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Sample records for au-sn solder joints

  1. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-01

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  2. Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Behavior of Au-Sn/Ni- xCu Joints at 350°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Wang, R. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    Interfacial reaction and shear behavior of the joints between Au-29Sn (at.%) solder and Ni- xCu ( x = 20 at.%, 40 at.%, 60 at.%, and 80 at.%) substrate alloys soldered at 350°C for various durations were investigated in this study. The results show that α(Au) is the common reaction product at the solder/substrate interfaces after a short-time reaction regardless of Cu content. As soldering goes on, another new Ni3Sn2 layer forms at the interface company with ordering of the α(Au) phase, AuCu I/Ni3Sn2 bi-layers formed at the Au-Sn/Ni-20Cu interface, or with AuCu III/Ni3Sn2 bi-layers at the Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu interface. If the content of Cu in the substrate is higher than 40 at.%, periodic layered structure and discontinuous Ni3Sn2 layers appear. In the couple of Au-Sn/Ni-60Cu, AuCu I + AuCu III/Ni3Sn2/α(Au) can be observed while AuCu3/Ni3Sn2/α(Au) forms in the couple of Au-Sn/Ni-80Cu. Shear fracture always occurs in the region near the Ni-20Cu substrate in Au-Sn/Ni-20Cu joints, whereas it appears in the reaction layer for the joint of higher Cu content. The shear strength of Au-Sn/Ni-60Cu and Au-Sn/Ni-80Cu joints achieves about 55 MPa as α(Au) phase forms but decreases remarkably due to pore formation after soldering for a long duration. Whereas, the shear strength of Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu joints can reach 62 MPa as the α(Au) phase forms at an early stage, and maintains above 52 MPa even soldered for a long duration because of the adequate thick α(Au) and AuCu III layer adjacent to substrate provides good bonding. The reason why the soldering joint of Au-Sn/Ni-40Cu possesses higher strength and a better stability exists is that high Ni concentration in α(Au) and the continuous Ni3Sn2 layer inhibit formation of Kirkendall pores.

  3. Pulsed electrodeposition of the eutectic Au/Sn solder for optoelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurfors, B.; Ivey, D. G.

    2001-09-01

    As an alternative to the time-consuming solder pastes and preforms currently being used, a method of electroplating the eutectic Au/Sn alloy has been developed. Using a pulsed co-deposition process, it is possible to plate the solder directly onto a wafer at or near the eutectic composition from a single solution. It has been shown that two distinct phase, Au5Sn and AuSn, can be deposited separately over a range of current densities at compositions of 15 at. %Sn and 50 at. %Sn, respectively. by adjusting the deposition current pulse, it is possible to plate both phases in a layered composite thereby achieving any desired composition between 15 and 50 at. %Sn, including the commercially important eutectic composition.

  4. Microstructural evolution of eutectic gold-tin solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho Geon

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead (Pb)-free solders in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability. The study particularly concentrated on the effects that the joint size and the type of substrate metallization have on both the bulk and interface microstructures of the joints. The systems studied were eutectic Au-Sn on Cu and Cu/electroless Ni/Au and for each system, two sets of sample geometries were used. Eutectic Au-Sn solder joints on Cu have microstructures that are very coarse on the scale of the joint, where the microstructure is strongly affected by the amount of Cu dissolution during reflow process. During aging, steady diffusion of Cu leads to the growth of Cu-rich interfacial intermetallic layers, significant consumption of substrate Cu, and formation of Kirkendall pores along the interface. Thermal cycling of the joints caused decomposition of the thick zeta(Cu)-phase into a fine-grained multiphase microstructure. The microstructures of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints on Cu/electroless Ni/Au are also very coarse due to the dissolution of Au used as a protective layer during soldering. Electroless Ni is shown to effectively act as a diffusion barrier for Cu. The electroless Ni near the interface evolves into a complicated structure due to the interfacial reaction. The solubility characteristics and diffusional behavior of substrate metals into eutectic Au-Sn solder determines the detailed microstructure and microstructural evolution of the ultrafine eutectic Au-Sn joints. Two important things to be noted from the results are as follows: First, the overall microstructures of these joints are very coarse with respect to the size of joint, and hence the properties of the

  5. Theoretical prediction of thermodynamic activities of liquid Au-Sn-X (X=Bi, Sb, Zn) solder systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, O. E.; Oshakuade, O. M.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular interaction volume model has been theoretically used to predict the thermodynamic activities of tin in Au-Sn-Bi and Au-Sn-Sb and the thermodynamic activity of zinc in Au-Sn-Zn at experimental temperatures 800 K, 873 K and 973 K, respectively. On the premise of agreement between the predicted and experimental values, we predicted the activities of the remaining two components in each of the three systems. This prediction was extended from three cross-sections to five cross-sections, and to temperature range 400-600 K, relevant for applications. Iso-activities were plotted. Results show that addition of tin reduces the tendency for chemical short range order in both Au-Sb and Au-Zn systems, while addition of gold and bismuth, respectively, reduce the tendency for chemical short range order in Sn-Sb and Au-Sn systems. Also, we found that, in the desired high-temperature region for applications, while a combination of chemical order and miscibility of components exist in both Au-Sn-Bi and Au-Sn-Zn systems, only chemical order exist in the Au-Sn-Sb system. Results, further show that increase in temperature reduces the phase separation tendency in Au-Sn-Bi system.

  6. Solders in Real Electronic Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudajevová, A.; Dušek, K.

    2014-07-01

    Undercooling and recalescence were studied using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method on real electronic systems. Two solder pastes, Sn62.5Pb36.5Ag1 and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5, were used for preparation of electronic joints. Various combinations of these solders and soldering pads with different surface finishes such as Cu, Cu-Ni-Au, Cu-Sn, and Cu-Sn99Cu1 were used. During melting of both pastes, the Sn and Sn99Cu1 surface finishes immediately dissolved in the solder and the Cu surface coating was exposed to the melt. Therefore, practically the same undercooling was found for the Cu, Cu-Sn, and Cu-Sn99Cu1 coatings. The lowest undercooling was found for the Cu-Ni-Au surface finish for both solder pastes. If two separated electronic joints were made on the sample, two separate peaks were found in the DSC signal during solidification. In the sample with only one joint, only one exothermic peak was found. These findings were observed for all paste/surface finish combinations. These data were analyzed, showing that this effect is a consequence of undercooling and recalescence: Latent heat released during solidification of the joint increases the surrounding temperature and influences all the processes taking place.

  7. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.; Flynn, James; Browder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A method of monitoring the health of selected solder joints, called SJ-BIST, has been developed by Ridgetop Group Inc. under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. The primary goal of this research program is to test and validate this method in a flight environment using realistically seeded faults in selected solder joints. An additional objective is to gather environmental data for future development of physics-based and data-driven prognostics algorithms. A test board is being designed using a Xilinx FPGA. These boards will be tested both in flight and on the ground using a shaker table and an altitude chamber.

  8. Effect of Gold Content on the Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints Under Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Mike; Pan, Jianbiao; Silk, Julie; Hyland, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days. Representative solder joints were cross-sectioned and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to investigate the evolution of the solder joint morphology as a function of Au content and isothermal aging. It was found that, if Cu is available to dissolve in the solder joint, the migration of AuSn4 from the bulk to the interface as a result of thermal aging is mitigated.

  9. The failure analysis and lifetime prediction for the solder joint of the magnetic head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianghui; Peng, Minfang; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Tang, Rongjun; Zhou, YingLiang

    2015-02-01

    Micro-solder joint (MSJ) lifetime prediction methodology and failure analysis (FA) are to assess reliability by fatigue model with a series of theoretical calculations, numerical simulation and experimental method. Due to shortened time of solder joints on high-temperature, high-frequency sampling error that is not allowed in productions may exist in various models, including round-off error. Combining intermetallic compound (IMC) growth theory and the FA technology for the magnetic head in actual production, this thesis puts forward a new growth model to predict life expectancy for solder joint of the magnetic head. And the impact of IMC, generating from interface reaction between slider (magnetic head, usually be called slider) and bonding pad, on mechanical performance during aging process is analyzed in it. By further researching on FA of solder ball bonding, thesis chooses AuSn4 growth model that affects least to solder joint mechanical property to indicate that the IMC methodology is suitable to forecast the solder lifetime. And the diffusion constant under work condition 60 °C is 0.015354; the solder lifetime t is 14.46 years.

  10. The failure analysis and lifetime prediction for the solder joint of the magnetic head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianghui; Peng, Minfang; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Tang, Rongjun; Zhou, YingLiang

    2014-09-01

    Micro-solder joint (MSJ) lifetime prediction methodology and failure analysis (FA) are to assess reliability by fatigue model with a series of theoretical calculations, numerical simulation and experimental method. Due to shortened time of solder joints on high-temperature, high-frequency sampling error that is not allowed in productions may exist in various models, including round-off error. Combining intermetallic compound (IMC) growth theory and the FA technology for the magnetic head in actual production, this thesis puts forward a new growth model to predict life expectancy for solder joint of the magnetic head. And the impact of IMC, generating from interface reaction between slider (magnetic head, usually be called slider) and bonding pad, on mechanical performance during aging process is analyzed in it. By further researching on FA of solder ball bonding, thesis chooses AuSn4 growth model that affects least to solder joint mechanical property to indicate that the IMC methodology is suitable to forecast the solder lifetime. And the diffusion constant under work condition 60 °C is 0.015354; the solder lifetime t is 14.46 years.

  11. Computer simulation of solder joint failure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, S.N.; Frear, D.R.; Rashid, M.M.

    1997-04-01

    The thermomechanical fatigue failure of solder joints is increasingly becoming an important reliability issue for electronic packages. The purpose of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to develop computational tools for simulating the behavior of solder joints under strain and temperature cycling, taking into account the microstructural heterogeneities that exist in as-solidified near eutectic Sn-Pb joints, as well as subsequent microstructural evolution. The authors present two computational constitutive models, a two-phase model and a single-phase model, that were developed to predict the behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder joints under fatigue conditions. Unique metallurgical tests provide the fundamental input for the constitutive relations. The two-phase model mathematically predicts the heterogeneous coarsening behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The finite element simulations with this model agree qualitatively with experimental thermomechanical fatigue tests. The simulations show that the presence of an initial heterogeneity in the solder microstructure could significantly degrade the fatigue lifetime. The single-phase model was developed to predict solder joint behavior using materials data for constitutive relation constants that could be determined through straightforward metallurgical experiments. Special thermomechanical fatigue tests were developed to give fundamental materials input to the models, and an in situ SEM thermomechanical fatigue test system was developed to characterize microstructural evolution and the mechanical behavior of solder joints during the test. A shear/torsion test sample was developed to impose strain in two different orientations. Materials constants were derived from these tests. The simulation results from the two-phase model showed good fit to the experimental test results.

  12. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  13. Testing of printed circuit board solder joints by optical correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1975-01-01

    An optical correlation technique for the nondestructive evaluation of printed circuit board solder joints was evaluated. Reliable indications of induced stress levels in solder joint lead wires are achievable. Definite relations between the inherent strength of a solder joint, with its associated ability to survive stress, are demonstrable.

  14. Prediction of Solder Joint Fatigue Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    strains are in turn used to calculate Nf via a Coffin - Manson LCF curve developed from the tests on simple solder joints. This life is compared to...correlation with a = 0.52 (the Coffin - Manson LCF exponent) has been discussed previously [2]. The slope was determined from a least squares fit with a

  15. Shear strength of LED solder joints using SAC-nano Cu solder pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Fenglian; Liu, Ping; Gu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-09-01

    The addition of Cu nanoparticles into the solder pastes by mechanical mixing method creates a positive effect on the microstructure refinement of the LED solder joints. The grain size of β-Sn and Cu6Sn5 decrease obviously due to the increasing concentration of the nanoparticles in the solder pastes. However, the addition of nanoparticles facilitates the formation of voids in the solder joints, especially when the concentration of nanoparticles is higher than 0.5 wt% in the solder pastes. Both the microstructure refinement and void percentage affect the shear strength of the solder joints. Since the increase of the void percentage is limited when the concentration of nanoparticles increases from 0 to 0.5 wt%, the microstructure refinement shows a dominant effect on the shear performance and thus improves the shear strength of the solder joints from 49.8 to 55 MPa. Further addition of nanoparticles in the solder pastes leads to a sharp increase of the void percentage. Consequently, the shear strength of the solder joints decreases from 55 to 48.8 MPa when the concentration of doped particles increases from 0.5 to 1 wt% in the solder pastes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51604090) and the Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Soldering & Brazing Materials and Technology (No. 1402).

  16. Shaping Transistor Leads for Better Solder Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, H.; Dillon, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Special lead-forming tool puts step in leads of microwave power transistors without damaging braze joints that fasten leads to package. Stepped leads are soldered to circuit boards more reliably than straight leads, and stress on brazes is relieved. Lead-forming hand-tool has two parts: a forming die and an actuator. Spring-loaded saddle is adjusted so that when transistor package is placed on it, leads rest on forming rails.

  17. Reliability issues in Pb-free solder joint miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiheng; Conway, Paul P.; Jung, Erik; Thomson, Rachel C.; Liu, Changqing; Loeher, Thomas; Minkus, Mathias

    2006-09-01

    As solder joints become increasingly miniaturized to meet the severe demands of future electronic packaging, it is vitally important to consider whether the solder joint size and geometry could become reliability issues and thereby affect implementation of the Pb-free solders. In this study, three bumping techniques, i.e., solder dipping, stencil printing followed by solder reflow, and electroplating of solders with subsequent reflow, were used to investigate the interfacial interactions of molten Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu, and pure Sn solders on a copper pad at 240°C. The resultant interfacial microstructures, coming from a variety of Cu pads, with sizes ranging from 1 mm to 25 µm, and representing different solder bump geometries, have been investigated. In addition, a two-dimensional thermodynamic/kinetic model has been developed to assist the understanding of the kinetics of interdiffusion and the formation of interfacial intermetallic compounds. Experimental results and theoretical predictions both suggest that the solder bump size and geometry can influence the as-soldered microstructure; therefore, this factor should be taken into consideration for the design of future reliable ultrafine Pb-free solder joints.

  18. Anomalous creep in Sn-rich solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon; Morris Jr., John W.; Hua, Fay

    2002-03-15

    This paper discusses the creep behavior of example Sn-rich solders that have become candidates for use in Pb-free solder joints. The specific solders discussed are Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-0.7Cu and Sn-10In-3.1Ag, used in thin joints between Cu and Ni-Au metallized pads.

  19. Fatigue life prediction of solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.B.

    1991-09-10

    The current status of lifetime prediction under conditions of thermomechanical creep/fatigue is reviewed. Each method is summarized and the results of the application to solder joints is shown. While each method has been applied with some success, a predictive, phenomenological approach has not been developed and validated. A method which captures the response of a crack to steady-state and cycling environments appears to hold most the most promise to provide a useful design tool. 42 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Sn-Ag-Cu Nanosolders: Solder Joints Integrity and Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Khatibi, Golta; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    Although considerable research has been dedicated to the synthesis and characterization of lead-free nanoparticle solder alloys, only very little has been reported on the reliability of the respective joints. In fact, the merit of nanoparticle solders with depressed melting temperatures close to the Sn-Pb eutectic temperature has always been challenged when compared with conventional solder joints, especially in terms of inferior solderability due to the oxide shell commonly present on the nanoparticles, as well as due to compatibility problems with common fluxing agents. Correspondingly, in the current study, Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) nanoparticle alloys were combined with a proper fluxing vehicle to produce prototype nanosolder pastes. The reliability of the solder joints was successively investigated by means of electron microscopy and mechanical tests. As a result, the optimized condition for employing nanoparticles as a competent nanopaste and a novel procedure for surface treatment of the SAC nanoparticles to diminish the oxide shell prior to soldering are being proposed.

  1. Microstructural evolution during the thermomechanical fatigue of solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D R

    1991-01-01

    Solder joints in electronic packages are electrical interconnections that also function as mechanical bonds. The solder often constrains materials of different coefficients of thermal expansion that, when thermal fluctuations are encountered, causes the solder joint to experience cyclical deformation. Due to the catastrophic consequences of electrical or mechanical failure of solder joints, a great deal of work has been performed to develop a better understanding of the metallurgical response of solder joints subjected to thermomechanical fatigue. This work reviews the microstructural and mechanical evolution that occurs in solder joints during thermomechanical fatigue. The eutectic Sn-Pb solder alloy is highlighted. Unlike most materials that experience thermomechanical fatigue, solder is commonly used at temperatures of up to nine-tenths of its melting point. Therefore extensive creep, solid state diffusion, recrystallization and grain growth occur in this alloy resulting in the evolution of a heterogeneous coarsened band through which failure eventually takes place. Two other solder alloys are compared with the Sn-Pb eutectic, a Pb-rich Sn-Pb alloy and a ternary near eutectic (40In-40Sn-20Pb, all alloys are given in wt. %). The Pb-rich alloy is a precipitated single phase matrix that does not evolve during thermomechanical fatigue and subsequently has a shorter lifetime. Conversely, the 40In-40Sn-20Pb solder is a two phase eutectic in which the microstructures refines during thermomechanical fatigue giving it a longer lifetime than the eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The microstructural processes that occur during thermomechanical fatigue and final fracture behavior are discussed for the three solder alloys. 47 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Reliability Evaluation of Bga Solder Joints during Accelerated Life Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ouk Sub; Myoung, No Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Hur, Man Jae; Hwang, Si Woon

    The use of BGA (Ball Grid Array) interconnects utilizing the lead-free solder joint has grown rapidly because of its small volume and diversity of application. Thus, it requires the continuous quantification and refinement of lead-free solder joint reliability. The lead-free solder creep and cyclically applied mechanical loads cause metal fatigue on the lead-free solder joint which inevitably leads to an electrical discontinuity. In the field application, BGA solder joints experience mechanical loads during temperature changes caused by power up/down events as the result of the CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatch between the substrate and the Si die. In this paper, extremely small resistance changes at joint area corresponding to through-cracks generated by thermal fatigue were measured. In this way, the failure was defined in terms of anomalous changes in electrical resistance of the joint. Furthermore the reliability of BGA solder joints in thermal cycling is evaluated by using the modified coffin-Manson criterion which may define and distinguish failure. Any change in circuit resistance according to the accumulated damage induced by the thermal cycling in the joint was recorded and evaluated in order to quantitate reliability of solder joint.

  3. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55/sup 0/C and 125/sup 0/C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb.

  4. Simulation of thermomechanical fatigue in solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H.E.; Porter, V.L.; Fye, R.M.; Holm, E.A.

    1997-12-31

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) is a very complex phenomenon in electronic component systems and has been identified as one prominent degradation mechanism for surface mount solder joints in the stockpile. In order to precisely predict the TMF-related effects on the reliability of electronic components in weapons, a multi-level simulation methodology is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This methodology links simulation codes of continuum mechanics (JAS3D), microstructural mechanics (GLAD), and microstructural evolution (PARGRAIN) to treat the disparate length scales that exist between the macroscopic response of the component and the microstructural changes occurring in its constituent materials. JAS3D is used to predict strain/temperature distributions in the component due to environmental variable fluctuations. GLAD identifies damage initiation and accumulation in detail based on the spatial information provided by JAS3D. PARGRAIN simulates the changes of material microstructure, such as the heterogeneous coarsening in Sn-Pb solder, when the component`s service environment varies.

  5. Prevention of cracking of soldered joints in electronic assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, B.

    1970-01-01

    Printed circuit board design allows for thermal stressing of the soldered joints during many thermal cycles. Components' leads should be cleaned, tinned, and freed of particles that prevent solder adherence, have a thin conformal coating, and have an air space between the coating and the body of the component.

  6. Characterization of eutectic Sn-Bi solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Z.; Morris, J. W.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents experimental results on 58Bi-42Sn solder joints, optical and SEM microstructures of their matrix and of their interface with copper, solidification behavior studied by differential scanning calorimetry, wettability to copper, creep, and low cycle fatigue. These results are discussed in comparison with 60Sn-40Pb solder, and with three low temperature solders, 52In-48Sn, 43Sn-43Pb-14Bi, and 40In-40Sn-20Pb. The 58Bi-42Sn solder paste with RMA flux wets Cu matrix with a wetting angle of 35° and had a 15° C undercooling during solidification. The constitutive equation of the steady state shear strain rate, and the Coffin-Manson relation constants for the low cycle shear fatigue life at 65° C have been determined. The test results show that this solder has the best creep resistance but the poorest fatigue strength compared with the other four solders.

  7. Creep-caused fracture of PbSn solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, M.; Wang, Z. B.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.

    2017-07-01

    This paper analyzes two failure cases of creep-caused fracture of PbSn solder joint, including the joint between the wire and solder cup in the connector and the joint between the integrated circuit (IC) pins and the printed circuit board (PCB). The environment conditions, for the creep of PbSn solder joint is demonstrated, including the temperature and stress level. The stress origin and fracture morphology are summarized based on the failure analysis. Besides, the developing process of creep-caused fracture is explained. The paper comprehensively clarifies the creep mechanism of PbSn solder and consequently provides significant guidance for the reliable electronic assembly to avoid the creep-caused damage.

  8. Tensile behavior of pb-sn solder/cu joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Lenora; Frear, Darrel; Grivas, Dennis; Morris, J. W.

    1987-05-01

    Solders of nominal 95Pb-5Sn and 60Sn-40Pb were used to join Cu plates. The effect of ternary additions of In, Ag, Sb, and Bi to the near-eutectic solder were also investigated. Bulk solder and interfacial joint microstructures were characterized for each solder alloy. The solder joints were strained to failure in tension; joint strength and failure mode were determined. 95Pb-5Sn/Cu and 60Sn-40Pb/Cu specimens were tested both as-processed and after reflow. 95Pb-5Sn/Cu as-processed and reflow specimens failed in tension in a ductile mode. Voids initiated at β-Sn precipitates in the as-processed specimens and at the Cu3Sn intermetallic in the reflow specimens. 60Sn-40Pb/Cu failed transgranularly through the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic in both the as-processed and reflow conditions. The joint tensile strength of the reflow specimens was approximately half that of the as-processed specimens for both the high-Pb and near-eutectic alloys. The Cu6Sn{5} intermetallic dominated the tensile failure mode of the near-eutectic solder/Cu joints. The fracture path of the near-eutectic alloys with ternary additions depended on the presence of Cu6Sn5 rods in the solder within the Cu plates. Specimens with ternary additions of In and Ag contained only interfacial intermetallics and exhibited interfacial failure at the Cu6Sn5. Joints manufactured with ternary additions of Sb and Bi contained rods of Cu6Sn5 within the solder. Tensile failure of the Sb and Bi specimens occurred through the solder at the Cu6Sn5 rods.

  9. Investigation of gold embrittlement in connector solder joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine to what extent typical flight connector solder joints may be embrittled by the presence of gold. In addition to mapping of gold content in connector solder joints by an electron microprobe analyzer, metallographic examinations and mechanical tests (thermal shock, vibration, impact and tensile strength) were also conducted. A description of the specimens and tests, a discussion of the data, and some conclusions are presented.

  10. Characterization of Solder Joint Reliability Using Cyclic Mechanical Fatigue Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Choong-Un; Bang, Woong-Ho; Xu, Huili; Lee, Tae-Kyu

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the mechanics of two mechanical fatigue methods, cyclic bending fatigue and shear fatigue, in inducing failure in solder joints in package assemblies, and it presents the characteristics of fatigue failures resulting from these methods using example cases of Sn-Pb eutectic and Sn-rich Pb-free solder alloys. Numerical simulation suggests that both testing configurations induce fatigue failure by the crack-opening mode. In the case of bending fatigue, the strain induced by the bending displacement is found to be sensitive to chip geometry, and it induces fatigue cracks mainly at the solder matrix adjacent to the printed circuit board interface. In case of shear fatigue, the failure location is firmly fixed at the solder neck, created by solder mask, where an abrupt change in the solder geometry occurs. Both methods conclude that the Coffin-Manson model is the most appropriate model for the isothermal mechanical fatigue of solder alloys. An analysis of fatigue characteristics using the frame of the Coffin-Manson model produces several insightful results, such as the reason why Pb-free alloys show higher fatigue resistance than Sn-Pb alloys even if they are generally more brittle. Our analysis suggests that it is related to higher work hardening. All these results indicate that mechanical fatigue can be an extremely useful method for fast screening of defective package structures and also in gaining a better understanding of fatigue failure mechanism and prediction of reliability in solder joints.

  11. Robotic 3D vision solder joint verification system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    A comparative performance evaluation was conducted between a proprietary inspection system using intelligent 3D vision and manual visual inspection of solder joints. The purpose was to assess the compatibility and correlation of the automated system with current visual inspection criteria. The results indicated that the automated system was more accurate (> 90%) than visual inspection (60--70%) in locating and/or categorizing solder joint defects. In addition, the automated system can offer significant capabilities to characterize and monitor a soldering process by measuring physical attributes, such as solder joint volumes and wetting angles, which are not available through manual visual inspection. A more in-depth evaluation of this technology is recommended.

  12. Microstructurally based finite element simulation of solder joint behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.; Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Stephens, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The most commonly used solder for electrical interconnects in electronic packages is the near eutectic 60Sn-40Pb alloy. This alloy has a number of processing advantages (suitable melting point of 183C and good wetting behavior). However, under conditions of cyclic strain and temperature (thermomechanical fatigue) the microstructure of this alloy undergoes a heterogeneous coarsening and failure process that makes the prediction of solder joint lifetime complex. A finite element simulation methodology to predict solder joint mechanical behavior, that includes microstructural evolution, has been developed. The mechanical constitutive behavior was incorporated into the time dependent internal state variable viscoplastic model through experimental creep tests. The microstructural evolution is incorporated through a series of mathematical relations that describe mass flow in a temperature/strain environment. The model has been found to simulate observed thermomechanical fatigue behavior in solder joints.

  13. Corrosion resistance of the soldering joint of post-soldering of palladium-based metal-ceramic alloys.

    PubMed

    Kawada, E; Sakurai, Y; Oda, Y

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the corrosion resistance of post soldering of metal-ceramic alloys, four commercially available palladium-system metal-ceramic alloys (Pd-Cu, Pd-Ni, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Sb systems) and two types of solder (12 k gold solder and 16 k gold solder) with different compositions and melting points were used. The corrosion resistance of the soldered joint was evaluated by anodic polarization. The electrochemical characteristics of soldered surface were measured using electrochemical equipment. Declines in corrosion resistance were not detectable with Pd-Cu, Pd-Ag and Pd-Sb types, but break down at low potential occurred with Pd-Ni type.

  14. Creep properties of Pb-free solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.G.; Morris Jr., J.W.; Hua, F.

    2002-04-01

    Describes the creep behavior of three Sn-rich solders that have become candidates for use in Pb-free solder joints: Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-0.7Cu. The three solders show the same general behavior when tested in thin joints between Cu and Ni/Au metallized pads at temperatures between 60 and 130 C. Their steady-state creep rates are separated into two regimes with different stress exponents(n). The low-stress exponents range from {approx}3-6, while the high-stress exponents are anomalously high (7-12). Strikingly, the high-stress exponent has a strong temperature dependence near room temperature, increasing significantly as the temperature drops from 95 to 60 C. The anomalous creep behavior of the solders appears to be due to the dominant Sn constituent. Joints of pure Sn have stress exponents, n, that change with stress and temperature almost exactly like those of the Sn-rich solder joints. Research on creep in bulk samples of pure Sn suggests that the anomalous temperature dependence of the stress exponent may show a change in the dominant mechanism of creep. Whatever its source, it has the consequence that conventional constitutive relations for steady-state creep must be used with caution in treating Sn-rich solder joints, and qualification tests that are intended to verify performance should be carefully designed.

  15. Inconsistencies in the Understanding of Solder Joint Reliability Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Over the years, many analytical and experimental research studies have aimed to improve the state-of-the-art assessment of solder joint integrity from a physics-of-failure perspective. Although much progress has been made, there still exist many inconsistent and even contradictory correlations and conclusions. Before discussing some of the prominent inconsistencies found in the literature, this paper reviews the fundamental physics underlying the nature of solder failure...Using the complex constitutive properties of solder, fundamental mechanical and thermomechanical proccesses can be modeled to demonstrate some of the inconsistencies in the literature.

  16. Coarsening of the Sn-Pb Solder Microstructure in Constitutive Model-Based Predictions of Solder Joint Thermal Mechanical Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Rejent, J.A.; Frear, D.R.

    1999-04-12

    Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is an important damage mechanism for solder joints exposed to cyclic temperature environments. Predicting the service reliability of solder joints exposed to such conditions requires two knowledge bases: first, the extent of fatigue damage incurred by the solder microstructure leading up to fatigue crack initiation, must be quantified in both time and space domains. Secondly, fatigue crack initiation and growth must be predicted since this metric determines, explicitly, the loss of solder joint functionality as it pertains to its mechanical fastening as well as electrical continuity roles. This paper will describe recent progress in a research effort to establish a microstructurally-based, constitutive model that predicts TMF deformation to 63Sn-37Pb solder in electronic solder joints up to the crack initiation step. The model is implemented using a finite element setting; therefore, the effects of both global and local thermal expansion mismatch conditions in the joint that would arise from temperature cycling.

  17. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of Sn-Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Subramanian, K. N.; Lucas, J. P.; Bieler, T. R.

    2000-10-01

    Microstructural studies of thermomechanically fatigued actual electronic components consisting of metallized alumina substrate and tinned copper lead, soldered with Sn-Ag or 95.5Ag/4Ag/0.5Cu solder were carried out with an optical microscope and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Damage characterization was made on samples that underwent 250 and 1000 thermal shock cycles between -40°C and 125°C, with a 20 min hold time at each extreme. Surface roughening and grain boundary cracking were evident even in samples thermally cycled for 250 times. The cracks were found to originate on the free surface of the solder joint. With increased thermal cycles these cracks grew by grain boundary decohesion. The crack that will affect the integrity of the solder joint was found to originate from the free surface of the solder very near the alumina substrate and progress towards and continue along the solder region adjacent to the Ag3Sn intermetallic layer formed with the metallized alumina substrate. Re-examination of these thermally fatigued samples that were stored at room temperature after ten months revealed the effects of significant residual stress due to such thermal cycles. Such observations include enhanced surface relief effects delineating the grain boundaries and crack growth in regions inside the joint.

