warming experiment with replicated low- and high-latitude populations along the latitudinal gradient of this species in Europe. Chlorpyrifos reduced the levels of predator behavioural endpoints, and this reduction was stronger at the higher temperature for head orientations and feeding strikes. Chlorpyrifos also impaired two key antipredator behavioural endpoints, activity reductions in response to predator cues were smaller in the presence of chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos caused a lower escape swimming speed; these effects were independent of temperature. This suggests chlorpyrifos may impact food web interactions by changing predator-prey interactions both with higher (predators) and lower trophic levels (food). Given that only the interaction with the lower trophic level was more impaired at higher temperatures, the overall pesticide-induced changes in food web dynamics may be strongly temperature-dependent. These findings were consistent in damselflies from low- and high-latitude populations, illustrating that thermal adaptation will not mitigate the increased toxicity of pesticides at higher temperatures. Our study not only underscores the relevance of including temperature and prey-predator interactions in ecological risk assessment but also their potential

  18. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  19. Passive interventions in primary healthcare waiting rooms are effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cass, Sarah J; Ball, Lauren E; Leveritt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Primary healthcare waiting rooms have the potential to provide health-promoting environments to support healthy lifestyle behaviours such as smoking cessation, weight management and safe contraception. Passive interventions are cost-effective and continually available within an environment or setting, allowing individuals to interact, engage and learn about topics. The aim of this study was to undertake an integrative review to investigate the effectiveness of passive health-related waiting room interventions in improving healthy lifestyle behaviours, as well as precursors to behaviour change. The integrative review encompassed five phases: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis and presentation of results. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies were included. Of the 9205 studies originally identified, 33 publications were included and grouped under four areas: knowledge about a health condition or behaviour, attitudes and intentions towards a health condition or behaviour, healthcare use and interactions, and health-related behaviours. Overall, the passive interventions had a general positive influence on knowledge, intentions, healthcare use and behaviours. Variable outcomes were reported regarding attitude towards a health topic. Few studies were assessed as both high quality and the highest suitability to assess effectiveness of interventions. Consideration of the clinical significance of improvements is warranted before implementation of future interventions. Overall, passive waiting room interventions appear to be effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours. PMID:27117952

  20. An Observational Study for Evaluating the Effects of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training on Behavioural Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya

    2010-01-01

    The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…

  1. Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

  2. Effects of Training on Controllability Attributions of Behavioural Excesses and Deficits Shown by Adults with Down Syndrome and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsy, Sunny; Heath, Rebecca; Adams, Dawn; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background: Whereas there is a knowledge base on staff attributions of challenging behaviour, there has been little research on the effects of training, type of behaviour and biological context on staff attributions of controllability in the context of people with intellectual disabilities and dementia. Methods: A mixed design was used to…

  3. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  4. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  5. Effects of a Short Teacher Training Programme on the Management of Children's Sexual Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnaud, Jean-Paul; Turner, William

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale quasi-experimental study set out to examine the effects of a brief training programme aiming to develop primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and confidence in recognising and responding to children who display sexual behaviours. Data on prevalence of sexual behaviours observed by teachers in the study, their level of…

  6. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  7. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour. PMID:23179012

  8. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.

  9. Top-down Control of Stream Food Webs: Indirect Effects by Changed Behaviour and Species Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, C.; Petzoldt, T.; Koop, J. H.; Benndorf, J.

    2005-05-01

    Predators may directly control stream food webs by consuming invertebrates. But sub lethal effects on prey such as change of activity rhythm or feeding behaviour may lead to indirect effects of predation on other species. Thus, predators may strongly effect invertebrate community structure. The aim of a currently running paired ecosystem experiment is to detect changes of species interaction induced by benthivorous gudgeon (Gobio gobio). For this purpose we link the measurement of physiological fitness parameters to the observation of behavioural changes. Preliminary studies indicated a top-down control of the drift activity of Baetis larvae, while a bottom-up effect could not be observed. The presence of benthivorous gudgeon led to a significantly changed species composition of the invertebrate drift and reduced drift activity of Baetis larvae compared to the fish free control. The diurnal drift pattern of Baetis larvae with a nocturnal peak was observed both in the control and fish reaches. Thus benthivorous gudgeon controls the drift behaviour in a similar way as known for drift-feeding trout. The content of triglycerides and glycogen did not differ between the drifting and not-drifting individuals. Therefore their energetic status does not seem to control drift the activity of Baetis larvae.

  10. In vitro activity of roxithromycin against 16 species of atypical mycobacteria and effect of pH on its radiometric MICs.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, N; Goh, K S; Bryskier, A

    1993-07-01

    The antimycobacterial spectrum of roxithromycin, a semisynthetic 14-membered ring macrolide, was determined against 28 strains belonging to 16 species of atypical mycobacteria by measuring radiometric MICs by BACTEC methodology at two different pH values, i.e., 6.8 and 7.4. The MICs obtained at pH 7.4 were 1 to 2 dilutions lower or more than those obtained at pH 6.8 for some of the species. Roxithromycin possessed promising MICs against such potential pathogens as the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. malmoense, M. xenopi, M. marinum, M. kansasii, and rare pathogens like M. chelonei subsp. chelonei and M. chelonei subsp. abscessus but not against M. simiae. Roxithromycin showed lower MICs against M. fortuitum var. peregrinum than M. fortuitum var. fortuitum. PMID:8363393

  11. [Effect of alcohol in combination with stress in the prenatal period on adult mice behaviour].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M V; Popova, N K

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress on behaviour of adult CBA/LacJ male mice. Pregnant mice were given ethanol 11% from to 21 days of the gestation and were exposed to restraint stress for two hours daily from 15 to 21 days gestation. At 3 months of age, the offspring were tested for behaviour. Alcohol and stress-exposed animals buried more marbles in the marble-burying test, which models obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In addition, the alcohol and stress-exposed males showed increased social activity. No significant effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress exposure on locomotor activity, anxiety, exploring activity of the adult male mice were revealed. Conclusion was made that exposure to the alcohol and stress combination in prenatal period produces predisposition to OCD.

  12. An Atypical Articulatory Setting as Learned Behaviour: A Videofluorographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, M.; Manuel, R.; Muller, N.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the case of a child with severely unintelligible speech, referred to our clinic after unsuccessful therapy elsewhere. Thomas's speech was characterized by deapicalization and velodorsal articulations, together with hypernasality. Unusually, Thomas was also able to produce a small number of items normally. His speech was investigated by…

  13. Behavioural and physiological effects of finely balanced decision-making in chickens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anna C; Nicol, Christine J; Persson, Mia E; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  14. Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Finely Balanced Decision-Making in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Persson, Mia E.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  15. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  16. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  17. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  18. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding.

  19. Spatial learning in pigs: effects of environmental enrichment and individual characteristics on behaviour and performance.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jarno; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Schouten, Willem G P; Spruijt, Berry M; Wiegant, Victor M

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of both environmental enrichment and individual behavioural characteristics on spatial cognitive capabilities of pigs, using a novel latent spatial learning paradigm based on Tolman's detour experiments (1948). Pigs were housed either in 'barren' pens or in pens enriched with straw bedding from birth. Pigs were restrained in a Backtest at 10 and 17 days postpartum. Based on their escape behaviour in this test, which has been shown to reflect their behavioural style, six 'high-resisting'(HR) and six 'low-resisting' (LR) pigs were selected from each housing environment (n = 24 in total). At 12 weeks of age, pairs of pen mates (LR and HR) were exposed to a maze three times (exploration trials). Pigs were then placed individually in the maze, and social reinstatement proved to be a strong incentive to find the exit leading to the home pen. We subsequently blocked the direct route to the exit, forcing animals to find a detour (memory test 1, MT1). This test was repeated once to investigate the relative improvement, i.e. detour learning (memory test 2, MT2). Housing condition and Backtest response strongly affected exploration patterns. In spite of this, no effects on performance during the subsequent memory tests were found. Performance was substantially improved in MT2, indicating that once a goal is apparent, pigs are able to solve a complex spatial memory task easily. In conclusion, social reinstatement provided a good incentive to complete a spatial task, and the substantial improvement in performance between MT1 and MT2 stresses the need for task complexity when testing spatial memory in pigs. Housing conditions or individual behavioural style did not affect spatial memory during MT1 or MT2. However, housing environment and behavioural style strongly affected explorative behaviour of pigs in an unfamiliar maze during both exploration trials and memory tests. This implicates that apparent effects of environmental enrichment on

  20. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  1. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  2. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  3. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    PubMed

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  4. Effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetitive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Lucila T; Vázquez, Diego E; Arenas, Andrés; Farina, Walter M

    2014-10-01

    Glyphosate (GLY) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for weed control. The sub-lethal impact of GLY on non-target organisms such as insect pollinators has not yet been evaluated. Apis mellifera is the main pollinator in agricultural environments and is a well-known model for behavioural research. Honeybees are also accurate biosensors of environmental pollutants and their appetitive behavioural response is a suitable tool with which to test sub-lethal effects of agrochemicals. We studied the effects of field-realistic doses of GLY on honeybees exposed chronically or acutely to the herbicide. We focused on sucrose sensitivity, elemental and non-elemental associative olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER), and foraging-related behaviour. We found a reduced sensitivity to sucrose and learning performance for the groups chronically exposed to GLY concentrations within the range of recommended doses. When olfactory PER conditioning was performed with sucrose reward with the same GLY concentrations (acute exposure), elemental learning and short-term memory retention decreased significantly compared with controls. Non-elemental associative learning was also impaired by an acute exposure to GLY traces. Altogether, these results imply that GLY at concentrations found in agro-ecosystems as a result of standard spraying can reduce sensitivity to nectar reward and impair associative learning in honeybees. However, no effect on foraging-related behaviour was found. Therefore, we speculate that successful forager bees could become a source of constant inflow of nectar with GLY traces that could then be distributed among nestmates, stored in the hive and have long-term negative consequences on colony performance.

  5. [Atypical case of bronchial carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Andrzejak, R; Mydłowski, R; Krajewski, E; Orłowski, T; Bochnia, M

    1997-01-01

    This article illustrates problems in diagnosis and treatment of an atypical form of bronchial carcinoid. We described the case of a 49-year old man, exposed to granite dust and noise for 25 years who had suffered from frequent bronchitis inflammations and pneumonias for 5 years prior to the diagnosis. He was admitted to our clinic because of supposed occupational nature of hearing deficiency. Although a pneumoconiosis was excluded before the admission, we found clinical and X-ray features of the right lung emphysema with medium restrictive ventilation disturbances. Bronchoscopy was performed because of "bright" right lung and ventilation disturbances and it showed presence of the carcinoid. Unusual in this case were tiny anamnestical findings (mild dyspnea attacks after physical effort or nervousness) plus increasing frequency of reported from the childhood bronchitis and pneumonias and uncharacteristic "bright" right lung in X-ray. Therapeutical difficulties resulted from atypical histological form of the tumor, its diameter, polypous-infiltrative character, and inconvenient localization. In spite of late diagnosis of carcinoid and significant acceleration of respiratory decompensation symptoms after the diagnosis the attempt of surgical therapy was appropriate but unsuccessful. After the operation the patient was suffering long lasting lowering of arterial pressure (what was corrected with catecholamine infusions) probably as a result of serotonin secretion. However it was not established because of technical reasons.

  6. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  7. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behaviour and electrophysiology of language production.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced effects of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left DPFC using electrophysiological and behavioural correlates during overt picture naming. Online effects were examined during A-tDCS by employing the semantic interference (SI-)Effect - a marker that denotes the functional integrity of the language system. The behavioural SI-Effect was found to be reduced, whereas the electrophysiological SI-Effect was enhanced over left compared to right temporal scalp-electrode sites. This modulation is suggested to reflect a superior tuning of neural responses within language-related generators. After -(offline) effects of A-tDCS were detected in the delta frequency band, a marker of neural inhibition. After A-tDCS there was a reduction in delta activity during picture naming and the resting state, interpreted to indicate neural disinhibition. Together, these findings demonstrate electrophysiological modulations induced by A-tDCS of the left DPFC. They suggest that A-tDCS is capable of enhancing neural processes during and after application. The present functional and oscillatory neural markers could detect positive effects of prefrontal A-tDCS, which could be of use in the neuro-rehabilitation of frontal language functions.

  8. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats’ performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects’ performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  9. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-21

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans.

  10. Effects of size and surface on the auxetic behaviour of monolayer graphene kirigami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kun; Luo, Jing; Ling, Yiru; Wan, Jing; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Graphene is an active element used in the design of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) owing to its excellent in-plane physical properties on mechanical, electric and thermal aspects. Considering a component requiring negative Poisson’s ratio in NEMS, a graphene kirigami (GK) containing periodic re-entrant honeycombs is a natural option. This study demonstrates that a GK with specific auxetic property can be obtained by adjusting the sizes of its honeycombs. Using molecular dynamics experiments, the size effects on the auxetic behaviour of GK are investigated. In some cases, the auxetic difference between the hydrogenated GK and continuum kirigami (CK) is negligible, in which the results from macro CK can be used to predict auxetic behaviour of nano kirigami. Surface effect of GK is demonstrated from two aspects. One is to identify the difference of mechanical responses between the pure carbon GK and the hydrogenated GK at same geometry and loading condition. Another is from the difference of mechanical responses between the GK model and the CK model under same loading condition and geometric configuration. Generally, surface energy makes the GK possess higher variation of auxetic behaviour. It also results in higher modulus for the GK as comparing with that of the CK.

  11. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  12. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  13. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance.