  18. Effects of soft beam energy on the microstructure of Pb37Sn, Au20Sn, and Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder joints in lensed-SM-fiber to laser-diode-affixing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. W.; Chan, Y. C.; Leung, Bernard; Liu, H. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the effectiveness of soft beam energy as a heat source to form an optimum solder joint to fix a lensed fiber permanently on a Ni/Au-plated substrate. Solders, i.e., Pb37Sn, Au20Sn, and Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu (SAC) [wt%] were evaluated for this fluxless application. The microstructures of the solder joints have been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to understand the response of these solder materials to the focussed white light. Obviously, the exposure time has a greater effect on the soldering temperature before reaching the peak temperature, which is determined by the power. A power setting of 40 W can reach approximately 340 °C, 30 W can reach about 310 °C while 25 W can easily reach 260 °C. In general, a higher soldering temperature than the melting temperature is required to form good wetting solder joints for fluxless applications. However, too high an input thermal energy may result in premature aging for the cases of Pb37Sn and SAC, and lateral cracks for the case of Au20Sn. The thermal cracks and voids observed in Au20Sn solder joint were attributed to the fact that the soft beam heating profile does not suit the AuSn preform. Out of these three solder types, SAC demonstrated just the right response to the soft beam, i.e., good wetting, fine and homogeneous structure, and no cracks or other visible failures.

  19. Infrared Detection of Faulty Solder Joints. Phase 2.2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    SOA1 0 AZTTI SYSTEMS INC. STOUSHTON MA F6I/ INFRARED DETECTION OF FAULTY SOLDER JOINTS. PHASE 2.2.(U) MAR 82 A C TRAUB F04606-80-C-1338 UNCLASSIFIED...INFRARED DETECTION ] OF ~FAULTY SOLDER JOINTS PHASE 2.2 1 Under Contract No. F04606-80-C-1338 to SM-ALC/MMIREA SACRAMENTO, ALC McCLELLAN AFB, CA 1 March...1982 by Alan C. Traubj Vanzetti Systems, Inc. Stoughton, MA 02072 I APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED I I "DTICI I D plates : T)C rvprod0

  20. Interactions of fibroblasts with soldered and laser-welded joints.

    PubMed

    Solmi, R; Martini, D; Zanarini, M; Isaza Penco, S; Rimondini, L; Carinci, P; Borea, G; Ruggeri, A

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the biocompatibility of the soldered or laser-welded joints of dental appliances. We investigated the reaction of human gingival fibroblasts cultured in vitro in direct contact with samples of soldered and laser-welded joints from orthodontic lingual arches. Contrast phase light microscopy was used to evaluate cell adhesion, morphology and proliferation after 6 and 24h and after 7 and 16 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed at 16 days. Our in vitro findings provide evidence that laser-welded orthodontic appliances have superior fibroblast biocompatibility.

  1. Characterization of eutectic Sn-Bi solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Z.; Morris, J.W. Jr. )

    1992-06-01

    This report presents experimental results on 58Bi-42Sn solder joints, optical and SEM microstructures of their matrix and of their interface with copper, solidification behavior studied by differential scanning calorimetry, wettability to copper, creep, and low cycle fatigue. These results are discussed in comparison with 60Sn-40Pb solder, and with three low temperature solders, 52In-48Sn, 42Sn-43Pb-14Bi, and 40In-40Sn-20Pb. The 58Bi-42Sn solder paste with RMA flux wets Cu matrix with a wetting angle of 35[degree] and had a 15[degree] C undercooling during solidification. The constitutive equation of the steady state shear strain rate, and the Coffin-Manson relation constants for the low cycle shear fatigue life at 65[degree] C have been determined. The test results show that this solder has the best creep resistance but the poorest fatigue strength compared with the other four solders. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Corrosion Issues in Solder Joint Design and Service

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-11-24

    Corrosion is an important consideration in the design of a solder joint. It must be addressed with respect to the service environment or, as in the case of soldered conduit, as the nature of the medium being transported within piping or tubing. Galvanic-assisted corrosion is of particular concern, given the fact that solder joints are comprised of different metals or alloy compositions that are in contact with one-another. The (thermodynamic) potential for corrosion to take place in a particular environment requires the availability of the galvanic series for those conditions and which includes the metals or alloys in question. However, the corrosion kinetics, which actually determine the rate of material loss under the specified service conditions, are only available through laboratory evaluations or field data that are found in the existing literature or must be obtained by in-house testing.

  3. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  4. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  5. Superconducting joints using Bi-added PbSn solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Iwata, Hirotsugu; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Gen; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Superconducting joints between NbTi and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconducting wires were successfully fabricated using Bi-added PbSn solders with an in situ sheath-dissolution technique without a removal process for the sheath materials. A backscattered electron image and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the cross-sectional plane of the joints revealed that the joints using Bi-added PbSn solder had a homogeneous morphology with tiny non-superconducting islands. The superconducting joints exhibited high critical currents above 200 A in self-field and 50 A under an applied magnetic field of 5 kOe.

  6. Porosity in collapsible Ball Grid Array solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.A. |

    1998-05-01

    Ball Grid Array (BGA) technology has taken off in recent years due to the increased need for high interconnect density. Opposite to all the advantages BGA packages offer, porosity in collapsible BGA solder joints is often a major concern in the reliability of such packages. The effect of pores on the strength of collapsible BGA solder-joints was studied by manufacturing samples with different degrees of porosity and testing them under a shear load. It was found that the shear strength of the solder joints decreased in a linear fashion with increasing porosity. Failure occurred by internal necking of the interpore matrix. It was confirmed that entrapment of flux residues leads to porosity by manufacturing fluxless samples in a specially made furnace, and comparing them with samples assembled using flux. Also, contamination of Au electrodeposits (in substrate metallization) was determined to cause significant porosity. It was found that hard-Au (Co hardened Au) electrodeposits produce high degrees of porosity even in the absence of flux. Finally, increasing the time the solder spends in the molten state was proven to successfully decrease porosity.

  7. Creep deformation behavior in eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints using a novel mapping technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.P.; Guo, F.; McDougall, J.; Bieler, T.R.; Subramanian, K.N.; Park, J.K.

    1999-11-01

    Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60--100 {micro}m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (1) non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (2) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing 20 vol.%, 5 {micro}m diameter in-situ Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of creep deformation was characterized on the solder joints. Creep deformation was analyzed using a novel mapping technique where a geometrical-regular line pattern was etched over the entire solder joint using excimer laser ablation. During creep, the laser-ablation (LA) pattern becomes distorted due to deformation in the solder joint. By imaging the distortion of laser-ablation patterns using the SEM, actual deformation mapping for the entire solder joint is revealed. The technique involves sequential optical/digital imaging of the deformation versus time history during creep. By tracing and recording the deformation of the LA patterns on the solder over intervals of time, local creep data are obtained in many locations in the joint. This analysis enables global and localized creep shear strains and strain rate to be determined.

  8. Interfacial Reaction and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Bi Solder joints

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    Sn-Bi solder with different Bi content can realize a low-to-medium-to-high soldering process. To obtain the effect of Bi content in Sn-Bi solder on the microstructure of solder, interfacial behaviors in solder joints with Cu and the joints strength, five Sn-Bi solders including Sn-5Bi and Sn-15Bi solid solution, Sn-30Bi and Sn-45Bi hypoeutectic and Sn-58Bi eutectic were selected in this work. The microstructure, interfacial reaction under soldering and subsequent aging and the shear properties of Sn-Bi solder joints were studied. Bi content in Sn-Bi solder had an obvious effect on the microstructure and the distribution of Bi phases. Solid solution Sn-Bi solder was composed of the β-Sn phases embedded with fine Bi particles, while hypoeutectic Sn-Bi solder was composed of the primary β-Sn phases and Sn-Bi eutectic structure from networked Sn and Bi phases, and eutectic Sn-Bi solder was mainly composed of a eutectic structure from short striped Sn and Bi phases. During soldering with Cu, the increase on Bi content in Sn-Bi solder slightly increased the interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC)thickness, gradually flattened the IMC morphology, and promoted the accumulation of more Bi atoms to interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC. During the subsequent aging, the growth rate of the IMC layer at the interface of Sn-Bi solder/Cu rapidly increased from solid solution Sn-Bi solder to hypoeutectic Sn-Bi solder, and then slightly decreased for Sn-58Bi solder joints. The accumulation of Bi atoms at the interface promoted the rapid growth of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC layer in hypoeutectic or eutectic Sn-Bi solder through blocking the formation of Cu6Sn5 in solder matrix and the transition from Cu6Sn5 to Cu3Sn. Ball shear tests on Sn-Bi as-soldered joints showed that the increase of Bi content in Sn-Bi deteriorated the shear strength of solder joints. The addition of Bi into Sn solder was also inclined to produce brittle morphology with interfacial fracture, which suggests that the

  9. Effect of the Soldering Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-9Zn/Al Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Feng, Xue; Jian, Zhou; Zhanying, Feng; Xu, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Tin-zinc solder alloys are considered to be appropriate for soldering of aluminum alloys at low-temperature in electronics and radiators applications. In this paper, the effects of different soldering parameters on the microstructure and interfacial reaction behaviors of 1070Al/Sn-9Zn/1070Al joints were investigated. The results show that the Al substrate was dissolved by the liquid solder, but Al-related intermetallic was not observed in the interface. Two kinds of Al-rich phases formed in the solder matrix. Large butterfly-shaped solid solution (Al)″ phases (about 10 μm) were formed in the liquid alloys, and compact-shaped precipitations (nano-size) were dissolved out from solders during solidification process. With increasing of the soldering time, Al″ phases were migrated upwards in the solders and the amount of this phase increased. In addition, with the increase of the soldering temperature, the dissolution rate of Al into the solder increased and the formation time of (Al)″ phases was reduced. Shear test results indicate when soldered at 250 °C, the shear strength increased from 48.6 MPa to a maximum 60.5 MPa and then decreased to a stable value (about 55 MPa) with increasing of the soldering time. Similar trends were also observed at 300 and 350 °C, while the soldering time needed to obtain maximum shear strength was shortened. The formation of these Al-rich phases improves the shear strength but deteriorates the ductility.

  10. Effects of Micro Solder Joint Geometry on Interfacial IMC Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fenglian; Zhu, Yan; Li, Xuemei

    2017-07-01

    The effects of micro solder joint geometry on intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and electromigration during thermal aging and current stressing have been investigated using three groups of specimens: sandwich structure with solder layer of 10 μm to 50 μm, wire butt with solder layer of 60 μm to 240 μm, and solder ball with diameter of 200 μm to 500 μm, each having Cu/Sn/Cu structure. The results indicated that the geometrical size of the micro solder joint clearly affected the interfacial element diffusion and IMC evolution. Furthermore, when the solder layer thickness was less than 30 μm, the growth rate of the IMC layer decreased significantly with decreasing solder layer thickness, because Sn element was nearly exhausted in the micro solder joint during thermal aging.

  11. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  12. Solder joint fatigue analysis under low temperature Martian conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tudryn, Carissa

    2006-01-01

    Electronics, without requiring heater power or enclosure in a centralized 'warm electronics box,' will need to survive mean surface temperatures of -120 degrees Celsius to +20 degrees Celsius for an extended Martian mission and an operational temperature up to 85 degrees Celsisus. Since these electronics will need to survive extended cycles under these conditions, fatigue is a significant concern. The solder joint reliability of connectors on a printed wiring board was investigated.

  13. Solder joint fatigue analysis under low temperature Martian conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tudryn, Carissa

    2006-01-01

    Electronics, without requiring heater power or enclosure in a centralized 'warm electronics box,' will need to survive mean surface temperatures of -120 degrees Celsius to +20 degrees Celsius for an extended Martian mission and an operational temperature up to 85 degrees Celsisus. Since these electronics will need to survive extended cycles under these conditions, fatigue is a significant concern. The solder joint reliability of connectors on a printed wiring board was investigated.

  14. Inelastic Strain Analysis of Solder Joint in NASA Fatigue Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Oyan, Chen

    1991-01-01

    The solder fatigue specimen designed by NASA-GSFC/UNISYS is analyzed in order to obtain the inelastic strain history during two different representative temperature cycles specified by UNISYS. In previous reports (dated July 25, 1990, and November 15, 1990), results were presented of the elastic-plastic and creep analysis for delta T = 31 C cycle, respectively. Subsequent results obtained during the current phase, from viscoplastic finite element analysis of the solder fatigue specimen for delta T = 113 C cycle are summarized. Some common information is repeated for self-completeness. Large-deformation continuum formulations in conjunction with a standard linear solid model is utilized for modeling the solder constitutive creep-plasticity behavior. Relevant material properties are obtained from the literature. Strain amplitudes, mean strains, and residual strains (as well as stresses) accumulated due to a representative complete temperature cycle are obtained as a result of this analysis. The partitioning between elastic strains, time-independent inelastic (plastic) strains, and time-dependent inelastic (creep) strains is also explicitly obtained for two representative cycles. Detailed plots are presented for two representative temperature cycles. This information forms an important input for fatigue damage models, when predicting the fatigue life of solder joints under thermal cycling

  15. Root Cause Investigation of Lead-Free Solder Joint Interfacial Failures After Multiple Reflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Hatch, Olen; Liu, Pilin; Goyal, Deepak

    2017-03-01

    Solder joint interconnects in three-dimensional (3D) packages with package stacking configurations typically must undergo multiple reflow cycles during the assembly process. In this work, interfacial open joint failures between the bulk solder and the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were found in Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder joints connecting a small package to a large package after multiple reflow reliability tests. Systematic progressive 3D x-ray computed tomography experiments were performed on both incoming and assembled parts to reveal the initiation and evolution of the open failures in the same solder joints before and after the reliability tests. Characterization studies, including focused ion beam cross-sections, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, were conducted to determine the correlation between IMC phase transformation and failure initiation in the solder joints. A comprehensive failure mechanism, along with solution paths for the solder joint interfacial failures after multiple reflow cycles, is discussed in detail.

  16. Root Cause Investigation of Lead-Free Solder Joint Interfacial Failures After Multiple Reflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Hatch, Olen; Liu, Pilin; Goyal, Deepak

    2016-12-01

    Solder joint interconnects in three-dimensional (3D) packages with package stacking configurations typically must undergo multiple reflow cycles during the assembly process. In this work, interfacial open joint failures between the bulk solder and the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were found in Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder joints connecting a small package to a large package after multiple reflow reliability tests. Systematic progressive 3D x-ray computed tomography experiments were performed on both incoming and assembled parts to reveal the initiation and evolution of the open failures in the same solder joints before and after the reliability tests. Characterization studies, including focused ion beam cross-sections, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, were conducted to determine the correlation between IMC phase transformation and failure initiation in the solder joints. A comprehensive failure mechanism, along with solution paths for the solder joint interfacial failures after multiple reflow cycles, is discussed in detail.

  17. The reliability of laser reflowed Sn-Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeder, C. H.; Millard, D. L.; Messler, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    This is the first quarterly report of a project aimed at determining the reliability of electronic interconnects made with Sn-3.5wt%Ag solder alloy. The reliability of solder interconnects is primarily determined by two factors: (1) the type of electronic assembly; and (2) the environment to which the assembly is exposed. These two factors (each composed of several variables i.e. assembly thermal expansion coefficients, elastic moduli of assembly members, maximum operating temperature, rate of temperature change, etc.) boil down to three critical parameters; temperature, strain and strain rate (or stress). The interdependence of these variables must first be explored when addressing a creep-fatigue problem such as the case of solder joints. Specific environment (beyond temperature) and state of stress at a propagating crack, which are determined by the specific application and package geometry, are being neglected at this point in time. Little involving the creep or fatigue properties of Sn-3.5Ag is reported in the literature. Prior studies have used unique joint geometries to measure joint properties.

  18. Electromigration Behaviors of Cu Reinforced Sn-3.5Ag Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Ma, Limin; Zuo, Yong; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    The composite approach, by incorporating small amounts of reinforcement particles in the solder matrix, has proven to be one of the effective ways to improve the reliability of solder joints. The effects of Cu addition on electromigration were investigated in this study by incorporating 2% volume fraction Cu particles into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder paste by the in situ process. The one-dimensional solder joints, designed to prevent the current crowding effect, were stressed under a constant current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature, and the temperature of the sample could reach 105 ± 5°C due to the Joule heating effect. Doping 2 vol.% Cu was found to retard the electromigration phenomenon effectively. After electric current stressing for 528 h, the growth rate of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode decreased 73% in contrast to that of Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, and the IMC layer at the cathode was almost unchanged. The polarization effect of Cu reinforced composite solder joints was also apparently mitigated. In addition, the surface damage of the composite solder joints was relieved by incorporating 2 vol.% Cu particles. Compared to Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, which had protruded Cu6Sn5 and wrinkles of Sn-solder matrix on the surface, the solder joints with Cu addition had a more even surface.

  19. A microstructural analysis of solder joints from the electronic assemblies of dismantled nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    MC1814 Interconnection Boxes from dismantled B57 bombs, and MC2839 firing Sets from retired W70-1 warheads were obtained from the Pantex facility. Printed circuit boards were selected from these components for microstructural analysis of their solder joints. The analysis included a qualitative examination of the solder joints and quantitative assessments of (1) the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer that formed between the solder and circuit board Cu features, and (2) the Pb-rich phase particle distribution within the solder joint microstructure. The MC2839 solder joints had very good workmanship qualities. The intermetallic compound layer stoichiometry was determined to be that of Cu6Sn5. The mean intermetallic compound layer thickness for all solder joints was 0.885 mm. The magnitude of these values did not indicate significant growth over the weapon lifetime. The size distribution of the Pb-rich phase particles for each of the joints were represented by the mean of 9.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mm{sup 2}. Assuming a spherical geometry, the mean particle diameter would be 3.54 mm. The joint-to-joint difference of intermetallic compound layer thickness and Pb-rich particle size distribution was not caused by varying thermal environments, but rather, was a result of natural variations in the joint microstructure that probably existed at the time of manufacture. The microstructural evaluation of the through-hole solder joints form the MC2839 and MC1814 components indicated that the environmental conditions to which these electronic units were exposed in the stockpile, were benign regarding solder joint aging. There was an absence of thermal fatigue damage in MC2839 circuit board, through-hole solder joints. The damage to the eyelet solder joints of the MC1814 more likely represented infant mortality failures at or very near the time of manufacture, resulting from a marginal design status of this type of solder joint design.

  20. Effect of soldering techniques and gap distance on tensile strength of soldered Ni-Cr alloy joint

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeob

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was intended to evaluate the effect of soldering techniques with infrared ray and gas torch under different gap distances (0.3 mm and 0.5 mm) on the tensile strength and surface porosity formation in Ni-Cr base metal alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty five dumbbell shaped Ni-Cr alloy specimens were prepared and assigned to 5 groups according to the soldering method and the gap distance. For the soldering methods, gas torch (G group) and infrared ray (IR group) were compared and each group was subdivided by corresponding gap distance (0.3 mm: G3 and IR3, 0.5 mm: G5, IR5). Specimens of the experimental groups were sectioned in the middle with a diamond disk and embedded in solder blocks according to the predetermined distance. As a control group, 7 specimens were prepared without sectioning or soldering. After the soldering procedure, a tensile strength test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed 1 mm/min. The proportions of porosity on the fractured surface were calculated on the images acquired through the scanning electronic microscope. RESULTS Every specimen of G3, G5, IR3 and IR5 was fractured on the solder joint area. However, there was no significant difference between the test groups (P > .05). There was a negative correlation between porosity formation and tensile strength in all the specimens in the test groups (P < .05). CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in ultimate tensile strength of joints and porosity formations between the gas-oxygen torch soldering and infrared ray soldering technique or between the gap distance of 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm. PMID:21264189

  1. Interfacial reaction of Sn-based solder joint in the package system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huandi

    In this thesis, I report a study on the effect of the solder size on intermetallic layer formation by comparing the morphology change and growth rate of two different size solder joint aged at a same temperature for different aging time. The layer thickness and microstructure were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photoshop was used to measure the thickness of intermetallic compound. Two different size of solder joints with composition of Sn-Ag-Cu (305) were used.

  2. Understanding the reliability of solder joints used in advanced structural and electronics applications: Part 1 - Filler metal properties and the soldering process

    DOE PAGES

    Vianco, Paul T.

    2017-02-01

    Soldering technology has made tremendous strides in the past half-century. Whether structural or electronic, all solder joints must provide a level of reliability that is required by the application. This Part 1 report examines the effects of filler metal properties and soldering process on joint reliability. Solder alloy composition must have the appropriate melting and mechanical properties that suit the product's assembly process(es) and use environment. The filler metal must also optimize solderability (wetting-and-spreading) to realize the proper joint geometry. Here, the soldering process also affects joint reliability. The choice of flux and thermal profile support the solderability performance ofmore » the molten filler metal to successfully fill the gap and complete the fillet.« less

  3. Effects of Forming Processes on the Microstructure and Solderability of Sn-3.5Ag Eutectic Solder Ribbons as well as the Mechanical Properties of Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengfa; Hu, Zhebing; Xiong, Jieran; Tan, Guanghua; Xiong, Wenyong; Chen, Chen; Huang, Shangyu

    2017-07-01

    Two kinds of Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder ribbons of 0.13 mm thickness were prepared by a casting-rolling process and a rapid solidification process. The microstructure, phase constitution, melting characteristics, wetting behavior and soldering strength were compared using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and a MTS ceramic testing system. The results show that the microstructure of rapidly solidified solder is finer and more uniform, and the eutectic structure has a higher solid solubility and more homogeneous distribution of Ag in a Sn matrix. The solidus and liquidus temperature decreased, resulting in a 3.3% reduction of pasty range. In addition, the wettability and shear strength of the solder joints increased by 13.2% and 7.9%, respectively.

  4. Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hua; Basaran, Cemal; Hopkins, Douglas

    2003-02-01

    Electromigration of solder joint under high dc current density is known as a reliability concern for the future high-density flip chip packaging and power packaging. Biased mass diffusion within solder joint from cathode to anode under high dc current density is observed in these experiments. In this letter, the experiments on flip chip solder joints under dc current stressing are conducted and thermomigration due to the thermal gradient in the solder joint caused by joule heating is reported. A three-dimensional coupled electric thermal finite-element (FE) simulation of a realistic flip chip module shows the existence of thermal gradient in the solder joint which is high enough to trigger thermomigration.

  5. The Influence of Processing on Strengthening Mechanisms in Pb-Free Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuku, Francis; Arfaei, Babak; Cotts, Eric J.

    2017-04-01

    The number, and the spacing, of Ag3Sn precipitates in Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joints were related to separate processing parameters. The mechanical properties of an individual solder joint were directly related to the resulting distribution of different dispersoids in the joint. As the number of Ag3Sn precipitates increased, so did solder joint strength and shear fatigue lifetime. The room-temperature shear fatigue lifetime was inversely correlated with the separation between Ag3Sn precipitates. Bi and Sb solid solution strengthening was found to result in significantly larger values of shear strength and shear fatigue lifetime for one Pb-free solder. Room-temperature shear fatigue lifetime tests were identified as a relatively straightforward, yet sensitive means to gain insight into the reliability of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder joints.

  6. Failure Mechanisms of SAC/Fe-Ni Solder Joints During Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-Yin; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu

    2017-08-01

    Thermal cycling tests have been conducted on Sn-Ag-Cu/Fe- xNi ( x = 73 wt.% or 45 wt.%) and Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joints according to the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council industrial standard to study their interfacial reliability under thermal stress. The interfacial intermetallic compounds formed for solder joints on Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni were 4.5 μm, 1.7 μm, and 1.4 μm thick, respectively, after 3000 cycles, demonstrating excellent diffusion barrier effect of Fe-Ni under bump metallization (UBM). Also, two deformation modes, viz. solder extrusion and fatigue crack formation, were observed by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional x-ray microscopy. Solder extrusion dominated for solder joints on Cu, while fatigue cracks dominated for solder joints on Fe-45Ni and both modes were detected for those on Fe-73Ni. Solder joints on Fe-Ni presented inferior reliability during thermal cycling compared with those on Cu, with characteristic lifetime of 3441 h, 3190 h, and 1247 h for Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni UBM, respectively. This degradation of the interfacial reliability for solder joints on Fe-Ni is attributed to the mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at interconnection level. The CTE mismatch at microstructure level was also analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction for clearer identification of recrystallization-related deformation mechanisms.

  7. Some Observations of Solder Joint Failure Under Tensile-Compressive Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that solder joints under mechanical stress are subject to failure. In early electronic systems, such failures were avoided primarily by avoiding the use of solder as a mechanical structural component. The rule was to first make sound wire connections that did not depend mechanically on solder, and only then to solder them. Careful design and miniaturization in modern electronic systems limits the mechanical stresses exerted on solder joints to values less than their yield points, and these joints have become integral parts of the mechanical structures. Unfortunately, while these joints are strong enough when new, they have proven vulnerable to fatigue failures as they age.Details of the fatigue process are poorly understood, making predictions of expected lifetimes difficult.

  8. Morphology and Pull Strength of Sn-Ag(-Co) Solder Joint with Copper Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Akira; Takemoto, Tadashi

    2007-09-01

    In order to clarify the effect of the addition of Co to the Sn-Ag solder, the formation and growth of an intermetallic compound (IMC) at the interface between Sn-Ag(-Co) solders and a Cu pad were investigated, and the joint strength of the solder with a Cu pad was also evaluated by a bump pull test. Binary Sn-3.5mass%Ag solder was used as the basic solder, and Sn-3.5mass%Ag-xCo solders (x = 0.1 mass%, 0.3 mass%, and 0.5 mass%) were specially prepared as Co-added solders. For the reflow process, specimens were heated in a radiation furnace at 523 K for 60 s. For the aging process, some specimens were then heat-treated in an oil bath at 423 K for 168 h, 504 h, and 1008 h. The results show that the addition of Co to the Sn-Ag solder strongly affected the formation and growth of the IMC at the interface. The results of the pull test clearly show that all solders had similar pull strengths, regardless of the Co addition, although the IMC morphology at the interface of the Sn-Ag-Co solder was quite different from that of the binary Sn-3.5Ag solder.

  9. Fatigue Strength of BGA Type Solder Joints between Package and Printed Wiring Board of Portable Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Kohta; Yaguchi, Akihiro; Terasaki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kenichi

    Solder joints between a package and a printed wiring board (PWB) of a portable electronic device sustain heat cycling as a result of power on-off operations, cyclic bending by key pad operation, and impact bending by dropping. Therefore, heat cycling, cyclic bending, and cyclic impact bending tests were conducted on the ball grid array solder joints between a chip scale package and a PWB. The evaluated solders were Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-37Pb. The tests showed that the life cycles of the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder joints for the heat cycling and cyclic bending tests were approximately twice those of the Sn-37Pb solder joints. For the cyclic impact bending test, however, the life cycle of the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joint under large strain was smaller than that of the Sn-37Pb solder joint because of interfacial crack growth between the solder and the PWB. Finally, fatigue lives of the joints were compared with crack initiation and failure lives of plain specimens by calculating local strain ranges in the joints by elastic-plastic finite element analysis.

  10. Assessment of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Sa'd.; Jaradat, Younis; Qasaimeh, Awni; Obaidat, Mazin; Borgesen, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of lead-free solder alloys under complex loading scenarios is still not well understood. Common damage accumulation rules fail to account for strong effects of variations in cycling amplitude, and random vibration test results cannot be interpreted in terms of performance under realistic service conditions. This is a result of the effects of cycling parameters on materials properties. These effects are not yet fully understood or quantitatively predictable, preventing modeling based on parameters such as strain, work, or entropy. Depending on the actual spectrum of amplitudes, Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation has been shown to overestimate life by more than an order of magnitude, and greater errors are predicted for other combinations. Consequences may be particularly critical for so-called environmental stress screening. Damage accumulation has, however, been shown to scale with the inelastic work done, even if amplitudes vary. This and the observation of effects of loading history on subsequent work per cycle provide for a modified damage accumulation rule which allows for the prediction of life. Individual joints of four different Sn-Ag-Cu-based solder alloys (SAC305, SAC105, SAC-Ni, and SACXplus) were cycled in shear at room temperature, alternating between two different amplitudes while monitoring the evolution of the effective stiffness and work per cycle. This helped elucidate general trends and behaviors that are expected to occur in vibrations of microelectronics assemblies. Deviations from Miner's rule varied systematically with the combination of amplitudes, the sequences of cycles, and the strain rates in each. The severity of deviations also varied systematically with Ag content in the solder, but major effects were observed for all the alloys. A systematic analysis was conducted to assess whether scenarios might exist in which the more fatigue-resistant high-Ag alloys would fail sooner than the lower-Ag ones.

  11. Generation of Tin(II) Oxide Crystals on Lead-Free Solder Joints in Deionized Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hong; Chen, Hongtao; Li, Mingyu; Wang, Ling; Fu, Yonggao

    2009-10-01

    The effect of the anode and cathode on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi solder joints in deionized water was investigated. Corrosion studies indicate that SnO crystals were generated on the surfaces of all lead-free solder joints. The constituents of the lead-free solder alloys, such as Ag, Cu, and Bi, did not affect the corrosion reaction significantly. In contrast to lead-free solders, PbO x was formed on the surface of the traditional 63Sn-37Pb solder joint in deionized water. A cathode, such as Au or Cu, was necessary for the electrochemical corrosion reaction of solders to occur. The corrosion reaction rate decreased with reduction of the cathode area. The formation mechanism of SnO crystals was essentially a galvanic cell reaction. The anodic reaction of Sn in the lead-free solder joints occurred through solvation by water molecules to form hydrated cations. In the cathodic reaction, oxygen dissolved in the deionized water captures electrons and is deoxidized to hydroxyl at the Au or Cu cathode. By diffusion, the anodic reaction product Sn2+ and the cathodic reaction product OH- meet to form Sn(OH)2, some of which can dehydrate to form more stable SnO· xH2O crystals on the surface of the solder joints. In addition, thermodynamic analysis confirms that the Sn corrosion reaction could occur spontaneously.

  12. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Solder Joint Defect Formation and Mitigation in Reduced-Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin; Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, RIchard D.; Downs, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents a research effort on reduced gravity soldering of plated through hole joints which was conducted jointly by the National Center for Space Exploration Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center. Significant increases in joint porosity and changes in external geometry were observed in joints produced in reduced gravity as compared to normal gravity. Multiple techniques for mitigating the observed increase in porosity were tried, including several combinations of flux and solder application techniques, and demoisturizing the circuit board prior to soldering. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that the source of the porosity is a combination of both trapped moisture in the circuit board itself, as well as vaporized flux that is trapped in the molten solder. Other topics investigated include correlation of visual inspection results with joint porosity, pore size measurements, limited pressure effects (0.08 MPa - 0.1 MPa) on the size and number of pores, and joint cooling rate.

  14. Evaluation of Scattered Wave and Stress Concentration Field in a Damaged Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, P.; Gross, D.; Rangelov, T.

    1999-06-01

    Two different, but equally important problems for solder joint reliability are solved. The evaluation of the dynamic stress concentration field in the thin base layer of a damaged solder joint is the first one. It is considered as a rectangular plate with a central macro-crack surrounded with randomly distributed micro-cracks, subjected to uniform time-harmonic tension. The damaged solder joint state is described by the model of Gross and Zhang [1] (International Journal of Solids and Structures29, 1763-1779). The information of the stress concentration field in a damaged solder joint is important to understand the mechanisms in the base components of all electronic packages.The second problem is ultrasonic wave scattering in a solder joint damaged by micro-cracks, considered as a two-dimensional finite multi-layered system. The solution of this problem may aid the creation of the modern non-destructive evaluation method (NDEM) for a high quality control of products in electronic industry.The method of the solution of both boundary-value problems is a direct BIEM (boundary integral equation method). The numerical results obtained for a solder joint with real geometry and physical properties show how the acoustic and stress concentration fields depend on the solder joint damage state. The character of this dependence is discussed.

  15. Robust solder joint attachment of coaxial cable leads to piezoelectric ceramic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianco, P. T.

    A technique was developed for the solder attachment of coaxial cable leads to the silver-bearing thick film electrodes on piezoelectric ceramics. Soldering the cable leads directly to the thick film caused bonds with low mechanical strength due to poor solder joint geometry. A barrier coating of 1.5 micron Cu/1.5 micron Ni/1.0 micron Sn deposited on the thick film layer improved the strength of the solder joints by eliminating the absorption of Ag from the thick film which was responsible for the improper solder joint geometry. The procedure does not require special preparation of the electrode surface and is cost effective due to the use of non-precious metal films and the batch processing capabilities of the electron beam deposition technique.

  16. Inspection of ball grid array (BGA) solder joints using x-ray cross-sectional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Young Jun; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck; Kim, Hyung C.; Joo, Hyonam; Kim, Sung K.

    1999-08-01

    The ball grid array (BGA) chip is widely used in high density printed circuit board (PCB). However, inspection of defects in the solder joints is difficult by visual or a normal x-ray imaging method, because unlike conventional packages, solder joints of the BGA are located underneath its own package and ball type leads. Therefore, x-ray digital tomosynthesis (DT), which form a cross-sectional image of 3D objects, is needed to image and inspect the solder joints of BGA. In this paper, we propose a series of algorithms for inspecting the solder joints of BGA by using x-ray cross-sectional images that are acquired from the developed DT system. BGA solder joints are examined to check the alignment between the chip and pad on a PCB, bridge, adequate solder volume. The volume of the solder joint is represented by a gray level in the x-ray images: thus solder joints can be examined by use of the gray-level profiles of each joint. To inspect and classify various defects, pattern classification method using a learning vector quantization neural network and a look up table is proposed. The clusters into which a gray-level profile is classified are generated by the learning process of the network by using a number of sampled gray-level profiles. A series of these developed algorithms for inspecting and classifying defects were tested on a number of BGA solder joints. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields satisfactory solutions for inspection based on x-ray cross-sectional images.

  17. Magellan/Galileo solder joint failure analysis and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    On or about November 10, 1988 an open circuit solder joint was discovered in the Magellan Radar digital unit (DFU) during integration testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A detailed analysis of the cause of the failure was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory leading to the successful repair of many pieces of affected electronic hardware on both the Magellan and Galileo spacecraft. The problem was caused by the presence of high thermal coefficient of expansion heat sink and conformal coating materials located in the large (0.055 inch) gap between Dual Inline Packages (DIPS) and the printed wiring board. The details of the observed problems are described and recommendations are made for improved design and testing activities in the future.

  18. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  19. Experimental investigations on the soldering performances of the joints for Bi-2223/Ag tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunlong; Son, Yuntao; Huang, Xiongyi; Liu, Chenglian; Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Weibin, Xi; Kun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have fabricated Bi-2223/Ag jointed tapes and evaluated its joint resistance at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The tapes were joined by the conventional resistive joint method using five kinds of solders with different melting points. The lower melting point Bi-Sn-Pb and high melting point Sn-Ag-Cu solders have lower joint resistances. In addition, two different joining processes were compared by joining the copper sheet. The joint resistances were measured at lower temperature and the resistance appears comparable to each other. It indicated that the direct-jointing is more effective method for high temperature superconductor (HTS) joining.

  20. Imaging and Analysis of Void-defects in Solder Joints Formed in Reduced Gravity using High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.; Rotella, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    As a part of efforts to develop an electronics repair capability for long duration space missions, techniques and materials for soldering components on a circuit board in reduced gravity must be developed. This paper presents results from testing solder joint formation in low gravity on a NASA Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft. The results presented include joints formed using eutectic tin-lead solder and one of the following fluxes: (1) a no-clean flux core, (2) a rosin flux core, and (3) a solid solder wire with external liquid no-clean flux. The solder joints are analyzed with a computed tomography (CT) technique which imaged the interior of the entire solder joint. This replaced an earlier technique that required the solder joint to be destructively ground down revealing a single plane which was subsequently analyzed. The CT analysis technique is described and results presented with implications for future testing as well as implications for the overall electronics repair effort discussed.

  1. Effects of Ag on the Kirkendall void formation of Sn-xAg/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Yu, Jin

    2010-10-01

    Binary Sn-Ag solders with varying amounts of Ag (0.5, 2.0, and 3.5 wt %) were reacted with Cu under bump metallurgy (UBM) which was electroplated with bis-sodium sulfopropyl-disulfide additive, and the characteristics of Kirkendall void formation at the solder joints were investigated. The results indicate that the propensity to form Kirkendall voids at the solder joint decreased with the Ag content. Subsequent Auger electron spectroscopy analyses showed that Ag dissolved in the Cu UBM reduced the segregation of S to the Cu3Sn/Cu interface, which suppressed the nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the interface.

  2. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  3. Microstructurally based thermomechanical fatigue lifetime model of solder joints for electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.; Rashid, M.M.; Burchett, S.N.

    1993-07-01

    We present a new methodology for predicting the fatigue life of solder joints for electronics applications. This approach involves integration of experimental and computational techniques. The first stage involves correlating the manufacturing and processing parameters with the starting microstructure of the solder joint. The second stage involves a series of experiments that characterize the evolution of the microstructure during thermal cycling. The third stage consists of a computer modeling and simulation effort that utilizes the starting microstructure and experimental data to produce a reliability prediction of the solder joint. This approach is an improvement over current methodologies because it incorporates the microstructure and properties of the solder directly into the model and allows these properties to evolve as the microstructure changes during fatigue.

  4. Microstructurally based thermomechanical fatigue lifetime model of solder joints for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, D. R.; Rashid, M. M.; Burchett, S. N.

    We present a new methodology for predicting the fatigue life of solder joints for electronics applications. This approach involves integration of experimental and computational techniques. The first stage involves correlating the manufacturing and processing parameters with the starting microstructure of the solder joint. The second stage involves a series of experiments that characterize the evolution of the microstructure during thermal cycling. The third stage consists of a computer modeling and simulation effort that utilizes the starting microstructure and experimental data to produce a reliability prediction of the solder joint. This approach is an improvement over current methodologies because it incorporates the microstructure and properties of the solder directly into the model and allows these properties to evolve as the microstructure changes during fatigue.

  5. Intermetallics Characterization of Lead-Free Solder Joints under Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Anupam; Yu, Hao; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael; Yun, Fu; Yonghong, Li; Ming, Xu

    2008-08-01

    Solder interconnect reliability is influenced by environmentally imposed loads, solder material properties, and the intermetallics formed within the solder and the metal surfaces to which the solder is bonded. Several lead-free metallurgies are being used for component terminal plating, board pad plating, and solder materials. These metallurgies react together and form intermetallic compounds (IMCs) that affect the metallurgical bond strength and the reliability of solder joint connections. This study evaluates the composition and extent of intermetallic growth in solder joints of ball grid array components for several printed circuit board pad finishes and solder materials. Intermetallic growth during solid state aging at 100°C and 125°C up to 1000 h for two solder alloys, Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, was investigated. For Sn-3.5Ag solder, the electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) pad finish was found to result in the lowest IMC thickness compared to immersion tin (ImSn), immersion silver (ImAg), and organic solderability preservative (OSP). Due to the brittle nature of the IMC, a lower IMC thickness is generally preferred for optimal solder joint reliability. A lower IMC thickness may make ENIG a desirable finish for long-life applications. Activation energies of IMC growth in solid-state aging were found to be 0.54 ± 0.1 eV for ENIG, 0.91 ± 0.12 eV for ImSn, and 1.03 ± 0.1 eV for ImAg. Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 IMCs were found between the solder and the copper pad on boards with the ImSn and ImAg pad finishes. Ternary (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallics were found for the ENIG pad finish on the board side. On the component side, a ternary IMC layer composed of Ni-Cu-Sn was found. Along with intermetallics, microvoids were observed at the interface between the copper pad and solder, which presents some concern if devices are subject to shock and vibration loading.

  6. Effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu joint soldered by low-power-high-frequency ultrasonic-assisted reflow soldering.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ai Ting; Tan, Ai Wen; Yusof, Farazila

    2017-01-01

    Techniques to improve solder joint reliability have been the recent research focus in the electronic packaging industry. In this study, Cu/SAC305/Cu solder joints were fabricated using a low-power high-frequency ultrasonic-assisted reflow soldering approach where non-ultrasonic-treated samples were served as control sample. The effect of ultrasonic vibration (USV) time (within 6s) on the solder joint properties was characterized systematically. Results showed that the solder matrix microstructure was refined at 1.5s of USV, but coarsen when the USV time reached 3s and above. The solder matrix hardness increased when the solder matrix was refined, but decreased when the solder matrix coarsened. The interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer thickness was found to decrease with increasing USV time, except for the USV-treated sample with 1.5s. This is attributed to the insufficient USV time during the reflow stage and consequently accelerated the Cu dissolution at the joint interface during the post-ultrasonic reflow stage. All the USV-treated samples possessed higher shear strength than the control sample due to the USV-induced-degassing effect. The shear strength of the USV-treated sample with 6s was the lowest among the USV-treated samples due to the formation of plate-like Ag3Sn that may act as the crack initiation site.

  7. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (p< 0.05). The mean tensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint.

  8. Tensile properties and thermal shock reliability of Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint with indium addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-Mi; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Ki; Kim, Mok-Soon

    2012-04-01

    The thermal shock reliability and tensile properties of a newly developed quaternary Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In (wt%) solder alloy were investigated and compared to those of ternary Sn-Ag-Cu based Pb-free solder alloys. It was revealed that the Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In solder alloy shows better thermal shock reliability compared to the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys. The quaternary alloy has higher strength than Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy, and higher elongation than Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy. It was also revealed that the addition of indium promotes the formation of Ag3(Sn, In) phase in the solder joint during reflow process.

  9. Solder joint failure localization of welded joint based on acoustic emission beamforming.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiandong; Xiao, Denghong; Shan, Yingchun; Pan, Qiang; He, Tian; Gao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A localization approach of welded joint damage is proposed based on acoustic emission (AE) beamforming. In this method, a uniform line array is introduced to detect the AE signal of welded joints in specified area. In order to investigate the influence of fillet and crimping commonly existing in a welded plate structure during the AE wave propagation process, the finite element method (FEM) is applied to simulate the behavior of AE wave in the specimen. The simulation localization results indicate that the proposed localization approach can effectively localize AE sources although there exist the fillet and crimping, and it is also validated by the pencil-lead-broken test on rectangular steel tube with welded joints. Finally, the proposed method is adopted to localize the failure of solder joint in operation vibration condition. The proposed method is successful to localize the compact AE source caused by the cracked joint based on wavelet packet transform.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical hardness of lead-free solder joint

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Wilfred; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Jalar, Azman; Kamil, Insan; Bakar, Maria Abu; Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free solders are important material in nano and microelectronic surface mounting technology for various applications in bio medicine, environmental monitoring, spacecraft and satellite instrumentation. Nevertheless solder joint in radiation environment needs higher reliability and resistance to any damage caused by ionizing radiations. In this study a lead-free 99.0Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu wt.% (SAC) solder joint was developed and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to investigate the effects of the ionizing radiation to micromechanical hardness of the solder. Averaged hardness of the SAC joint was obtained from nanoindentation test. The results show a relationship between hardness values of indentations and the increment of radiation dose. Highest mean hardness, 0.2290 ± 0.0270 GPa was calculated on solder joint which was exposed to 5 Gray dose of gamma radiation. This value indicates possible radiation hardening effect on irradiated solder. The hardness gradually decreased to 0.1933 ± 0.0210 GPa and 0.1631 ± 0.0173 GPa when exposed to doses 50 and 500 gray respectively. These values are also lower than the hardness of non irradiated sample which was calculated as 0.2084 ± 0.0.3633 GPa indicating possible radiation damage and needs further related atomic dislocation study.

  11. Morphology and Shear Strength of Lead-Free Solder Joints with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Paste Reinforced with Ceramic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakymovych, A.; Plevachuk, Yu.; Švec, P.; Švec, P.; Janičkovič, D.; Šebo, P.; Beronská, N.; Roshanghias, A.; Ipser, H.

    2016-12-01

    To date, additions of different oxide nanoparticles is one of the most widespread procedures to improve the mechanical properties of metals and metal alloys. This research deals with the effect of minor ceramic nanoparticle additions (SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/solder/Cu joints. The reinforced Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder alloy with 0.5 wt.% and 1.0 wt.% of ceramic nanoparticles was prepared through mechanically stirring. The microstructure of as-solidified Cu/solder/Cu joints was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of ceramic nanoparticles suppressed the growth of the intermetallic compound layer Cu6Sn5 at the interface solder/Cu and improved the microstructure of the joints. Furthermore, measurements of mechanical properties showed improved shear strength of Cu/composite solder/Cu joints compared to joints with unreinforced solder. This fact related to all investigated ceramic nanoinclusions and should be attributed to the adsorption of nanoparticles on the grain surface during solidification. However, this effect is less pronounced on increasing the nanoinclusion content from 0.5 wt.% to 1.0 wt.% due to agglomeration of nanoparticles. Moreover, a comparison analysis showed that the most beneficial influence was obtained by minor additions of SiO2 nanoparticles into the SAC305 solder alloy.

  12. How Many Peripheral Solder Joints in a Surface Mounted Design Experience Inelastic Strains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.; Yi, S.; Ghaffarian, R.

    2017-01-01

    It has been established that it is the peripheral solder joints that are the most vulnerable in the ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) designs and most often fail. As far as the long-term reliability of a soldered microelectronics assembly as a whole is concerned, it makes a difference, if just one or more peripheral joints experience inelastic strains. It is clear that the low cycle fatigue lifetime of the solder system is inversely proportional to the number of joints that simultaneously experience inelastic strains. A simple and physically meaningful analytical expression (formula) is obtained for the prediction, at the design stage, of the number of such joints, if any, for the given effective thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and PCB; materials and geometrical characteristics of the package/PCB assembly; package size; and, of course, the level of the yield stress in the solder material. The suggested formula can be used to determine if the inelastic strains in the solder material could be avoided by the proper selection of the above characteristics and, if not, how many peripheral joints are expected to simultaneously experience inelastic strains. The general concept is illustrated by a numerical example carried out for a typical BGA package. The suggested analytical model (formula) is applicable to any soldered microelectronics assembly. The roles of other important factors, such as, e.g., solder material anisotropy, grain size, and their random orientation within a joint, are viewed in this analysis as less important factors than the level of the interfacial stress. The roles of these factors will be accounted for in future work and considered, in addition to the location of the joint, in a more complicated, more sophisticated, and more comprehensive reliability/fatigue model.

  13. How Many Peripheral Solder Joints in a Surface Mounted Design Experience Inelastic Strains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.; Yi, S.; Ghaffarian, R.

    2017-03-01

    It has been established that it is the peripheral solder joints that are the most vulnerable in the ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) designs and most often fail. As far as the long-term reliability of a soldered microelectronics assembly as a whole is concerned, it makes a difference, if just one or more peripheral joints experience inelastic strains. It is clear that the low cycle fatigue lifetime of the solder system is inversely proportional to the number of joints that simultaneously experience inelastic strains. A simple and physically meaningful analytical expression (formula) is obtained for the prediction, at the design stage, of the number of such joints, if any, for the given effective thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and PCB; materials and geometrical characteristics of the package/PCB assembly; package size; and, of course, the level of the yield stress in the solder material. The suggested formula can be used to determine if the inelastic strains in the solder material could be avoided by the proper selection of the above characteristics and, if not, how many peripheral joints are expected to simultaneously experience inelastic strains. The general concept is illustrated by a numerical example carried out for a typical BGA package. The suggested analytical model (formula) is applicable to any soldered microelectronics assembly. The roles of other important factors, such as, e.g., solder material anisotropy, grain size, and their random orientation within a joint, are viewed in this analysis as less important factors than the level of the interfacial stress. The roles of these factors will be accounted for in future work and considered, in addition to the location of the joint, in a more complicated, more sophisticated, and more comprehensive reliability/fatigue model.

  14. Effect of Solder-Joint Geometry on the Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Sn- xAg-0.7Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Low-cycle fatigue tests of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder joints under fixed displacement were performed to evaluate the influence of Ag content (0-3 wt.%) and solder-joint geometry (barrel and hourglass types) on solder-joint fatigue behavior and reliability. The solder joints were composed of fine particles of Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5, which aggregated as an eutectic constituent at grain boundaries of the primary β-Sn phase and formed a dense network structure. A decrease in the Ag content resulted in coarsening of the β-Sn and eutectic phases, which, in turn, decreased the strength of the joint and caused earlier failure. Solder joints in the hourglass form exhibited better fatigue performance with longer life than barrel-type joints. The sharp contact angle formed between the solder and the Cu substrate by the barrel-type joints concentrated stress, which compromised fatigue reliability. The addition of Ag to the solder, however, enhanced fatigue performance because of strengthening caused by Ag3Sn formation. The cracks of the barrel-type SAC solder joints originated mostly at the contact corner and propagated along the interfacial layer between the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) and solder matrix. Hourglass-type solder joints, however, demonstrated both crack initiation and propagation in the solder matrix (solder mode). The addition of 1.5-2.0 wt.% Ag to SAC solder appears to enhance the fatigue performance of solder joints while maintaining sufficient strength.

  15. Investigation of electromigration reliability of solder joint in flip-chip packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Min

    2007-12-01

    Electromigration related damage in solder bumps is one of the emerging issues resulting from the fast scaling-down of features in semiconductor packages. Although the electromigration phenomenon has been intensively studied on silicon level interconnect lines since the late 1960s, it is far less understood in solder bumps. Electromigration in solder joints can be quite different from that of the interconnects due to the differences in material systems and structures. This study addressed the solder joint electromigration and contained three major objectives. The first objective of this study was to set up an effective experimental technique to examine the damage development and determine the time-to-failure in the electromigration tests. The structure and dimension of the flip chip solder bump is very different from that of the chip level interconnect. Consequently, the traditional failure tracking method based on 2-point resistance monitoring is no longer able to provide real-time damage evolution information. A test system based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit was introduced. The technique showed the capability of detecting milliohm resistance changes and could track the interfacial crack growth induced by electromigration damage. Other aspects of the experiment, such as temperature and current distribution inside the test structure, were also examined so that proper lifetime could be extrapolated from testing condition to normal working condition. The second objective was to examine the failure mechanisms in solder bump electromigration which could be significantly different between various solder bump systems. Pb-free and high-Pb solder alloys with different UBM configurations were studied. The research results showed that the most active region during solder bump electromigration was the under bump metallization (UBM) layer and its interface with the solder due to the intermetallic compound formation and UBM dissolution. Therefore, the electromigration

  16. Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.

    DOE PAGES

    Vianco, Paul T.

    2017-03-01

    Whether structural or electronic, all solder joints must provide the necessary level of reliability for the application. The Part 1 report examined the effects of filler metal properties and the soldering process on joint reliability. Filler metal solderability and mechanical properties, as well as the extents of base material dissolution and interface reaction that occur during the soldering process, were shown to affect reliability performance. The continuation of this discussion is presented in this Part 2 report, which highlights those factors that directly affect solder joint reliability. There is the growth of an intermetallic compound (IMC) reaction layer at themore » solder/base material interface by means of solid-state diffusion processes. In terms of mechanical response by the solder joint, fatigue remains as the foremost concern for long-term performance. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF), a form of low-cycle fatigue (LCF), occurs when temperature cycling is combined with mismatched values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between materials comprising the solder joint “system.” Vibration environments give rise to high-cycle fatigue (HCF) degradation. Although accelerated aging studies provide valuable empirical data, too many variants of filler metals, base materials, joint geometries, and service environments are forcing design engineers to embrace computational modeling to predict the long-term reliability of solder joints.« less

  17. Fracture of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints on Cu Substrates. II: Fracture Mechanism Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Huang, Z.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2012-02-01

    A methodology to construct fracture mechanism maps for Sn-3.8%Ag-0.7%Cu (SAC387) solder joints attached to Cu substrates has been developed. The map, which delineates the operative mechanisms of fracture along with corresponding joint fracture toughness values, is plotted in a space described by two microstructure-dependent parameters, with the abscissa describing the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) and the ordinate representing the strain-rate-dependent solder yield strength. The plot space encompasses the three major mechanisms by which joints fail, namely (i) cohesive fracture of solder, (ii) cleavage fracture of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC), and (iii) fracture of the solder-IMC interface. Line contours of constant fracture toughness values, as well as constant fraction of each of the above mechanisms, are indicated on the plots. The plots are generated by experimentally quantifying the dependence of the operative fracture mechanism(s) on the two microstructure-dependent parameters (IMC geometry and solder yield strength) as functions of strain rate, reflow parameters, and post-reflow aging. Separate maps are presented for nominally mode I and equi-mixed mode loading conditions (loading angle ϕ = 0° and 45°, respectively). The maps allow rapid assessment of the operative fracture mechanism(s) along with estimation of the expected joint fracture toughness value for a given loading condition (strain rate and loading angle) and joint microstructure without conducting actual tests, and may serve as a tool for both prediction and microstructure design.

  18. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 5083 aluminum alloy joints by ultrasonic soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dengquan; Li, Yuanxing; He, Yongpan; Qiu, Sifu; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Aluminum alloy 5083 was joined with Sn-xZn (x = 0, 5, 9, 30 and 60 wt.%) filler metal by ultrasonic soldering at 400∘C. The joint microstructure consisted of β-Sn and α-Al solid-solution phases when using pure Sn solder. Zn-rich phases were observed in the joints with Sn-Zn filler metal. The Zn-rich phases grew thicker and larger with the increase in Zn content in the filler metal. The joints soldered with Sn-30Zn filler metal reached a maximum shear strength of 70 MPa. Joint cracking occurred at the interface of pure Sn and Sn-9Zn solders as indicated by SEM observation of the fracture surfaces. The locations of the fracture surface moved from the interface to the seam when using the Sn-30Zn or Sn-60Zn filler metal. The coarse Zn-rich phases were also observed on the fracture surface using Sn-60Sn solder, which results in a shear strength reduction of the joints.

  19. In situ X-ray observation and simulation of ratcheting-fatigue interactions in solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liting; Mei, Yunhui; Chen, Gang; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Reflow voids created by solder oxidation reduce the reliability of lap joints. In situ visualization of reflow voids in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lap-shear solder joints under cyclic stressing was realized by X-ray computed tomography (CT), while the ratcheting deformation of the solder joints was monitored by a non-contact displacement detecting system (NDDS). The results revealed that the shape evolution of reflow voids in solder joints, as characterized by the sphericity of the voids, can be divided into three stages: i.e., the initial stage with a sharp drop, a stable stage, and a rapidly declining stage. A new evolution law for describing the progress of sphericity was proposed, and was further introduced into a viscoplastic constitutive model based on the OW-AF nonlinear kinematic hardening rule. The damage-coupled OW-AF model yielded an accurate estimation of the whole-life ratcheting behavior of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lap-shear solder joints. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Interdiffusion of high-Sn/high-Pb (SnPb) solders in low-temperature flip chip joints during reflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuruzi, A. S.; Chiu, C.-h.; Chen, W. T.; Lahiri, S. K.; Tu, K. N.

    1999-12-01

    We carried out experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the transport of Sn in a composite solder joint, comprising of high-Pb and high-Sn (SnPb) alloys, in a chip-composite solder-organic substrate package during the reflow process. Both the experimental and simulation results demonstrate that surface diffusion causes the transport of Sn on the surface to be faster than that inside the solder joint. Surface diffusion also accelerates the homogenization process of the composite solder joint.

  1. Reflow soldering and isothermal solid-state aging of Sn-Ag eutectic solder on Au/Ni surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. M.; Ho, C. E.; Chen, W. T.; Kao, C. R.

    2001-09-01

    The reaction between the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder and the Au/Ni surface finish during reflow as well as during isothermal aging was studied. The Au layer was electroplated and had a thickness of the one μm. The peak reflow temperature was fixed at 250 C while the reflow time was varied between 10 sec and one h. Samples that went through 90 sec reflow time were then subjected to 160 C isothermal aging for up to 875 h. It was found that during reflow the Au layer reacted very quickly with the solder to form AuSn4. One μm of Au layer was consumed in less than 10 sec. As the aging time increased, AuSn4 grains began to separate themselves from the Ni layer at the roots of the grains and started to fall into the solder. When, the reflow time reached 30 sec, all the Au intermetallic head left the interface, and Ni3Sn4 started, to form at the interface. The Ni3Sn4 growth rate followed linear kinetics initially (<240 sec), but the growth rate slowed down afterward. During the isothermal aging, only a small amount of (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 resettled back to the interface, and a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer did not form at the interface, unlike the case for the Sn-37Pb solder. This is an important advantage for Sn-3.5 Ag over Sn-37Pb because a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer inevitably will weaken a solder joint. Our observation indicated that many (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 particles were trapped by the Ag3Sn particles, and were hindered from resettling back to the interface.

  2. Creep properties of Sn-Ag solder joints containing intermetallic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Lee, J. G.; Guo, F.; Bieler, T. R.; Subramanian, K. N.; Lucas, J. P.

    2001-06-01

    The creep behavior of the eutectic tin-silver joints and tin-silver composite solder joints containing 20 vol.% of Cu6Sn5, Ni3Sn4, and FeSn2 intermetallic reinforcements introduced by in-situ methods was investigated. These creep tests were carried out using single shear lap solder joints at room temperature, 85°C, and 125°C. The creep resistance was similar in magnitude for all alloys, and with increasing temperature, the stressexponents decreased in a manner consistent with power-law breakdown behavior. The FeSn2 intermetallic reinforced composite solder was found to be the most creep-resistant alloy at room temperature. Creep failure was observed to occur within the solder matrix in all these solder joints. Although a detailed analysis of the processes involved was difficult because of smearing of the features in the fracture surface, there were indications of grain-boundary separation, ductile fracture, and interfacial separation.

  3. Stress relaxation behavior of composite and eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, S. G.; Bieler, T. R.; Subramanian, K. N.; Lucas, J. P.

    2001-09-01

    Stress relaxation experiments were carried out at 25 C and 150 C on 96.5Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder and Sn-Ag composite solder joints (Sn-Ag eutectic solder with 20 vol.% Cu6Sn5 reinforcements incorporated by in-situ methods). The magnitude of the stress drop during relaxation depends primarily upon the plastic shear strain imposed prior to the stress relaxation process. For sequential stress relaxation experiments that include unloading, the stress drop is nearly independent of the accumulated plastic shear strain. However, for sequential stress relaxation that does not include unloading, the stress relaxation is more dependent upon the cumulative plastic shear strain history. The stress in single shear lap joints does not relax to zero stress, as is observed in stress relaxation of bulk tension specimens, even at 150 C. Creep strain rates extracted from the relaxation data were much lower with smaller pre-strains in both eutectic Sn-Ag and composite solder joints. The stress exponent values (n) calculated from the stress relaxation test data ranged from 7 to 15 for both eutectic and composite solder joints, which were consistent with conventional creep data. These stress-relaxation behaviors can be explained on the basis of dislocation recovery processes that occur during relaxation and when specimens are unloaded.

  4. Development of a solder material process to relieve the plastic constraint associated with thin joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauten, Frederick S.; Ranieri, John P.; Avery, Donald H.

    1995-10-01

    High aspect ratio (large diameter/thickness) solder joints which are plastically constrained develop large hydrostatic stresses (Friction Hill) greatly in excess of their yield strength. Because the local high triaxial stresses arising from the Friction Hill prevent homogeneous yielding and, in a strain controlled system, will localize plastic deformation within the regions near free surfaces, abrupt brittle fracture through an intermetallic or along an interface can occur. In such situations, the service life of the joint during fatigue situations such as thermal cycling will be greatly reduced. The prevention of triaxial stress build up within such a strain controlled environment which can occur in, for example, leadless chip carrier solder joints requires a distribution of internal free surfaces within the joint. The solder system developed in this study is a thin porous metal film with a regular distribution of pores. The solder material is formed from the usual components, tin and lead. Small lead or tin particles are coated with a thin film of the other component, mixed with flux paste, and the temperature is raised to just above the eutectic temperature. Solid state diffusion occurs across the lead-tin interface until its composition reaches the melting point. The particles then are interconnected by a thin near eutectic liquid film. Additional metal from the solid particle dissolves into the liquid increasing its position and, thus its melting point. Diffusion into the liquid continues until it solidifies isothermally. This forms an interconnecting network of solder “mini-elements” with a dense pore structure.