  14. The effects of smoking on whisker movements: A quantitative measure of exploratory behaviour in rodents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robyn A; Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen; Heulens, Nele; Galli, Gina L J; Janssens, Wim; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Degens, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke, is a neurotransmitter that contributes to stress, depression and anxiety in smokers. In rodents, it increases anxiety and reduces exploratory behaviours. However, so far, the measurements of exploratory behaviour in rodents have only been semi-quantitative and lacking in sufficient detail to characterise the temporal effect of smoking cessation. As rodents, such as mice and rats, primarily use whiskers to explore their environment, we studied the effect of 3 months smoking with 1 and 2 weeks smoking cessation on whisker movements in mice, using high-speed video camera footage and image analysis. Both protraction and retraction whisker velocities were increased in smoking mice (p<0.001) and returned to normal following just one week of smoking cessation. In addition, locomotion speeds were decreased in smoking mice, and returned to normal following smoking cessation. Lung function was also impacted by smoking and remained impaired even following smoking cessation. We suggest that the increased whisker velocities in the smoking mice reflect reduced exploration and impeded tactile performance. The increase in whisker velocity with smoking, and its reduction following smoking cessation, also lends support to acetylcholine being involved in awareness, attention and alertness pathways. It also shows that smoking-induced behavioural changes can be reversed with smoking cessation, which may have implications for human smokers. PMID:27045697

  15. Intervention effects of a school-based health promotion programme on obesity related behavioural outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kobel, Susanne; Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme "Join the Healthy Boat" promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children's behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA), a decrease in screen media use (SMU), more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC) were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years) participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions. PMID:25328688

  16. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  17. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

  18. Effects of size and surface on the auxetic behaviour of monolayer graphene kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Kun; Luo, Jing; Ling, Yiru; Wan, Jing; Qin, Qing-hua

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is an active element used in the design of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) owing to its excellent in-plane physical properties on mechanical, electric and thermal aspects. Considering a component requiring negative Poisson’s ratio in NEMS, a graphene kirigami (GK) containing periodic re-entrant honeycombs is a natural option. This study demonstrates that a GK with specific auxetic property can be obtained by adjusting the sizes of its honeycombs. Using molecular dynamics experiments, the size effects on the auxetic behaviour of GK are investigated. In some cases, the auxetic difference between the hydrogenated GK and continuum kirigami (CK) is negligible, in which the results from macro CK can be used to predict auxetic behaviour of nano kirigami. Surface effect of GK is demonstrated from two aspects. One is to identify the difference of mechanical responses between the pure carbon GK and the hydrogenated GK at same geometry and loading condition. Another is from the difference of mechanical responses between the GK model and the CK model under same loading condition and geometric configuration. Generally, surface energy makes the GK possess higher variation of auxetic behaviour. It also results in higher modulus for the GK as comparing with that of the CK. PMID:27731401

  19. Effects of Bryonia laciniosa seeds on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N S; Dixit, V K

    2010-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of seeds of Bryonia laciniosa Linn was administered orally to groups of male albino rats at the dose levels of 50, 100, and 150 mg kg(-1) body weight per day for 28 days. The changes in sexual behaviour, reproductive organ weights, histology of testis and epididymis, epididymal sperm density, and androgenic hormone levels were evaluated. The sexual behaviour parameters studied such as mount frequency, intromission frequency, mount latency, intromission latency were significantly affected. Increase in body weight as well as weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicle, and epididymis was noticed. Transverse sections of testis exhibited increased spermatogenesis and a significant increase in sperm count in epididymis. The fructose content of seminal vesicle was also increased. The extract treatment also brought a significant increase in serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels. The studies clearly reflect androgenic activity of the extract and its effects on hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis.

  20. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  1. Cognitive and behavioural effects of chronic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, A; Albanese, A; Contarino, M; Zinzi, P; Barbier, A; Gasparini, F; Romito, L; Bentivoglio, A; Scerrati, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cognitive and behavioural effects of bilateral lead implants for high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease; and to discriminate between HFS and the effects of surgical intervention on cognitive function by carrying out postoperative cognitive assessments with the stimulators turned on or off. Methods: Motor, cognitive, behavioural, and functional assessments were undertaken in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease before implantation and then at three, six, and 12 months afterwards. Nine patients were also examined 18 months after surgery. Postoperative cognitive assessments were carried out with stimulators turned off at three and 18 months, and turned on at six and 12 months. Results: Cognitive assessment showed a significant postoperative decline in performance on tasks of letter verbal fluency (across all postoperative assessments, but more pronounced at three months) and episodic verbal memory (only at three months, with stimulators off). At three, six, and 12 months after surgery, there was a significant improvement in the mini-mental state examination and in a task of executive function (modified Wisconsin card sorting test). On all postoperative assessments, there was an improvement in parkinsonian motor symptoms, quality of life, and activities of daily living while off antiparkinsonian drugs. A significant postoperative decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms was observed across all assessments. Similar results were seen in the subgroup of nine patients with an 18 month follow up. Following implantation, three patients developed transient manic symptoms and one showed persistent psychic akinesia. Conclusions: Bilateral HFS of the subthalamic nucleus is a relatively safe procedure with respect to long term cognitive and behavioural morbidity, although individual variability in postoperative cognitive and behavioural outcome invites caution. Stimulation of the subthalamic

  2. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

  3. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves.

  4. The emergence of sedentary behaviour physiology and its effects on the cardiometabolic profile in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D J; Stebbings, G K; Onambele, G L

    2015-10-01

    It has recently emerged that sedentary behaviour is independent of a lack of physical activity as individuals can be sufficiently active, based on the recommended physical activity guidelines, but also spend the majority of their waking hours engaging in sedentary behaviour. Individuals who follow this pattern of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are known as 'active couch potatoes'. Sedentary behaviour has been found to have detrimental effects on cardiometabolic markers associated with cardiovascular disease. Since the positive effects of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity do not necessarily negate the deleterious effects of sedentary behaviour on cardiometabolic markers, it is postulated that engaging in light physical activity is an intervention that will successfully reduce levels of sedentary behaviour and may hence improve health markers of quality of life. We propose that such lifestyle changes may be particularly relevant to older populations as these engage in sedentary behaviour for the majority of their waking hours, thereby adding to the negative aging effect on cardiometabolic markers.

  5. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  6. Behavioural development in the neonatal lamb: effect of maternal and birth-related factors.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C M

    2003-02-01

    The survival of the neonate relies on the integrated expression of appropriate behaviours from both the mother and young. In precocious species, like the sheep, the speed with which the lamb stands and seeks the udder is related to lamb survival. In this study the effects of birth difficulty, lamb birth weight, ewe loss or gain in backfat from conception to delivery, ewe parity, litter size, and lamb sex on neonatal lamb behavioural development were investigated in over 500 lambs of two breeds (Scottish Blackface and Suffolk). Lambs that required assistance to be delivered were significantly slower to perform all neonatal behaviours than unassisted lambs (P<0.001), and were less active over the first 3 days after delivery (P<0.05). There were no effects of lamb birthweight that were not accounted for by the increased likelihood of requiring assistance in heavier birth weight lambs. Ewes that mobilised less body fat during their pregnancy produced lambs that stood and sucked quickly (P<0.001), and were more active over the first 3 days of life. Lambs born to first parity ewes were slower to stand and suck than lambs born to experienced ewes (P<0.001). There was an improvement in time taken by lambs to stand, seek the udder and to suck with each increase in ewe parity. Litter size had an additional retarding influence on the behaviour of multiple-born lambs that could not be accounted for by birthweight. In the Suffolk breed male lambs were slower to stand and suck than female lambs, this effect was not seen in Blackface lambs. These data demonstrate that lambs that require assistance at birth, even if they survive the birth process, lambs born to ewes that lose a lot of condition over pregnancy or first parity ewes, triplet lambs and, at least in some breeds, male lambs are slower to progress through the sequence of neonatal behaviours. These lambs are, therefore, at greater risk of not surviving to weaning.

  7. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects. PMID:27471162

  8. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects.

  9. Effects of folic acid and lamotrigine therapy in some rodent models of epilepsy and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Pillai, K K; Pal, Shanthi N

    2003-03-01

    It has been suggested that a folic acid (FA) deficiency induced by antiepileptic drugs might be the basis for the neuropsychiatric toxicity associated with these drugs. In the present study, lamotrigine (LTG), one of the newer antiepileptic drugs, was evaluated for its effect on epilepsy, mood and memory in mice. Further, the effect of the addition of FA to LTG therapy was also investigated. The increasing current electroshock seizure test was used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of drugs, while the forced swimming test (FST) and spontaneous alternation behaviour (SAB) models were employed for assessing the effects on mood and memory, respectively. LTG exhibited a dose-dependent increase in seizure threshold, whereas FA did not have any effect. LTG did not affect, whereas FA decreased, behavioural depression in the FST in mice. Neither LTG nor FA affected memory scores in the SAB test. The combination of LTG and FA significantly reduced depression while enhancing the effects on memory and seizure threshold. The present observations have confirmed the antiepileptic action of LTG in yet another rodent model of epilepsy. Further, the results clearly demonstrate the additional benefits on epilepsy, mood and memory brought about by the inclusion of FA in the LTG regimen.

  10. Effects of Exercise Interventions on Stereotypic Behaviours in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777

  11. The inhibitory effect of the fungal toxin, destruxin A, on behavioural fever in the desert locust.

    PubMed

    Hunt, V L; Charnley, A K

    2011-10-01

    During an infection locusts behaviourally fever by seeking out higher environmental temperatures. This behaviour places the pathogen at sub-optimal growth temperatures while improving the efficiency of the immune system, thereby prolonging the lifespan of the host. It is therefore in the interest of the pathogen to either adapt to fever-like temperatures or to evolve mechanisms to interfere with, or inhibit fever. We investigated the behavioural fever response of desert locusts to two fungal pathogens. A prolonged fever was observed in locusts infected with Metarhizium acridum. However, fever was comparatively short-lived during infection with Metarhizium robertsii. In both cases restriction of thermoregulation reduced lifespan. Destruxin A (dtx A) produced by M. robertsii, but not M. acridum has previously been associated with the inhibition of the insect immune system. Injection of dtx A during infection with the fever-causing M. acridum inhibited fever and was particularly effective when administered early on in infection. Furthermore, locusts injected with dtx A were more susceptible to M. acridum infection. Therefore engineering M. acridum isolates currently used for locust biocontrol, to express dtx A may improve efficiency of control by interfering with fever.

  12. Theoretical analysis on phase behaviour of a liquid crystalline material - effect of molecular motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P.; Ojha, Durga P.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular structure, and phase behaviour of 2-Cyano-N-[4-(4-n-pentyloxybenzoyloxy)-benzylidene] aniline (CPBBA) has been reported with respect to translational and orientational motions. The atomic net charge and dipole moment components at each atomic centre have been evaluated using the complete neglect differential overlap (CNDO/2) method. The modified Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory along with multicentered-multipole expansion method has been employed to evaluate the long-range intermolecular interactions, while a ‘6-exp’ potential function has been assumed for short-range interactions. The interaction energy values obtained through these computations have been used as input to calculate the configurational probability at room temperature (300 K), and nematic-isotropic transition temperature (396.5 K). On the basis of stacking, in-plane, and terminal interaction energy calculations, all possible geometrical arrangements between the molecular pairs have been considered. Molecular arrangements inside a bulk of materials have been discussed in terms of their relative order. Further, translational rigidity parameter has been estimated as a function of temperature to understand the phase behaviour of the compound. The present model is helpful to understand the effect of molecular motions on ordering, and phase behaviour of the mesogenic compounds.

  13. The Effect of Expertise on Eye Movement Behaviour in Medical Image Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Helle, Laura; Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Svedström, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    The present eye-movement study assessed the effect of expertise on eye-movement behaviour during image perception in the medical domain. To this end, radiologists, computed-tomography radiographers and psychology students were exposed to nine volumes of multi-slice, stack-view, axial computed-tomography images from the upper to the lower part of the abdomen with or without abnormality. The images were presented in succession at low, medium or high speed, while the participants had to detect enlarged lymph nodes or other visually more salient abnormalities. The radiologists outperformed both other groups in the detection of enlarged lymph nodes and their eye-movement behaviour also differed from the other groups. Their general strategy was to use saccades of shorter amplitude than the two other participant groups. In the presence of enlarged lymph nodes, they increased the number of fixations on the relevant areas and reverted to even shorter saccades. In volumes containing enlarged lymph nodes, radiologists’ fixation durations were longer in comparison to their fixation durations in volumes without enlarged lymph nodes. More salient abnormalities were detected equally well by radiologists and radiographers, with both groups outperforming psychology students. However, to accomplish this, radiologists actually needed fewer fixations on the relevant areas than the radiographers. On the basis of these results, we argue that expert behaviour is manifested in distinct eye-movement patterns of proactivity, reactivity and suppression, depending on the nature of the task and the presence of abnormalities at any given moment. PMID:23785481

  14. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  15. Effect of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behaviour of supramolecular polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuegang; Siviour, Clive R.; Buckley, C. Paul; Feula, Antonio; Hayes, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Supramolecular polyurethanes (SPUs) possess thermoresponsive and thermoreversible properties, and those characteristics are highly desirable in both bulk commodity and value-added applications such as adhesives, shape-memory materials, healable coatings and lightweight, impact-resistant structures (e.g. protection for mobile electronics). A better understanding of the mechanical properties, especially the rate and temperature sensitivity, of these materials are required to assess their suitability for different applications. In this paper, a newly developed SPU with tuneable thermal properties was studied, and the response of this SPU to compressive loading over strain rates from 10-3 to 104 s-1 was presented. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on the mechanical response was also demonstrated. The sample was tested using an Instron mechanical testing machine for quasi-static loading, a home-made hydraulic system for moderate rates and a traditional split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs) for high strain rates. Results showed that the compression stress-strain behaviour was affected significantly by the thermoresponsive nature of SPU, but that, as expected for polymeric materials, the general trends of the temperature and the rate dependence mirror each other. However, this behaviour is more complicated than observed for many other polymeric materials, as a result of the richer range of transitions that influence the behaviour over the range of temperatures and strain rates tested.

  16. The effect of familiarity on aggregation and social behaviour in juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, D M P; Sims, D W; Croft, D P

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to address whether juvenile small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula aggregate and to determine whether potential aggregation is underpinned by social preferences for conspecifics. Using controlled and replicated experiments, the role of familiarity as a potential mechanism driving aggregation and social behaviour in this species was considered. Observed S. canicula association data compared to null model simulations of random distributions revealed differences in aggregation under different social contexts. Only familiar juvenile S. canicula aggregated more than would be expected from random distribution across their habitat. Familiarity increased the mean number of groups but did not significantly affect mean group size. Significant preference and avoidance behaviour across all groups were also observed. Furthermore, the strength of social attraction, quantified by the mean association index, was significantly higher in groups containing familiar individuals. Mixed familiar and unfamiliar treatments were also conducted to test for within- and between-group effects, finding high variation across replicates with some groups assorting by familiarity and others not. It is believed that this study is the first to examine experimentally the influence of conspecific familiarity on aggregation behaviour in sharks. These results not only imply a functional benefit to aggregation, but also suggest that persistent social affiliation is likely to influence dispersal following hatching in this small benthic elasmobranch. PMID:23020563

  17. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  18. Effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum on sexual behaviour and sperm count in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kenjale, Rakesh; Shah, Riddhi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of the aqueous extract of dried roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Rats were orally treated with (1) CONTROL GROUP: distilled water; (2) CB 125 mg/kg/day; (3) CB 250 mg/kg/day; and (4) Viagra((R)) group: 4 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Their sexual behaviour was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of treatment by pairing with a pro-oestrous female rat. For sperm count the treatment was continued further in all groups except the Viagra((R)) group for 60 days. At 125 mg/kg, CB had a marked aphrodisiac action, increased libido, sexual vigor and sexual arousal. Similarly, at the higher dose (250 mg/kg) all the parameters of sexual behaviour were enhanced, but showed a saturation effect after day 14. On day 60 the sperm count increased significantly in both the CB groups, 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, in a dose dependent manner. Thus, roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum can be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation and oligospermia.

  19. Effect of protic ionic liquid on the volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Chhotaray, Pratap K; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-02-15

    The volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose in aqueous solutions of a protic ionic liquid (3-hydroxypropylammonium acetate) have been studied at temperatures, T=(293.15-318.15)K and at atmospheric pressure. Apparent molar volumes, V2,ϕ, apparent specific volumes, ASV, apparent molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2,ϕ, and apparent specific isentropic compressibilities, ASIC, were calculated from measured density, ρ and speed of sound, u data. Partial molar volumes, V2(°), and partial molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2(°) at infinite dilution, transfer parameters (ΔtV2(°) and ΔtKs,2(°)), expansion coefficients, [(∂V2(°)/∂T)P and (∂(2)V2(°)/∂T(2))P], interaction coefficients, (YAB and YABB) and hydration numbers, Nw, were also evaluated and discussed in terms of solute-cosolute interactions. Further, the effect of protic ionic liquid on the taste behaviour of sucrose has been discussed from ASV and ASIC parameters, as these parameters, which are sensitive to solvation behaviour of solute, are divided into four basic taste qualities occupying certain ranges.