  5. Effect of Sn-Ag-Cu on the Improvement of Electromigration Behavior in Sn-58Bi Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengjiang; Zhou, Lili; Zhang, Zhijie; Wang, Jiheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Wu, Mingfang

    2017-10-01

    Reliability issues caused by the formation of a Bi-rich layer at the anode interface usually occurs in the Sn-58Bi eutectic solder joint during electromigration (EM). To improve the EM performance of a Sn-58Bi solder joint, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder was introduced into it to produce SnBi-SnAgCu structural or compositional composite joints, and their EM behaviors were investigated with the current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 for different stressing times. The structure of the compositional composite solder joint was obtained by the occurrence of partial or full mixing between Sn-Bi and Sn-Ag-Cu solder with a suitable soldering temperature. In the structural composite joint, melted Sn-Bi was partially mixed with Sn-Ag-Cu solder to produce a Cu/Sn-Bi/Sn-Ag-Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu structure. In the compositional composite joint, full melting and mixing between these two solders occurred to produce a Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi/Cu structure, in which the solder matrix was a homogeneous structure including Sn, Bi phases, Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs. After current stressing, the EM performance of Sn-Bi solder was obviously improved with the structural or the compositional composite joint. In Sn-58Bi joints, a thick Bi-rich layer was easily produced at the anode interface, and obviously increased with stressing time. However, after current stressing on the structural composite joints, the existence of s Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu interlayer between the two Sn-58Bi solders effectively acted as a diffusion barrier and significantly slowed the formation of the Bi-rich layer at the anode side and the IMC thicknesses at the interfaces.

  6. Effect of gap distance on tensile strength of preceramic base metal solder joints.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Motamedi, Milad

    2011-01-01

    In order to fabricate prostheses with high accuracy and durability, soldering techniques have been introduced to clinical dentistry. However, these prostheses always fail at their solder joints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap distance on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Based on ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test, 40 specimens were fabricated from a Ni-Cr alloy and cut at the midpoint of 3-mm diameter bar and placed at desired positions by a specially designed device. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples according to the desired solder gap distance: Group1: 0.1mm; Group2: 0.25mm; Group3: 0.5mm; and Group4: 0.75mm. After soldering, specimens were tested for tensile strength by a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min with a preload of 10N. The mean tensile strength values of the groups were 162, 307.8, 206.1 and 336.7 MPa, respectively. The group with 0.75-mm gap had the highest and the group with 0.1-mm gap had the lowest tensile strength. Bonferroni test showed that Group1 and Group4 had statistically different values (P=0.023), but the differences between other groups were not sig-nificant at a significance level of 0.05. There was no direct relationship between increasing soldering gap distance and tensile strength of the solder joints.

  7. Nanoindentation on SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luhua; Pang, John H. L.

    2006-12-01

    The lead-free SnAgCu (SAC) solder joint on copper pad with organic solderability preservative (Cu-OSP) and electroless nickel and immersion gold (ENIG) subjected to thermal testing leads to intermetallic growth. It causes corresponding reliability concerns at the interface. Nanoindentation characterization on SnAgCu solder alloy, intermetallic compounds (IMCs), and the substrates subjected to thermal aging is reported. The modulus and hardness of thin IMC layers were measured by nanoindentation continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) from planar IMC surface. When SAC/Ni(Au) solder joints were subject to thermal aging, the Young’s modulus of the NiCuSn IMC at the SAC/ENIG specimen changed from 207 GPa to 146 GPa with different aging times up to 500 h. The hardness decreased from 10.0 GPa to 7.3 GPa. For the SAC/Cu-OSP reaction couple, the Young’s modulus of Cu6Sn5 stayed constant at 97.0 GPa and hardness about 5.7 GPa. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to thermal aging. The creep effect on the measured result was analyzed when measuring SnAgCu solder; it was found that the indentation penetration, and thus the hardness, is loading rate dependent. With the proposed constant P/P experiment, a constant indentation strain rate h/h and hardness could be achieved. The log-log plot of indentation strain rate versus hardness for the data from the constant P/P experiments yields a slope of 7.52. With the optimized test method and CSM Technique, the Modulus of SAC387 solder alloy and all the layers in a solder joint were investigated.

  8. Effects of Grain Orientation on the Electromigration of Cu-Reinforced Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Guo, Fu; Ke, Xiaoxing

    2017-10-01

    Grain orientations are a significant factor under high-density current stressing, but there are few literature reports about the influence of grain orientation on electromigration in composite solder joints. Most research relating to the electromigration behavior of composite solders have been carried out by adding different kinds of reinforced particles in order to relieve the electromigration phenomena, while the impacts of grain orientation on the electromigration have been neglected. In this paper, Sn-3.5Ag composite solder joints reinforced by 2 vol.% Cu were fabricated to investigate the effects of Sn grain orientation on electromigration. The one-dimensional single-grained solder joints were stressed under a constant current density of 104A/cm2 for different times at room temperature. The samples, of which the c-axis of the Sn grains was nearly parallel to the electron flow direction, exhibited serious electromigration-induced phenomena after current stressing for 528 h. However, electromigration was not observed in the samples where the Sn grains had their c-axis perpendicular to the electron flow direction. Therefore, the grain orientations have a great influence on the electromigration behavior in composite solders and Cu atoms moved faster along the c-axis of the Sn grains than along the a- and b-axes during current stressing.

  9. A microstructurally based model of solder joints under conditions of thermomechanical fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.; Burchett, S.N.; Rashid, M.M.

    1994-12-31

    The thermomechanical fatigue failure of solder joints in increasingly becoming an important reliability issue. In this paper we present two computational methodologies that have been developed to predict the behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder joints under fatigue conditions that are based on metallurgical tests as fundamental input for constitutive relations. The two-phase model mathematically predicts the heterogeneous coarsening behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The finite element simulations from this model agree well with experimental thermomechanical fatigue tests. The simulations show that the presence of an initial heterogeneity in the solder microstructure could significantly degrade the fatigue lifetime. The single phase model is a computational technique that was developed to predict solder joint behavior using materials data for constitutive relation constants that could be determined through straightforward metallurgical experiments. A shear/torsion test sample was developed to impose strain in two different orientations. Materials constants were derived from these tests and the results showed an adequate fit to experimental results. The single-phase model could be very useful for conditions where microstructural evolution is not a dominant factor in fatigue.

  10. A microstructurally based model of solder joints under conditions of thermomechanical fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, D. R.; Burchett, S. N.; Rashid, M. M.

    The thermomechanical fatigue failure of solder joints is increasingly becoming an important reliability issue. We present two computational methodologies that have been developed to predict the behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder joints under fatigue conditions that are based on metallurgical tests as fundamental input for constitutive relations. The two-phase model mathematically predicts the heterogeneous coarsening behavior of near eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The finite element simulations from this model agree well with experimental thermomechanical fatigue tests. The simulations show that the presence of an initial heterogeneity in the solder microstructure could significantly degrade the fatigue lifetime. The single phase model is a computational technique that was developed to predict solder joint behavior using materials data for constitutive relation constants that could be determined through straightforward metallurgical experiments. A shear/torsion test sample was developed to impose strain in two different orientations. Materials constants were derived from these tests and the results showed an adequate fit to experimental results. The single-phase model could be very useful for conditions where microstructural evolution is not a dominant factor in fatigue.

  11. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Materials and Method A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (p< 0.05). Results The mean tensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Conclusion Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint. PMID:26636118

  12. Crystal chemistry and spectroscopic properties of ScAuSn, YAuSn, and LuAuSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, C. Peter; Eckert, Hellmut; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2006-05-01

    The stannides ScAuSn, YAuSn, and LuAuSn were synthesized as single phase materials from the elements via arc-melting. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals: MgAgAs type, F4¯3m, a=641.94(12) pm, wR2=0.035, 85 F values, 5 variables for ScAuSn, a=656.52(8) pm, wR2=0.029, 89 F values, 5 variables for LuAuSn, and NdPtSb type, P6mc, a=463.55(16), c=737.26(15) pm, wR2=0.057, 233 F values, 11 variables for YAuSn. The gold and tin atoms in ScAuSn and LuAuSn build up three-dimensional [AuSn] networks of corner-sharing AuSn 4/4 tetrahedra (278 and 284 pm Au sbnd Sn in ScAuSn and LuAuSn, respectively) similar to the blende type structure. The scandium atoms fill octahedral voids formed by the tin substructure. In contrast, the [AuSn] network of YAuSn is two-dimensional. The gold and tin atoms build up layers of puckered [Au 3Sn 3] hexagons with intralayer Au sbnd Sn distances of 277 pm, while the interlayer Au sbnd Sn distances of 297 pm are much longer. In every other layer the [Au 3Sn 3] hexagons are rotated by 60°. The layers are separated by the yttrium atoms. Spectroscopic measurements indicate significant differences in the chemical bonding properties: As revealed by both 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and 119Sn solid-state NMR data, the local electronic environment at the tin site is more anisotropic in YAuSn as compared to the other materials, which feature tin on a site with cubic point symmetry. In ScAuSn, the cubic site symmetry of the scandium position is reflected by a single sharp line in the 45Sc solid-state NMR spectrum.

  13. Development of Stable, Low Resistance Solder Joints for a Space-Flight HTS Lead Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavan, Edgar R.; Chiao, Meng; Panashchenko, Lyudmyla; Sampson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The solder joints in spaceflight high temperature superconductor (HTS) lead assemblies for certain astrophysics missions have strict constraints on size and power dissipation. In addition, the joints must tolerate years of storage at room temperature, many thermal cycles, and several vibration tests between their manufacture and their final operation on orbit. As reported previously, solder joints between REBCO coated conductors and normal metal traces for the Astro-H mission showed low temperature joint resistance that grew approximately as log time over the course of months. Although the assemblies worked without issue in orbit, for the upcoming X-ray Astrophysics Recovery Mission we are attempting to improve our solder process to give lower, more stable, and more consistent joint resistance. We produce numerous sample joints and measure time- and thermal cycle-dependent resistance, and characterize the joints using x-ray and other analysis tools. For a subset of the joints, we use SEMEDS to try to understand the physical and chemical processes that effect joint behavior.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of low-melting point Bi-Sn-In solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Jae Won; Lim, Tae-Soo; Yang, Dong-Yeol; Kim, Ki Bong; Kim, Young Ja; Lee, Jun Hong; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yang, Sangsun

    2017-09-01

    Ternary Bi-31.5Sn-25.0In solder has been proposed and studied for application in temperature-sensitive electronic components. In a Bi-31.5Sn- 25.0In solder joint, In was detected in an intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed at the solder/Cu substrate interface with a thickness of 4.8 μm. The microstructure of the bulk solder consisted of Sn-rich phases distributed in Bi-rich phases with dispersion of In in both phases. Meanwhile, the nanomechanical properties of the Bi-31.5Sn-25.0In solder showed great strain rate sensitivity. To be specific, hardness increased from 9.91 MPa to 56.84 MPa as the strain rate increased in the range of (0.0005-0.125) s-1. The strain-rate sensitivity exponent ( m) was found to be 0.28, indicating that the excellent ductility was shown for the solder tested under the present conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Characterization of tin crystal orientation evolution during thermal cycling in lead-free solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bite

    To address the long term reliability of lead-free solder joints in electronic devices during thermal cycling, the fundamental understanding of deformation mechanisms was studied using polarized light optical microscopy (PLM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Near-eutectic Sn-3.0(wt %) Ag-0.5(wt %) Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder joints were assessed in three different package designs: low-strain plastic ball grid array (PBGA), medium-strain fine-pitch ball grid array (BGA), and high-strain wafer-level-chip-scale package (WLCSP). The effect of microstructure evolution on solder failure is correlated with dislocation slip activities. The major failure mode in lead-free solder joints during thermal cycling that causes the electrical failure of the device is cracking in the bulk Sn near the Si chip/solder interface. Microstructure and Sn grain orientation evolution usually precedes crack development. A combined approach of both statistical analysis of a large number of solder joints, and detailed studies of individual solder balls was used to investigate the causes of fracture. Sn crystal orientation evolution and its effect on deformation was characterized in solder joints with different thermal histories, and compared with those from other package designs with different effective strain levels. The relationship between the initial dominant and localized recrystallized Sn grain orientations on crack development was investigated. It is found that in the low-strain package design, cracking is strongly correlated with Sn grain orientations with the [001] direction (c-axis) nearly aligned with the chip/solder interface. But no cracks were observed in solder balls with dominant orientations that have the c-axis normal to the interface plane. In higher-strain packages, however, cracking occurred in a variety of Sn grain orientations, and even solder balls with dominant orientations that are

  16. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-10-31

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines.

  17. Thermal Cycling Fatigue in DIPs Mounted with Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder Joints in Stub and Gullwing Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that solder joints under mechanical stress are subject to failure. In early electronic systems, such failures were avoided primarily by avoiding the use of solder as a mechanical structural component. The rule was first to make sound wire connections that did not depend mechanically on solder, and only then to solder them. Careful design and miniaturization in modern electronic systems limits the mechanical stresses exerted on solder joints to values less than their yield points, and these joints have become integral parts of the mechanical structures. Unfortunately, while these joints are strong enough when new, they have proven vulnerable to fatigue failures as they age. Details of the fatigue process are poorly understood, making predictions of expected lifetimes difficult.

  18. Thermal Cycling Fatigue in DIPs Mounted with Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder Joints in Stub and Gullwing Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that solder joints under mechanical stress are subject to failure. In early electronic systems, such failures were avoided primarily by avoiding the use of solder as a mechanical structural component. The rule was first to make sound wire connections that did not depend mechanically on solder, and only then to solder them. Careful design and miniaturization in modern electronic systems limits the mechanical stresses exerted on solder joints to values less than their yield points, and these joints have become integral parts of the mechanical structures. Unfortunately, while these joints are strong enough when new, they have proven vulnerable to fatigue failures as they age. Details of the fatigue process are poorly understood, making predictions of expected lifetimes difficult.

  19. Joint Lead-Free Solder Test Program for High Reliability Military and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Current and future space and defense systems face potential risks from the continued use of tin-lead solder, including: compliance with current environmental regulations, concerns about potential environmental legislation banning lead-containing products, reduced mission readiness, and component obsolescence with lead surface finishes. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has lowered the Toxic Chemical Release reporting threshold for lead to 100 pounds. Overseas, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Dicctives in Europe and similar mandates in Japan have instilled concern that a legislative body will prohibit the use of lead in aerospace/military electronics soldering. Any potential banning of lead compounds could reduce the supplier base and adversely affect the readiness of missions led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Before considering lead-free electronics for system upgrades or future designs, however, it is important for the DoD and NASA to know whether lead-free solders can meet their systems' requirements. No single lead-free solder is likely to qualify for all defense and space applications. Therefore, it is important to validate alternative solders for discrete applications. As a result of the need for comprehensive test data on the reliability of lead-free solders, a partnership was formed between the DoD, NASA, and several original equipment manufactures (OEMs) to conduct solder-joint reliability (laboratory) testing of three lead-free solder alloys on newly manufactured and reworked circuit cards to generate performance data for high-reliability (IPC Class 3) applications.

  20. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2011-09-28

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55 C/+125 C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  1. Effect of Plasma Surface Finish on Wettability and Mechanical Properties of SAC305 Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Koike, Junichi; Yoon, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Sehoon

    2016-12-01

    The wetting behavior, interfacial reactions, and mechanical reliability of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on a plasma-coated printed circuit board (PCB) substrate were evaluated under multiple heat-treatments. Conventional organic solderability preservative (OSP) finished PCBs were used as a reference. The plasma process created a dense and highly cross-linked polymer coating on the Cu substrates. The plasma finished samples had higher wetting forces and shorter zero-cross times than those with OSP surface finish. The OSP sample was degraded after sequential multiple heat treatments and reflow processes, whereas the solderability of the plasma finished sample was retained after multiple heat treatments. After the soldering process, similar microstructures were observed at the interfaces of the two solder joints, where the development of intermetallic compounds was observed. From ball shear tests, it was found that the shear force for the plasma substrate was consistently higher than that for the OSP substrate. Deterioration of the OSP surface finish was observed after multiple heat treatments. Overall, the plasma surface finish was superior to the conventional OSP finish with respect to wettability and joint reliability, indicating that it is a suitable material for the fabrication of complex electronic devices.

  2. Wave soldering with Pb-free solders

    SciTech Connect

    Artaki, I.; Finley, D.W.; Jackson, A.M.; Ray, U.; Vianco, P.T.

    1995-07-01

    The manufacturing feasibility and attachment reliability of a series of newly developed lead-free solders were investigated for wave soldering applications. Some of the key assembly aspects addressed included: wettability as a function of board surface finish, flux activation and surface tension of the molten solder, solder joint fillet quality and optimization of soldering thermal profiles. Generally, all new solder formulations exhibited adequate wave soldering performance and can be considered as possible alternatives to eutectic SnPb for wave soldering applications. Further process optimization and flux development is necessary to achieve the defect levels associated with the conventional SnPb process.

  3. Modelling and predicting hidden solder joint shape using active thermography and parametric numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron Palomares, Jose Benjamin; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2014-05-01

    A methodology based on active infrared thermography to study and characterize hidden solder joint shapes on a multi cover PCB assembly was investigated. A numerical model was developed to simulate the active thermography methodology and was proven to determine the grand average cooling rates with maximum errors of 8.85% (one cover) and 13.36% (two covers). A parametric analysis was performed by varying the number of covers, heat flux provided, and the amount of heating time. Grand average cooling rate distances among contiguous solder joint shapes, as well as solder joints discriminability, were determined to be directly proportional to heat flux, and inversely proportional to the number of covers and heating time. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to determine the appropriate total amount of energy needed to discriminate among hidden solder joints with a "good" discriminability for one and two covers, and a "regular" discriminability for up to five covers. The mathematical model was proven to predict the total amount of energy to achieve a "good" discriminability for one cover within a 10% of error with respect to the experimental active thermography model.

  4. Al and Si Alloying Effect on Solder Joint Reliability in Sn-0.5Cu for Automotive Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Won Sik; Oh, Chulmin; Kim, Mi-Song; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Hui Joong; Hong, Sung Jae; Moon, Jeong Tak

    2016-12-01

    To suppress the bonding strength degradation of solder joints in automotive electronics, we proposed a mid-temperature quaternary Pb-free Sn-0.5Cu solder alloy with minor Pd, Al, Si and Ge alloying elements. We manufactured powders and solder pastes of Sn-0.5Cu-(0.01,0.03)Al-0.005Si-(0.006-0.007)Ge alloys ( T m = 230°C), and vehicle electronic control units used for a flame-retardant-4 printed circuit board with an organic solderability preservative finish were assembled by a reflow soldering process. To investigate the degradation properties of solder joints used in engine compartments, thermal cycling tests were conducted from -40°C to 125°C (10 min dwell) for 1500 cycles. We also measured the shear strength of the solder joints in various components and observed the microstructural evolution of the solder joints. Based on these results, intermetallic compound (IMC) growth at the solder joints was suppressed by minor Pd, Al and Si additions to the Sn-0.5Cu alloy. After 1500 thermal cycles, IMC layers thicknesses for 100 parts per million (ppm) and 300 ppm Al alloy additions were 6.7 μm and 10 μm, compared to the as-reflowed bonding thicknesses of 6 μm and 7 μm, respectively. Furthermore, shear strength degradation rates for 100 ppm and 300 ppm Al(Si) alloy additions were at least 19.5%-26.2%. The cause of the improvement in thermal cycling reliability was analyzed using the (Al,Cu)-Sn, Si-Sn and Al-Sn phases dispersed around the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the solder matrix and bonding interfaces. From these results, we propose the possibility of a mid-temperature Sn-0.5Cu(Pd)-Al(Si)-Ge Pb-free solder for automotive engine compartment electronics.

  5. Sensitivity of Solder Joint Fatigue to Sources of Variation in Advanced Vehicular Power Electronics Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Vlahinos, A.; O'Keefe, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for taking variation into account in thermal and fatigue analyses of the die attach for an inverter of an electric traction drive vehicle. This method can be used to understand how variation and mission profile affect parameters of interest in a design. Three parameters are varied to represent manufacturing, material, and loading variation: solder joint voiding, aluminum nitride substrate thermal conductivity, and heat generation at the integrated gate bipolar transistor. The influence of these parameters on temperature and solder fatigue life is presented. The heat generation loading variation shows the largest influence on the results for the assumptions used in this problem setup.

  6. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  7. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  8. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  9. Microstructural study on Kirkendall void formation in Sn-containing/Cu solder joints during solid-state aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Shang, Pan-Ju; Tan, Feifei; Li, Douxing

    2013-08-01

    Kirkendall void formation at the solder/metallization interface is an important reliability concern for Cu conductors and under-bump metallization in microelectronic packaging industry, whose mechanism is still hard to be understood for different individual cases. In the present work, two typical solder/Cu-diffusing couples, eutectic SnIn/Cu and SnBi/Cu, were studied by scanning/transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructural evolution and voiding process after soldering and then solid-state aging. It was concluded that Kirkendall voids formed between two sublayers within Cu2(In,Sn) phase in eutectic SnIn/Cu solder joint, whereas they appeared at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface or within Cu3Sn for eutectic SnBi/Cu solder joint. Besides the effect of impurity elements, the morphological difference within one intermetallic compound layer could change the diffusing rates of reactive species, hence resulting in void formation in the reaction zone.

  10. Fast formation and growth of high-density Sn whiskers in Mg/Sn-based solder/Mg joints by ultrasonic-assisted soldering: Phenomena, mechanism and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Li, M. Y.; Yang, H. F.; Zhang, Z. H.; Gu, J. H.; Yang, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    A universally applicable method for promoting the fast formation and growth of high-density Sn whiskers on solders was developed by fabricating Mg/Sn-based solder/Mg joints using ultrasonic-assisted soldering at 250 °C for 6 s and then subjected to thermal aging at 25 °C for 7 d. The results showed that the use of the ultrasonic-assisted soldering could produce the supersaturated dissolution of Mg in the liquid Sn and lead to the existence of two forms of Mg in Sn after solidification. Moreover, the formation and growth of the high-density whiskers were facilitated by the specific contributions of both of the Mg forms in the solid Sn. Specifically, interstitial Mg can provide the persistent driving force for Sn whisker growth, whereas the Mg2Sn phase can increase the formation probability of Sn whiskers. In addition, we presented that the formation and growth of Sn whiskers in the Sn-based solders can be significantly restricted by a small amount of Zn addition (≥3 wt.%), and the prevention mechanisms are attributed to the segregation of Zn atoms at grain or phase boundaries and the formation of the lamellar-type Zn-rich structures in the solder. PMID:27273421

  11. Fast formation and growth of high-density Sn whiskers in Mg/Sn-based solder/Mg joints by ultrasonic-assisted soldering: Phenomena, mechanism and prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. Y.; Yang, H. F.; Zhang, Z. H.; Gu, J. H.; Yang, S. H.

    2016-06-01

    A universally applicable method for promoting the fast formation and growth of high-density Sn whiskers on solders was developed by fabricating Mg/Sn-based solder/Mg joints using ultrasonic-assisted soldering at 250 °C for 6 s and then subjected to thermal aging at 25 °C for 7 d. The results showed that the use of the ultrasonic-assisted soldering could produce the supersaturated dissolution of Mg in the liquid Sn and lead to the existence of two forms of Mg in Sn after solidification. Moreover, the formation and growth of the high-density whiskers were facilitated by the specific contributions of both of the Mg forms in the solid Sn. Specifically, interstitial Mg can provide the persistent driving force for Sn whisker growth, whereas the Mg2Sn phase can increase the formation probability of Sn whiskers. In addition, we presented that the formation and growth of Sn whiskers in the Sn-based solders can be significantly restricted by a small amount of Zn addition (≥3 wt.%), and the prevention mechanisms are attributed to the segregation of Zn atoms at grain or phase boundaries and the formation of the lamellar-type Zn-rich structures in the solder.

  12. Effect on properties of 42Sn58Bi solder joint by adding the 96.5Sn3.5Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qinghua; Pan, Xiaoguang; Wu, C. M. L.; Chan, Y. C.

    2000-05-01

    The different composition in 42Sn58Bi and 96.5Sn3.5Ag system has been studied. The reflow conditions of various composition pastes were studied, and a suitable adding of Sn-Ag paste could raise the soldering temperature of paste. It was found that the shear tensile strength of solder joint could be improved after adding suitable Sn-Ag to Sn-Bi paste by testing the solder joint tension. The thermal fatigue properties were studied through performed thermal annealing and thermal shocking. The shear tensile strength of solder joints for adding suitable Sn-Ag is higher than the pure Sn- Bi after thermal shocking. The solder property, mechanical and fatigue failure properties of solder joint for adding suitable Sn-Ag could be improved. It was found that suitable Sn-Ag could decrease the porosity in Sn-Bi solder joint thought X-ray and SEM analysis.

  13. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  14. A quick electrical inspection method of solder joint quality for LED products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Que, Xiufu; Liu, Yanan; Chen, Weining; Tao, Guoqiao; Yang, Lianqiao

    2016-06-01

    Solder joint qualities of light-emitting diodes (LED) lamps have a significant effect on their lifetime. Due to variations in LEDs, the product lifetime is determined by the lowest performing component of the product when multi-LEDs are used. In this paper, we propose a quick electrical inspection method of solder joint quality for LED products, which is obtained by the heating curve measurement for a short time with the forward voltage as a temperature sensitive parameter. The utility of this quick inspection method is verified by the measurement of a solder voids ratio based on the most commonly used approaches in the industry—x-ray. The proposed method is cost effective and only needs around 1-5 s for each LED, which is about one third of the x-ray. Therefore, the quick electrical test method is both meaningful and promising especially when carrying out quality tests on large quantities of solder and can be a highly recommended method to be adopted by the LED lighting industry.

  15. Microstructural Coarsening during Thermomechanical Fatigue and Annealing of Micro Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Monica Michele

    1998-12-01

    Microstructural evolution due to thermal effects was studied in micro solder joints (55 ± 5 μm). The composition of the Sn/Pb solder studied was found to be hypereutectic with a tin content of 65-70 wt%.This was determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and confirmed with quantitative stereology. The quantitative stereological value of the surface-to-volume ratio was used to characterize and compare the coarsening during thermal cycling from 0-160 C to the coarsening during annealing at 160 C. The initial coarsening of the annealed samples was more rapid than the cycled samples, but tapered off as time to the one-half as expected. Because the substrates to which the solder was bonded have different thermal expansion coefficients, the cycled samples experienced a mechanical strain with thermal cycling. The low-strain cycled samples had a 2.8% strain imposed on the solder and failed by 1,000 cycles, despite undergoing less coarsening than the annealed samples. The high-strain cycled samples experienced a 28% strain and failed between 25 and 250 cycles. No failures were observed in the annealed samples. Failure mechanisms and processing issues unique to small, fine pitch joints are also discussed.

  16. Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, C.L.; Yang, F.; Fang, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.

  17. Nucleation and Growth of Tin in Pb-Free Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, C. M.; Belyakov, S. A.; Ma, Z. L.; Xian, J. W.

    2015-08-01

    The solidification of Pb-free solder joints is overviewed with a focus on the formation of the βSn grain structure and grain orientations. Three solders commonly used in electronics manufacturing, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni, are used as case studies to demonstrate that (I) growth competition between primary dendrites and eutectic fronts during growth in undercooled melts is important in Pb-free solders and (II) a metastable eutectic containing NiSn4 forms in Sn-3.5Ag/Ni joints. Additionally, it is shown that the substrate (metallization) has a strong influence on the nucleation and growth of tin. We identify Co, Pd, and Pt substrates as having the potential to control solidification and microstructure formation. In the case of Pd and Pt substrates, βSn is shown to nucleate on the PtSn4 or PdSn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) reaction layer at relatively low undercooling of ~4 K, even for small solder ball diameters down to <200 μm.

  18. Roles of service parameters on the mechanical behavior of lead-free solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hongjoo

    2005-07-01

    Lead-based solders have been extensively used as interconnects in various electronic applications due to their low cost and suitable material properties. However, in view of environmental and health concerns, the electronics industry is forced to develop lead-free alternative solders. Eutectic Sn-3.5Ag based solders are being considered as suitable substitutes due to their non-toxicity, tolerable melting temperatures, and comparable mechanical as well as electrical properties. Smaller electronic packaging and emerging new technologies impose several constraints on the solder interconnect that require better inherent properties in the solder to resist failure during operation. Hence, it is important to develop a clear understanding of the deformation behavior of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints. Mechanical characterization was performed to investigate the behavior of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints. Peak shear stress and flow stress decreased with increasing testing temperature and with decreasing simple shear-strain rate. The effect of simple shear-strain rate on the peak shear stress was found to be more significant at temperature regimes less than 125°C. The deformation structure of specimens deformed at higher temperatures was dominated by grain boundary deformation, while at lower temperatures it was dominated by shear banding. Stress relaxation studies on eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints were carried out to provide a better understanding of various parameters contributing to thermomechanical damage accumulation. Monotonic stress relaxation tests at various pre-strain conditions and testing temperatures can provide information relevant to the effects of ramp rates during heating and cooling excursions experienced during thermomechanical fatigue. Peak shear stress and residual shear stress, resulting from stress relaxation period, decreased with increasing testing temperature for a given pre-strain condition. A faster ramp rate was found to cause higher resultant residual

  19. Partially-constrained thermomechanical fatigue of eutectic tin-bismuth/copper solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeder, C. H.; Messler, R. W., Jr.; Coffin, L. F., Jr.

    1999-09-01

    Small bimetallic load-frames with reference assembly stiffness, k', and fully-constrained shear strain, γfc, were used to simulate the thermo-mechanical conditions experienced by eutectic Bi-42wt.%Sn-to-Cu solder joints. Shear stress and strain were induced in the solder joint by a 45-minute, 0 to 100°C temperature cycle and were calculated from the assembly temperature, joint configuration, and measured elastic strain in the load-frame. Early in cycling, a hysteresis loop representing the maximum stress range and minimum strain range was reached. As damage accumulated in the solder, the stress range decreased and the strain range increased. The TMF life of the joints, defined by the load range drop, Φ, as a function of k' and γfc, can be determined, defining an effective plastic strain range which allows data for various stiffnesses and thermal expansion mismatches to be summarized on a single Coffin-Mansion plot. The effective plastic strain range also provides an important link to conventional low cycle fatigue (LCF) data taken from an infinitely stiff load-frame.

  20. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  1. Thermal Fatigue Evaluation of Pb-Free Solder Joints: Results, Lessons Learned, and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Richard J.; Sweatman, Keith; Arfaei, Babak

    2015-09-01

    Thermal fatigue is a major source of failure of solder joints in surface mount electronic components and it is critically important in high reliability applications such as telecommunication, military, and aeronautics. The electronic packaging industry has seen an increase in the number of Pb-free solder alloy choices beyond the common near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu alloys first established as replacements for eutectic SnPb. This paper discusses the results from Pb-free solder joint reliability programs sponsored by two industry consortia. The characteristic life in accelerated thermal cycling is reported for 12 different Pb-free solder alloys and a SnPb control in 9 different accelerated thermal cycling test profiles in terms of the effects of component type, accelerated thermal cycling profile and dwell time. Microstructural analysis on assembled and failed samples was performed to investigate the effect of initial microstructure and its evolution during accelerated thermal cycling test. A significant finding from the study is that the beneficial effect of Ag on accelerated thermal cycling reliability (measured by characteristic lifetime) diminishes as the severity of the accelerated thermal cycling, defined by greater ΔT, higher peak temperature, and longer dwell time increases. The results also indicate that all the Pb-free solders are more reliable in accelerated thermal cycling than the SnPb alloy they have replaced. Suggestions are made for future work, particularly with respect to the continued evolution of alloy development for emerging application requirements and the value of using advanced analytical methods to provide a better understanding of the effect of microstructure and its evolution on accelerated thermal cycling performance.

  2. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  3. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  4. Microstructural evolution and atomic transport by thermomigration in eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Wu, B. Y.; Chan, Y. C.; Tu, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    The thermomigration behavior of eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joints at an ambient temperature of 150 °C was investigated in terms of microstructural evolution, atomic transport, and numerical simulation. Pb accumulation and phase separation were observed in solder joints near a melting temperature after 50 h, which was supported by energy dispersive x-ray and element mapping analysis. It is believed that Pb atoms migrated from the chip side (the hot side) to the substrate side (the cold side) under a temperature gradient. Thermal electrical finite element simulation for the real flip chip test structure showed the existence of a temperature difference between the substrate side and the chip side. In addition, a temperature gradient above 1000 °C/cm across the adjacent unpowered solder joints was predicted. This was also verified by temperature measurements with thermocouples. The atomic flux of Pb due to thermomigration was calculated here, which was agreeable with the values originally reported. Also, the driving force of thermomigration was estimated to be 10-17 N, even approaching the same order with that of electromigration under a current density of 104 A/cm2.

  5. Comparative Study of ENIG and ENEPIG as Surface Finishes for a Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong-Won; Noh, Bo-In; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2011-09-01

    Interfacial reactions and joint reliability of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder with two different surface finishes, electroless nickel-immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel-electroless palladium-immersion gold (ENEPIG), were evaluated during a reflow process. We first compared the interfacial reactions of the two solder joints and also successfully revealed a connection between the interfacial reaction behavior and mechanical reliability. The Sn-Ag-Cu/ENIG joint exhibited a higher intermetallic compound (IMC) growth rate and a higher consumption rate of the Ni(P) layer than the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG joint. The presence of the Pd layer in the ENEPIG suppressed the growth of the interfacial IMC layer and the consumption of the Ni(P) layer, resulting in the superior interfacial stability of the solder joint. The shear test results show that the ENIG joint fractured along the interface, exhibiting indications of brittle failure possibly due to the brittle IMC layer. In contrast, the failure of the ENEPIG joint only went through the bulk solder, supporting the idea that the interface is mechanically reliable. The results from this study confirm that the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG solder joint is mechanically robust and, thus, the combination is a viable option for a Pb-free package system.

  6. Interfacial Reaction Between 95Pb-5Sn Solder Bump and 37Pb-63Sn Presolder in Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Wang, Y. W.; Lai, Y. S.; Kao, C. R.

    2010-08-01

    Interdiffusion and interfacial reaction of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn presolder in flip-chip solder joints during high-temperature storage were studied. Reaction temperatures included 100°C, 130°C, 150°C, and 175°C. It was found that Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn formed on the board side and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 formed on the chip side after 100 h of aging. After 2000 h of aging at 175°C, the Ni under-bump metallization (UBM) was exhausted. This caused the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 layer at the chip-side interface to be gradually converted into (Cu0.6Ni0.4)6Sn5. It was also found that the consumption of the Ni UBM was faster than the case where eutectic Sn-Pb solder was used for the entire joint. Nevertheless, the consumption of the Cu on the substrate side was slower than the case where pure eutectic Sn-Pb solder was used for the entire joint.

  7. Growth of a Au-Ni-Sn intermetallic compound on the solder-substrate interface after aging

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, Andrew M.

    1999-12-01

    Au/Ni metallization has become increasingly common in microelectronic packaging when Cu pads are joined with Pb-Sn solder. The outermost Au layer serves to protect the pad from corrosion and oxidation and the Ni layer provides a diffusion barrier to inhibit detrimental growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics. As a result of reflowing eutectic Pb-Sn on top of Au/Ni metallization, the as-solidified joints have AuSn4 precipitates distributed throughout the bulk of the solder joint, and Ni3Sn4 intermetallics at the interface. Recent work has shown that the Au-Sn redeposits onto the interface during aging, compromising the strength of the joint. The present work shows that the redeposited intermetallic layer is a ternary compound with stoichiometry Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4. The growth of this intermetallic layer was investigated, and results show that the ternary compound is observed to grow after as little as 3 hours at 150°C and after 3 weeks at 150°C has grown to a thickness of 10 μm. Additionally, methods for inhibiting the growth of the ternary layer were investigated and it was determined that multiple reflows, both with and without additional aging can substantially limit the thickness of the ternary layer.

  8. Comparison of high speed impact test of solder joints with board level drop test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruprasad, Pradosh

    Efforts have been made in this study to evaluate the characteristics of solder joint failure by using a new high speed impact tester. First, the dynamics and characteristics of the test vehicle in a board level drop test have been evaluated. A thorough understanding of the behavior of the test vehicle is examined by characterizing its response under different test profiles and board dimensions. This is done in an attempt to optimize the test procedure used to qualify electronic products subjected to high strain rate drop/shock environment. The effects of peak acceleration and change in velocity of the impact pulse on the reliability of the test vehicle have been studied. In situ strain measurements have been used to aid us in characterizing the board response under high strain rate loading conditions. Also finite element analysis has been used to better understand the board response under different loading conditions. Based on the experimental results and analysis, ways to improvise the drop test setup have been discussed. A more thorough understanding of the solder joint behavior is examined by characterizing the behavior with respect to varying impact profiles on a new pendulum fatigue and a high speed impact tester. This is done in an attempt to address solder joint failures in actual product that may be operating under high strain rate or shock environments and to reduce the actual test time needed for a board level drop test. Comparison between the high speed pendulum impact test and drop test was primarily made by evaluating the failure modes from these two tests. Energy absorbed by the solder in a single impact has been used to predict the reliability in a board level test.

  9. Effect of Al-Trace Width on the Electromigration Failure Time of Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. W.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Chen, Chih

    2010-10-01

    The effect of Al-trace width on electromigration (EM) in flip-chip solder joints was investigated experimentally. EM tests were performed on eutectic Sn-Ag solders with 40- μm- and 100- μm-wide Al traces. Under the same stressing conditions (0.5 A at 165°C), the failure time was 44.1 h for solder joints with 40- μm-wide traces and 250.1 h for solder joints with 100- μm-wide traces. The Al-trace width influenced both the current crowding and the Joule heating effects. Thus, both effects are responsible for the significant difference in failure time. Finite-element analysis was used to examine the current crowding effect in solder bumps with Al traces of the two different widths. The results showed that the current crowding effect was slightly higher in joints with 40- μm-wide traces. In addition, the temperature coefficient was used to measure the real temperatures in the solder bumps during EM. The results indicated that the width of the Al traces had a substantial influence on the Joule heating effect. The measured temperature in the solder bump was 218.2°C and 172.2°C for the bump with 40- μm- and 100- μm-wide Al traces, respectively. This difference in the Joule heating effect plays a crucial role in causing the difference in the failure time of solder joints with the two different widths.

  10. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  11. Effect of thickening outermost layers in Al/Ni multilayer film on thermal resistance of reactively bonded solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanetsuki, Shunsuke; Kuwahara, Koichi; Egawa, Shouichi; Miyake, Shugo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2017-06-01

    To reduce the thermal resistance of solder joints obtained by Al/Ni self-propagating exothermic reaction, we focus on the interface between the solder and the reactive Al/Ni multilayer before the reaction. We fabricate an Al/Ni film in which the outermost Al or Ni layer is deposited more thickly. By the laser flash method with response function analysis, the thermal resistance of the bonded specimens was measured in the case of thickening and non-thickening of the outermost layer. It is found that the resistance decreases with the thickness of the outermost layers, particularly the Ni layer. To investigate the influence of the amount of void on the resistance, scanning acoustic tomography (SAT), scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, and field-emission electron probe micro-analysis (FE-EPMA) were carried out. Differences in the interfacial state between Ni-thickening and Al-thickening specimens are discussed in light of solder wettability, diffusion into the solder, and the type of intermetallic compound at the solder interface. It can be considered that thickening the outermost Ni layer has a great impact on decreasing the number of voids generated at the AlNi-solder interface even in low-pressure bonding, leading to reduction in the thermal resistance of solder joints.

  12. Ensuring Fully Soldered Through Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1987-01-01

    Simple differential-pressure soldering method provides visual evidence that hidden joints are fully soldered. Intended for soldering connector pins in plated through holes in circuit boards. Molten solder flows into plated through holes, drawn by vacuum in manifold over circuit board. Differential-pressure process ensures solder wets entire through hole around connector pin.

  13. Ensuring Fully Soldered Through Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1987-01-01

    Simple differential-pressure soldering method provides visual evidence that hidden joints are fully soldered. Intended for soldering connector pins in plated through holes in circuit boards. Molten solder flows into plated through holes, drawn by vacuum in manifold over circuit board. Differential-pressure process ensures solder wets entire through hole around connector pin.

  14. Thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg solder joint under alternating current stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Hsiang-Yao; Chen, Chih

    2009-03-01

    Lead-free solders have been adopted by the microelectronics industry. However, their thermomigration behaviors are unclear. Thermomigration in eutectic SnAg3.5 solder joints was investigated using an alternating current (ac) of 0.57 A at 100 °C. The ac eliminates the electromigration effect and creates a thermal gradient of 2829 °C/cm, facilitating the study of thermomigration. Arrays of tiny markers fabricated by a focused ion beam are employed to measure the thermomigration rate. It is found that Sn atoms migrated toward the hot end. The thermomigration flux and molar heat of transport are measured to be 5.0×1012 atoms/cm2 and 1.36 kJ/mole, respectively.

  15. Effect of the Angle Between Sn Grain c-Axis and Electron Flow Direction on Cu-Reinforced Composite Solder Joints Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yishu; Ma, Limin; Guo, Fu

    2017-09-01

    With a body-centered tetragonal crystal structure, Sn grains were demonstrated to have highly anisotropic behaviors in various properties. The electromigration behavior of lead-free solder was impacted by the grain orientations. In this paper, the angle between the c-axis and the electron flow direction in composite solder joints (angle θ) was proven to be an important factor during electromigration. The effects of angle θ on the electromigration of composite solder joints were investigated in this paper. Cu particle-reinforced Sn3.5Ag solder joints were stressed under a current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature. After 336 h current stressing time, different electromigration phenomena occurred at the two sides of the grain boundary in the composite solder joint which contained two Sn grains with different angle θ. The Sn grains with the larger angle θ had a smaller growth rate of Cu6Sn5. In addition, a composite solder joint with a single Sn grain was set as the contrast and its angle θ was smaller than that of the composite solder joint with two Sn grains. The growth rate of Cu6Sn5 in the composite solder joint with a single grain was faster than that of the composite solder joint with two Sn grains.

  16. Electromigration and solid state aging of flip chip solder joints and analysis of tin whisker on lead-frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekyeong

    Electromigration and solid state aging in flip chip joint, and whisker on lead frame of Pb-containing (eutectic SnPb) and Pb-free solders (SnAg 3.5, SnAg3.8Cu0.7, and SnCu0.7), have been studied systematically, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), and synchrotron radiation. The high current density in flip chip joint drives the diffusion of atoms of eutectic SnPb and SnAgCu. A marker is used to measure the diffusion flux in a half cross-sectioned solder joint. SnAgCu shows higher resistance against electromigration than eutectic SnPb. In the half cross-sectioned solder joint, void growth is the dominant failure mechanism. However, the whole solder balls in the underfill show that the failure mechanism is a result from the dissolution of electroless Ni under bump metallization (UBM) of about 10 mum thickness. The growth rate between intermetallic compounds in molten and solid solders differed by four orders of magnitude. In liquid solder, the growth rate is about 1 mum/min; the growth rate in solid solder is only about 10 -4 mum/min. The difference is not resulting from factors of thermodynamics, which is the change of Gibbs free energy before and after intermetallic compound formation, but from kinetic factors, which is the rate of change of Gibbs free energy. Even though the difference in growth rate between eutectic SnPb and Pb-free solders during solid state aging was found, the reason behind such difference shown is unclear. The orientation and stress levels of whiskers are measured by white X-ray of synchrotron radiation. The growth direction is nearly parallel to one of the principal axes of tin. The compressive stress level is quite low because the residual stress is relaxed by the whisker growth.

  17. Influence of nickel-phosphorus surface roughness on wettability and pores formation in solder joints for high power electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivet, L.; Joudrier, A.-L.; Tan, K.-L.; Morelle, J.-M.; Etcheberry, A.; Chalumeau, L.

    2013-12-01

    Electroless nickel-high-phosphorus Ni-P plating is used as substrate coating in the electronic component technology. The ability to minimize pores formation in solder joints and the wettability of the Ni-P layer remain points of investigation. The qualities and the control of the physical and chemical properties of the deposits are essential for the reliability of the products. In this contribution it has been measured how a controlled change of one property of the Ni-P surface, its average roughness, changes the wettability of this surface before soldering completion, at ambient temperature and under ambient air, and how it contribute to change the amount and size of pores inside solder joints, after soldering completion. Before all, observations of the Ni-P surfaces using scanning electron microscopy have been achieved. Then the wettability has been measured through the determination of both the disperse and the polar fractions of the substrate surface tension, based on the measurements of the wetting angle for droplets of four different liquids, under ambient air and at room temperature (classical sessile drop technique). Finally the X-ray micro-radiography measurements of both the area fraction of pores and the size of the largest pore inside the solder joint of dice laser soldered on the studied substrate, using high melting temperature solder (300 °C, PbSnAg) have been achieved. This study clearly demonstrates that both the ability to minimize pores formation in solder joints and the wettability under ambient conditions of the Ni-P substrate decrease and become more variable when its average roughness increases. These effects can be explained considering the Cassie-Baxter model for rough surface wetting behaviour, completed by the model of heterogeneous nucleation and growth for gas bubbles inside a liquid.

  18. Study on Subgrain Rotation Behavior at Different Interfaces of a Solder Joint During Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Tan, Shihai; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate subgrain rotation behavior in the recrystallized region of lead-free solder joints, a ball grid array (BGA) specimen with a cross-sectioned edge row was thermally shocked. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to obtain the microstructure and orientations of Sn grains or subgrains in as-reflowed and thermally shocked conditions. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) showed that several subgrains were formed at the tilted twin grain boundaries, near the chip side and near the printed circuit board (PCB) side after 200 thermal shocks due to a highly mismatched coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of twin grains. Also, subgrains formed at the chip side and PCB side in the solder joint were selected to research the grain rotation behavior in lead-free solder joints. The analysis of subgrain rotation also indicated that the rotation behavior of subgrains was different between the chip side and PCB side. It was closely related with the large different crystal orientations between the chip side and PCB side. Furthermore, electron backscattered patterns (EBSPs) at several parts of the joint were not obtained after 300 thermal shocks due to the serious deformation caused by mismatched CTE during thermal shock. But 4 subgrains were selected and compared with that of the initial state and 200-thermal shock conditions. The results showed that the subgrains at the chip side were also rotated around the Sn [101] and [001] axes and the subgrains at the PCB side were also rotated around the Sn [100] axis, which indicated a continuous process of subgrain rotation.

  19. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. PMID:27877786

  20. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-06-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn-Ag-Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided.

  1. The Influence of PV Module Materials and Design on Solder Joint Thermal Fatigue Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Finite element model (FEM) simulations have been performed to elucidate the effect of flat plate photovoltaic (PV) module materials and design on PbSn eutectic solder joint thermal fatigue durability. The statistical method of Latin Hypercube sampling was employed to investigate the sensitivity of simulated damage to each input variable. Variables of laminate material properties and their thicknesses were investigated. Using analysis of variance, we determined that the rate of solder fatigue was most sensitive to solder layer thickness, with copper ribbon and silicon thickness being the next two most sensitive variables. By simulating both accelerated thermal cycles (ATCs) and PV cell temperature histories through two characteristic days of service, we determined that the acceleration factor between the ATC and outdoor service was independent of the variables sampled in this study. This result implies that an ATC test will represent a similar time of outdoor exposure for a wide range of module designs. This is an encouraging result for the standard ATC that must be universally applied across all modules.

  2. Finite element modeling of thermal fatigue and damage of solder joints in a ceramic ball grid array package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bor Zen

    1997-07-01

    A nonlinear finite element model is presented for analyzing the cyclic and thermal fatigue loading and for viscoplastic damage characterization of the lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solder joints in a ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) surface mount package. An approach using a Δ ∈{eq/in}-modified Coffin-Manson equation is proposed to estimate the fatigue life of the solder joints. The Δ ∈{eq/in} represents a saturated equivalent inelastic strain range as determined by the finite element model. The present study shows that the predictied fatigue life and the associated damage mechanism of the solder joint agree reasonably well with the test data for the 18,25, and 32 mm CBGA packages run at a cyclic temperature load of 0°C/100°C with a frequency of 1.5 cycles per hour. Analysis also shows that a preferred failure site is expected to occur in and around the Pb37-Sn63 solder attachment of the solder joint. A time-dependent (creep induced) damage mechanism is found to be more pronounced than the time-independent (plastic deformation) mechanism.

  3. The orientation imaging microscopy of lead-free Sn-Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telang, A. U.; Bieler, T. R.

    2005-06-01

    Orientation imaging microscopy was used to identify solidification microstructures and early stages of damage evolution in tin-silver eutectic solder joints on copper and nickel substrates after aging, creep, and thermomechanical fatigue. A visco-plastic self-consistent plasticity model was able to simulate texture changes when work hardening occurred at higher strain rates, but not with lower rates, where grain boundary sliding dominated the deformation and slip occurred predominantly on one or two slip systems that could be predicted using a Schmid (Sachs) analysis.

  4. Electromigration and thermomigration studies in composite high lead and eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Annie Tzuyu

    The effect of thermomigration and the combination effect of thermomigration and electromigration have been studied in composite SnPb flip chip solder joints. Because Al line on the silicon chip side is the major heat source exerted on flip chip solder joint, temperature gradient across the joint is induced when a long Al line is stressed with high current density. Under a estimated temperature gradient of 1000°C/cm, Sn-rich and Pb-rich phase separation is found to occur. Experimental results have shown that Sn-rich phase accumulates at the hot side and Pb-rich phase accumulates at the cold side after thermomigration. When solder bumps are current high current density, thermomigration was found to accompany electromigration. Not only Pb-rich phase migrated toward the anode side and Sn-rich phase migrated toward the cathode side due to electromigration, Sn-rich phase was found to migrate along the top of solder joint due to thermomigration. It was found that as void propagates along the top of the solder joint, current crowding region shifts with the tip of the void. This created a local hot spot and thus a lateral temperature gradient was induced for thermomigration to occur. To isolate the thermal effect from the current effect, ac stressing at 60 Hz was also utilized. Interestingly, ac seems to have an effect other than thermal effect due to the difference in microstructure evolution between pure thermomigration and ac case after stressing. Further investigation at different frequency is needed to fully understand the effect of ac. Furthermore, analysis was performed to explain the phenomena of phase separation and phase reversal in the solder joint considering a constraint volume within underfill. Both Kirkendall effect and back stress were considered. Finally, detail morphological change after thermomigration and electromigration were investigated. Grain refinement was found to occur at a certain stressing condition. Production of entropy and morphological

  5. Mechanical and thermomechanical stability issues of 96.5SN-3.5AG solder joints in microelectronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong

    Flip chip technology is the ultimate solution for high performance and high density chip level interconnection. This thesis describes the investigation of using eutectic 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder for flip chip applications. The principal components of the research include mechanical characterization, bumping process development, and finite element simulation for solder joint reliability. A novel solder bumping process was developed for wafer level fabrication of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps. As a baseline process, an electroplating method was applied to fabricate the micro-scale solder bumps with 125-mum diameter, 250-mum pitch and approximately 80-mum height. Pre-deposition of solder bumps was carried out by electroplating over a fine-pattern photoresist mask. Rapid dissolution of Ag into Sn was accomplished during reflow and chip joining process. Nickel was selected as the diffusion barrier and wetting layer in the under-the-bump metallurgy (UBM). Microstructural and compositional analyses were performed using SEM and EDS. Three different mechanical testing techniques including tensile creep, lap shear creep, and automated ball indentation tests were used to characterize the mechanical deformation behavior of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder and solder joints. Constant-load creep tests on bulk specimens revealed a dislocation climb mechanism with a relatively large stress exponent of n = 10 for creep strain rates ranging from 10sp{-9} to 10sp{-3} and at temperatures ranging from 298K to 453K. The apparent activation energy for creep was found to be 0.57 ev. Lap shear creep tests on 96.5Sn-7.5Ag solder bumps also revealed a dislocation climb mechanism with a stress exponent of n = 10 for creep strain rates ranging from 10sp{-7} to 10sp{-4} at room temperature. In general, the solder joints are more creep resistant than the bulk specimen due to the inclusion of solder/base metal intermetallics. The intermetallic compounds may form precipitates or dispersoids in the solder matrix and

  6. Three Dimensional Characterization of Tin Crystallography and Cu6Sn5 Intermetallics in Solder Joints by Multiscale Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubanandham, A.; Lujan-Regalado, I.; Vallabhaneni, R.; Chawla, N.

    2016-11-01

    Decreasing pitch size in electronic packaging has resulted in a drastic decrease in solder volumes. The Sn grain crystallography and fraction of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in small-scale solder joints evolve much differently at the smaller length scales. A cross-sectional study limits the morphological analysis of microstructural features to two dimensions. This study utilizes serial sectioning technique in conjunction with electron backscatter diffraction to investigate the crystallographic orientation of both Sn grains and Cu6Sn5 IMCs in Cu/Pure Sn/Cu solder joints in three dimensional (3D). Quantification of grain aspect ratio is affected by local cooling rate differences within the solder volume. Backscatter electron imaging and focused ion beam serial sectioning enabled the visualization of morphology of both nanosized Cu6Sn5 IMCs and the hollow hexagonal morphology type Cu6Sn5 IMCs in 3D. Quantification and visualization of microstructural features in 3D thus enable us to better understand the microstructure and deformation mechanics within these small scale solder joints.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of reflow porosity and modeling of deformation in Pb-free solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, M.A.; Hunter, L.; Kranz, S.; Williams, J.J.; Lau, S.H.; Chawla, N.

    2010-04-15

    The volume, size, and dispersion of porosity in solder joints are known to affect mechanical performance and reliability. Most of the techniques used to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) nature of these defects are destructive. With the enhancements in high resolution computed tomography (CT), the detection limits of intrinsic microstructures have been significantly improved. Furthermore, the 3D microstructure of the material can be used in finite element models to understand their effect on microscopic deformation. In this paper we describe a technique utilizing high resolution (< 1 {mu}m) X-ray tomography for the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of pores in Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu/Cu joints. The characteristics of reflow porosity, including volume fraction and distribution, were investigated for two reflow profiles. The size and distribution of porosity size were visualized in 3D for four different solder joints. In addition, the 3D virtual microstructure was incorporated into a finite element model to quantify the effect of voids on the lap shear behavior of a solder joint. The presence, size, and location of voids significantly increased the severity of strain localization at the solder/copper interface.

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Ag-Au-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindler, M.; Knott, S.; Mikula, A.

    2010-10-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Au-Sn alloys were studied with an electromotive force (EMF) method using the eutectic mixture of KCl/LiCl as a liquid electrolyte. Activities of Sn in the liquid alloys were measured at three cross-sections with constant molar ratios of Ag:Au = 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 with tin in the concentration range between 20 at.% and 90 at.% from the liquidus of the samples up to 1030 K. The integral Gibbs energies at 973 K and the integral enthalpies were calculated by Gibbs-Duhem integration.

  9. Effect of cooling condition and Ag on the growth of intermetallic compounds in Sn-based solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haoran; Kunwar, Anil; Guo, Bingfeng; Sun, Junhao; Jiang, Chengrong; Wang, Yunpeng; Song, Xueguan; Zhao, Ning; Ma, Haitao

    2016-12-01

    The intermetallic compound growth in Sn/Cu and Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints undergoing cooling has been in-situ observed using synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging technique. The overall thickness of intermetallic compound attained during cooling condition is dependent on the rates of Cu precipitation or deposition from the bulk solder and Cu diffusion from grain boundary at interface. Although the net increase in IMC thickness contributed predominantly by deposition kinetics is greater for air cooling than in furnace cooling from the start temperature of 300°C for the first 20 min, the former solidifies before 30 min and the latter stays in liquid state for 1 h due to slower cooling rate and attains a bigger IMC of size about 14.5 μm. In context of Sn-3.5Ag solders subjected to air cooling from 275°C, the presence of Ag contributes to the increment in overall IMC thickness during the cooling period. For the improvement in solder joints reliability, faster cooling rate and limiting the Ag content can be employed as the materials design and processing parameters.

  10. Solder Reflow Failures in Electronic Components During Manual Soldering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander; Greenwell, Chris; Felt, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the solder reflow failures in electronic components that occur during manual soldering. It discusses the specifics of manual-soldering-induced failures in plastic devices with internal solder joints. The failure analysis turned up that molten solder had squeezed up to the die surface along the die molding compound interface, and the dice were not protected with glassivation allowing solder to short gate and source to the drain contact. The failure analysis concluded that the parts failed due to overheating during manual soldering.

  11. The Failure Models of Lead Free Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joint Reliability Under Low-G and High-G Drop Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian; Lei, YongPing; Lin, Jian; Fu, HanGuang; Wu, Zhongwei

    2017-02-01

    The reliability of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) solder joint under a broad level of drop impacts was studied. The failure performance of solder joint, failure probability and failure position were analyzed under two shock test conditions, i.e., 1000 g for 1 ms and 300 g for 2 ms. The stress distribution on the solder joint was calculated by ABAQUS. The results revealed that the dominant reason was the tension due to the difference in stiffness between the print circuit board and ball grid array, and the maximum tension of 121.1 MPa and 31.1 MPa, respectively, under both 1000 g or 300 g drop impact, was focused on the corner of the solder joint which was located in the outmost corner of the solder ball row. The failure modes were summarized into the following four modes: initiation and propagation through the (1) intermetallic compound layer, (2) Ni layer, (3) Cu pad, or (4) Sn-matrix. The outmost corner of the solder ball row had a high failure probability under both 1000 g and 300 g drop impact. The number of failures of solder ball under the 300 g drop impact was higher than that under the 1000 g drop impact. The characteristic drop values for failure were 41 and 15,199, respectively, following the statistics.

  12. Soldered solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, H. C.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of soldered interconnects to withstand a combination of long life and severe environmental conditions was investigated. Improvements in joint life from the use of solder mixes appropriate to low temperature conditons were studied. Solder samples were placed in a 150 C oven for 5 weeks (= 12 yr at 80 C, or 24 at 70 C according to Arrhenius's rule). Conventional and high solder melting point array samples underwent 1000 thermal cycles between -186 and 100 C. Results show that conventional and lead rich soldered arrays can survive 10 yr geostationary orbit missions.

  13. Fatigue Life of Lead Free Solder BGA Joints Against Vibration Stress under High Temperature Circumstance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Michiya; Furusawa, Takeshi; Fukuda, Kyohei; Egusa, Minoru; Yasuda, Kiyokazu; Fujimoto, Kozo

    Recently, the wave of car computerizing is surging such as electronic control unit, car navigation system, electronic toll collection system, car to car communication system, etc. The use environment of in-car devices is under combined environmental stresses such as thermal stress, vibration, and humidity. In general, the reliability of the joints of the devices is individually tested by the evaluation methods for each stress. Our main purpose of this study is to construct the evaluation method for the damages of solder joints under multiple environmental stresses. We investigated the relationship between the plastic strain caused by one cycle vibration stress calculated with FEM analysis considering the temperature dependency of the elasto-plasticity and the fatigue life obtained by the vibration experiment. We indicated the adequacy of the analysis by the correspondence of the resonance frequency of the BGA package mounting board with the experimental result. We also showed that the plastic strain concentrating position corresponded to the crack position. We clarified that the creep strain rate in the total strain was less than 1 percent. We demonstrated that we could apply the power-law equation to predict the fatigue life of the vibration stress from plastic strain rate under 80°C and 125°C as well as the room temperature.

  14. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  15. Mechanistic Prediction of the Effect of Microstructural Coarsening on Creep Response of SnAgCu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Chauhan, P.; Osterman, M.; Dasgupta, A.; Pecht, M.