  20. Effect of calcium on nicotine-induced current expressed by an atypical alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H; Courjaret, Raphael; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-06-27

    Two distinct native alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), named nAChR1 and nAChR2, were identified in the cockroach Periplaneta americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. They differed in their electrophysiological, pharmacological properties and intracellular regulation pathways. nAChR2 being an atypical nicotinic receptor closed upon agonist application and its current-voltage relationship resulted from a reduction in potassium conductance. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that calcium modulated nAChR2-mediated nicotine response. Under 0.5 microM alpha-Bgt and 20 mM d-tubocurarine, the nicotine-induced inward current amplitude was strongly reduced in the presence of intracellularly applied BAPTA or bath application of calcium-free solution. In addition, using cadmium chloride, we showed that nicotine response was modulated by extracellular calcium through plasma membrane calcium channels. Moreover, extracellular application of caffeine and thapsigargin reduced nAChR2-mediated response. Together these experiments revealed a complex calcium-dependent regulation of nAChR2. PMID:18485593

  1. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous.

  2. Emotionality Modulates the Effect of Chronic Stress on Feeding Behaviour in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Calandreau, Ludovic; Constantin, Paul; Gaultier, Bernard; Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Laurence, Agathe; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Boissy, Alain; Leterrier, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a long-lasting negative emotional state that induces negative consequences on animals’ psycho-physiological state. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli (URNS) influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure (using two diets of different energetic values) which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines. Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later. Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their

  3. Effect of suction on the mechanical behaviour of iron ore rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgic, Dragan; Giot, Richard; Homand, Françoise; Giraud, Albert

    2005-07-01

    The effect of suction on the behaviour of iron ore has been studied from both physical and mechanical points of view. The porosity and the suction phenomena have been analysed using different experimental techniques. Uniaxial compressive tests on partially saturated samples have shown that the suction is responsible for strength and cohesion improvement. Considering the theory of partially saturated porous soils of Coussy and Dangla (Mécanique des sols non saturés (2002 edn). Hermès Science: 2002; 390), we have proposed a constitutive law for partially saturated iron ore. The real increase in the apparent cohesion due to the capillary attraction forces is overestimated if the yield function is written in terms of effective stresses. The effect of the capillary cohesion has been modelled with a function in the expression of the apparent cohesion of the yield function. The effect of suction on the mechanical behaviour has been represented in the effective stresses space and in the total stresses space like the Alonso model (Géotechnique 1990; 40:405-430).

  4. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered.

  5. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  6. Atypical immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Xinxin; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a plasma cell disorder which mainly affects heart, kidneys, liver, and peripheral nervous system. Cases of atypical AL amyloidosis presented as spontaneous vertebral compression fractures have been rarely reported, and data about the management and clinical outcomes of the patients are scarce. Methods: Herein, we present 3 new cases of AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture and review 13 cases retrieved from the literature. Results: Moreover, we observed overrepresentations of liver involvement and bone marrow involvement in AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture. Conclusion: We believe that better awareness of the rare clinical presentation as spontaneous vertebral compression fracture of AL amyloidosis can facilitate earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment. PMID:27603350

  7. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  8. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly.

  9. [Atypical trajectory of gunshot injury].

    PubMed

    Aygün, Mert; Tulay, Cumhur Murat

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot injuries are common medical-legal issues. Atypical tract lines resulting from this type of injuries cause difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, a gunshot injury on the right anterior thigh extending to the right hemithorax was presented. A 67-year-old Syrian refugee patient was brought to the emergency service due to gunshot injury. Bullet entrance hole was determined on the right anterior thigh region; however, exit side could not be seen. Bullet was determined on the right thorax at tomography and the patient was taken to operation due to diaphragm rupture and lung parenchymal injury. Other body parts must be examined radiologically for the bullet which cannot be determined at gunshot injury side. PMID:25541926

  10. Malaria-associated atypical memory B cells exhibit markedly reduced B cell receptor signaling and effector function.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Silvia; Tipton, Christopher M; Sohn, Haewon; Kone, Younoussou; Wang, Jing; Li, Shanping; Skinner, Jeff; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Doumbo, Safiatou; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoiba, Aissata; Traore, Boubacar; Sanz, Inaki; Pierce, Susan K; Crompton, Peter D

    2015-05-08

    Protective antibodies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. Chronic malaria exposure is associated with a large increase in atypical memory B cells (MBCs) that resemble B cells expanded in a variety of persistent viral infections. Understanding the function of atypical MBCs and their relationship to classical MBCs will be critical to developing effective vaccines for malaria and other chronic infections. We show that VH gene repertoires and somatic hypermutation rates of atypical and classical MBCs are indistinguishable indicating a common developmental history. Atypical MBCs express an array of inhibitory receptors and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is stunted in atypical MBCs resulting in impaired B cell responses including proliferation, cytokine production and antibody secretion. Thus, in response to chronic malaria exposure, atypical MBCs appear to differentiate from classical MBCs becoming refractory to BCR-mediated activation and potentially interfering with the acquisition of malaria immunity.

  11. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  12. Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

  13. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, David; Ferrucci, Michela; Busceti, Carla L.; Biagioni, Francesca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Liles, L. Cameron; Lenzi, Paola; Murri, Luigi; Paparelli, Antonio; Fornai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) lesions of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major brain noradrenergic nucleus, exacerbate the damage to nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) terminals caused by the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). However, because noradrenergic terminals contain other neuromodulators and the noradrenaline (NA) transporter, which may act as a neuroprotective buffer, it was unclear whether this enhancement of METH neurotoxicity was caused by the loss of noradrenergic innervation or the loss of NA itself. We addressed the specific role of NA by comparing the effects of METH in mice with noradrenergic lesions (DSP-4) and those with intact noradrenergic terminals but specifically lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase; DBH). We found that genetic deletion of DBH (DBH −/− mice) and acute treatment of wild-type mice with a DBH inhibitor (fusaric acid) recapitulated the effects of DSP-4 lesions on METH responses. All three methods of NA depletion enhanced striatal DA release, extracellular oxidative stress (as measured by in vivo microdialysis of DA and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and behavioural stereotypies following repeated METH administration. These effects accompanied a worsening of the striatal DA neuron terminal damage and ultrastructural changes to medium spiny neurons. We conclude that NA itself is neuroprotective and plays a fundamental role in the sensitivity of striatal DA terminals to the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:18042179

  14. Microstructure-dependent deformation behaviour of bcc-metals - indentation size effect and strain rate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Verena; Schunk, Christopher; Göken, Mathias; Durst, Karsten

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the indentation size effect and the influence of the microstructure on the time-dependent deformation behaviour of body-centred cubic (bcc) metals are studied by performing nanoindentation strain rate jump tests at room temperature. During these experiments, the strain rate is abruptly changed, and from the resulting hardness difference the local strain rate sensitivity has been derived. Single-crystalline materials exhibit a strong indentation size effect; ultrafine-grained metals have nearly a depth-independent hardness. Tungsten as a bcc metal shows the opposite behaviour as generally found for face-centered cubic metals. While for UFG-W only slightly enhanced strain rate sensitivity was observed, SX-W exhibits a pronounced influence of the strain rate on the resulting hardness at room temperature. This is due to the effects of the high lattice friction of bcc metals at low temperatures, where the thermally activated motion of screw dislocations is the dominating deformation mechanisms, which causes the enhanced strain rate sensitivity. For the SX-materials, it was found that the degree of the indentation size effect directly correlates with the homologous testing temperature and thus, the material specific parameter of the critical temperature Tc. However, for the resultant strain rate sensitivity no depth-dependent change was found.

  15. Effects of osmotic stress on predation behaviour of Asterias rubens L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Antonio; Schellekens, Tim; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-05-01

    Environmental stress plays an important role in determining ecosystem functioning and structure. In estuarine areas both tidal and seasonal salinity changes may cause osmotic stress on predators, affecting their behaviour and survival. The interaction between these predators and their prey may affect performance, thus influencing predator impact on prey populations. The common starfish, Asterias rubens, inhabits estuarine areas, such as the Dutch Wadden Sea, that exhibit large seasonal variation in salinity (10-32 PSU). In those areas A. rubens exerts top down control on its prey, thus representing an important shellfish predator. This predation may impact on cultured and natural shellfish populations. However, the effects of osmotic stress on A. rubens performance may influence its effect on prey. Although the effect of salinity in A. rubens survival has been extensively studied, the impact on its predation behaviour and acclimation capacity remains unclear. In this study, we analyse the performance of A. rubens preying on mussels (Mytilus edulis) after a salinity decrease and monitor its acclimation capacity over a period of 22 days. Our experiments demonstrated that salinity affected performance by reducing feeding activity and altering size prey selection. Moreover, as acclimation occurred, A. rubens predation performance improved in all sub-lethal treatments. We conclude that osmotic stress caused by decreasing salinity potentially influences A. rubens distribution, abundance, and potential impact on prey populations. However the magnitude of the change in salinity (from 31 to a minimum of 10 PSU) and its timescale (3 weeks) mediate this effect.

  16. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of rail corrugation on the behaviour of rail fastenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Shang, Hongxia; Xiao, Xinbiao; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation of the effects of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of metro rail fastenings, obtained from extensive experiments conducted on site and from simulations of train-track dynamics. The results of tests conducted with a metro train operating on corrugated tracks are presented and discussed first. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the metro train and a slab track was developed using multi-body dynamics modelling and the finite element method to simulate the effect of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of rail fastenings. In the model, the metro train is modelled as a multi-rigid body system, and the slab track is modelled as a discrete elastic support system consisting of two Timoshenko beams for the rails, a 3D solid finite element (FE) model for the slabs, periodic discrete viscoelastic elements for the rail fastenings that connect the rails to the slabs, and uniformly viscoelastic elements for the subgrade beneath the slabs. The proposed train-track model was used to investigate the effects of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of the metro track system and fastenings. An FE model for the rail fastenings was also developed and was used to calculate the stresses in the clips, some of which rupture under the excitation of rail corrugation. The results of the field experiments and dynamics simulations provide an insight into the root causes of the fracture of the clips, and several remedies are suggested for mitigating strong vibrations and failure of metro rail fastening systems.

  18. Behaviour of food restricted broilers during rearing and lay--effects of an alternative feeding method.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Victoria; Tolkamp, Bert J; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2005-06-01

    Broiler breeders are subjected to quantitative food restriction in order to control their growth, and this restriction is particularly severe during rearing. While such restriction improves some welfare problems associated with ad libitum feeding, it causes others: birds routinely show abnormal oral behaviours and have elevated plasma corticosterone concentration (PCC) and changes in white blood cell counts (WBCs). The aim of this study was to examine if feeding birds qualitatively restricted diets ad libitum during rearing could reduce signs of impaired welfare, as judged by behaviour and blood indices of stress, while also meeting commercially desired growth rates and uniformity. Furthermore, we examined what carry-over effects such a feeding method had on birds in the laying phase when all birds were fed on a conventional quantitative restriction regime. During rearing (1-20 weeks of age), pens of birds were either fed limited amounts of standard basal diets (Control, i.e. quantitative restriction), or ad libitum diets consisting of standard basal diets with gradually increasing levels of calcium propionate (CaP) and a constant level of oat hulls (OH), designated CaP+OH (i.e. qualitative restriction). Results showed that, during rearing, weights and weight uniformity were similar for the two groups. During feeding motivation tests, Control birds always consumed more food than CaP+OH birds. This suggests that Control birds were more highly motivated to feed than CaP+OH birds, although care has to be taken in interpreting these results. Treatment did not affect PCCs or WBCs, but there was a general decline in PCCs with bird age. All reported behaviours differed significantly between treatment groups during rearing, but disappeared during lay when all birds were fed a similar amount of food. Control birds spent up to 50% of time in object pecking during rearing periods, but this behaviour was virtually non-existent in birds in the qualitative feeding regime

  19. Effect of neutron irradiation on fracture toughness behaviour of copper alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tähtinen, S.; Pyykkönen, M.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P.; Singh, B. N.; Toft, P.

    1998-10-01

    One of the most important factors in deciding about the applicability of materials in the structural components of ITER, is the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness behaviour of these materials. In the present work, the fracture toughness properties of two candidate materials for the first wall and divertor components of ITER, namely precipitation hardened CuCrZr and dispersion hardened CuAl25 alloys, have been studied in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. In parallel, tensile properties of these alloys have been also investigated in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions.

  20. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting.

  1. Parasites that change predator or prey behaviour can have keystone effects on community composition

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Melanie J.; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites play pivotal roles in structuring communities, often via indirect interactions with non-host species. These effects can be density-mediated (through mortality) or trait-mediated (behavioural, physiological and developmental), and may be crucial to population interactions, including biological invasions. For instance, parasitism can alter intraguild predation (IGP) between native and invasive crustaceans, reversing invasion outcomes. Here, we use mathematical models to examine how parasite-induced trait changes influence the population dynamics of hosts that interact via IGP. We show that trait-mediated indirect interactions impart keystone effects, promoting or inhibiting host coexistence. Parasites can thus have strong ecological impacts, even if they have negligible virulence, underscoring the need to consider trait-mediated effects when predicting effects of parasites on community structure in general and biological invasions in particular. PMID:24429680

  2. Effect of carbonate content on the mechanical behaviour of clay fault-gouges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Elisenda; Niemeijer, André; Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is considered to be the most promising technology to achieve large-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. In order to retain the stored CO2 from the atmosphere for the very long-term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103-104 years, it is essential to maintain the integrity of the caprock, and more specifically of any faults penetrating the seal. When selecting suitable CO2-storage reservoirs, pre-exisiting faults within the caprock require close attention, as changes in the stress state resulting from CO2-injection may induce fault slip motion which might cause leakage. Little is known about the effect of fluid-rock interactions on the mineral composition, mechanical properties and the integrity and sealing capacity of the caprock. Previous studies on the effect of mineral composition on the frictional properties of fault gouges have shown that friction is controlled by the dominant phase unless there is a frictionally weak, through-going fabric. However, the effect on stability is less clear. Since long-term CO2-exposure might cause chemical reactions, potentially resulting in the dissolution or precipitation of carbonate minerals, a change in mineralogy could affect the mechanical stability of a caprock significantly. Calcite, for example, is known to be prone to micro-seismicity and shows a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour around 100-150°C. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying clay:carbonate ratios on fault friction behaviour, fault reactivation potential and slip stability, i.e. seismic vs. aseismic behaviour. Three types of simulated fault gouges were used: i) carbonate-free, natural clay-rich caprock samples, consisting of predominantly phyllosilicates (~80%) and quartz ~20%), ii) pure calcite, and iii) mixtures of carbonate-free clay-rich caprock and pure calcite, with predetermined clay:carbonate ratios. For the natural clay

  3. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects. PMID:26739685

  4. Effects of type of light on mouse circadian behaviour and stress levels.

    PubMed

    Alves-Simoes, Marta; Coleman, Georgia; Canal, Maria Mercè

    2016-02-01

    Light is the principal synchronizing environmental factor for the biological clock. Light quantity (intensity), and light quality (type of light source) can have different effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of light experienced from the time of birth on mouse growth, circadian behaviour and stress levels. We raised pigmented and albino mice under 24 h light-dark cycles of either fluorescent or white light-emitting diode (LED) light source during the suckling stage, and the animals were then exposed to various light environments after weaning and their growth rate, locomotor activity and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured. We found that the type of light the animals were exposed to did not affect the animals' growth rates or stress levels. However, we observed significant effects on the expression of the locomotor activity rhythm under low contrast light-dark cycles in pigmented mice, and under constant light in both albino and pigmented mice. These results highlight the importance of environmental light quality (light source) on circadian behavioural rhythms, and the need for close monitoring of light environments in animal facilities.