    2016-07-01

    Mechanistic microstructural models have been developed to capture the effect of isothermal aging on time dependent viscoplastic response of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solders. SnAgCu (SAC) solders undergo continuous microstructural coarsening during both storage and service because of their high homologous temperature. The microstructures of these low melting point alloys continuously evolve during service. This results in evolution of creep properties of the joint over time, thereby influencing the long term reliability of microelectronic packages. It is well documented that isothermal aging degrades the creep resistance of SAC solder. SAC305 alloy is aged for (24-1000) h at (25-100)°C (~0.6-0.8 × T melt). Cross-sectioning and image processing techniques were used to periodically quantify the effect of isothermal aging on phase coarsening and evolution. The parameters monitored during isothermal aging include size, area fraction, and inter-particle spacing of nanoscale Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the volume fraction of micronscale Cu6Sn5 IMCs, as well as the area fraction of pure tin dendrites. Effects of microstructural evolution on secondary creep constitutive response of SAC305 solder joints were then modeled using a mechanistic multiscale creep model. The mechanistic phenomena modeled include: (1) dispersion strengthening by coarsened nanoscale Ag3Sn IMCs in the eutectic phase; and (2) load sharing between pro-eutectic Sn dendrites and the surrounding coarsened eutectic Sn-Ag phase and microscale Cu6Sn5 IMCs. The coarse-grained polycrystalline Sn microstructure in SAC305 solder was not captured in the above model because isothermal aging does not cause any significant change in the initial grain size and orientation of SAC305 solder joints. The above mechanistic model can successfully capture the drop in creep resistance due to the influence of isothermal aging on SAC305 single crystals. Contribution of grain boundary sliding to the creep strain of

  16. Effect of current crowding and Joule heating on electromigration-induced failure in flip chip composite solder joints tested at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nah, J.W.; Suh, J.O.; Tu, K.N.

    2005-07-01

    The electromigration of flip chip solder joints consisting of 97Pb-3Sn and 37Pb-63Sn composite solders was studied under high current densities at room temperature. The mean time to failure and failure modes were found to be strongly dependent on the change in current density. The composite solder joints did not fail after 1 month stressed at 4.07x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, but failed after just 10 h of current stressing at 4.58x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}. At a slightly higher current stressing of 5.00x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, the composite solder joints failed after only 0.6 h due to melting. Precipitation and growth of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} at the cathode caused the Cu under bump metallurgy to be quickly consumed and resulted in void formation at the contact area. The void reduced the contact area and displaced the electrical path, affecting the current crowding and Joule heating inside the solder bump. Significant Joule heating inside solder bumps can cause melting of the solder and quick failure. The effect of void propagation on current crowding and Joule heating was confirmed by simulation.

  17. Effect of Joint Scale and Processing on the Fracture of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints: Application to Micro-bumps in 3D Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebanpour, B.; Huang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) packages, a stack of dies is vertically connected to each other using through-silicon vias and very thin solder micro-bumps. The thinness of the micro-bumps results in joints with a very high volumetric proportion of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), rendering them much more brittle compared to conventional joints. Because of this, the reliability of micro-bumps, and the dependence thereof on the proportion of IMC in the joint, is of substantial concern. In this paper, the growth kinetics of IMCs in thin Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joints attached to Cu substrates were analyzed, and empirical kinetic laws for the growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn in thin joints were obtained. Modified compact mixed mode fracture mechanics samples, with adhesive solder joints between massive Cu substrates, having similar thickness and IMC content as actual micro-bumps, were produced. The effects of IMC proportion and strain rate on fracture toughness and mechanisms were investigated. It was found that the fracture toughness G C decreased with decreasing joint thickness ( h Joint). In addition, the fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rate. Aging also promoted alternation of the crack path between the two joint-substrate interfaces, possibly proffering a mechanism to enhance fracture toughness.

  18. A Study on the Effect of Ageing and Intermetallic Compound Growth on the Shear Strength of Surface Mount Technology Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Jyotishman; Mallik, Sabuj; Borah, Anil

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ageing and intermetallic compound formation on the surface mount solder joints and its shear strength behavior under extreme mechanical and thermal conditions have been discussed in this paper. The specimens used are solder paste (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu), bench marker II printed circuit boards (PCB), resistors 1206 and the fabrication of solder joints makes use of conventional surface mount technology (SMT). Reflow process was carried out at a peak temperature of 250 °C and the test samples were exposed to isothermal ageing at a constant temperature of 150 °C for a period of 600 h. Shear test was conducted on the PCB's. The shear strength of the solder joints rapidly increased during isothermal ageing to a certain time period and then started decreasing. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrograph of the solder joint and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was performed on the solder sample to verify the formation of intermetallic compounds.

  19. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  20. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.

  1. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; ...

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in themore » grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.« less

  2. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature. PMID:27086863

  3. Characterization of Cu3P phase in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-xun; Zhao, Xing-ke; Zou, Xu-chen; Huang, Ji-hua; Hu, Hai-chun; Luo, Hai-lian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the effects of phosphorus addition on the melting behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder. The melting behavior of the solder alloys was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The interfacial microstructure and phase composition of solder/Cu joints were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Thermodynamics of Cu-P phase formation at the interface between Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P solder and the Cu substrate was characterized. The results indicate that P addition into Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder can change the microstructure and cause the appearance of rod-like Cu3P phase which is distributed randomly in the solder bulk. The Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P joint shows a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture after shear testing. Meanwhile, the solidus temperature of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder is slightly enhanced with P addition.

  4. Cu6Sn5 Morphology Transition and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Li, Mingyu; Wang, Ling; Fu, Yonggao; Kim, Jongmyung; Weng, Lvqian

    2011-02-01

    The morphologies of Cu6Sn5 grains formed at the interface between Sn-3.5Ag (wt.% unless otherwise specified) and Cu substrates were studied in this work. Reflow experiments were performed for 60 s at peak temperatures of 513 K, 533 K, 543 K, and 553 K. Two morphologies of interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains were observed in wetting reactions: prism type, above 543 K, and scallop type, below 533 K. During aging, the two morphologies gradually transitioned to layer type. These three morphologies could be transformed into each other as long as the corresponding condition changed. The morphology transition of Cu6Sn5 in the wetting reaction was explained by the change in Jackson's parameter with temperature. In addition, the effect of the Cu content in molten solder on interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains was examined. Significant differences in shear strength were observed for solder joints with different interfacial Cu6Sn5 morphologies in the case of a lower shear height. Joint strength is discussed in terms of the microstructure of the solder matrix and the morphology of interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains.

  5. The Effect of Wetting Gravity Regime on Shear Strength of SAC and Sn-Pb Solder Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2017-08-01

    The failure of solder joints due to imposed stresses in an electronic assembly is governed by shear bond strength. In the present study, the effect of wetting gravity regime on single-lap shear strength of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys reflowed between bare copper substrates as well as Ni-coated Cu substrates was investigated. Samples were reflowed for 10 s, T gz (time corresponding to the end of gravity regime) and 100 s individually and tested for single-lap shear strength. The single-lap shear test was also carried out on eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu- and Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens to compare the shear strength values obtained with those of lead-free alloys. The eutectic Sn-Pb showed significantly higher ultimate shear strength on bare Cu substrates when compared to Sn-Ag-Cu alloys. However, SAC alloys reflowed on nickel-coated copper substrate exhibited higher shear strength when compared to eutectic Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens. All the substrate/solder/substrate lap joint specimens that were reflowed for the time corresponding to the end of gravity regime exhibited maximum ultimate shear strength.

  6. Influence of Cu Nanoparticles on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn0.7Ag0.5Cu-BiNi/Cu Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, G. F.; Sun, F. L.; Fan, J. J.; Liu, Y.; Cong, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of Cu nanoparticles addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn0.7Ag0.5Cu-BiNi/Cu solder joint after reflow and isothermal aging has been investigated in this study. Experimental results indicate that the addition of Cu nanoparticles suppresses the growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the interface after reflow and aging. Moreover, the bulk solder appears with refined microstructure after adding Cu nanoparticles. In addition, solder joints containing Cu nanoparticles display higher microhardness due to the dispersive distribution of Cu nanoparticles as well as the refined IMC particles. The addition of 0.1% Cu nanoparticles can improve the microhardness by 16% compared with the noncomposite. However, the existing porosity in the solder exerts a negative effect on microhardness and shear strength. The mechanism of porosity formation has been discussed in detail. Porosity increases markedly with increasing Cu nanoparticles proportion.

  7. Analysis of a short beam with application to solder joints: could larger stand-off heights relieve stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-08-01

    Physically meaningful and easy-to-use analytical (mathematical) stress model is developed for a short beam with clamped and known-in-advance offset ends. The analysis is limited to elastic deformations. While the classical Timoshenko short-beam theory seeks the beam's deflection caused by the combined bending and shear deformations for the given loading, an inverse problem is considered here: the lateral force is sought for the given ends offset. In short beams this force is larger than in long beams, since, in order to achieve the given displacement (offset), the applied force has to overcome both bending and shear resistance of the beam. It is envisioned that short beams could adequately mimic the state of stress in solder joint interconnections, including ball-grid-array (BGA) systems, with large, compared to conventional joints, stand-off heights. When the package/printed-circuit-board (PCB) assembly is subjected to the change in temperature, the thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and the PCB results in an easily predictable relative displacement (offset) of the ends of the solder joint. This offset can be determined from the known external thermal mismatch strain (determined as the product of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion and the change in temperature) and the position of the joint with respect to the mid-cross-section of the assembly. The maximum normal and shearing stresses could be viewed as suitable criteria of the beam's (joint's) material long-term reliability. It is shown that these stresses can be brought down by employing beam-like joints, i.e., joints with an increased stand-off height compared to conventional joints. It is imperative, of course, that, if such joints are employed, there is still enough interfacial real estate, so that the BGA bonding strength is not compromised. On the other hand, owing to the lower stress level, reliability assurance might be much less of a challenge than in the case of

  8. A corrosion investigation of solder candidates for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Ambat, Rajan; Hattel, Jesper

    2009-06-01

    The step-soldering approach is being employed in the multi-chip module technology. High-lead-containing alloys are among the solders currently being used in this approach. Au-Sn and Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as alternative solders for this application. In this work, a corrosion investigation was carried out on potential ternary lead-free candidate alloys based on these binary alloys for high-temperature applications. These promising ternary candidate alloys were determined by the CALPHAD approach based on the solidification criterion and the nature of the phases predicted in the bulk solder. This work reveals that the Au-Sn-based candidate alloys close to the eutectic composition (20 wt.% Sn) are more corrosion resistant than the Au-Ge-based ones.

  9. Thermal fatigue life evaluation of SnAgCu solder joints in a multi-chip power module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, C.; Malgioglio, G. L.; Petrone, G.; Cammarata, G.

    2017-05-01

    For power devices, the reliability of thermal fatigue induced by thermal cycling has been prioritized as an important concern. The main target of this work is to apply a numerical procedure to assess the fatigue life for lead-free solder joints, that represent, in general, the weakest part of the electronic modules. Starting from a real multi-chip power module, FE-based models were built-up by considering different conditions in model implementation in order to simulate, from one hand, the worst working condition for the module and, from another one, the module standing into a climatic test room performing thermal cycles. Simulations were carried-out both in steady and transient conditions in order to estimate the module thermal maps, the stress-strain distributions, the effective plastic strain distributions and finally to assess the number of cycles to failure of the constitutive solder layers.

  10. Effect of contact metallization on electromigration reliability of Pb-free solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Min; Wang, Guotao; Chao, Brook; Ho, Paul S.; Su, Peng; Uehling, Trent

    2006-05-01

    The effect of underbump metallization (UBM) on electromigration (EM) lifetime and failure mechanism has been investigated for Pb-free solder bumps of 97Sn3Ag composition in the temperature range of 110-155 °C. The EM lifetime of the SnAg Pb-free solders with either Cu or Ni UBM was found to be better than the eutectic SnPb (63Sn37Pb) solders but worse than high-Pb (95Pb5Sn) solders. In the test temperature range, the EM lifetimes were found to be comparable for Cu and Ni UBMs but with different activation energies: 0.64-0.72 eV for Cu UBM and 1.03-1.11 eV for Ni UBM. EM failure was observed only in solder bumps with electron current flow from UBM to the substrate. Failure analysis revealed that EM damage was initiated by the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the UBM/solder interface which was found to be significantly enhanced by mass transport driven by the electron current. Under EM, the continued growth of IMC with the dissolution of the UBM and the accumulation of Kirkendall voids resulted in the formation of interfacial cracks and eventual EM failure of the solder bump. For Ni UBM, the IMC formation was dominated by the Ni3Sn4 phase while for Cu UBM, a bilayer of Cu3Sn/Cu6Sn5 was found. Void formation at the Cu6Sn5/solder interface was found to be important in controlling the EM lifetime of the Cu UBM solder.

  11. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  12. Modeling and Implementation of Solder-activated Joints for Single Actuator, Centimeter-Scale Robotic Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Modulus Ratio Annealed Copper 1.0 1.0 1.0 6066 Aluminum 0.63 2.48 3.96 High-Temp Nitinol 0.68 16.8 24.7 1095 Spring Steel 1.82 16.5 9.08 106 5.2.2...were: copper, aluminum, Nitinol , and spring steel. The wetting ability of aluminum and Nitinol to lead-tin solders is poor. There are solders that have...32],[33]. Copper plating may be used to improve a material’s solderability. Nitinol and aluminum are not easily electroplated with copper. Steel and

  13. Undercooling Behavior and Intermetallic Compound Coalescence in Microscale Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Balls and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M. B.; Ma, X.; Zhang, X. P.

    2012-11-01

    The microstructure of microscale solder interconnects and soldering defects have long been known to have a significant influence on the reliability of electronic packaging, and both are directly related to the solidification behavior of the undercooled solder. In this study, the undercooling behavior and solidification microstructural evolution of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with different diameters (0.76 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.30 mm) and the joints formed by soldering these balls on Cu open pads of two diameters (0.48 mm and 0.32 mm) on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) incorporated into the reflow process. Results show that the decrease in diameter of the solder balls leads to an obvious increase in the undercooling of the balls, while the undercooling of the solder joints shows a dependence on both the diameter of the solder balls and the diameter ratio of solder ball to Cu pad (i.e., D s/ D p), and the diameter of the solder balls has a stronger influence on the undercooling of the joints than the dimension of the Cu pad. Coarse primary intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification phases were formed in the smaller solder balls and joints. The bulk Ag3Sn IMC is the primary solidification phase in the as-reflowed solder balls. Due to the interfacial reaction and dissolution of Cu atoms into the solder matrix, the primary Ag3Sn phase can be suppressed and the bulk Cu6Sn5 IMC is the only primary solidification phase in the as-reflowed solder joints.

  14. Laser soldering of Sn-Ag solder

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe, T.S. de; O`Laughlin, D.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, there has been pressure from federal and state environmental agencies to find substitutes for Pb-containing solders. Our research team has been studying SnAg solder as a possible alternative. in comparison to Sn-Pb solder, SnAg poses less of an environmental threat and can be used for higher temperature applications such as in avionics or under the hood in automobiles. Our study also compares the processes of laser and IR reflow soldering and their effects on microstructure, microstructure stability, and mechanical and thermomechanical properties of joints. Several laser soldered joints were produced by varying beam power and scan rate. Microhardness was measured and joint microstructure analyzed in order to find the optimum parameters. Laser soldered joints with optimum parameters were then exposed to temperatures between 40{degrees}C and 190{degrees}C for times up to 300 days along with conventional IR reflowed joints. The purpose was to determine the long term microstructural stability and mechanical reliability of the joints for the two processes. The results obtained show that there is a processing window where good quality laser solder joints can be produced. Our study also revealed that, initially, laser-produced joints differed significantly in microstructural details and were superior to IR reflowed joints in both microhardness and microstructure. As the samples were aged, it was observed that the microstructures and microhardnesses became increasingly similar. Finally, after significant aging, voids were found at the intermetallic layers formed at Cu or Cu alloy substrates and the joints began to fail.

  15. Climate specific thermomechanical fatigue of flat plate photovoltaic module solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    FEM simulations of PbSn solder fatigue damage are used to evaluate seven cities that represent a variety of climatic zones. It is shown that the rate of solder fatigue damage is not ranked with the cities' climate designations. For an accurate ranking, the mean maximum daily temperature, daily temperature change and a characteristic of clouding events are all required. A physics-based empirical equation is presented that accurately calculates solder fatigue damage according to these three factors. An FEM comparison of solder damage accumulated through service and thermal cycling demonstrates the number of cycles required for an equivalent exposure. For an equivalent 25-year exposure, the number of thermal cycles (-40 degrees C to 85 degrees C) required ranged from roughly 100 to 630 for the cities examined. It is demonstrated that increasing the maximum cycle temperature may significantly reduce the number of thermal cycles required for an equivalent exposure.

  16. Effect of Grain Boundary Misorientation on Electromigration in Lead-Free Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasooji, Amaneh; Lara, Leticia; Lee, Kyuoh

    2014-12-01

    Reduction in microelectronic interconnect size gives rise to solder bumps consisting of few grains, approaching a single- or bicrystal grain morphology in C4 bumps. Single grain anisotropy, individual grain orientation, presence of easy diffusion paths along grain boundaries, and the increased current density in these small solder bumps aggravate electromigration. This reduces the reliability of the entire microelectronic system. This paper focuses on electromigration behavior in Pb-free solder, specifically the Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu alloy. We discuss the effects of texture, grain orientation, and grain boundary misorientation angle on electromigration (EM) and intermetallic compound formation in EM-tested C4 bumps. The detailed electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis used in this study reveals the greater influence of grain boundary misorientation on solder bump electromigration compared with the effect associated with individual grain orientation.

  17. Growth Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Joints with Different Rates of Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linmei; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints, including the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer and Ag3Sn, and Cu6Sn5 in the solder, were investigated when different cooling methods—quenched water, cooling in air, and cooling in a furnace after reflow—were used. For the solder joint quenched in water, no obvious Cu6Sn5 or Ag3Sn was detected in the solder, and the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer was slightly thinner than that of the joint cooled in air. On the basis of results from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, a mechanism is proposed for growth of IMC in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder during solidification. The rate of cooling has a substantial effect on the morphology and size of Ag3Sn, which evolved into large plate-like shapes when the joint was cooled slowly in a furnace. However, the morphology of Ag3Sn was branch-like or particle-like when the joint was cooled in air. This is attributed to re-growth of Ag3Sn grains via substantial atomic diffusion during the high-temperature stage of furnace cooling.

  18. Mean-time-to-failure study of flip chip solder joints on Cu/Ni(V)/Al thin-film under-bump-metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W. J.; Yeh, E. C. C.; Tu, K. N.

    2003-11-01

    Electromigration of eutectic SnPb flip chip solder joints and their mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) have been studied in the temperature range of 100 to 140 °C with current densities of 1.9 to 2.75×104 A/cm2. In these joints, the under-bump-metallization (UBM) on the chip side is a multilayer thin film of Al/Ni(V)/Cu, and the metallic bond-pad on the substrate side is a very thick, electroless Ni layer covered with 30 nm of Au. When stressed at the higher current densities, the MTTF was found to decrease much faster than what is expected from the published Black's equation. The failure occurred by interfacial void propagation at the cathode side, and it is due to current crowding near the contact interface between the solder bump and the thin-film UBM. The current crowding is confirmed by a simulation of current distribution in the solder joint. Besides the interfacial void formation, the intermetallic compounds formed on the UBM as well as the Ni(V) film in the UBM have been found to dissolve completely into the solder bump during electromigration. Therefore, the electromigation failure is a combination of the interfacial void formation and the loss of UBM. Similar findings in eutectic SnAgCu flip chip solder joints have also been obtained and compared.

  19. Early stage of material movements in eutectic SnPb solder joint undergoing current stressing at 150{degree}C.

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. E.; Lee, A.; Subramanian, K. N.; Liu, W.; Michigan State Univ.

    2007-07-10

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study movements of Sn and Pb in the eutectic SnPb solder joint undergoing electromigration with a current density of 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 150 C. During early stages of current stressing, Sn moves toward the anode faster than Pb. However, on continued application of current stressing, both Sn and Pb will continue to accumulate at the anode. Such accumulation of conductive species facilitates the formation of hillock with associated valley near the cathode.

  20. Methodology for analyzing stress states during in-situ thermomechanical cycling in individual lead free solder joints using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.; Lee , Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2010-07-22

    To examine how a lead-free solder joint deforms in a thermal cycling environment, both the elastic and plastic stress and strain behavior must be understood. Methods to identify evolution of the internal strain (stress) state during thermal cycling are described. A slice of a package containing a single row of solder joints was thermally cycled from 0 C to 100 C with a period of about 1 h with concurrent acquisition of transmission Laue patterns using synchrotron radiation. These results indicated that most joints are single crystals, with some being multicrystals with no more than a few Sn grain orientations. Laue patterns were analyzed to estimate local strains in different crystal directions at different temperatures during a thermal cycle. While the strains perpendicular to various crystal planes all vary in a similar way, the magnitude of strain varies. The specimens were subsequently given several hundred additional thermal cycles and measured again to assess changes in the crystal orientations. These results show that modest changes in crystal orientations occur during thermal cycling.

  1. Controlling Interfacial Reactions and Intermetallic Compound Growth at the Interface of a Lead-free Solder Joint with Layer-by-Layer Transferred Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Dae; Yoon, Taeshik; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2016-03-02

    The immoderate growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface of a solder metal and the substrate during soldering can degrade the mechanical properties and reliability of a solder joint in electronic packaging. Therefore, it is critical to control IMC growth at the solder joints between the solder and the substrate. In this study, we investigated the control of interfacial reactions and IMC growth by the layer-by-layer transfer of graphene during the reflow process at the interface between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (in wt %) lead-free solder and Cu. As the number of graphene layers transferred onto the surface of the Cu substrate increased, the thickness of the total IMC (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) layer decreased. After 10 repetitions of the reflow process for 50 s above 217 °C, the melting temperature of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, with a peak temperature of 250 °C, the increase in thickness of the total IMC layer at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was decreased by more than 20% compared to that at the interface of bare Cu without graphene. Furthermore, the average diameter of the Cu6Sn5 scallops at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was smaller than that at the interface without graphene. Despite 10 repetitions of the reflow process, the growth of Cu3Sn at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was suppressed by more than 20% compared with that at the interface without graphene. The multiple layers of graphene at the interface between the solder metal and the Cu substrate hindered the diffusion of Cu atoms from the Cu substrate and suppressed the reactions between Cu and Sn in the solder. Thus, the multiple layers of graphene transferred at the interface between dissimilar metals can control the interfacial reaction and IMC growth occurring at the joining interface.

  2. Single Image Camera Calibration in Close Range Photogrammetry for Solder Joint Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, D.; Knabner, S.; Baumgarten, D.

    2016-06-01

    Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) play an important role in the manufacturing of electronic devices. To ensure a correct function of the PCBs a certain amount of solder paste is needed during the placement of components. The aim of the current research is to develop an real-time, closed-loop solution for the analysis of the printing process where solder is printed onto PCBs. Close range photogrammetry allows for determination of the solder volume and a subsequent correction if necessary. Photogrammetry is an image based method for three dimensional reconstruction from two dimensional image data of an object. A precise camera calibration is indispensable for an accurate reconstruction. In our certain application it is not possible to use calibration methods with two dimensional calibration targets. Therefore a special calibration target was developed and manufactured, which allows for single image camera calibration.

  3. Lead-free solder

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2001-05-15

    A Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic alloy is modified with one or more low level and low cost alloy additions to enhance high temperature microstructural stability and thermal-mechanical fatigue strength without decreasing solderability. Purposeful fourth or fifth element additions in the collective amount not exceeding about 1 weight % (wt. %) are added to Sn--Ag--Cu eutectic solder alloy based on the ternary eutectic Sn--4.7%Ag--1.7%Cu (wt. %) and are selected from the group consisting essentially of Ni, Fe, and like-acting elements as modifiers of the intermetallic interface between the solder and substrate to improve high temperature solder joint microstructural stability and solder joint thermal-mechanical fatigue strength.

  4. A metallographic evaluation of the stainless steel-silver solder joint.

    PubMed

    Rogers, O W

    1979-02-01

    A technique has been developed and described for the examination of the interface between dissimilar metals, utilizing electrolytic etching and gold electro-deposition procedures. This procedure permitted etching of both the constituents of the silver solder-stainless steel interface without differential leveling. The grain boundaries at the surface of the stainless steel interface were accentuated by the chemical action of the flux during the joining procedure and the notched grain boundaries influenced the nucleation of the silver solder. No evidence of alloying was found within the resolution of the instruments used.

  5. An evaluation of the spring finger solder joints on SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 connector assemblies (MC3617,W87).

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Hlava, Paul Frank; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-08-01

    The SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 circular JT Type plug connectors are used on a number of nuclear weapons and Joint Test Assembly (JTA) systems. Prototype units were evaluated for the following specific defects associated with the 95Sn-5Sb (Sn-Sb, wt.%) solder joint used to attach the beryllium-copper (BeCu) spring fingers to the aluminum (Al) connector shell: (1) extended cracking within the fillet; (2) remelting of the solder joint during the follow-on, soldering step that attached the EMR adapter ring to the connector shell (and/or soldering the EMR shell to the adapter ring) that used the lower melting temperature 63Sn-37Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy; and (3) spalling of the Cd (Cr) layer overplating layer from the fillet surface. Several pedigrees of connectors were evaluated, which represented older fielded units as well as those assemblies that were recently constructed at Kansas City Plant. The solder joints were evaluated that were in place on connectors made with the current soldering process as well as an alternative induction soldering process for attaching the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely reflected the different extents to which the connector was mated to its counterpart assembly. In all cases, the spring finger solder joints on the SA1358-10 connectors were remelted as a result of the subsequent EMR adapter ring attachment process. Spalling of the Cd (Cr) overplating layer was also observed for these connectors, which was a consequence of the remelting activity. On the other hand, the SA2052-4 connector did not exhibit evidence of

  6. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  7. Effects of prestrain, rate of prestrain, and temperature on the stress-relaxation behavior of eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Subramanian, K. N.

    2003-11-01

    Stress-relaxation studies on eutectic Sn-Ag solder (Sn-3.5Ag in wt.%) joints were carried out at various temperatures after imposing different amounts and rates of simple shear strain. Stress-relaxation parameters were evaluated by subjecting geometrically realistic solder joints with a nominal joint thickness of ˜100 µm and a 1 mm × 1 mm solder-joint area. The peak shear stress during preloading and residual shear stress resulting from stress relaxation were higher at the low-temperature extremes than those at high-temperature extremes. Also, those values increased with increasing simple shear strain and the rate of simple shear strain imposed prior to the stress-relaxation events. The relaxation stress is insensitive to simple shear strain at 150°C, but at lower temperatures, a faster rate of simple shear strain causes a higher relaxed-stress value. The resulting deformation structures observed from the solder-joint side surfaces were also strongly affected by these parameters. At high temperature, grain-boundary sliding effects were commonly observed. At low temperature, intense shear bands dominated, and no grain-boundary sliding effects were observed.

  8. Creep Behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu Solder Joints, and a Modified Constitutive Model for the Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Li, G. Y.; Luo, S. M.; Wang, K. Q.; Zhou, B.

    2015-07-01

    The creep behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu shear-lap solder joints was investigated at different shear stresses ranging from 2-26 MPa and test temperatures of 25, 75, and 125°C. The stress exponent can be clearly defined in the low-stress ( τ < 12 MPa) and high stress ( τ > 15 MPa) ranges. The stress exponent is larger in the high-stress range, and decreases with increasing temperature in both low and high-stress ranges. The average modulus compensated shear stress transition point and the average activation energy were determined to be 1.08 × 10-3 and 90.59 kJ/mol, respectively. A creep constitutive model with internal stress incorporated into the Garofalo hyperbolic sine law model was used to describe the creep behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu shear-lap solder joints. In this model, the relationship between creep strain rate and shear stress was determined by introducing internal stress that is a function of the shear stress in the low-stress range and a function of particle size and volume fraction of intermetallic particles in the high-stress range. The internal stress was calculated on the basis of the different creep mechanisms in the low and high-stress ranges. Results showed that the modified creep constitutive model was consistent with experimental data, which indicates that the model can be used to predict the creep behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu shear-lap solder joints.

  9. Abnormal Intermetallic Compound Evolution in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni Micro Solder Joints Under Thermomigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Deng, J. F.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.

    2017-04-01

    Interfacial reactions in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni micro solder joints during thermomigration (TM) have been studied by reflowing solder joints on a hot plate. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were clearly observed. The growth of the Ni3Sn4 IMC in the Ni/Sn/Ni solder joints was always fast at the cold end and relatively slow at the hot end. Only asymmetrical growth of the Ni5Zn21 IMC in the Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni solder joints occurred at the beginning because Zn was the dominant TM species; however, asymmetrical transformation of the Ni5Zn21 IMC also occurred under the combined effect of Zn depletion and Ni dissolution and migration, resulting in formation of a thin τ-phase layer at the hot end and a thick τ-phase/Ni5Zn21/τ-phase sandwich structure at the cold end. TM of Ni and Zn atoms was identified towards the cold end, being responsible for the abnormal IMC evolution. Addition of Zn was found to slow the TM-induced IMC growth and Ni dissolution.

  10. Intermetallic compound formation and morphology evolution in the 95Pb5Sn flip-chip solder joint with Ti/Cu/Ni under bump metallization during reflow soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Zheng; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2005-12-01

    Intermetallic compound formation and morphology evolution in the 95Pb5Sn flip-chip solder joint with the Ti/Cu/Ni under bump metallization (UBM) during 350°C reflow for durations ranging from 50 sec to 1440 min were investigated. A thin intermetallic layer of only 0.4 µm thickness was formed at the 95Pb5Sn/UBM interface after reflow for 5 min. When the reflow was extended to 20 min, the intermetallic layer grew thicker and the phase identification revealed the intermetallic layer comprised two phases, (Ni,Cu)3Sn2 and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4. The detection of the Cu content in the intermetallic compounds indicated that the Cu atoms had diffused through the Ni layer and took part in the intermetallic compound formation. With increasing reflow time, the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase grew at a faster rate than that of the (Ni,Cu)3Sn2 phase. Meanwhile, irregular growth of the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase was observed and voids formed at the (Ni,Cu)3Sn2/Ni interface. After reflow for 60 min, the (Ni,Cu)3Sn2 phase disappeared and the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase spalled off the NI layer in the form of a continuous layer. The gap between the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 layer and the Ni layer was filled with lead. A possible mechanism for the growth, disappearance, and spalling of the intermetallic compounds at the 95Pb5Sn/UBM interface was proposed.

  11. Effect of silicon (Si) particles addition on melting temperature, intermetallic compound formation and solderability of Sn-Cu-Ni composite solder paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, R. M.; Salleh, M. A. A. Mohd; Ramli, M. I. I.; Saud, N.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of silicon (Si) particles addition on the melting temperature, intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formation and solderability of Sn-Cu-Ni solder joint were investigated. The melting temperature of mixture solder paste was studied by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Solderability of solder paste was evaluated through the contact angle of solder paste on Cu substrate. The interfacial morphology of monolithic and composite solder paste was characterized metallographically. The wettability and IMC thickness of Sn-Cu-Ni composite solder paste was reduced compared to the monolithic solder paste. Overall, the Si particles improved the physical properties and solderability of Sn-Cu-Ni composite solder paste.

  12. Thermal cycling life prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint using type-I censored data.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jinhua; Li, Yan-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Because solder joint interconnections are the weaknesses of microelectronic packaging, their reliability has great influence on the reliability of the entire packaging structure. Based on an accelerated life test the reliability assessment and life prediction of lead-free solder joints using Weibull distribution are investigated. The type-I interval censored lifetime data were collected from a thermal cycling test, which was implemented on microelectronic packaging with lead-free ball grid array (BGA) and fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA) interconnection structures. The number of cycles to failure of lead-free solder joints is predicted by using a modified Engelmaier fatigue life model and a type-I censored data processing method. Then, the Pan model is employed to calculate the acceleration factor of this test. A comparison of life predictions between the proposed method and the ones calculated directly by Matlab and Minitab is conducted to demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. At last, failure analysis and microstructure evolution of lead-free solders are carried out to provide useful guidance for the regular maintenance, replacement of substructure, and subsequent processing of electronic products.

  13. Thermal Cycling Life Prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joint Using Type-I Censored Data

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jinhua; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Because solder joint interconnections are the weaknesses of microelectronic packaging, their reliability has great influence on the reliability of the entire packaging structure. Based on an accelerated life test the reliability assessment and life prediction of lead-free solder joints using Weibull distribution are investigated. The type-I interval censored lifetime data were collected from a thermal cycling test, which was implemented on microelectronic packaging with lead-free ball grid array (BGA) and fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA) interconnection structures. The number of cycles to failure of lead-free solder joints is predicted by using a modified Engelmaier fatigue life model and a type-I censored data processing method. Then, the Pan model is employed to calculate the acceleration factor of this test. A comparison of life predictions between the proposed method and the ones calculated directly by Matlab and Minitab is conducted to demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. At last, failure analysis and microstructure evolution of lead-free solders are carried out to provide useful guidance for the regular maintenance, replacement of substructure, and subsequent processing of electronic products. PMID:25121138

  14. Substrate Dissolution and Shear Properties of the Joints between Bi-Ag Alloys and Cu Substrates for High-Temperature Soldering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Zong-Mou

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigated interfacial reactions between Cu substrates and Bi-Ag alloys during soldering. Without forming intermetallic compounds (IMCs), the molten solder grooved and further penetrated along the grain boundaries (GBs) of the Cu substrate. An increase in Ag content enhanced GB grooving, raised the dissolution rate and also the amount of dissolved Cu in molten Bi. A stoichiometric Cu-Bi phase formed isothermally in liquid solders and considerably affected the Cu dissolution kinetics. The results also show that Bi-Ag/Cu joints possessed a better shear strength than the Pb-Sn/Cu, which implies that mechanical bonding by grain-boundary grooves was strong enough to withstand shear deformation.

  15. ZnO-Au-SnO2 Z-scheme photoanodes for remarkable photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Mei; Cheng, Hao-Yun; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2016-08-25

    For the first time a ZnO nanorod-based Z-scheme heterostructure system was proposed and realized for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. The samples were prepared by depositing a thin layer of SnO2 on the Au surface of Au particle-decorated ZnO nanorods. For ZnO-Au-SnO2 nanorods, the embedded Au can mediate interfacial charge transfer by promoting electron transfer from the conduction band of SnO2 to the valence band of ZnO. This vectorial charge transfer resulted in the situation that the photoexcited electrons accumulated at ZnO while the photogenerated holes concentrated at SnO2, giving ZnO-Au-SnO2 substantially high redox powers. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggested that the interfacial charge transfer across the ZnO/Au/SnO2 interface was significantly improved as a result of the Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism. With the substantially high redox powers and significantly improved interfacial charge transfer, ZnO-Au-SnO2 nanorods performed much better as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical water splitting than pristine ZnO, plasmonic Au-decorated ZnO and type-II SnO2-coated ZnO nanorods did. The present study has provided a viable approach to exploit Z-scheme photoanodes in the design of efficient artificial photosynthesis systems for solar energy conversion.

  16. Viscoplasticity Behavior of a Solder Joint on a Drilled Cu Pillar Bump Under Thermal Cycling Using FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong-Hyuk; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    2017-02-01

    Although the copper (Cu) pillar bump (CPB) was developed in accordance with recent trends of miniaturized, multifunctional, and high-performance technology, its thermomechanical reliability remains in question. Accordingly, a hole was drilled into a CPB to increase its thermomechanical reliability, and the viscoplasticity behaviors of the two structures were subsequently compared through finite element analysis. In particular, this study applied the Anand model, which addresses both plastic strain and creep strain, as well as a submodeling technique to increase the accuracy of the analysis and decrease the analysis time. In addition, this study confirmed the superiority of the thermomechanical reliability of drilled Cu pillar bump through a hysteresis loop, which showed the equivalent stress versus equivalent inelastic strain of the solder joint interfaces. Moreover, the study compared the inelastic strain energy density values. The results demonstrated that the drilled copper pillar bump does indeed have a smaller inelastic range and a lower inelastic strain energy density.

  17. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints with and without intentionally incorporated Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} reinforcements

    SciTech Connect

    Sigelko, J.; Choi, S.; Subramanian, K.N.; Lucas, J.P.; Bieler, T.R.

    1999-11-01

    Solidification of eutectic Sn-Ag solder, with and without Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} composite reinforcements, on copper substrates, was investigated at two different cooling rates. The size, orientation, randomness, and overall morphology of the dendritic microstructure were examined as a function of cooling rate. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} particle reinforcements were found to act as nucleation sites for dendrites, in addition to sites on the substrate/solder interface. The mechanical properties of these solders were also examined as a function of cooling rate. Solder joints with a lower load-carrying area were found to exhibit higher shear strength, but reduced ductility when compared to solder joints with more load carrying area.

  18. Heat Lamps Solder Solar Array Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, P. J.; Crouthamel, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Interconnection tabs in a nine-solar-cell array have been soldered simultaneously with radiant heat. Cells and tabs are held in position for soldering by sandwiching them between compliant silicone-rubber vacuum platen and transparent polyimide sealing membrane. Heat lamps warm cells, producing smooth, flat solder joints of high quality.

  19. Bonding nature of rare-earth-containing lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ainissa G.; Mavoori, Hareesh; Jin, Sungho

    2002-01-01

    The ability of rare-earth-containing lead-free solders to wet and bond to silica was investigated. Small additions of Lu (0.5-2 wt. %) added to eutectic Sn-Ag or Au-Sn solder render it directly solderable to a silicon oxide surface. The bonding is attributed to the migration of the rare-earth element to the solder-silica interface for chemical reaction and the creation of an interfacial layer that contains a rare-earth oxide. It was found that additions of rare-earth materials did not significantly modify the solidification microstructure or the melting point. Such oxide-bondable solders can be useful for assembly of various optical communication devices.

  20. Modified Process Reduces Porosity when Soldering in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin; Struk, Peter; Pettegrew, Richard; Downs, Robert; Haylett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A modified process yields lower levels of internal porosity for solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The process incorporates both alternative materials and a modified procedure. The process provides the necessary cleaning action to enable effective bonding of the applied solder alloy with the materials to be joined. The modified process incorporates a commercially available liquid flux that is applied to the solder joint before heating with the soldering iron. It is subsequently heated with the soldering iron to activate the cleaning action of the flux and to evaporate most of the flux, followed by application of solder alloy in the form of commercially available solid solder wire (containing no flux). Continued heating ensures adequate flow of the solder alloy around and onto the materials to be joined. The final step is withdrawal of the soldering iron to allow alloy solidification and cooling of the solder joint.

  1. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties in (AuSn)eut-Cu Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongqun; Vuorinen, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-10-01

    The interfacial reactions between the widely employed solder Au-20wt.%Sn and the common contact metallizations (e.g. Ni, Cu and Pt) are normally complex and not well determined. In order to identify the proper contactor for Au-20wt.%Sn solder, the present study focuses on (1) rationalizing the interfacial reaction mechanisms of Au-20wt.%Sn|Cu as well as (2) measuring the mechanical properties of individual intermetallics formed at the interface. The evolution of interfacial reaction products were rationalized by using the experimental results in combination with the calculated Au-Cu-Sn phase diagram information. It was found that the growth of the AuCu interfacial intermetallic layer was diffusion-controlled. The diffusion path of Au-20wt.%Sn|Cu at 150°C was proposed. The hardness and indentation modulus of the interfacial reaction products were measured using nanoindentation tests. The results revealed a significant influence of the Cu solubility on the mechanical properties of (Au,Cu)Sn and (Au,Cu)5Sn, i.e. their hardness and contact modulus increased with the increase in the amount of Cu. Furthermore, results obtained here for the Au-20wt.%Sn|Cu joints were compared to those from Au-20wt.%Sn|Ni in order to assess the similarities and differences between these widely used interconnection metallization systems.

  2. Controllable synthesis of Au@SnO2 core-shell nanohybrids with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Hao, Jinggang; Ren, Feng; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng

    2017-05-01

    Combination of semiconductors with plasmonic nanostructures is an effective route to promote the solar light harvesting as well as the efficiency of photocatalysis. In the present work, the Au@SnO2 hybrid nanostructures with Au nanorods as the cores and highly crystallized SnO2 nanoparticles as the shells were fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method. A critical factor, which influences the coating state of the SnO2 shells over Au NRs, was found to be the concentration of CTAB agent in the system and the corresponding mechanism was also proposed. The photocatalytic activities of the Au@SnO2 nanohybrids were examined by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dyes at room temperature. The Au@SnO2 nanohybrids exhibited much higher catalytic activities than that of the commercial SnO2 NPs, which could be attributed to the localized electric field enhancement effect of Au nanorods plasmon and charges transfer between the Au nanorods and SnO2.

  3. The Melting Characteristics and Interfacial Reactions of Sn-ball/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu-paste/Cu Joints During Reflow Soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. Q.; Zhou, M. B.; Zhang, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the melting characteristics and interfacial reactions of Sn-ball/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu-paste/Cu (Sn/SAC305-paste/Cu) structure joints were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, in order to gain a deeper and broader understanding of the interfacial behavior and metallurgical combination among the substrate (under-bump metallization), solder ball and solder paste in a board-level ball grid array (BGA) assembly process, which is often seen as a mixed assembly using solder balls and solder pastes. Results show that at the SAC305 melting temperature of 217°C, neither the SAC305-paste nor the Sn-ball coalesce, while an interfacial reaction occurs between the SAC305-paste and Cu. A slight increase in reflow temperature (from 217°C to 218°C) results in the coalescence of the SAC305-paste with the Sn-ball. The Sn-ball exhibits premelting behavior at reflow temperatures below its melting temperature, and the premelting direction is from the bottom to the top of the Sn-ball. Remarkably, at 227°C, which is nearly 5°C lower than the melting point of pure Sn, the Sn-ball melts completely, resulting from two eutectic reactions, i.e., the reaction between Sn and Cu and that between Sn and Ag. Furthermore, a large amount of bulk Cu6Sn5 phase forms in the solder due to the quick dissolution of Cu substrate when the reflow temperature is increased to 245°C. In addition, the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer at the SAC305-paste/Cu interface is controlled mainly by grain boundary diffusion, while the growth of the interfacial Cu3Sn layer is controlled mainly by bulk diffusion.

  4. The Melting Characteristics and Interfacial Reactions of Sn-ball/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu-paste/Cu Joints During Reflow Soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. Q.; Zhou, M. B.; Zhang, X. P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the melting characteristics and interfacial reactions of Sn-ball/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu-paste/Cu (Sn/SAC305-paste/Cu) structure joints were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, in order to gain a deeper and broader understanding of the interfacial behavior and metallurgical combination among the substrate (under-bump metallization), solder ball and solder paste in a board-level ball grid array (BGA) assembly process, which is often seen as a mixed assembly using solder balls and solder pastes. Results show that at the SAC305 melting temperature of 217°C, neither the SAC305-paste nor the Sn-ball coalesce, while an interfacial reaction occurs between the SAC305-paste and Cu. A slight increase in reflow temperature (from 217°C to 218°C) results in the coalescence of the SAC305-paste with the Sn-ball. The Sn-ball exhibits premelting behavior at reflow temperatures below its melting temperature, and the premelting direction is from the bottom to the top of the Sn-ball. Remarkably, at 227°C, which is nearly 5°C lower than the melting point of pure Sn, the Sn-ball melts completely, resulting from two eutectic reactions, i.e., the reaction between Sn and Cu and that between Sn and Ag. Furthermore, a large amount of bulk Cu6Sn5 phase forms in the solder due to the quick dissolution of Cu substrate when the reflow temperature is increased to 245°C. In addition, the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer at the SAC305-paste/Cu interface is controlled mainly by grain boundary diffusion, while the growth of the interfacial Cu3Sn layer is controlled mainly by bulk diffusion.

  5. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, X. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder joints was investigated over a range of test temperatures (25°C, 75°C, and 125°C), frequencies (0.001 Hz, 0.01 Hz, and 0.1 Hz), and strain ranges (0.78%, 1.6%, and 3.1%). Effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life were studied. Results show that the LCF lifetime decreases with an increase in test temperature or a decrease of test frequency, which is attributed to the longer exposure time to creep and the stress relaxation mechanism during fatigue testing. A modified Coffin-Manson model considering effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life is proposed. The fatigue exponent and ductility coefficient were found to be influenced by both the temperature and frequency. By fitting the experimental data, the mathematical relations between the fatigue exponent and temperature, and ductility coefficient and temperature, were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cross-sections and fracture surfaces of failed specimens at different temperature and frequency was applied to verify the failure mechanisms.

  6. Board-Level Solder Joint Reliability of Edge- and Corner-Bonded Lead-Free Chip Scale Package Assemblies Subjected to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongbin; Tian, Cuihua; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of thermal cycling test for edge- and corner-bonded lead-free chip scale packages (CSPs), which was carried out on the basis of the IPC-9701 test standard. Six materials were used in this study: four edge-bond adhesives and two corner-bond adhesives. These adhesives were compared with CSPs with full capillary flow underfill (FCFU) and without adhesives. The thermal cycling test results show that corner-bond adhesive has comparable solder joint reliability performance with CSP without adhesive, and is better than edge-bond adhesive, followed by CSPs with FCFU. In addition, the adhesives with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, a high glass transition temperature and a intermediate storage modulus yielded good performance. Results of detailed failure analysis indicate that the dominant failure mode is solder bulk fatigue cracking near package and/or printed circuit board (PCB) pads, and that the location of critical solder joints change from die edges to package corners with the introduction of adhesives.

  7. Microstructural influences on the mechanical properties of solder

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Goldstein, J.L.F.; Mei, Z.

    1993-04-01

    Intent of this book is to review analytic methods for predicting behavior of solder joints, based on continuum mechanics. The solder is treated as a continuous, homogeneous body, or composite of such bodies, whose mechanical behavior is uniform and governed by simple constitutive equations. The microstructure of a solder joint influences its mechanical properties in 3 ways: it governs deformation and failure; common solders deform inhomogeneously; and common solders are microstructurally unstable. The variety of microstructures often found in solder joints are briefly reviewed, and some of the ways are discussed in which the microstructure influences the common types of high-temperature mechanical behavior. 25 figs, 40 refs.

  8. Dynamic Response of Soldered Electronic Components under Impact Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2   2.   Varying Strain Rates and Solder Joint Failure .................................3   3.   Drop Impact Analysis on Sn - Ag -Cu...absence of significant internal grain rotation, and that it consistent at all strain-rates. 4 3. Drop Impact Analysis on Sn - Ag -Cu Solder Joints...Pang and Che [4] discuss the complexities of drop test analysis and the dangers of over simplifying Sn - Ag -Cu solder joint deformation response. Solder

  9. Mechanical and structural characteristics of commercially pure grade 2 Ti welds and solder joints.

    PubMed

    Anselm Wiskott, H W; Doumas, T; Scherrer, S S; Belser, U C; Susz, C

    2001-08-01

    This study aimed at determining whether data previously gathered for a laser welds and IR brazings using a Au-Pd alloy were applicable to titanium joints. As to its resistance under fatigue loading, Au-Pd alloy had shown a poor response to pre-ceramic laser welding and post-ceramic brazing. The present study was designed to assess the mechanical resistance, the microstructure and the elemental diffusion of laser welded, electric arch welded and brazed joints using commercially pure titanium as substrate metal. Mechanical resistance was determined by determining the joints' ultimate tensile strength and their resistance to fatigue loading. Elemental diffusion to and from the joints was assessed using microprobe tracings. Optical micrographs of the joints were also obtained and evaluated. Under monotonic tensile stress, three groups emerged: (1) the GTAW and the native (i.e. as received) substrate, (2) the annealed substrate and the laser welds and (3) the brazed joints. Under fatigue stress, the order was: first the native and annealed substrate, second the brazings and laser welds, third the GTAW joints. No Au-filler brazing withstood the applied fatigue loading. The micrographs showed various patterns, an absence of HAZ cracking and several occurrences of Widmanstätten structures. Elemental diffusion to and from the Ti substrate was substantial in the Ti filler brazings and virtually nil in the Au-based brazings. Under fatigue stress application, the titanium-based brazings as well as the laser- and electric arc welds performed equally well if not better than a previously tested AuPd alloy. There was a definite increase in grain size with increased heat application. However, no feature of the microstructures observed or the elemental analysis could be correlated with the specimen's resistance to fatigue stress application. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  10. Pursuing low joint resistivity in Cu-stabilized REBa2Cu3O δ coated conductor tapes by the ultrasonic weld-solder hybrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Jong-min; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.

    2016-01-01

    Development of a coated conductor tape joint with good quality and low joint resistivity, R sj, in terms of transport and mechanical properties, was attempted by direct bonding at the interface of the Cu-Cu stabilizers in overlapped GdBCO CC tapes. In this study, we attempted to achieve a low R sj by introducing hybrid joining, soldering and ultrasonic welding (UW), and its mechanism was analyzed theoretically. Coated conductor tapes were experimentally joined using various methods of soldering, UW, and combinations of the two. As a result, a much lower R sj of about 57 nΩ · cm2 was obtained for RCE-DR-processed GdBCO CC tape joints using the hybrid joining method. The mechanical properties of the jointed CC tapes were also evaluated at room temperature and 77 K under self-field. Load-displacement curves of joined CC tapes followed the curve of the single CC tape. Critical current and joint resistance, R j, of hybrid-joined CC tape were retained after double bending at room temperature up to 20 mm bending diameter.

  11. Frequency-Dependent Low Cycle Fatigue of Sn1Ag0.1Cu(In/Ni) Solder Joints Subjected to High-Frequency Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, E. H.; Seah, S. K. W.; Shim, V. P. W.

    2014-02-01

    The low-cycle-fatigue characteristics of solder joints, formed by reflowing Sn98.8/Ag1.0/Cu0.1/In0.05/Ni0.02 solder over electroless nickel immersion gold-plated copper pads, were investigated by dynamic cyclic bending of printed circuit boards (PCBs). The PCB strain amplitudes were varied from 1.2 × 10-3 to 2.4 × 10-3 and the flexural frequencies ranged from 30 Hz to 150 Hz, to simulate drop impact-induced PCB resonant frequencies. A trend of drastically decreasing fatigue life with cyclic frequency was observed, in contrast with previous reports indicating the reverse; this is attributed to the different failure mechanisms activated. A systematic procedure involving optimization followed by transformation was used to condense the strain-frequency-life data into a master curve expressed in strain-life space.

  12. Effect of firing conditions on thick film microstructure and solder joint strength for low-temperature, co-fired ceramic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    2000-01-04

    Low-temperature, co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are the substrate material-of-choice for a growing number of multi-chip module (MCM) applications. Unlike the longer-standing hybrid microcircuit technology based upon alumina substrates, the manufacturability and reliability of thick film solder joints on LTCC substrates have not been widely studied. An investigation was undertaken to fully characterize solder joints on these substrates. A surface mount test vehicle with Daisy chain electrical connections was designed and built with Dupont{trademark} 951 tape. The Dupont{trademark} 4569 thick film ink (Au76-Pt21-Pd3 wt.%) was used to establish the surface conductor pattern. The conductor pattern was fired onto the LTCC substrate in a matrix of processing conditions that included: (1) double versus triple prints, (2) dielectric window versus no window, and (3) three firing temperatures (800 C, 875 C and 950 C). Sn63-Pb37 solder paste with an RMA flux was screen printed onto the circuit boards. The appropriate packages, which included five sizes of chip capacitors and four sizes of leadless ceramic chip carriers, were placed on the circuit boards. The test vehicles were oven reflowed under a N{sub 2} atmosphere. Nonsoldered pads were removed from the test vehicles and the porosity of their thick film layers was measured using quantitative image analysis in both the transverse and short transverse directions. A significant dependence on firing temperature was recorded for porosity. The double printed substrates without a dielectric window revealed a thick film porosity of 31.2% at 800 C, 26.2% at 875 C and 20.4% at 950 C. In contrast, the thick film porosity of the triple printed substrates with a dielectric window is 24.1% at 800 C, 23.2% at 875 C and 17.6% at 950 C. These observations were compared with the shear strength of the as-fabricated chip capacitor solder joints to determine the effect of firing conditions on solder joint integrity. The denser films from the higher

  13. Laser soldering of Sn plated brass integrator assembly housings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keicher, D. M.; Poulter, G. A.; Sorensen, N. R.

    1993-09-01

    The high conductivity provided by solder closure joints of component housings is sometimes required to ensure electrical shielding of the components contained within. However, using a soldering iron to produce the solder joints can lead to charring of the insulating materials within the housing. To overcome this problem, the localized heating characteristics of laser soldering can be exploited. The feasibility of laser soldering Sn plated brass housings with a CW Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. It has been determined that laser soldering of these housings using a low solids solder flux is a viable technique and will minimize the amount of heat input to the enclosed electronic components. Metallographic analysis has shown good wetting of the solder on the housing components. Accelerated aging experiments indicate that no significant corrosion potential due to solder flux residues exists. Although a low solids flux was used to make the joints, initial results indicate that a fluxless technique can be developed to eliminate fluxes completely.

  14. A Density Functional Investigation of the Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of the Au-Sn Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yali; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of AuSn, AuSn2, AuSn4 and Au5Sn are investigated by first-principles calculations. Through calculation, the four intermetallic compounds are all thermodynamically stable and AuSn has the largest negative formation energy. They are all ductile, anisotropic and have low stiffness. In addition, Au5Sn is different from the others, since it is elastically unstable and possesses the highest anisotropy and hardness, mainly due to the strong Au-Au covalent bonds. Based on the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the thermodynamic properties of AuSn, such as the volume, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and heat capacity with temperature variation in the range of 0-20 GPa, are obtained. The results indicate the increments of both the volume and thermal expansion coefficient with temperature become slow when the pressure is more than 10 GPa, and the bulk modulus and Debye temperature are almost constant below 100 K and then become linear decreasing as temperature increases. It is found that the influence of temperature on heat capacity is much more obvious than that of pressure.

  15. Identification of Au-Sn phase in Ag3Sn alloys containing gold.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, M L; Lawless, K R

    1975-03-01

    Substitution of gold in part for silver in Ag3Sn alloys is found to result in two separate phases: gamma (Ag3Sn particles) grains with a uniform distribution of gold within the grain and an Au-Sn phase in a form of ring surrounding the gamma grain. The thickness of this ring increases with increasing gold concentration. The phases were identified by using the techniques of x-ray diffraction, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  16. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-04-08

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  17. An X-ray Radiography Study of the Effect of Thermal Cycling on Damage Evolution in Large-Area Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K.; Walker, Larry; Leslie, Scott G.

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems utilizing wide-band-gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential maximum operating temperatures of about 200°C. However, there is a need to understand the thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such high-temperature operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large-area Sn-3.5Ag solder joints between silicon dies and direct bonded copper substrates with Au/Ni-P metallization subject to thermal cycling between 200°C and 5°C are presented in this paper. Interface structure evolution and damage accumulation were followed using high-resolution X-ray radiography, cross-sectional optical and scanning electron microscopies, and X-ray microanalysis in these joints for up to 3000 thermal cycles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the stresses introduced by the thermal cycling result in cracking and delamination at the copper-intermetallic compound interface. X-ray microanalysis showed that stresses due to thermal cycling resulted in physical cracking and breakdown of the Ni-P barrier layer, facilitating Cu-Sn interdiffusion. This interdiffusion resulted in the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds underneath the Ni-P layer, subsequently leading to delamination between the Ni-rich layer and Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds.

  18. Influence of microstructure size on the plastic deformation kinetics, fatigue crack growth rate, and low-cycle fatigue of solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, H.; Guo, Z.; Fahmy, Y.; Yang, Di

    1999-09-01

    The influence of microstructure size on the plastic deformation kinetics, fatigue crack growth rate and low-cycle fatigue of eutectic Sn-Pb solder joints is reviewed. The principal microstructure feature considered is the average eutectic phase size d=(dPb+dSn)/2. The effect of an increase in reflow cooling rate (which gave a decrease in d) on the flow stress and on fatigue life was irregular at 300K, depending on the stress or strain level and cooling rate. In contrast, a consistent increase in fatigue life with decrease in d occurred for thermomechanical cycling between -30° and 130°C. Constitutive equations for plastic deformation and fatigue crack growth rate are presented which include the microstructure size. It appears that the rate-controlling deformation mechanism is the intersection of forest dislocations in the Sn phase. The mechanism for both static and dynamic phase coarsening appears to be grain boundary diffusion with a t1/4 time law. Some success has been achieved in predicting the cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loops and fatigue life, including the influence of the as-reflowed microstructure size and its coarsening. Additional definitive studies are however needed before we can accurately predict the fatigue life of solder joints over the wide temperature range and conditions experienced by electronic packages.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of electromigration induced failure time of Pb-free flip chip solder joints by high resolution synchrotron radiation laminography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tian; Xu, Feng; Kyu Han, Jung; Choi, Daechul; Cheng, Yin; Helfen, Lukas; Di Michiel, Marco; Baumbach, Tilo; Tu, K. N.

    2011-08-01

    We performed a rapid diagnosis of electromigration induced void nucleation and growth in Pb-free flip chip solder joints. Quantitative measurements of the growth rate of voids during the stressing by 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 and 7.5 × 103 A/cm2 at 125 °C were conducted by synchrotron radiation high resolution x-ray laminography. The results were analyzed by the statistical model of Weibull distribution function [W. Weibull, ASME Trans. J. Appl. Mech. 18(3), 293 (1951)] of lifetime data. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami phase transformation theory is proposed to provide a physical link to the statistical model and to estimate the lifetime of the joints at early stages.

  20. Effect of Reflow Time on Wetting Behavior, Microstructure Evolution, and Joint Strength of Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu Solder on Bare and Nickel-Coated Copper Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The effect of reflow time on wetting behavior of Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder on bare and nickel-coated copper substrates has been investigated. The solder alloy was reflowed at 270°C for various reflow times of 10 s, 100 s, 300 s, and 500 s. On bare copper substrate, the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness increased with increase in reflow time, whereas on Ni-coated Cu substrate, the IMC thickness increased up to 300 s followed by a drop for solder alloy reflowed for 500 s. The spreading behavior of the solder alloy was categorized into capillary, gravity (diffusion), and viscous zones. Gravity zone was obtained from 3.8 ± 0.43 s to 38.97 ± 3.38 s and from 5.99 ± 0.5 s to 77.82 ± 8.84 s for the Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Ni/Cu system, respectively. Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy was also reflowed for the period corresponding to the end of the gravity zone (40 s and 80 s on bare and Ni-coated Cu, respectively). The joint strength was maximum at reflow time of 40 s and 80 s for the Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Ni/Cu system, respectively. The dynamic contact angle at the end of the gravity (diffusion) zone ( θ gz) was found to be a better parameter compared with the stabilized contact angle ( θ f) to assess the effect of the wettability of the liquid solder on the microstructure and joint strength. The present investigation reveals the significance of the gravity zone in assessment of optimum reflow time for lead-free solder alloys.

  1. The low-temperature form of calcium gold stannide, CaAuSn

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qisheng; Corbett, John D

    2014-07-19

    The EuAuGe-type CaAuSn phase has been synthesized and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that it has an ortho­rhom­bic symmetry (space group Imm2), with a = 4.5261 (7) Å, b = 7.1356 (11) Å and c = 7.8147 (11) Å. The structure features puckered layers that are connected by homoatomic Au-Au and Sn-Sn inter­layer bonds. This structure is one of the two parent structures of its high-temperature polymorph (ca 873 K), which is an inter­growth structure of the EuAuGe- and SrMgSi-type structures in a 2:3 ratio.