  5. Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task as a functional magnetic resonance imaging endophenotype of autism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Michael D; Holt, Rosemary J; Chura, Lindsay R; Calder, Andrew J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-11-01

    Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task has been demonstrated in autism, but has not been investigated in siblings or related to measures of clinical severity. We identified atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task in participants with autism and unaffected siblings compared with control subjects in a number of temporal and frontal brain regions. Autism and sibling groups, however, did not differ in terms of activation during this task. This suggests that the pattern of atypical activation identified may represent a functional endophenotype of autism, related to familial risk for the condition shared between individuals with autism and their siblings. We also found that reduced activation in autism relative to control subjects in regions including associative visual and face processing areas was strongly correlated with the clinical severity of impairments in reciprocal social interaction. Behavioural performance was intact in autism and sibling groups. Results are discussed in terms of atypical information processing styles or of increased activation in temporal and frontal regions in autism and the broader phenotype. By separating the aspects of atypical activation as markers of familial risk for the condition from those that are autism-specific, our findings offer new insight into the factors that might cause the expression of autism in families, affecting some children but not others.

  6. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions. PMID:26928336

  7. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions.

  8. Effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on behavioural thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Yogev, Daniel; Eiken, Ola; Pisot, Rado; Biolo, Gianni; di Prampero, Pietro; Narici, Marco; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on cutaneous cold and warm sensitivity, and on behavioural temperature regulation. Healthy male subjects (N = 10) were accommodated in a hospital ward for the duration of the study and were under 24-h medical care. All activities (eating, drinking, hygiene, etc.) were conducted in the horizontal position. On the 1st and 22nd day of bed rest, cutaneous temperature sensitivity was tested by applying cold and warm stimuli of different magnitudes to the volar region of the forearm via a Peltier element thermode. Behavioural thermoregulation was assessed by having the subjects regulate the temperature of the water within a water-perfused suit (T (wps)) they were wearing. A control unit established a sinusoidal change in T (wps), such that it varied from 27 to 42 degrees C. The subjects could alter the direction of the change of T (wps), when they perceived it as thermally uncomfortable. The magnitude of the oscillations towards the end of the trial was assumed to represent the upper and lower boundaries of the thermal comfort zone. The cutaneous threshold for detecting cold stimulus decreased (P < 0.05) from 1.6 (1.0) degrees C on day 1 to 1.0 (0.3) degrees C on day 22. No effect was observed on the ability to detect warm stimuli or on the regulated T (wps). We conclude that although cold sensitivity increased after bed rest, it was not of sufficient magnitude to cause any alteration in behavioural thermoregulatory responses.

  9. Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers☆

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open

  10. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours.

  11. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, M.; Mohapatra, G.; Betensky, R.A.; Keohane, C.; Louis, D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas. PMID:21988727

  12. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas

    2009-08-01

    Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873

  13. Effects of micro- and nano-structures on the self-cleaning behaviour of lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. T.; Rodak, D. E.; Wong, C. A.; Hayden, C. A.

    2006-03-01

    When rain falls on lotus leaves water beads up with a high contact angle. The water drops promptly roll off the leaves, collecting dirt along the way. This self-cleaning ability or lotus effect has, in recent years, stimulated much research effort worldwide for a variety of applications ranging from self-cleaning window glasses, paints, and fabrics to low friction surfaces. What are the mechanisms giving rise to the lotus effect? Although chemical composition and surface structure are believed important, a systematic experimental investigation of their effects is still lacking. By altering the surface structure of the leaves while keeping their chemical composition approximately the same, we report in this study the influence of micro- and nano-scale structures on the wetting behaviour of lotus leaves. The findings of this work may help design self-cleaning surfaces and improve our understanding of wetting mechanisms.

  14. Cognitive behavioural treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome in a rehabilitation setting: effectiveness and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, K M G; Veehof, M M; Passade, L; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R

    2011-12-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was combined with graded exercise therapy (GET) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in an uncontrolled implementation study of an inpatient multidisciplinary group therapy. During the intake procedure, 160 CFS patients completed a questionnaire on fatigue related measurements, physical impairment, depression, somatic and psychological attributions, somatic focus, and sense of control over symptoms. Pre-treatment physical activity level was measured with an actometer. At baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up individual strength, subjective fatigue and physical impairment, were reassessed. Large effect sizes were found on subjective fatigue (1.2 post-treatment; 1.2 follow-up) and physical impairment (-.9 post-treatment; -.9 follow-up), Clinically significant improvement was found in 33.8% of the participants at post-treatment and 30.6% at follow-up. Individual strength at post-treatment was predicted by level of physical activity before treatment, and by sense of control over symptoms and physical activity at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in subjective fatigue was predicted by not receiving a disablement insurance benefit, shorter duration of fatigue, higher sense of control over symptoms and, at follow-up by more pre-treatment physical activity. In conclusion, the intervention was effective for CFS patients. Cognitive behavioural factors that perpetuate fatigue symptoms are also predictors of treatment outcome.

  15. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  16. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Lestaevel, P; Grison, S; Favé, G; Elie, C; Dhieux, B; Martin, J C; Tack, K; Souidi, M

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) for male rats and 40 mg·L(-1) for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L(-1) NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  17. Behavioural variability and motor performance: Effect of practice specialization in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Seifert, L; De Jesus, K; Komar, J; Ribeiro, J; Abraldes, J A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to examine behavioural variability within and between individuals, especially in a swimming task, to explore how swimmers with various specialty (competitive short distance swimming vs. triathlon) adapt to repetitive events of sub-maximal intensity, controlled in speed but of various distances. Five swimmers and five triathletes randomly performed three variants (with steps of 200, 300 and 400m distances) of a front crawl incremental step test until exhaustion. Multi-camera system was used to collect and analyse eight kinematical and swimming efficiency parameters. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between swimmers and triathletes, with significant individual effect. Cluster analysis put these parameters together to investigate whether each individual used the same pattern(s) and one or several patterns to achieve the task goal. Results exhibited ten patterns for the whole population, with only two behavioural patterns shared between swimmers and triathletes. Swimmers tended to use higher hand velocity and index of coordination than triathletes. Mono-stability occurred in swimmers whatever the task constraint showing high stability, while triathletes revealed bi-stability because they switched to another pattern at mid-distance of the task. Finally, our analysis helped to explain and understand effect of specialty and more broadly individual adaptation to task constraint. PMID:26991729

  18. Effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy for hoarding disorder in people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Matuozzo, Heather; Kotecha, Chandanee

    2015-12-01

    Evaluations of cognitive behavioural interventions for hoarding for those with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been previously attempted. This investigation therefore examined the acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in a sample of N=14 adults with mild ID. All participants had hoarding as their primary problem and received twelve individual CBT sessions, all conducted via domiciliary visits. The primary outcome measure was an environmental measure (Clutter Image Rating Scale), which was scored at baseline, end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. Acceptability of CBT was measured via the treatment refusal and dropout rate. Secondary self-report outcomes included measures of hoarding, depression and anxiety. Results demonstrate that hoarding significantly reduced following treatment on both self-report and environmental assessment. No participants refused or dropped out of treatment and that there was no evidence of relapse over the follow-up period. No adverse treatment incidences were reported. This open trial suggests that CBT may be a safe and effective intervention for hoarding difficulties in people with ID, but that the evidence base in this population needs urgent and detailed attention.

  19. Prolonged effects of the insecticide dimethoate on locomotor behaviour in the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber Latr. (isopoda).

    PubMed

    Bayley, M

    1995-04-01

    : Beneficial invertebrates living in hedgerows and woodland adjacent to arable land, are almost inevitably exposed to small doses of pesticides. This can present a threat to these invertebrates even at sublethal levels. Locomotor behaviour is intrinsic to many more complex behavioural responses such as predator avoidance, migration, mate seeking, etc., but is also closely related to the physiological status of the animal. Further, locomotor activity is quantifiable with the aid of modern video and computer technology. In the present study, the effect of a 48 h exposure of the woodlouse Porcellio scaber to soil contaminated with one-tenth of the LD20 (96 h) dimethoate dose was quantified using computer-automated video tracking. Dimethoate-exposed woodlice were recorded for one night prior to dimethoate exposure and for two nights on contaminated soil. After a recovery period of 21 days, the woodlice were recorded for a further night. Control animals were recorded in parallel on soil treated with water. Over the 48 h of exposure, dimethoate induced a gradually increasing hyperactivity in terms of time spent in activity, mean velocity and path length and a suppression of turning rate when compared with controls. No recovery was seen after the 21 days on uncontaminated soil. These effects were statistically significant only in male woodlice.

  20. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Lestaevel, P.; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; Dhieux, B.; Martin, J. C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  1. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  2. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on behaviour and growth of three species of amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Pahkala, Maarit; Laurila, Anssi; Merilä, Juha

    2003-04-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on amphibian embryos have been investigated in a number of studies, but the effects on larvae have received less attention. We investigated the effects of UV-B radiation on the behaviour and growth of larvae of three amphibians (Rana arvalis, Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo) in two different experiments. First, we tested whether larvae of the three species actively avoid UV-B exposure if given a choice. We found no evidence for active avoidance of UV-B or changes in activity in the presence of UV-B in any of the species. Second, we assessed the effects of natural (1.25 kJm(-2)) and enhanced (1.58 kJm(-2)) UV-B radiation on the survival and growth of the three species and found that the exposure to UV-B radiation did not have any effect on survival rates of any of the species. However, UV-B radiation had a positive effect on the growth of R. arvalis and R. temporaria, whereas the growth of B. bufo tadpoles was unaffected by the UV-B treatments. Our results suggest that a short-term exposure to UV-B radiation does not induce any UV-B avoidance behaviour in tadpoles of these three species. Furthermore, unlike some previous studies, the results suggest that the young tadpoles of these species are not negatively affected by UV-B radiation. In fact, our results demonstrate that a moderate amount of UV-B radiation enhance tadpole growth rates in two of the three species. PMID:12591252

  3. Effect of non-structural elements on the dynamic behaviour of moment-resisting framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Effects of earthquakes on building structures have studied from many researchers on the recent scientific and technique literature. The phenomenon is clear: inertia forces are governed from structural and non-structural stiffness and masses. The distribution of seismic lateral loads and their magnitude are strongly correlated to the fundamental period of the structure. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of the fundamental period is a crucial aspect for both static and dynamic seismic analyses. In fact, the fundamental period determines the global seismic demand through the spectral acceleration directly evaluated from the linear and/or nonlinear acceleration response spectra (provided from codes or derived from detailed analyses of site effects). Recent earthquakes highlighted the significant effects derived from the interaction between structural and non-structural elements on the main dynamic parameters of a structure and on the lateral distribution of the inertial forces. Usually, non-structural elements acts together with the structural elements, adding both masses and stiffness. Using numerical and experimental campaigns, many researchers have studied the effects of infill walls on the dynamic behaviour of buildings and several simplified models have been proposed to take into account the presence of non-structural elements within linear and nonlinear numerical models. As example, Kliner and Bertero tested a 1/3 scaled structure (moment-resisting infilled frame model) and determine its behaviour during earthquakes. They found that the infills increased the stiffness of the frame in about 5 times. Consequently, in these cases the fundamental period reduces and the inertia forces generally increases. Meharabi et al. tested a 6-storey, three bay, reinforced concrete moment resisting frame, designed according to the provision of UBC-91, and they shown that the lateral force resistance of an infilled frame was higher than that of bare frame. It was concluded that a

  4. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  5. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  6. Effects of restrained eating behaviour on insulin sensitivity in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Morgan, L M; Robertson, M D

    2009-03-23

    Restrained eating behaviour has been linked to abnormalities in metabolic and endocrine functions. However, the impact of restraint on fasting insulin and glucose plasma levels and insulin sensitivity remains controversial. Moreover, the few postprandial studies to date are limited by an inappropriate sampling time frame and a low "net" energy and carbohydrate load. The aims of this study are to assess the role of dietary restraint on fasting and postprandial plasma levels of insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in healthy volunteers with a normal and stable body weight and to determine whether the effect of restraint on the plasma levels of the previous hormones/metabolites is load dependent. Normal-weight participants (21 women and 12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained based on the restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint on the plasma levels of different hormones/metabolites was measured, in response to a 500 kcal and 1000 kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint was associated with lower fasting insulin plasma levels (P<0.05) and a lower insulin (P<0.015) and glucose (P<0.05) plasma levels in the postprandial state, but did not impact on TAG or NEFA. Moreover, restrained eaters showed a better fasting (P<0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity (P<0.01). Restrained eating behaviour has, therefore, a significant impact on both fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism, being associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest the need for adjusting for restraint level in studies where glucose metabolism is a major outcome.

  7. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence.

  8. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  9. Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan; Stanley, Charlie; Peters, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of child attachment representation, psychopathology, and maternal atypical parenting in a high risk sample. Sixty-one consecutive clinical referrals with externalizing disorder aged 4 - 9 years were assessed for attachment representations measured with Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST), atypical parental expressed emotion (EE), maternal mood, and parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour. Disorganized attachment representations were found in 58% of cases, independent of ADHD symptoms. Pervasive disorganization was associated with very high maternal EE. Attachment status, maternal depression, and ADHD diagnosis were independently associated with parent-rated child behaviour problems; teacher ratings were associated with child's age and ADHD status. Disorganized attachment shows a high prevalence and independent associations with attention deficit symptomatology and maternal EE.

  10. Typical and atypical dementia family caregivers: systematic and objective comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II) studies. Based on statistical and clinical significance, there were large effects for demographics but no large effects among caregivers or care recipients on clinical and caregiving variables. Non-spouse family members were more likely to be caring for women and unmarried individuals. Grandchildren and nieces/nephews provided care for older care recipients. For care recipients who are unmarried, older, or women, fewer care possibilities may be available; consequently family members other than spouse or children may become their caregivers. Once an individual becomes a caregiver, the clinical experience of dementia caregiving is similar across caregiver types. These findings have implications for clinical care and public policy. PMID:21391405

  11. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John; Freemantle, Nick; Harrison, Paul; Bebbington, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Objective To develop an evidence base for recommendations on the use of atypical antipsychotics for patients with schizophrenia. Design Systematic overview and meta-regression analyses of randomised controlled trials, as a basis for formal development of guidelines. Subjects 12 649 patients in 52 randomised trials comparing atypical antipsychotics (amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and sertindole) with conventional antipsychotics (usually haloperidol or chlorpromazine) or alternative atypical antipsychotics. Main outcome measures Overall symptom scores. Rate of drop out (as a proxy for tolerability) and of side effects, notably extrapyramidal side effects. Results For both symptom reduction and drop out, there was substantial heterogeneity between the results of trials, including those evaluating the same atypical antipsychotic and comparator drugs. Meta-regression suggested that dose of conventional antipsychotic explained the heterogeneity. When the dose was ⩽12 mg/day of haloperidol (or equivalent), atypical antipsychotics had no benefits in terms of efficacy or overall tolerability, but they still caused fewer extrapyramidal side effects. Conclusions There is no clear evidence that atypical antipsychotics are more effective or are better tolerated than conventional antipsychotics. Conventional antipsychotics should usually be used in the initial treatment of an episode of schizophrenia unless the patient has previously not responded to these drugs or has unacceptable extrapyramidal side effects. PMID:11099280

  12. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed.

  13. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  14. Saccular cyst with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A; Gheorghe, DC

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory obstruction and stridor in infants and children are not uncommon. A rare cause of these sometimes life-threatening symptoms is the congenital saccular cyst. Objectives: We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with a cervical tumor, which appeared after a laryngeal endoscopic surgery of a saccular cyst with two relapses and a particular local evolution of its recurrence through the cricothyroid membrane. Material and method: The patient data has been reviewed over the entire follow-up period and a thorough an analysis of her investigations and surgery was performed. Results: The unusual evolution of this case was marked by an atypical exteriorization – not found in the published literature. The surgical approach was external, by paramedian thyrotomy, with no further long-term recurrence. Conclusions: An accurate diagnosis of saccular cysts can be made with the help of medical history, by an endoscopic visualization of the lesion and by the CT-scan imaging of the cervical region. Sometimes, saccular cysts can extend beyond laryngeal limits, determining fluid-filled tumors in the cervical region. PMID:27453755

  15. Atypical antipsychotics: sedation versus efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Sharif, Zafar A

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder experience disturbances in their sleep-wake cycle, which may be a result of the disorder itself, of pharmacotherapy, or of a comorbid sleep disorder. These sleep disruptions can seriously impair patients' functioning as well as their quality of life. Therefore, accurate assessment of sleep problems is essential to appropriately treat patients and promote symptomatic remission. Sedating antipsychotics may ameliorate sleep disturbances, as well as agitation or other behavioral emergencies; however, these agents may also sedate patients to the point of dissatisfaction with the medication and/or impaired functioning, which may, in turn, increase treatment noncompliance and nonadherence. Using short-term adjunctive medications, such as benzo-diazepines or hypnotic agents, with a nonsedating antipsychotic to alleviate sleep disturbances is a reasonable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Overall, the pharma-cokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atypical antipsychotics are important factors to consider in the risk-benefit analysis, as are dosing strategies and individual patient factors, and clinicians must decide which agents are most appropriate for which patients. PMID:18484805

  16. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower Aβ, Aδ, and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to Aβ (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), Aδ (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

  17. Effect of reward downshift on the behaviour and physiology of chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    When a reward is downgraded in quantity or quality from that which is expected, one of two possible outcomes can result. Acquisition responses may decline gradually, owing to a strong stimulus–response reinforcement history, and thus follow the Thorndikian law of effect. Alternatively, there may be an exaggerated reaction to a downgraded reward when it is initially altered, compared to the behaviour of individuals that have always been trained to receive the lower magnitude reward; this is known as successive negative contrast (SNC). While behavioural SNC effects have been commonly demonstrated in mammals, evidence that they occur in other taxa is more equivocal. Additionally, studies demonstrating immediate physiological reactions during reward downshifts are limited. We investigated the reaction of chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus, to a downshift in the quality of a food reward that they had been trained to expect in a runway apparatus. During a preshift phase, 16 chickens (control) were given food that was flavoured to make it less preferred, while the other 16 (contrast) were fed the same food but without flavouring. During trial 7, unflavoured food was substituted by flavoured food for contrast hens and all birds were fed the flavoured food during a postshift phase. In the contrast group, food consumption immediately decreased and heart rate increased when the reward was downshifted from unflavoured to flavoured food, but there was no evidence of SNC effects, which could stem from methodological or taxonomic differences from previous studies. The latency to reach the food appeared to follow the Thorndikian law of effect, gradually increasing following the downshift. We suggest that the disparity between the pattern shown by the latency results and other measures could relate to the time period in which measures were taken, as acquisition responses are more likely to follow the law of effect. PMID:26257402

  18. Effects of Humans on Behaviour of Wildlife Exceed Those of Natural Predators in a Landscape of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Ciuti, Simone; Northrup, Joseph M.; Muhly, Tyler B.; Simi, Silvia; Musiani, Marco; Pitt, Justin A.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human disturbance can influence wildlife behaviour, which can have implications for wildlife populations. For example, wildlife may be more vigilant near human disturbance, resulting in decreased forage intake and reduced reproductive success. We measured the effects of human activities compared to predator and other environmental factors on the behaviour of elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758) in a human-dominated landscape in Alberta, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected year-round behavioural data of elk across a range of human disturbances. We estimated linear mixed models of elk behaviour and found that human factors (land-use type, traffic and distance from roads) and elk herd size accounted for more than 80% of variability in elk vigilance. Elk decreased their feeding time when closer to roads, and road traffic volumes of at least 1 vehicle every 2 hours induced elk to switch into a more vigilant behavioural mode with a subsequent loss in feeding time. Other environmental factors, thought crucial in shaping vigilance behaviour in elk (natural predators, reproductive status of females), were not important. The highest levels of vigilance were recorded on public lands where hunting and motorized recreational activities were cumulative compared to the national park during summer, which had the lowest levels of vigilance. Conclusions/Significance In a human-dominated landscape, effects of human disturbance on elk behaviour exceed those of habitat and natural predators. Humans trigger increased vigilance and decreased foraging in elk. However, it is not just the number of people but also the type of human activity that influences elk behaviour (e.g. hiking vs. hunting). Quantifying the actual fitness costs of human disturbance remains a challenge in field studies but should be a primary focus for future researches. Some species are much more likely to be disturbed by humans than by non-human predators: for these species, quantifying human

  19. Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids among males. A review.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Wright, J E

    1990-11-01

    The psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids in males have been investigated for over 50 years in both clinical and nonmedical uses, including the influence of anabolic-androgenic steroids on the nervous system and neuromuscular expression as a mechanism for behavioural and ergogenic effects. The relationship between moods, behaviour and endogenous plasma testosterone levels, as well as anabolic steroids and corticosteroid administration has been studied, including psychological dependence, withdrawal effects, and major methodological issues. While a relationship between endogenous testosterone levels and aggressive behaviour has been observed in various animal species, it is less consistent in humans. It can be concluded that, although the use of exogenous anabolic-androgenic steroids may have psychological and behavioural effects in some patients and athletes, the effects are variable, transient upon discontinuation of the drugs, and appear to be related to type (17 alpha-alkalated rather than 17 beta-esterified), but not dose, of anabolic-androgenic steroids administered. The roles of genetic factors, medical history, environmental and peer influences, and individual expectations are likewise unclear. In general, the evidence at present is limited and much additional research will be necessary for a complete understanding of this relationship.

  20. An improved cellular automaton model considering the effect of traffic lights and driving behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Di; Lu, Wei-Zhen; Dong, Li-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes an improved cellular automaton model to describe the urban traffic flow with the consideration of traffic light and driving behaviour effects. Based on the model, the characteristics of the urban traffic flow on a single-lane road are investigated under three different control strategies, i.e., the synchronized, the green wave and the random strategies. The fundamental diagrams and time-space patterns of the traffic flows are provided for these strategies respectively. It finds that the dynamical transition to the congested flow appears when the vehicle density is higher than a critical level. The saturated flow is less dependent on the cycle time and the strategies of the traffic light control, while the critical vehicle density varies with the cycle time and the strategies. Simulated results indicate that the green wave strategy is proven to be the most effective one among the above three control strategies.

  1. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum.

  2. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum.

  3. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum. PMID:26974957

  4. The effects of 5-HT on feeding behaviour in mianserin- or cyproheptadine-pretreated rats.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Escartín-Pérez, R E; López-Alonso, V E

    2003-12-01

    We examined the effects of 5-HT on the feeding behaviour patterns of rats pretreated with mianserin (5-HT(1B/2A/1D receptor antagonist) or cyproheptadine (a 5-HT(2c) receptor antagonist), injected into the pariventricular hypothalamus nucleus (PVN). The animals were kept at 21 +/- 1 degrees C with a 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle on a self-selected feeding paradigm, and provided with freely available and separate sources of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and water. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of 5-HT on carbohydrate intake can be blocked by mianserin and cyproheptadine even at the onset of the natural (dark) feeding period; however, this is a distinct blockade in the paradigm of feeding behavior. All of the meal patterns of fat intake and rest remained unaffected.

  5. Resisting temptation: effects of exposure to a forbidden food on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Soetens, Barbara; Braet, Caroline; Van Vlierberghe, Leen; Roets, Arne

    2008-07-01

    The study tests existing evidence on the paradoxical effects of exposure to a forbidden snack. Sixty-eight females were assigned randomly to one of two conditions: a temptation group, who were given the instruction to abstain from a favourite snack for 24h while being exposed to it, or a control group, who were given no specific instructions. A further distinction was made between high-restraint/high-disinhibition (n=21), high-restraint/low-disinhibition (n=20) and low-restraint participants (n=27) based on DEBQ subscale scores. After exposure to the foods, all participants were given free access to the food. Participants ate more of the snack after abstinence with exposure. The high-restraint/high-disinhibition group in particular displayed a substantial disinhibition effect. Results indicate that prohibition with exposure may backfire and increase the risk of loss of control over eating behaviour, particularly in at-risk groups of disinhibited restrained eaters.

  6. How do we choose between atypical antipsychotics? The advantages of amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Clinician choice of an atypical antipsychotic may depend on a number of factors such as perceived efficacy, tolerability and cost. It is also important that the choice of treatment takes into consideration the previous response to treatment, experience of side-effects and personal clinical characteristics. The receptor-affinity profiles of the atypical antipsychotics differ; with the exception of amisulpride, a selective D2/D3 antagonist, all the atypical antipsychotics exhibit a greater affinity for the serotonin-2A receptors than dopamine receptors. However, there is no evidence that the variation in receptor affinities is relevant to efficacy. Indeed, the crucial factor may be fast dissociation from low affinity for the D2 receptor. Tolerability also varies between the atypical antipsychotics and the side-effect profile may be related to the receptor-affinity profile of the individual drugs. Extrapyramidal side-effects are generally less of a problem with most atypical drugs than with conventional drugs, but weight gain, loss of glycaemic control, sedation and hyperprolactinaemia remain problematic in some patients. Amisulpride is effective for the treatment of both positive and negative symptoms, and is well tolerated with regard to weight gain, glucose tolerance and sedation. In two clinical trials, the AMIRIS and SOLIANOL studies, amisulpride demonstrated clear advantages over some other atypical antipsychotics with respect to negative symptoms, depressive symptoms and weight gain.

  7. Behavioural and histological effects of atrazine on freshwater molluscs (Physa acuta Drap. and Ancylus fluviatilis Müll. Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Rosés, N; Poquet, M; Muñoz, I

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the direct and indirect effects of atrazine on two grazer species--Physa acuta and Ancylus fluviatilis--as assessed by changes in mortality rates, biomass, searching behaviour and histological properties. No direct effects were observed in the acute toxicity test (48 h) with 0.02, 0.2, 2, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) of atrazine. A chronic toxicity test (18 days) performed in six experimental channels with 15 microg l(-1) of atrazine showed significant changes in grazer behaviour, increased searching velocity and different movement patterns in animals exposed to herbicide. No significant effects were observed in rates of mortality and biomass. Kidney cells of Physa acuta displayed an important cell lysis when animals were exposed to 0.1 mg l(-1) of atrazine for 10 days, and this effect was not reversed after a decontamination process. These results provide evidence of behavioural and structural changes in freshwater molluscs due to a subacute atrazine concentration.

  8. Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Aliou B.; Trigo, Jose M.; Vemuri, Kiran V.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 0.6–1% of the population in the USA and Canada fulfil the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) criteria for gambling disorders (GD). To date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for GD. The rat gambling task (rGT) is a recently developed rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task in which rats are trained to associate four response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. Similar to healthy human volunteers, most rats adopt the optimal strategies (optimal group). However, a subset of animals show preference for the disadvantageous options (suboptimal group), mimicking the choice pattern of patients with GD. Here, we explored for the first time the effects of various cannabinoid ligands (WIN 55,212-2, AM 4113, AM 630 and URB 597) on the rGT. Administration of the cannabinoid agonist CB1/CB2 WIN 55,212-2 improved choice strategy and increased choice latency in the suboptimal group, but only increased perseverative behaviour, when punished, in the optimal group. Blockade of CB1 or CB2 receptors or inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase did not affect rGT performance. These results suggest that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors could affect gambling choice behaviours differentially in some subgroups of subjects. PMID:26905189

  9. On the effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track is studied based on vehicle-track dynamic interaction theory, using a model of the track as a Timoshenko beam supported on a periodic elastic foundation. Considering the vehicle's running speed and the number of unsupported sleepers, the track dynamic characteristics are investigated and verified in the time and frequency domains by experiments on a 1:5 scale model wheel-rail test rig. The results show that when hanging sleepers are present, leading to a discontinuous and irregular track support, additional wheel-rail interaction forces are generated. These forces increase as further sleepers become unsupported and as the vehicle's running speed increases. The adjacent supports experience increased dynamic forces which will lead to further deterioration of track quality and the formation of long wavelength track irregularities, which worsen the vehicles' running stability and riding comfort. Stationary transfer functions measurements of the dynamic behaviour of the track are also presented to support the findings.

  10. Effects of dextran on the molecular structure and tensile behaviour of human fibrin.

    PubMed

    Dhall, T Z; Bryce, W A; Dhall, D P

    1976-06-30

    Characteristic changes induced by dextran during the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin have previously been shown to be associated with profound alterations in morphology of fibrin. However, whether dextran is incorporated into the fibrin molecule and whether morphological changes are associated with alterations in mechanical behaviour of formed fibrin was unclear. The investigations described show that the fibrin made in the presence of dextran has a shortened syneresis time, a lowered modulus of elasticity, an increased elongation and diminished ultimate strength at break. The molecular composition of fibrin clots remains unaltered despite the altered mechanical properties and morphological changes. Furthermore, dextran is not incorporated into the fibrin structure in any appreciable quantity. It is suggested that these several effects of dextran on clot morphology, tensile behaviour and kinetics of fibrin formation arise from increased forces of attraction between fibrin molecules such that fibrin chains are held together by weak secondary cross-links rather than by stronger primary cross-links which are hidden within the thicker fibrin chain bundles.

  11. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F.

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  12. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  13. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study.

  14. Second-order estimates for the effective behaviour of viscoplastic polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornert, M.; Masson, R.; Castañeda, P. Ponte; Zaoui, A.

    2001-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of the "second-order" nonlinear homogenisation procedure (Ponte Castañeda, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 44 (6) (1996) 827) to generate estimates of the self-consistent type for the effective behaviour of fcc and hcp viscoplastic polycrystals. The method has the distinctive property that it leads to estimates that are exact to second-order in the heterogeneity contrast, and which are expected to be more accurate, particularly when compared to rigorous bounds, than those resulting from earlier homogenisation schemes such as the Hill "incremental" method or its "total" formulation (Hutchinson) for pure power-law viscous materials. Special attention is paid to large grain anisotropy leading to correspondingly large heterogeneity contrast, and to highly nonlinear behaviour. Comparisons are also carried out with estimates derived from other more recent homogenisation schemes such as the "tangent" and "affine" methods. The results, illustrated for zirconium- and ice-type polycrystals, show that the second-order procedure offers the potential for significantly improved results, at least relative to the Hill incremental formulation.

  15. Effect of defensive pressure on movement behaviour during an under-18 basketball game.

    PubMed

    Leite, N M; Leser, R; Gonçalves, B; Calleja-Gonzalez, J; Baca, A; Sampaio, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of defensive pressure on movement behaviour during an under-18 basketball game. 20 international male players (age: M=16.05, SD=2.09 years old; weekly practice: M=10.9, SD=1.94 h; playing experience: M=7.1, SD=1.1 years) played two 10-min basketball quarters, using man-to-man ¼-court for the first 4 min (F¼), man-to-man full court defence for the next 3 min (FULL), and man-to-man ¼-court defence for the last 3 min (S¼). The positional data were captured by the Ubisense Real Time Location System and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods (approximate entropy) and repeated measures ANOVA. There were differences in the regularity values between F¼ and FULL in distance to the basket and to the opponents' basket. A stronger in-phase attraction in both lateral and longitudinal directions was identified; however, the centroids (i. e., the mean position from all team players) were closer and revealed higher values of irregularity in lateral displacements for all defensive systems. The individual speed displacements became more coordinated with teammates, particularly in the offensive court. Overall, this study provided evidence on how changing the level of defensive pressure promotes different collective behaviours. PMID:24816890

  16. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  17. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  18. Effect of defensive pressure on movement behaviour during an under-18 basketball game.

    PubMed

    Leite, N M; Leser, R; Gonçalves, B; Calleja-Gonzalez, J; Baca, A; Sampaio, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of defensive pressure on movement behaviour during an under-18 basketball game. 20 international male players (age: M=16.05, SD=2.09 years old; weekly practice: M=10.9, SD=1.94 h; playing experience: M=7.1, SD=1.1 years) played two 10-min basketball quarters, using man-to-man ¼-court for the first 4 min (F¼), man-to-man full court defence for the next 3 min (FULL), and man-to-man ¼-court defence for the last 3 min (S¼). The positional data were captured by the Ubisense Real Time Location System and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods (approximate entropy) and repeated measures ANOVA. There were differences in the regularity values between F¼ and FULL in distance to the basket and to the opponents' basket. A stronger in-phase attraction in both lateral and longitudinal directions was identified; however, the centroids (i. e., the mean position from all team players) were closer and revealed higher values of irregularity in lateral displacements for all defensive systems. The individual speed displacements became more coordinated with teammates, particularly in the offensive court. Overall, this study provided evidence on how changing the level of defensive pressure promotes different collective behaviours.

  19. Effects of carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): study of biomarkers and behaviour alterations.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the pesticide carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using parameters at different levels of biological organisation (swimming behaviour and several biomarkers) and possible relationships between alterations found in different effect criteria. In a bioassay, sea bass juveniles were individually exposed to different doses of carbofuran (31, 63, 125 and 250 μg/L) for 96 h. At the end of the bioassay, the swimming performance and 11 biomarkers were determined. Biomarkers were: hepatosomatic index (HSI), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione and the activities of the enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and muscle cholinesterases (ChE). After 96 h of exposure, carbofuran induced a decrease of the swimming velocity and inhibition of EROD activity at all concentrations tested, and inhibition of muscle ChE and brain AChE activities at 250 μg/L. No relevant alterations in any of the other tested parameters were found. These results show that carbofuran induced adverse effects on fish by interfering with neurofunction, capability of detoxication and swimming velocity. In addition, positive and significant correlations between the swimming velocity and (i) brain AChE activity, (ii) muscle ChE activity and (iii) EROD activity suggest that the inhibition of these enzymes may somehow be related to the behavioural changes observed. Since these functions are determinant for the survival and performance of the fish in the wild, the findings of the present study suggest that adverse effects may occur in populations exposed to carbofuran if a sufficient number of animals is affected.

  20. Effect of Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour on superconductive properties as determined by microstructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhanglian; Wang, Minquan; Xiong, Guohong; Fan, Xianping

    1997-02-01

    The effects of the Sr and Ca composition and site-selection in a solid solution of a Bi-system superconductor on the superconductive properties were studied. Results showed that the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour had a remarkable effect on the superconductive properties. Further analysis indicated that this effect originated from varied hole concentration which was determined by the content of Sr atoms substituting for Bi atoms within the BiO layers. This substitution was influenced by the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour. This result offers a new mechanism for clarifying why the bivalent Sr and Ca cations affect the superconductive properties.

  1. An Atypical and Resistant Case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Responding Satisfactorily with an Unusual way of Exposure and Response Prevention Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kamal; Victor, Robin

    2016-01-01

    It is well established fact that a combination of pharmacological therapy plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) - exposure and response prevention (ERP) is considered first line for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This case presented here supports this point in unusual way of ERP administration in an atypical and resistant case of OCD proved to be beneficial over pharmacotherapy. The case was atypical in the sense that it had many overvalued ideas, superstitions and religious beliefs playing major role in its aetiology. Also, misconstruction of chance associations, intense stimulus generalization and invivo exposure proving the best modality of treatment made it atypical. PMID:27134980

  2. Virtual design of electrospun-like gelatin scaffolds: the effect of three-dimensional fibre orientation on elasticity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Guessasma, S; Oyen, M

    2016-01-14

    Remarkable mechanical performance of biological tissues is explained by a hierarchical fibrous structure. Designing materials that have similar properties is challenging because of the need to assess complex deformation mechanisms. In order to shed more light on architectural possibilities of biopolymer fibrous networks, we propose a numerical study that relates the fibre arrangement to the elastic modulus of a gelatin scaffold obtained using electrospinning. The adopted approach is based on the virtual designing of scaffolds using all possible combinations of Euler angles that define fibre orientations including preferable alignment. The generated networks are converted into a finite element model and the predicted elastic behaviour is examined. Predictions show that the fibre alignment achieved experimentally in biopolymer fibrous networks is for most of the fibres exhibiting an orthotropic behaviour. Some particular combinations of Euler angles allow transverse isotropic architectures while only limited cases are isotropic. A large sensitivity of Young's moduli to Euler angles is achieved describing multiple scenarios of independent anisotropic behaviours. An anisotropy ratio of the elastic behaviour is suggested based on a suitable combination of elastic moduli. Such a ratio exhibits a wide variation depending on individual and coupled effects of Euler angles. The finite element model predicts 2D, 3D and 4D maps representing all possible configurations of fibre alignment and their consequences on elastic behaviour. The predicted fibre orientation representing the observed anisotropic behaviour of electrospun gelatin networks demonstrates unbalanced contributions of in-plane and out-of plane fibres for a large range of processing conditions.

  3. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence. PMID:26141510

  4. Clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotics: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, M.C.; Paletta, S.; Maffini, M.; Colasanti, A.; Dragogna, F.; Di Pace, C.; Altamura, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This review will concentrate on the clinical pharmacology, in particular pharmacodynamic data, related to atypical antipsychotics, clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, que¬tiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone and cariprazine. A summary of their acute pharmacokinetics properties are also reported. Four new second-generation antipsychotics are available: iloperidone, asenapine, lurasidone and in the next future cariprazine. Similar to ziprasidone and aripiprazole, these new agents are advisable for the lower propensity to give weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in comparison with older second-generation antipsychotics such as olanzapine or clozapine. Actually lurasidone seems to be best in terms of minimizing unwanted alterations in body weight and metabolic variables. Therapeutic drug monitoring is not strictly necessary for all of the new antipsychotic drugs because there are no unequivocal data supporting a relationship between plasma drug levels and clinical outcomes or side effects. The exception can be represented by clozapine for which plasma levels of 350-420 ng/ml are reported to be associated with an increased probability of a good clinical response. Also for olanzapine an established therapeutic range (20-50 ng/ml) is proposed to yield an optimal response and minimize side effects. PMID:26417330

  5. Competition Between Different Social Ranked Rams has Similar Effects on Testosterone and Sexual Behaviour Throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Lacuesta, L

    2015-12-01

    Dominant rams have preferential access to females, as they frequently interrupt sexual behaviour from subordinated. Testosterone concentrations are directly linked to sexual and aggressive behaviour and have important variations along the year. Therefore, it may be expected that the effects of dominance relationships on reproductive behaviour differ according to testosterone concentrations, and thus to the period of the year. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dominance relationships on testosterone and sexual behaviour in different moments of the year in rams. Twelve rams were maintained in a single group. Social rank was determined in January (maximum reproductive development), May (regression of the reproductive status) and August (lowest reproductive activity), and the four rams with higher (HR) and the four with lower (LR) success index were used. Testosterone serum concentration was weekly measured four times during each experimental period. Sexual behaviour was evaluated in each period with an oestrous ewe, and with the oestrous ewe and another ram from the other social rank (each HR with each LR ram). Testosterone concentration was greater in HR than LR rams in January (p = 0.03), and all the behaviours were displayed more frequently in non-competitive than in competitive tests (p < 0.05). Rams modified their sexual strategy in competitive environments decreasing the display of sexual behaviour independently of their social status. This effect was observed consistently throughout the year: high-ranked rams have greater testosterone concentrations than LR rams only during the pre-rut, when they naturally compete to join the groups of ewes.

  6. Competition Between Different Social Ranked Rams has Similar Effects on Testosterone and Sexual Behaviour Throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Lacuesta, L

    2015-12-01

    Dominant rams have preferential access to females, as they frequently interrupt sexual behaviour from subordinated. Testosterone concentrations are directly linked to sexual and aggressive behaviour and have important variations along the year. Therefore, it may be expected that the effects of dominance relationships on reproductive behaviour differ according to testosterone concentrations, and thus to the period of the year. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dominance relationships on testosterone and sexual behaviour in different moments of the year in rams. Twelve rams were maintained in a single group. Social rank was determined in January (maximum reproductive development), May (regression of the reproductive status) and August (lowest reproductive activity), and the four rams with higher (HR) and the four with lower (LR) success index were used. Testosterone serum concentration was weekly measured four times during each experimental period. Sexual behaviour was evaluated in each period with an oestrous ewe, and with the oestrous ewe and another ram from the other social rank (each HR with each LR ram). Testosterone concentration was greater in HR than LR rams in January (p = 0.03), and all the behaviours were displayed more frequently in non-competitive than in competitive tests (p < 0.05). Rams modified their sexual strategy in competitive environments decreasing the display of sexual behaviour independently of their social status. This effect was observed consistently throughout the year: high-ranked rams have greater testosterone concentrations than LR rams only during the pre-rut, when they naturally compete to join the groups of ewes. PMID:26489705

  7. Effect of novel antipsychotic drugs on phencyclidine-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1997-06-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats; comparisons with clinical observations have suggested that these behaviours may mimic certain aspects of the positive and the negative symptoms, respectively, of an acute schizophrenic episode. Novel antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and have also shown some promise in treating the negative symptoms. In the present study the effects of the novel antipsychotics remoxipride (2.5-20 mg/kg), risperidone (0.02-0.63 mg/kg), sertindole (0.01-2.5 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.16-2.5 mg/kg) and quetiapine (0.16-10 mg/kg) on PCP-induced behaviours were determined. The drugs were administered daily for 3 or 21 days in combination with vehicle or 2.0 mg/kg of PCP for the last 3 days of the administration regime, and the rats were tested using the social interaction test. The antipsychotic drugs all reliably reduced the level of PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and had distinct effects on PCP-induced social isolation. Comparison with clinical findings suggests that the PCP-induced behaviours respond to treatment with antipsychotic drugs in a manner that correlates well with clinical observations, and that this animal model of schizophrenia may be useful for evaluating novel drug candidates. However, the study also showed that additional experiments are required to determine the specificity by which antipsychotic drugs alleviate PCP-induced behaviours because most of the drugs also affected considerably the behaviour of the control animals.

  8. A macroprolactinoma becoming resistant to cabergoline and developing atypical pathology

    PubMed Central

    Farah, George; Fathelrahman, Ahmed; Cudlip, Simon; Ansorge, Olaf; Karavitaki, Niki; Grossman, Ashley B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary adenomas are a common intracranial neoplasm, usually demonstrating a benign phenotype. They can be classified according to pathological, radiological or clinical behaviour as typical, atypical or carcinomas, invasive or noninvasive, and aggressive or nonaggressive. Prolactinomas account for 40–60% of all pituitary adenomas, with dopamine agonists representing the first-line treatment and surgery/radiotherapy reserved for drug intolerance/resistance or in neuro-ophthalmological emergencies. We present the case of a 62-year-old man with an apparently indolent prolactin-secreting macroadenoma managed with partial resection and initially showing a biochemical response to cabergoline. Five years later, the tumour became resistant to cabergoline, despite a substantial increase in dosage, showing rapid growth and causing worsening of vision. The patient then underwent two further transsphenoidal operations and continued on high-dose cabergoline; despite these interventions, the tumour continued enlarging and prolactin increased to 107 269 U/L. Histology of the third surgical specimen demonstrated features of aggressive behaviour (atypical adenoma with a high cell proliferation index) not present in the tumour removed at the first operation. Subsequently, he was referred for radiotherapy aiming to control tumour growth. Learning points: The development of secondary resistance to dopamine agonists (DAs) is a serious sign as it may be associated with de-differentiation of the prolactinoma and thus of aggressive or malignant transformation. Significant de-differentiation of the adenoma documented on consecutive histologies suggests a possible transition to malignancy. A combination of histological ‘alarm’ features associated with persistent growth and escape from DAs treatment in recurrent adenomas should alert clinicians and demands close follow-up. A multidisciplinary approach by pathologists, endocrinologists and neurosurgeons is essential.

  9. Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Monory, Krisztina; Blaudzun, Heike; Massa, Federico; Kaiser, Nadine; Lemberger, Thomas; Schütz, Günther; Wotjak, Carsten T; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Marijuana and its main psychotropic ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exert a plethora of psychoactive effects through the activation of the neuronal cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is expressed by different neuronal subpopulations in the central nervous system. The exact neuroanatomical substrates underlying each effect of THC are, however, not known. We tested locomotor, hypothermic, analgesic, and cataleptic effects of THC in conditional knockout mouse lines, which lack the expression of CB1 in different neuronal subpopulations, including principal brain neurons, GABAergic neurons (those that release γ aminobutyric acid), cortical glutamatergic neurons, and neurons expressing the dopamine receptor D1, respectively. Surprisingly, mice lacking CB1 in GABAergic neurons responded to THC similarly as wild-type littermates did, whereas deletion of the receptor in all principal neurons abolished or strongly reduced the behavioural and autonomic responses to the drug. Moreover, locomotor and hypothermic effects of THC depend on cortical glutamatergic neurons, whereas the deletion of CB1 from the majority of striatal neurons and a subpopulation of cortical glutamatergic neurons blocked the cataleptic effect of the drug. These data show that several important pharmacological actions of THC do not depend on functional expression of CB1 on GABAergic interneurons, but on other neuronal populations, and pave the way to a refined interpretation of the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on neuronal functions. PMID:17927447

  10. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  11. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  12. Prolonged perinatal AZT administration and early maternal separation: effects on social and emotional behaviour of periadolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Venerosi, Aldina; Cirulli, Francesca; Capone, Francesca; Alleva, Enrico

    2003-02-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is an effective treatment in preventing perinatal transmission of HIV-1; however, a continuous re-evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of human exposure to this drug is suggested by both clinical and animal studies. The objective of this study was to assess the medium and long-term effects of pre-postnatal AZT treatment on mouse social and emotional behaviour and the possible interactions between AZT exposure and disruptions in the mother-infant relationship. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered per os with AZT (160 mg/kg) from pregnancy day 10, throughout delivery, to lactation day 10. In half of the litters, the offspring was separated from the mother for 3 h from postnatal days 2 (PND2) to PND14. On PND35, a 30-min social interaction test was performed and corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the session. On PND80, long-term effects of AZT on emotionality were assess by means of an elevated plus-maze. Results indicate that, on PND35, previous AZT exposure affected social behaviour of the experimental subjects, reducing aggressive interactions in males, while decreasing investigative behaviours in females. At adulthood, AZT inhibited exploratory behaviour in the plus-maze while increasing the frequency of risk-assessment postures in male mice. As for maternal deprivation, this early manipulation exerted a pro-aggressive effect in adolescent male mice, deprived subjects being overall characterised by higher activity levels and a deficit in habituation, an effect also observed in the plus-maze. A significant interaction between AZT and maternal deprivation was found for affiliative behaviours. As for corticosterone levels, no AZT effect was found, while maternal deprivation tended to reduce elevations of this hormone in response to stressful stimuli. Overall results from this study indicate that both AZT exposure and maternal deprivation induced gender-dependent changes in social and emotional behaviour both during adolescence and at

  13. Perinatal hypothyroidism effects on neuromotor competence, novelty-directed exploratory and anxiety-related behaviour and learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Darbra, Sònia; Garau, Adriana; Balada, Ferran; Sala, Josefina; Martí-Carbonell, Maria Assumpció

    2003-08-14

    Thyroid hormone is essential for proper development of the mammalian CNS. Previous studies have documented a decrease in the ability of neonatal hypothyroid animals to learn and to habituate to maze tests and an increase in spontaneous activity. However, there is little information about the effects of perinatal (i.e. perinatal and postnatal) hypothyroidism on behaviour. The aim of the present work was to investigate the longitudinal effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on certain aspects of the behaviour in rats. Neuromotor competence was tested at 21, 40 and 60 days, novelty-directed exploratory behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour were evaluated at 40 and 60 days by means of the Boissier tests and associative learning ability was tested at 80 days by means of a step-through passive avoidance task. The persistence of the effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on psychomotor performance was highly dependent on the task examined. Perinatal hypothyroidism caused an increase of locomotor activity as revealed by the total distance travelled in the Boissier test and this increase also comprised a component of decreased anxiety-related behaviour. Methimazole-treated subjects also had higher head-dip scores than controls at 40 days while no differences were observed at 60 days. Finally, our results showed that methimazole-treated rats performed poorly in a passive avoidance learning task.

  14. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits. PMID:21420787

  15. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A. Banerjee, M.K.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageing at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.

  16. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  17. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S. F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-09-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90°C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4°C.

  18. Effects of inorganic anions on cadmium sorption behaviours on titanate nanotube surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lilin; Du, Alan J; Sun, Darren D; Leckie, James O

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the characterization of as-synthesized titanate nanotube (TNT) and its sorption behaviours on cadmium with the interactions of inorganic anions. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy found that the nanotube is in sodium titanate crystal phase (Na2Ti3O7) and the pores of TNT are bimodally distributed with nominal pore sizes of 3 and 15 nm. In the binary systems between TNT and anions, the binding affinity is fluoride > phosphate > sulphate with sulphate being the least preferred. The order is similar to that of their first acidity constants, pKa1. In the presence of cadmium ions, slight decreases in fluoride and sulphate uptakes were observed. Phosphate uptake was, however, synergistically improved when cadmium was introduced. In the same ternary systems, it was found that these anions decreased the cadmium uptakes by TNT with the effect of sulphate being the most prominent.

  19. Effects of pH on the electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys for implant applications.

    PubMed

    Souza, Maria E P; Lima, Lonetá; Lima, Carmo R P; Zavaglia, Cecília A C; Freire, Célia M A

    2009-02-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of two commercial titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4 V (ASTM F136) and Ti-13Nb-13Zr (ASTM F1713) was investigated in Ringer physiological solution at two pH values (5.5 and 7.0). The corrosion properties were examined by using electrochemical techniques: Potentiodynamic anodic polarization, cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion properties of both alloys at different conditions were measured in terms of corrosion potential (E (corr)), corrosion current density (i (corr)) and passivation current density (i (pass)). Equivalent electrical circuits were used to modulate EIS data, in order to characterize alloys surface and better understanding the pH effect on the interface alloy/solution.

  20. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits.

  1. Behavioural Criteria of Perceived Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Effective and Ineffective Mentor and Mentee Behaviour within Formal Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Most past research on formal mentoring has investigated its antecedents, outcomes and benefits with little attention given to what goes on inside the dyadic relationship. The purpose of this paper is to explore the types of mentor and mentee behaviours that are perceived as critical factors contributing to either a positive or negative…

  2. Effect of periconceptional nutrition on the growth, behaviour and survival of the neonatal lamb.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, D O; Kelly, J M; Rudiger, S R; McMillen, I C; Morrison, J L; Zhang, S; MacLaughlin, S M; Smith, D H; Grimson, R J; Jaensch, K S; Brien, F D; Plush, K J; Hiendleder, S; Walker, S K

    2015-09-01

    Periconceptional nutrition (PCN) can influence foetal hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function and alter cortisol secretion with possible consequences for maturation and growth of major organs, gestation length and behaviour. We examined effects of PCN on phenotype and survival of the neonatal lamb in 466 Merino ewes allocated to treatments providing 70%, 100% and 150% respectively, of maintenance requirements for 17 days prior and 6 days after insemination. Gestation length and birth weight for lambs in PCN treatment groups was similar (P > 0.05) but low PCN decreased the size of the neonate (crown-rump-length and metacarpal length P < 0.05). A subset of lambs euthanased at 5 days of age further showed that low PCN decreased the amount of peri-renal fat (P < 0.05) and increased liver mass (P < 0.05) while high PCN increased neck thymus and ovary mass (P < 0.05). Neonatal lambs from low PCN ewes returned faster to their mothers after release (P < 0.05) and contacted the udder in the shortest time (P < 0.05). Significant interactions between PCN treatment and sex (P < 0.05) and between PCN treatment and ewe age (P < 0.05) were also observed for time lambs took to follow the ewe. Survival of lambs was similar but potential differences may have been masked by favourable weather conditions. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of significant changes in lamb growth and development dependent on PCN and, for the first time, links these changes with significant changes in behaviour of the neonate. The impact of these effects on lamb survival and potential reproductive capacity of female offspring remains to be determined.

  3. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness. PMID:25064341

  4. Effect of curing environment on mechanical properties and polymerizing behaviour of methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Hasegawa, A

    2005-03-01

    Methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin is used for multiple applications. Therefore, the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing resin should be assessed comprehensively including strength, stiffness and hardness. Any methods that effectively improve these mechanical properties are desirable. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the curing environment: air or water with/without pressure, and air or water temperature during polymerization, on the strength, stiffness and hardness of autopolymerizing resin. In addition, we examined the polymerizing behaviour associated with the mechanical properties. Autopolymerizing methyl-methacrylate resin (Unifast II) was polymerized under the following conditions: in air and water with/without pressure at 10, 23, 30, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C. The resin specimens were subjected to a transverse test (three-point flexural test) and micro-Brinell surface hardness test. Fractured surfaces of the specimens after the transverse test were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The transverse strength and transverse modulus increased with increasing curing temperature in both wet and dry conditions. Pressured wet conditions increased transverse strength and transverse modulus over non-pressured wet and dry conditions. The resin polymerized in dry conditions showed higher surface hardness than the one polymerized in wet conditions at matching temperature. The SEM images of fractured surfaces cured at lower temperature exhibited porosity within the polymer base and cracks between the base and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particulates. Surfaces of the resin polymerized in wet conditions were characterized with PMMA particulates having rougher surfaces suggestive of water incorporation. Raising temperature and pressuring during polymerization increase strength and stiffness of autopolymerizing resin. However, wet condition reduces surface hardness of resin compared with dry condition. These altered

  5. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness.

  6. Individual variation in behavioural plasticity: direct and indirect effects of boldness, exploration and sociability on habituation to predators in lizards

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Iñaki; Martín, José; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the factors causing variation in behavioural plasticity and the interplay between personality and plasticity. Habituation to predators is a special case of behavioural plasticity. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of boldness, exploration and sociability traits on the habituation ability of Iberian wall lizards, considering exposure and sex effects. Individual boldness was consistent across several non-habituation contexts, but it did not significantly affect habituation. Exploration had a strong direct effect on habituation, with more exploratory individuals being able to habituate faster than less exploratory ones, probably because of their ability to assess risk better. Individual variation in habituation was also affected by sociability, but this was an indirect effect mediated by exposure to the predator. Less social individuals avoided refuges with conspecific cues, increasing exposure to the predator and eventually habituation. Finally, the direct effects of sex (females habituated faster than males) were opposite to its indirect effects through exposure. We conclude that risk assessment, instead of the proactivity–reactivity gradient usually considered in the literature, can affect behavioural plasticity through complex interactions between direct and indirect effects, including exploratory behaviour, degree of exposure to the predator and sex, which represent novel mechanisms generating inter-individual variation in plasticity. PMID:20685703

  7. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Erythropoietin: A Focus on Behavioural and Hippocampal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Meagan; Rustom, Nazneen; Clarke, Melanie; Litteljohn, Darcy; Rudyk, Chris; Anisman, Hymie; Hayley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a chronic and debilitating condition with a significant degree of relapse and treatment resistance that could stem, at least in part, from disturbances of neuroplasticity. This has led to an increased focus on treatment strategies that target brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. In the current study we aimed to assess whether erythropoietin (EPO) would have antidepressant-like effects given its already established pro-trophic actions. In particular, we assessed whether EPO would diminish the deleterious effects of a social stressor in mice. Indeed, EPO induced anxiolytic and antidepressant-like responses in a forced swim test, open field, elevated-plus maze, and a novelty test, and appeared to blunt some of the negative behavioural effects of a social stressor. Furthermore, EPO promoted adult hippocampal neurogenesis, an important feature of effective antidepressants. Finally, a separate study using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin revealed that antagonizing this pathway prevented the impact of EPO upon forced swim performance. These data are consistent with previous findings showing that the mTOR pathway and its neurogenic and synaptogenic effects might mediate the behavioral consequences of antidepressant agents. Our findings further highlight EPO as a possible adjunct treatment for affective disorders, as well as other stressor associated disorders of impaired neuroplasticity. PMID:24019878

  8. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Rodrigo J; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  9. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  10. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Sawyer, Hall; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  11. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour. PMID:23750905

  12. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  13. Effect of low-intensity treadmill exercise on behavioural measures and hippocampal parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2013-11-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to have positive effects on both the body and brain. The present study aimed to determine the behavioural and morphological consequence of low-intensity running. Rats were exercised on a treadmill for a total of 30 days, 30 min/day. Social interaction, locomotor activity and behaviour on an elevated plus maze were assessed post-treatment. Exercised animals demonstrated more passive interaction and less time not interacting than control animals that were not exercised. Conversely, locomotor and anxiety measures showed no effect of exercise. Analysis of brains demonstrated an increase in expression of parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus localised to the CA1 and CA2/3 regions. These results demonstrate that low-intensity exercise leads to changes in social behaviour as well as neuroplastic morphological changes within the hippocampus.

  14. Perceptual accuracy and conflicting effects of certainty on risk-taking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Sharoni; Reich, Taly; Tsur, Erez; Erev, Ido; Lotem, Arnon

    2008-06-12

    The 'certainty effect' is a notable violation of expected utility theory by decision makers. It shows that people's tendency to select the safer of two prospects increases when this prospect provides a good outcome with certainty (for example, people prefer a monetary gain of 3 with certainty over 4 with a probability of 0.8, but do not prefer 3 with a probability of 0.25 over 4 with a probability of 0.2). Subsequent work on experience-based decision making in rats extended the certainty effect to other animals, suggesting its generality across different species and different decision-making mechanisms. However, an attempt to replicate this study with human subjects showed a surprising 'reversed certainty effect', namely, the tendency to prefer the safer option decreases when this prospect is associated with certainty (and people now prefer 4 with a probability of 0.8 over 3 with certainty). Here we show that these conflicting results can be explained by perceptual noise and that the certainty effect can be restored experimentally by reducing perceptual accuracy. Using complementary experiments in humans and honeybees (Apis mellifera), we show that by manipulating perceptual accuracy in experience-based tasks, both the certainty and the reversed certainty effects can be exhibited by humans and other animals: the certainty effect emerges when it is difficult to discriminate between the different rewards, whereas the reversed certainty effect emerges when discrimination is easy. Our results fit a simple process-based model of matching behaviour, capable of explaining the certainty effect in humans and other animals that make repeated decisions based on experience. This mechanism should probably be distinguished from those involved in the original certainty effect that was exhibited by human subjects in single description-based problems.

  15. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal.

  16. Early vaccination with Improvac®: effects on performance and behaviour of male pigs.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K; Brunius, C; Zamaratskaia, G; Lundström, K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of giving a two-dose regimen of gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine, Improvac® (Pfizer Ltd), earlier than currently recommended, on performance and behaviour of growing/finishing pigs. Cross-bred male pigs (n = 192) were randomly allocated, within a litter, into four groups at birth: one group of pigs surgically castrated without anaesthesia before one week of age, a second group of early vaccinated pigs given Improvac at 10 and 14 weeks of age, a third group of standard vaccinated pigs given Improvac at 16 and 20 weeks of age, so that the second vaccination was given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter as recommended by the manufacturer, and a fourth group of entire male pigs. The experiment started when the pigs were 12 weeks old and lasted until 25 weeks of age, when the pigs were slaughtered. The pigs were fed restrictedly. Daily weight gain and feed conversion during the entire raising period did not differ significantly between groups. Estimated lean meat content of early vaccinated and surgically castrated pigs was lower when compared with entire male pigs, whereas standard vaccinated pigs did not differ from entire males. Dressing percentage was higher in early vaccinated and surgically castrated pigs than in standard vaccinated and entire male pigs, partly because of lower size and weight of reproductive organs. For both groups of vaccinated pigs, both problematic and non-problematic behaviours decreased after their second injection, from the levels of entire males to those of surgically castrated pigs. After the second injection, pigs of both vaccination groups performed no mountings, in contrast with entire male pigs of the same age. Skin lesions at slaughter were fewer and less severe for vaccinated pigs compared with entire male pigs. No difference in income per carcass was observed for surgically castrated or vaccinated pigs. However, for entire male pigs the income was lower, as the payment system in

  17. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on affective behaviour and cognition in Brown Norway and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Blokland, A

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies in rats and humans have shown that the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is depleted after consumption of a gelatin-based protein-carbohydrate mixture, which is lacking L-tryptophan (TRP-). In rats, TRP depletion caused impaired object recognition but only had a modest effect on affective behaviour. Because these studies were preformed with Wistar rats, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate strain differences in behavioural responses to acute TRP depletion between Brown Norway (BN) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were repeatedly treated with TRP- or a balanced control (TRP+) and were tested in tests of anxiety- and depression-related behaviour (open-field test, home cage emergence test, social interaction test, forced swim test) and memory. SD rats, but not BNs, showed more anxiety- and depression-related behaviour and impaired object recognition after TRP- treatment. There was a dissociation between plasma TRP levels, central 5-HT concentrations and 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover. Both strains showed about 60% decrease in plasma TRP/SigmaLNAA levels, whereas hippocampal 5-HT levels were lower after TRP- in BN but not SD rats. Conversely, 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover was lower after TRP- in SD but not BN rats, suggesting a dissociation between 5-HT storage and release in SDs. The present study suggests that acute tryptophan depletion effects are strain dependent on the behavioural and the neurochemical level. PMID:19074537

  18. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on affective behaviour and cognition in Brown Norway and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Blokland, A

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies in rats and humans have shown that the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is depleted after consumption of a gelatin-based protein-carbohydrate mixture, which is lacking L-tryptophan (TRP-). In rats, TRP depletion caused impaired object recognition but only had a modest effect on affective behaviour. Because these studies were preformed with Wistar rats, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate strain differences in behavioural responses to acute TRP depletion between Brown Norway (BN) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were repeatedly treated with TRP- or a balanced control (TRP+) and were tested in tests of anxiety- and depression-related behaviour (open-field test, home cage emergence test, social interaction test, forced swim test) and memory. SD rats, but not BNs, showed more anxiety- and depression-related behaviour and impaired object recognition after TRP- treatment. There was a dissociation between plasma TRP levels, central 5-HT concentrations and 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover. Both strains showed about 60% decrease in plasma TRP/SigmaLNAA levels, whereas hippocampal 5-HT levels were lower after TRP- in BN but not SD rats. Conversely, 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover was lower after TRP- in SD but not BN rats, suggesting a dissociation between 5-HT storage and release in SDs. The present study suggests that acute tryptophan depletion effects are strain dependent on the behavioural and the neurochemical level.

  19. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on speech and behavioural mimicry in individuals at familial risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Hogenelst, Koen; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Leander, N Pontus; Müller, Barbara C N; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with abnormalities in speech and behavioural mimicry. These abnormalities may contribute to the impairments in interpersonal functioning that are often seen in MDD patients. MDD has also been associated with disturbances in the brain serotonin system, but the extent to which serotonin regulates speech and behavioural mimicry remains unclear. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we induced acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) in individuals with or without a family history of MDD. Five hours afterwards, participants engaged in two behavioural-mimicry experiments in which speech and behaviour were recorded. ATD reduced the time participants waited before speaking, which might indicate increased impulsivity. However, ATD did not significantly alter speech otherwise, nor did it affect mimicry. This suggests that a brief lowering of brain serotonin has limited effects on verbal and non-verbal social behaviour. The null findings may be due to low test sensitivity, but they otherwise suggest that low serotonin has little effect on social interaction quality in never-depressed individuals. It remains possible that recovered MDD patients are more strongly affected.

  20. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p < .001; I(2) = 71%). Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  1. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in a low energy embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Chassé, Joël; Metaxas, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative importance of tidal phase, larval behaviour, release site, depth layer, and vertical swimming velocity on mean in-sea dispersal distance, retention, distance from shore, and population connectivity. Using a biophysical model, we simulated larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates for 6 taxonomic groups representing different combinations of swimming speed, and depth preference in St. George's Bay, NS, Canada, a shallow bay with low energy (e.g. lack of estuarine circulation). The biophysical model was run over a period of 3 months, from Jul to Sep, representing the period when larvae of the targeted species were present, and at each of 3 years. Overall, release site had the strongest effect of all factors on the dispersal metrics. Although less important than release site in our system, vertical distribution and swim speed had a significant effect which would likely be more pronounced in high (i.e. with features such as estuarine circulation or internal waves) than low energy environments. Retention and distance from shore were more responsive to our manipulations than dispersal distance, both in terms of the number of ecologically significant effects and the magnitudes of their effect size. These findings allow for the prioritization of biophysical model parameters and improved simulations of larval dispersal.

  2. Urban surface temperature behaviour and heat island effect in a tropical planned city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Adeb Qaid; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Jamei, Elmira; Manaf, Norhashima Abd; Said, Ismail; Ahmad, Mohd Hamdan

    2015-02-01

    Putrajaya is a model city planned with concepts of a "city in the garden" and an "intelligent city" in the tropics. This study presents the behaviour of the surface temperature and the heat island effect of Putrajaya. Findings show that heat island intensity is 2 °C on average at nighttime and negligible at daytime. But high surface temperature values were recorded at the main boulevard due to direct solar radiation incident, street orientation in the direction of northeast and southwest and low building height-to-street width ratio. Buildings facing each other had cooling effect on surfaces during the morning and evening hours; conversely, they had a warming effect at noon. Clustered trees along the street are effective in reducing the surface temperature compared to scattered and isolated trees. Surface temperature of built up areas was highest at noon, while walls and sidewalks facing northwest were hottest later in the day. Walls and sidewalks that face northwest were warmer than those that face southeast. The surface temperatures of the horizontal street surfaces and of vertical façades are at acceptable levels relative to the surface temperature of similar surfaces in mature cities in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climates.

  3. Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

    1996-02-01

    Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.

  4. Antinociceptive, behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of CP 55,940 in young rats.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eva M; Fernández, Beatriz; Sagredo, Onintza; Gomez, Nuria; Urigüen, Leyre; Guaza, Carmen; De Miguel, Rosario; Ramos, Jose Antonio; Viveros, M Paz

    2002-06-30

    The peripubertal period appears to be critical in relation to the abuse of cannabinoids and opioids in humans. However there is little information about the acute effects of cannabinoids and their interactions with opioids in young experimental animals. We have studied the effects of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg) on the nociceptive responses (tail immersion test) and holeboard activity of 40-day-old rats, and the involvement of the CB(1) receptor (antagonism by SR 141716A, 3 mg/kg). The implication of the opioid system was evaluated using the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg) and a combined treatment with subeffective doses of CP 55,940 (0.1 mg/kg) and morphine (1 mg/kg). The effects of CP 55,940 on the serum corticosterone levels (radioimmunoassay) and on the dopamine and DOPAC contents of discrete brain regions (high-performance liquid chromatography) were also assessed. The antinociceptive effect of CP 55,940 was of a similar magnitude at all the doses used. The results show the involvement of the CB(1) receptor. The cannabinoid agonist significantly depressed the holeboard activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that the CB(1) receptor is involved in the effects on motor activity but not in the effects on the exploratory activity. The behavioural effects of CP 55,940 were modulated by morphine. The cannabinoid agonist (0.6 mg/kg) induced a CB(1)-mediated increase in the serum corticosterone levels, but no effect on the dopaminergic systems of either the striatum or the limbic forebrain was found.

  5. Behavioural effects of fluoxetine and tianeptine, two antidepressants with opposite action mechanisms, in rats.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, E; Kus, K; Chodera, A; Rybakowski, J

    2000-01-01

    The behavioural effects of two antidepressants with opposite molecular mechanisms, tianeptine 7-[(3-chloro-6,11-dihydro-6-methyldibenzo[c,f][1,2]thiazepin - 11-yl)amino]heptanoic acid S,S-dioxide, CAS 66981-73-5) 5 mg/kg p.o., a serotonin reuptake enhancer, and fluoxetine (+/-)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-p- tolyl)oxy]propylamine, CAS 54910-89-3) 5 mg/kg p.o., a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, were compared after single and prolonged administration (7 and 14 days) once daily). In all experiments the drug effects were noted at the peak activity time: 30 min after tianeptine and 60 min after fluoxetine administration. In the immobility time test both drugs had a shortening effect on immobility time only after prolonged administration or, in single treatment, after joint administration. A different pattern was observed in the two compartment test: both antidepressants showed anxiolytic effects after single and prolonged treatment. However, when the drugs were given in joint administration, the anxiolytic effects were entirely abolished after single as well as prolonged treatment. In reference spatial memory test (food finding time in the maze) tianeptine had no effect, whereas fluoxetine caused, after single and prolonged treatment, a very marked improvement of reference memory. Joint administration of both drugs resulted in worsening the effects on memory in comparison to fluoxetine alone, but the results were still significantly better vs. control. In the test for sedative action (in the Activity Meter AM-1, where the movements of the animals are counted electronically) only after prolonged treatment with tianeptine a diminished locomotor activity could be observed. It is concluded that in the action of the drugs (beside the effect on serotonin uptake) other mechanisms must play an important role. The diminished locomotor activity after tianeptine suggests an influence on the dopaminergic or GABA-Receptor system.

  6. Atypical vertical sound localization and sound-onset sensitivity in people with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Eelke; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; van Opstal, A. John; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with auditory hyper- or hyposensitivity; atypicalities in central auditory processes, such as speech-processing and selective auditory attention; and neural connectivity deficits. We sought to investigate whether the low-level integrative processes underlying sound localization and spatial discrimination are affected in ASDs. Methods We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect). Results Ten adult participants with ASDs and 10 healthy control listeners participated in experiments 1 and 3; sample sizes for experiment 2 were 18 adults with ASDs and 19 controls. Horizontal localization was unaffected, but vertical localization performance was significantly worse in participants with ASDs. The temporal window for the precedence effect was shorter in participants with ASDs than in controls. Limitations The study was performed with adult participants and hence does not provide insight into the developmental aspects of auditory processing in individuals with ASDs. Conclusion Changes in low-level auditory processing could underlie degraded performance in vertical localization, which would be in agreement with recently reported changes in the neuroanatomy of the auditory brainstem in individuals with ASDs. The results are further discussed in the context of theories about abnormal brain connectivity in individuals with ASDs. PMID:24148845

  7. Beneficial behavioural and neurogenic effects of agomelatine in a model of depression/anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Quentin; Xia, Lin; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Hen, René; Enhamre, Erika; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J

    2012-04-01

    Agomelatine (S20098) is a novel antidepressant drug with melatonergic agonist and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist properties, displaying antidepressant/anxiolytic-like properties in animal models and in humans. In a depression/anxiety-like mouse model in which the response of the HPA axis is blunted, we investigated whether agomelatine could reverse behavioural deficits related to depression/anxiety compared to the classical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Adult mice were treated for 8 wk with either vehicle or corticosterone (35 μg/ml.d) via drinking water. During the final 4 wk, animals were treated with vehicle, agomelatine (10 or 40 mg/kg i.p.) or fluoxetine (18 mg/kg i.p.) and tested in several behavioural paradigms and also evaluated for home-cage activity. Our results showed that the depressive/anxiety-like phenotype induced by corticosterone treatment is reversed by either chronic agomelatine or fluoxetine treatment. Moreover, agomelatine increased the dark/light ratio of home-cage activity in vehicle-treated mice and reversed the alterations in this ratio induced by chronic corticosterone, suggesting a normalization of disturbed circadian rhythms. Finally, we investigated the effects of this new antidepressant on neurogenesis. Agomelatine reversed the decreased cell proliferation in the whole hippocampus in corticosterone-treated mice and increased maturation of newborn neurons in both vehicle- and corticosterone-treated mice. Overall, the present study suggests that agomelatine, with its distinct mechanism of action based on the synergy between the melatonergic agonist and 5-HT2C antagonist properties, provides a distinct antidepressant/anxiolytic spectrum including circadian rhythm normalization. PMID:21473810

  8. Analysis of linear viscoelastic behaviour of alginate gels: effects of inner relaxation, water diffusion, and syneresis.

    PubMed

    Siviello, Ciro; Greco, Francesco; Larobina, Domenico

    2015-08-14

    The mechanical behaviour of ionically cross-linked alginate gels is investigated here in detail. To determine the range of linear response of the materials, uniaxial, unconfined compression and torsional deformation experiments are performed, obtaining both the stress-strain and the viscoelastic behaviour of the gels. On-line measurements of the radii of the cylindrical gel samples in these experiments are also reported. The linearity range in the gel mechanical response is found to be rather limited, up to 6% strain, at most, contrary to more optimistic conclusions usually reported in the literature. We confirm the presence of a stress-diffusion coupling phenomenon in our alginates, i.e., the migration of water from/into the gels in response to the applied deformation. A phenomenon of inner (constitutive) relaxation of the network component of the gels is also clearly identified, and observed to occur, in parallel with solvent diffusion, upon compression. At sufficiently longer times after a deformation step, syneresis is always observed, with concomitant nonstandard viscoelastic effects, such as the growth of a normal force in torsion, and a size dependent decay of the longitudinal force in compression. We applied a two-fluid model, recently developed by two of the present authors [D. Larobina and F. Greco, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136(13), 134904], to simulate the relaxation tests upon torsional and compressive deformations, and to fit our own experiments. The model is found to well describe the coupling between constitutive relaxation and diffusion, and to reproduce the available force and radii data before the advent of syneresis.

  9. Intraguild predation leads to cascading effects on habitat choice, behaviour and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Chakarov, Nayden; Heseker, Hanna; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    force of behavioural change, simultaneously influencing habitat use and aggressiveness in predator communities. These changes might help to buffer mesopredator populations against the negative effects of intraguild predation. PMID:26781959

  10. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  11. Effects of oxytocin and genetic variants on brain and behaviour: Implications for treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Ganella, Eleni P; Labuschagne, Izelle; Bousman, Chad; Pantelis, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Impairments in social cognition and poor social functioning are core features of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In recent years, there has been a move towards developing new treatment strategies that specifically target social cognitive and social behavioural deficits. Oxytocin (OXT) is one such strategy that has gained increasing attention. There is a strong rationale for studying OXT in psychosis, from both an evolutionary perspective and neurodevelopmental-cognitive model of schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this review was to critique and examine the observational and clinical oxytocin trial literature in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A handful of clinical trials suggest that OXT treatment may be beneficial for remediating social cognitive impairments, psychiatric symptoms, and improving social outcomes. However, inconsistencies exist in this literature, which may be explained by individual differences in the underlying neural response to OXT treatment and/or variation in the oxytocin and oxytocin receptor genes. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the evidence for structural and functional neural intermediate phenotypes in humans that link genetic variants to social behaviour/thinking, and discuss the implications of such interactions in the context of dysfunctional brain networks in schizophrenia. Factors that pose challenges for future OXT clinical research include the impact of age, sex, and ancestry, task-specific effects, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, as well as neurotransmitter and drug interactions. While initial findings from OXT single dose/clinical trial studies are promising, more interdisciplinary research in both healthy and psychiatric populations is needed before determining whether OXT is a viable treatment option/adjunct for addressing poor illness outcomes in psychotic disorders. PMID:26123171

  12. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the op