  2. A study on the reliability of indium solder die bonding of high power semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingsheng; Davis, Ronald W.; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Rasmussen, Michael H.; Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En; Stradling, Jim

    2006-07-01

    High power semiconductor lasers have found increased applications. Indium solder is one of the most widely used solders in high power laser die bonding. Indium solder has some advantages in laser die bonding. It also has some concerns, however, especially in terms of reliability. In this paper, the reliability of indium solder die bonding of high power broad area semiconductor lasers was studied. It was found that indium solder bonded lasers have much shorter lifetime than AuSn solder bonded devices. Catastrophic degradation was observed in indium solder bonded lasers. Nondestructive optical and acoustic microscopy was conducted during the lifetime testing to monitor the failure process and destructive failure analysis was performed after the lasers failed. It was found that the sudden failure was caused by electromigration of indium solder at the high testing current of up to 7A. It was shown that voids were created and gradually enlarged by indium solder electromigration, which caused local heating near the facets of the laser. The local heating induced catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) of the lasers. It was discussed that current crowding, localized high temperature, and large temperature gradient contributed to the fast indium solder electromigration. It was observed that some bright pattern structures appeared on the front facet of the indium solder bonded lasers after the devices failed and the bright patterns grew and spread upon further testing. Failure analysis showed that the bright pattern structure apparent on the front facet was due to crystallization of the TiOx material of the front facet coating as a result of overheating during lifetime testing. It was concluded that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  3. Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints in Wafer Level Chip-Scale Packaging (WLCSP) with Continuous and Interrupted Accelerated Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bite; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Four high-strain design wafer level chip scale packages were given accelerated thermal cycling with a 10°C/min ramp rate and 10 min hold times between 0°C and 100°C to examine the effects of continuous and interrupted thermal cycling on the number of cycles to failure. The interruptions given two of the samples were the result of periodic examinations using electron backscattered pattern mapping, leading to room temperature aging of 30 days-2.5 years after increments of about 100 cycles at several stages of the cycling history. The continuous thermal cycling resulted in solder joints with a much larger degree of recrystallization, whereas the interrupted thermal cycling tests led to much less recrystallization, which was more localized near the package side, and the crack was more localized near the interface and had less branching. The failure mode for both conditions was still the same, with cracks nucleating along the high angle grain boundaries formed during recrystallization. In conditions where there were few recrystallized grains, recovery led to formation of subgrains that strengthened the solder, and the higher strength led to a larger driving force for crack growth through the solder, leading to failure after less than half of the cycles in the continuous accelerated thermal cycling condition. This work shows that there is a critical point where sufficient strain energy accumulation will trigger recrystallization, but this point depends on the rate of strain accumulation in each cycle and various recovery processes, which further depends on local crystal orientations, stress state evolution, and specific activated slip and twinning systems.

  4. Fundamental metallurgical considerations in brazing and soldering

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to obtain braze or solder joints which are free of defects and have properties suitable for their intended applications depends directly on the phenomena of wetting and flow of liquid filler metals. Wetting in Brazing and Soldering is covered for both chemical non-equilibrium and equilibrium conditions. Filler material liquid flow is covered for both vertical joints and horizontal joints. 9 refs., 3 figs. (JEF)

  5. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  6. Comparison of thermomigration behaviors between Pb-free flip chip solder joints and microbumps in three dimensional integrated circuits: Bump height effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Jhu, Wei-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Packaging technology is currently transition from flip chip technology to three dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) to meet the requirements of consumer electronic products. Compared to flip chip technology, the dimension of microbumps in 3D ICs is shrunk by a factor of 10. In this study, the behaviors of thermomigration in Pb-free solders of flip chip and 3D ICs are presented. When the bump height is 100 μm in the flip chip samples, the Sn protrusion was observed at the hot end and voids formation at the cold end. However, when the bump height is reduced to 5.8 μm in the 3D IC samples, no significant microstructural evolution of Sn was found; instead, the dissolution of Ni under-bump metallization at hot end was observed. We propose that discrepancy between flip chip solder joints and 3D IC microbumps is mainly attributed to the effect of back stress and the presence of thicker Ni under-bump metallization in the 3D IC packaging. Moreover, the critical temperature gradient in terms of different bump heights is discussed, showing below which there will be no net effect of thermomigration of Sn.

  7. Computational continuum modeling of solder interconnects: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Frear, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The most commonly used solder for electrical interconnections in electronic packages is the near eutectic 60Sn-40Fb alloy. This alloy has a number of processing advantages (suitable melting point of 183C and good wetting behavior). However, under conditions of cyclic strain and temperature (thermomechanical fatigue), the microstructure of this alloy undergoes a heterogeneous coarsening and failure process that makes the prediction of solder joint lifetime complex. A viscoplastic, microstructure dependent, constitutive model for solder, which is currently under development, was implemented into a finite element code. With this computational capability, the thermomechanical response of solder interconnects, including microstructural evolution, can be predicted. This capability was applied to predict the thermomechanical response of a mini ball grid array solder interconnect. In this paper, the constitutive model will first be briefly discussed. The results of computational studies to determine the thermomechanical response of a mini ball grid array solder interconnects then will be presented.

  8. Solderability Study of RABiTS-Based YBCO Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C; Ha, Tam T; Gouge, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  9. Joule heating effect on oxide whisker growth induced by current stressing in Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongwen; Cao, Liqiang; Wan, Lixi; Zhao, Haiyan; Xu, Guangchen; Guo, Fu

    2012-08-01

    The electromigration test was conducted in Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu solder joint with high current density of 104 A/ cm2. Results showed that a large number of whiskers with natural weed appearance were observed at the cathode side in such a short current stressing time. Furthermore, some secondary whiskers were attached to the primary whiskers, which has never been reported before. We presumed the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism to explain the oxide whiskers growth, which was quite different from the traditional theory that the compressive stress took on the driving force. In conclusion, due to the over-Joule heating effect, the metal oxide whiskers were synthesized in bulk quantities by thermal evaporation of Sn oxide and Bi oxide.

  10. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  11. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  12. Influence of Cyclic Strain-Hardening Exponent on Fatigue Ductility Exponent for a Sn-Ag-Cu Micro-Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Yoshihiko; Kariya, Yoshiharu; Oto, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The fatigue ductility exponent in the Coffin-Manson law for a Sn-Ag-Cu micro-solder joint was investigated in terms of the cyclic strain-hardening property and the inelastic strain energy in fracture for isothermal fatigue. The fatigue ductility exponent was found to increase with temperature and holding time under strain at high temperature. This exponent is closely related to the cyclic strain-hardening exponent, which displays the opposite behavior in that it decreases with increasing temperature and with coarsening of intermetallic compound particles while holding under strain at high temperature. This result differs from the creep damage mechanism (grain boundary fracture), which is a primary reason for the significant reduction in fatigue life for all strain ranges for large-size specimens.

  13. Fatigue of Advanced In-Situ Composite Solders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) " ~~" Solder joints used in surface mount technology experience thermomechanical fatigue due to the mismatches in...solder joint to undergo shear strains. The purpose of this study was to examine and explain the thermomechanical fatigue damage mechanisms of various...types of solder compositions. Shear, creep, low cycle fatigue , and thermomechanical fatigue tests were conducted in this research. The development

  14. Laser soldering of flip-chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordás, K.; Pap, A. E.; Tóth, G.; Pudas, M.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Uusimäki, A.; Vähäkangas, J.

    2006-02-01

    A novel process for laser soldering of flip-chips on transparent printed circuit board assemblies is presented. The experiments were carried out on silver test patterns printed on glass wafers using a roller-type gravure offset printing method. The contact pads, where the bumps of the flip-chips are positioned, were covered with a thin layer of additional solder paste. The aligned samples (solder pad—solder paste—chip bump) were illuminated through the glass substrate using an Ar + laser beam ( λ=488 nm, P=0.6-3.0 W, d=100 μm at 1/e) to heat the printed pad and melt the solder paste, thus forming a joint between the printed pad and the chip bump. The heat-affected zone was modeled using computer-assisted finite element method. The solder joint cross-sections were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive X-ray element analyses. The laser-soldered joints were of good mechanical and electrical quality and the process proved to be suitable for manufacturing customized circuit prototypes.

  15. Morphological evolution of voids by surface drift diffusion driven by the capillary, electromigration, and thermal-stress gradient induced by the steady state heat flow in passivated metallic thin films and flip-chip solder joints. II. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurtani, Tarik Omer; Akyildiz, Oncu

    2008-07-01

    The void growth and drift motion induced by the combined actions of the phase transformation (evaporation and condensation) and surface drift diffusion driven by the capillary and electromigration forces and thermal-stress gradients are investigated in passivated metallic thin films and flip-chip solder joints via computer simulation using the front-tracking method. As far as the device reliability is concerned, the most critical configuration for solder joint failure occurs even when thermal stresses are low if the void nucleation takes place close to the under bump metallurgy (UBM) where the heat and current flux crowding takes place due to the proximity effect associated with the confinement. The void growth induced by the condensation of excess (athermal) vacancies at the void-matrix dividing surface results in drastic spreading of pre-existing voids along transverse direction of solder joint due to the concurrently occurring heat and current crowding adjacent to the UBM. This accelerated transverse void spreading may eventually cause open-circuit interconnect failure as clearly demonstrated experimentally in literature.

  16. Characterization of Low-Melting-Point Sn-Bi-In Lead-Free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Ma, Ninshu; Lei, YongPing; Lin, Jian; Fu, HanGuang; Gu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Development of lead-free solders with low melting temperature is important for substitution of Pb-based solders to reduce direct risks to human health and the environment. In the present work, Sn-Bi-In solders were studied for different ratios of Bi and Sn to obtain solders with low melting temperature. The microstructure, thermal properties, wettability, mechanical properties, and reliability of joints with Cu have been investigated. The results show that the microstructures of the Sn-Bi-In solders were composed of β-Sn, Bi, and InBi phases. The intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was mainly composed of Cu6Sn5, and its thickness increased slightly as the Bi content was increased. The melting temperature of the solders was around 100°C to 104°C. However, when the Sn content exceeded 50 wt.%, the melting range became larger and the wettability became worse. The tensile strength of the solder alloys and solder joints declined with increasing Bi content. Two fracture modes (IMC layer fracture and solder/IMC mixed fracture) were found in solder joints. The fracture mechanism of solder joints was brittle fracture. In addition, cleavage steps on the fracture surface and coarse grains in the fracture structure were comparatively apparent for higher Bi content, resulting in decreased elongation for both solder alloys and solder joints.

  17. Infrared vacuum soldering process for thick-film hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1993-02-01

    An infrared vacuum soldering (IVS) process was developed for thick-film hybrid microcircuits (HMC's) being manufactured at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Sample HMC's were assembled and destructively tested to determine the intermetallic growth of the thick-film metallization when soldered to a mounting plate using 50-indium/50-lead solder and 63-tin/37-lead solder. The large voids in a solder joint reduce the area of solder contact to the metallization and contribute to nonuniform stress across the substrate. The indium-rich areas that feed the intermetallic growth in the solder joint can cause the electrical ground of the microcircuit to fail when enough of the remaining gold is consumed, affecting the ceramic-to-gold adhesion properties. Vacuum soldering has reduced the voids to between 1 to 5 percent, as compared to 50 percent using the belt soldering process. The development of IVS has provided a process that is more efficient, safer, easier to maintain, and more economical to operate than CVS but which still restricts the amount of intermetallic growth and reduces the voids in the solder joint. The IVS process was characterized and released for production in January 1991.

  18. [Study on postsoldering of Ni-Cr ceramic alloys. Effect of soldering temperature and atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Ishigure, K

    1990-03-01

    The effects of soldering temperatures and atmospheres on tensile strength of solder joints were investigated for two types of Ni-Cr ceramic alloys and one type of gold solder for postsoldering. Each alloy and the gold solder were soldered with fluoride flux in an electric furnace in three different temperatures and four different atmospheres. Of the three different temperatures, one was just over the liquidus point of the solder, another 50 degrees C higher than the liquidus point and the other 100 degrees C higher than the liquidus point. Of the four different atmospheres, one was under vacuum, another under vacuum with a 6 l/h argon gas flow, another under vacuum with a 12 l/h argon gas flow and the other under vacuum with a 24 l/h argon gas flow. Tensile strength testing was performed at the solder joints. The fracture surface was observed by EPMA. Wettability of the liquid solder on each alloy was performed by the sessile drop method in high-purity argon gas. The surface tension and the contact angle of the liquid solder on MgO were determined by the sessile drop method in high-purity argon gas. The soldering was performed in the furnace used for the sessile drop method in high-purity argon gas. The results are summarized as follows. The tensile strength of UNI METAL-solder joints was significantly affected by the soldering temperature (p less than 0.01). However, the effect of the soldering atmosphere on the tensile strength was small. The effect of the soldering temperature and atmosphere on the tensile strength of Victory II-solder joints was small. Each alloy had a different adequate soldering temperature. With the increase in the soldering temperature, the diffusion layer of the solder joint interface increased, but no correlationship between the atmosphere and the diffusion layer thickness was observed. Fracture patterns of UNI METAL-solder joints were mixed adhesive-cohesive fractures with a large cohesive area. Fracture patterns of Victory II-solder

  19. Soldering instrument safety improvements

    DOEpatents

    Kosslow, William J.; Giron, Ronald W.

    1996-01-01

    A safe soldering device includes a retractable heat shield which can be moved between a first position in which the solder tip of the device is exposed for soldering operation and a second position in which the solder tip is covered by the heat shield. Preferably, the heat shield is biased towards the second position and may be locked in the first position for ease of use. When the soldering device is equipped with a vacuum system, the heat shield may serve to guide the flow of gases and heat from the solder tip away from the work area. The heat shield is preferably made of non-heatsinking plastic.

  20. Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn High-Lead Solder Bumps and 37Pb-63Sn Pre-Solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Lin, Y. W.; Lai, Y. S.; Kao, C. R.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn pre-solder in flip-chip solder joints. The reaction conditions included multiple reflows (up to ten) at 240°C, whereby previously solder-coated parts are joined by heating without using additional solder. We found that the molten pre-solder had an irregular shape similar to a calyx (i.e., a cup-like structure) wrapped around a high-lead solder bump. The height to which the molten pre-solder ascended along the solid high-lead solder bump increased with the number of reflows. The molten pre-solder was able to reach the under bump metallurgy (UBM)/95Pb-5Sn interface after three to five reflows. The molten pre-solder at the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface generated two important phenomena: (1) the molten solder dewetted (i.e., flowed away from the soldered surface) along the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, particularly when the number of reflows was high, and (2) the molten pre-solder transported Cu␣atoms to the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, which in turn caused the Ni-Sn compounds at the chip-side interface to change into (Cu0.6Ni0.4)6Sn5.

  1. Complex metallic alloys in the Ce Au Sn system: a study of the atomic and electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzari, S.; Demange, V.; Boulet, P.; de Weerd, M. C.; Ledieu, J.; Dubois, J. M.; Fournée, V.

    2008-03-01

    We report the formation of a new stable quasicrystal approximant in the Ce-Au-Sn system. The crystalline structure of the Ce15Au65Sn20 compound is investigated by x-ray diffraction and is found to be of similar structure type to the Zn17Sc3 1/1 approximant. Large clusters with icosahedral symmetry are located at the node of the body-centred cubic (bcc) unit cell (a = 1.5190 nm) containing 161 atoms. We have used transmission electron microscopy to emphasize the relationship of this new compound with the icosahedral space group. The valence band has been investigated by photoemission spectroscopy and shows an indication of Van Hove singularities in the density of states, characteristic of quasicrystalline and related approximant phases. We expect similar 1/1 approximant and possibly icosahedral phases to be discovered in the new RE-Au-Sn systems (where RE is rare earth). We also found a hexagonal phase with a large unit cell possessing local icosahedral order, co-existing as a minority phase.

  2. Systematics of Structural, Phase Stability, and Cohesive Properties of η'-Cu6(Sn,In)5 Compounds Occurring in In-Sn/Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, S. B.; González Lemus, N. V.; Deluque Toro, C. E.; Cabeza, G. F.; Fernández Guillermet, A.

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the high solubility of In in (mC44) η'-Cu6Sn5 compound as well as the occurrence of an In-doped η'-intermetallic in the microstructure of Cu/In-Sn/Cu solder joints, a theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the various physical effects of incorporating In at Sn Wyckoff sites of the binary η'-phase. Systematic ab initio calculations using the projected augmented wave method and Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package were used to determine the composition dependence of the structural and cohesive properties of η'-Cu6(Sn,In)5 compounds, compared with those expected from the binary end-member compounds Cu6Sn5 and Cu6In5. The molar volume shows significant deviations from Vegard's law. The predicted composition dependence of the cohesive properties is discussed using two complementary approaches, viz. a valence-electron density approach as well as a bond-number approach, both accounting for the roughly linear dependence of the cohesive energy on the In content. A microscopic interpretation for this general trend is given in terms of the key contributions to chemical bonding in this class of compounds, namely Cu d-electron overlap and hybridization of Cu d-states with In and Sn p-electron states. Moreover, a crystallographic site approach is developed to accurately establish the phase-stabilizing effect of incorporating In at specific Wyckoff positions of the (mC44) η'-Cu6Sn5 structure.

  3. Systematics of Structural, Phase Stability, and Cohesive Properties of η'-Cu6(Sn,In)5 Compounds Occurring in In-Sn/Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, S. B.; González Lemus, N. V.; Deluque Toro, C. E.; Cabeza, G. F.; Fernández Guillermet, A.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the high solubility of In in ( mC44) η'-Cu6Sn5 compound as well as the occurrence of an In-doped η'-intermetallic in the microstructure of Cu/In-Sn/Cu solder joints, a theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the various physical effects of incorporating In at Sn Wyckoff sites of the binary η'-phase. Systematic ab initio calculations using the projected augmented wave method and Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package were used to determine the composition dependence of the structural and cohesive properties of η'-Cu6(Sn,In)5 compounds, compared with those expected from the binary end-member compounds Cu6Sn5 and Cu6In5. The molar volume shows significant deviations from Vegard's law. The predicted composition dependence of the cohesive properties is discussed using two complementary approaches, viz. a valence-electron density approach as well as a bond-number approach, both accounting for the roughly linear dependence of the cohesive energy on the In content. A microscopic interpretation for this general trend is given in terms of the key contributions to chemical bonding in this class of compounds, namely Cu d-electron overlap and hybridization of Cu d-states with In and Sn p-electron states. Moreover, a crystallographic site approach is developed to accurately establish the phase-stabilizing effect of incorporating In at specific Wyckoff positions of the ( mC44) η'-Cu6Sn5 structure.

  4. Handling fixture for soldering round wires to FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R.; Martineck, H. G.

    1971-01-01

    Fixture holds flat conductor cable and wires in position until after soldering of contacting conductor ends and potting of junctions. Device provides for proper spacing of wires and adequate access for soldered joints during fabrication, and positions mold halves during potting operation.

  5. Voiding in lead-free soldering of components with large solder pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurdzia, Barbara; Mikołajek, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the quantification of void formation in lead-free solder joints underneath bottom terminated components (BTCs) through X-ray inspection. Experiments were designed to investigate how void formation is affected by using vacuum in reflow soldering on the example of light emitted diode (LED) packages on metal core printed circuit boards (PCBs). Convection and vapour phase reflow soldering were used for LED assembly. X-ray inspection system analyzed the statistical distribution, mean value, standard deviation and process capability value Cpk of thermal pads coverage for various technological versions of LEDs.

  6. Soldering of Carbon Materials Using Transition Metal Rich Alloys.

    PubMed

    Burda, Marek; Lekawa-Raus, Agnieszka; Gruszczyk, Andrzej; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2015-08-25

    Joining of carbon materials via soldering has not been possible up to now due to lack of wetting of carbons by metals at standard soldering temperatures. This issue has been a severely restricting factor for many potential electrical/electronic and mechanical applications of nanostructured and conventional carbon materials. Here we demonstrate the formation of alloys that enable soldering of these structures. By addition of several percent (2.5-5%) of transition metal such as chromium or nickel to a standard lead-free soldering tin based alloy we obtained a solder that can be applied using a commercial soldering iron at typical soldering temperatures of approximately 350 °C and at ambient conditions. The use of this solder enables the formation of mechanically strong and electrically conductive joints between carbon materials and, when supported by a simple two-step technique, can successfully bond carbon structures to any metal terminal. It has been shown using optical and scanning electron microscope images as well as X-ray diffraction patterns and energy dispersive X-ray mapping that the successful formation of carbon-solder bonds is possible, first, thanks to the uniform nonreactive dispersion of transition metals in the tin-based matrix. Further, during the soldering process, these free elements diffuse into the carbon-alloy border with no formation of brazing-like carbides, which would damage the surface of the carbon materials.

  7. Studies on in situ particulate reinforced tin-silver composite solders relevant to thermomechanical fatigue issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunglak

    2001-07-01

    Global pressure based on environmental and health concerns regarding the use of Pb-bearing solder has forced the electronics industry to develop Pb-free alternative solders. Eutectic Sn-Ag solder has received much attention as a potential Pb-free candidate to replace Sn-Pb solder. Since introduction of surface mount technology, packaging density increased and the electronic devices became smaller. As a result, solders in electronic modules are forced to function as a mechanical connection as well as electrical contact. Solders are also exposed to very harsh service conditions such as automotive under-the-hood and aerospace applications. Solder joints experience thermomechanical fatigue, i.e. interaction of fatigue and creep, during thermal cycling due to temperature fluctuation in service conditions. Microstructural study on thermomechanical fatigue of the actual eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu solder joints was performed to better understand deformation and damage accumulation occurring during service. Incorporation of reinforcements has been pursued to improve the mechanical and particularly thermomechanical behavior of solders, and their service temperature capability. In-situ Sn-Ag composite solders were developed by incorporating Cu 6Sn5, Ni3Sn4, and FeSn2 particulate reinforcements in the eutectic Sn-Ag solder in an effort to enhance thermomechanical fatigue resistance. In-situ composite solders were investigated on the growth of interfacial intermetallic layer between solder and Cu substrate growth and creep properties. Solder joints exhibited significant deformation and damage on free surface and interior regions during thermomechanical fatigue. Cracks initiated on the free surface of the solder joints and propagated toward interior regions near the substrate of the solder joint. Crack grew along Sn grain boundaries by grain boundary sliding. There was significant residual stress within the solder joint causing more damage. Presence of small amount of Cu

  8. Process characterization and control of hand-soldered printed wiring assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Cheray, D.L.; Mandl, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    A designed experiment was conducted to characterize the hand soldering process parameters for manufacturing printed wiring assemblies (PWAs). Component tinning was identified as the most important parameter in hand soldering. After tinning, the soldering iron tip temperature of 700{degrees}F and the choice of operators influence solder joint quality more than any other parameters. Cleaning and flux/flux core have little impact on the quality of the solder joint. The need for component cleaning prior to assembly must be evaluated for each component.

  9. Mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites on CMOS MEMS platform for ethanol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Sinha, A. K.; De Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Guha, P. K.; Ray, S. K.; Gardner, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report on the mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) platform through the use of dip pen nanolithography (DPN) to create a low-cost ethanol sensor. MEMS technology is used in order to achieve low power consumption, by the employment of a membrane structure formed using deep reactive ion etching technique. The device consists of an embedded tungsten micro-heater with gold interdigitated electrodes on top of the SOI membrane. The tungsten micro-heater is used to raise the membrane temperature up to its operating temperature and the electrodes are used to measure the resistance of the nanocomposite sensing layer. The CMOS MEMS devices have high electro-thermal efficiency, with 8.2 °C temperature increase per mW power of consumption. The sensing material (Au-SnO2 nanocomposite) was synthesised starting from SnO nanoplates, then Au nanoparticles were attached chemically to the surface of SnO nanoplates, finally the mixture was heated at 700 °C in an oven in air for 4 h. This composite material was sonicated for 2 h in terpineol to make a viscous homogeneous slurry and then ‘written’ directly across the electrode area using the DPN technique without any mask. The devices were characterised by exposure to ethanol vapour in humid air in the concentration range of 100-1000 ppm. The sensitivity varied from 1.2 to 0.27 ppm-1 for 100-1000 ppm of ethanol at 10% relative humid air. Selectivity measurements showed that the sensors were selective towards ethanol when they were exposed to acetone and toluene.

  10. Mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites on CMOS MEMS platform for ethanol detection.

    PubMed

    Santra, S; Sinha, A K; De Luca, A; Ali, S Z; Udrea, F; Guha, P K; Ray, S K; Gardner, J W

    2016-03-29

    Here we report on the mask-less deposition of Au-SnO2 nanocomposites with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) platform through the use of dip pen nanolithography (DPN) to create a low-cost ethanol sensor. MEMS technology is used in order to achieve low power consumption, by the employment of a membrane structure formed using deep reactive ion etching technique. The device consists of an embedded tungsten micro-heater with gold interdigitated electrodes on top of the SOI membrane. The tungsten micro-heater is used to raise the membrane temperature up to its operating temperature and the electrodes are used to measure the resistance of the nanocomposite sensing layer. The CMOS MEMS devices have high electro-thermal efficiency, with 8.2 °C temperature increase per mW power of consumption. The sensing material (Au-SnO2 nanocomposite) was synthesised starting from SnO nanoplates, then Au nanoparticles were attached chemically to the surface of SnO nanoplates, finally the mixture was heated at 700 °C in an oven in air for 4 h. This composite material was sonicated for 2 h in terpineol to make a viscous homogeneous slurry and then 'written' directly across the electrode area using the DPN technique without any mask. The devices were characterised by exposure to ethanol vapour in humid air in the concentration range of 100-1000 ppm. The sensitivity varied from 1.2 to 0.27 ppm(-1) for 100-1000 ppm of ethanol at 10% relative humid air. Selectivity measurements showed that the sensors were selective towards ethanol when they were exposed to acetone and toluene.

  11. Microstructural characterization and thermal cycling reliability of solders under isothermal aging and electrical current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Preeti Singh

    Solder joints on printed circuit boards provide electrical and mechanical connections between electronic devices and metallized patterns on boards. These solder joints are often the cause of failure in electronic packages. Solders age under storage and operational life conditions, which can include temperature, mechanical loads, and electrical current. Aging occurring at a constant temperature is called isothermal aging. Isothermal aging leads to coarsening of the bulk microstructure and increased interfacial intermetallic compounds at the solder-pad interface. The coarsening of the solder bulk degrades the creep properties of solders, whereas the voiding and brittleness of interfacial intermetallic compounds leads to mechanical weakness of the solder joint. Industry guidelines on solder interconnect reliability test methods recommend preconditioning the solder assemblies by isothermal aging before conducting reliability tests. The guidelines assume that isothermal aging simulates a "reasonable use period," but do not relate the isothermal aging levels with specific use conditions. Studies on the effect of isothermal aging on the thermal cycling reliability of tin-lead and tin-silver-copper solders are limited in scope, and results have been contradictory. The effect of electrical current on solder joints has been has mostly focused on current densities above 104A/cm2 with high ambient temperature (≥100oC), where electromigration, thermomigration, and Joule heating are the dominant failure mechanisms. The effect of current density below 104A/cm2 on temperature cycling fatigue of solders has not been established. This research provides the relation between isothermal aging and the thermal cycling reliability of select Sn-based solders. The Sn-based solders with 3%, 1%, and 0% silver content that have replaced tin-lead are studied and compared against tin-lead solder. The activation energy and growth exponents of the Arrhenius model for the intermetallic growth in

  12. Hybrid microcircuit board assembly with lead-free solders

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    2000-01-11

    An assessment was made of the manufacturability of hybrid microcircuit test vehicles assembled using three Pb-free solder compositions 96.5Sn--3.5Ag (wt.%), 91.84Sn--3.33Ag--4.83Bi, and 86.85Sn--3.15Ag--5.0Bi--5.0Au. The test vehicle substrate was 96% alumina; the thick film conductor composition was 76Au--21Pt--3Pd. Excellent registration between the LCCC or chip capacitor packages and the thick film solder pads was observed. Reduced wetting of bare (Au-coated) LCCC castellations was eliminated by hot solder dipping the I/Os prior to assembly of the circuit card. The Pb-free solders were slightly more susceptible to void formation, but not to a degree that would significantly impact joint functionality. Microstructural damage, while noted in the Sn-Pb solder joints, was not observed in the Pb-free interconnects.

  13. Computational continuum modeling of solder interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Frear, D.R.; Stephens, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    The most commonly used solder for electrical interconnections in electronic packages is the near eutectic 60Sn-40Pb alloy. This alloy has a number of processing advantages (suitable melting point of 183 C and good wetting behavior). However, under conditions of cyclic strain and temperature (thermomechanical fatigue), the microstructure of this alloy undergoes a heterogeneous coarsening and failure process that makes prediction of solder joint lifetime complex. A viscoplastic, microstructure dependent, constitutive model for solder which is currently in development was implemented into a finite element code. With this computational capability, the thermomechanical response of solder interconnects, including microstructural evolution, can be predicted. This capability was applied to predict the thermomechanical response of various leadless chip carrier solder interconnects to determine the effects of variations in geometry and loading. In this paper, the constitutive model will first be briefly discussed. The results of computational studies to determine the effect of geometry and loading variations on leadless chip carrier solder interconnects then will be presented.

  14. Mechanical Solder Characterisation Under High Strain Rate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Karsten; Roellig, Mike; Wiese, Steffen; Wolter, Klaus-Juergen

    2010-11-01

    Using a setup for high strain rate tensile experiments the mechanical behavior of two lead-free tin based solders is investigated. The first alloy is SnAg1.3Cu0.5Ni. The second alloy has a higher silver content but no addition of Ni. Solder joints are the main electrical, thermal and mechanical interconnection technology on the first and second interconnection level. With the recent rise of 3D packaging technologies many novel interconnection ideas are proposed with innovative or visionary nature. Copper pillar, stud bump, intermetallic (SLID) and even spring like joints are presented in a number of projects. However, soldering will remain one of the important interconnect technologies. Knowing the mechanical properties of solder joints is important for any reliability assessment, especially when it comes to vibration and mechanical shock associated with mobile applications. Taking the ongoing miniaturization and linked changes in solder joint microstructure and mechanical behavior into account the need for experimental work on that issue is not satisfied. The tests are accomplished utilizing miniature bulk specimens to match the microstructure of real solder joints as close as possible. The dogbone shaped bulk specimens have a crucial diameter of 1 mm, which is close to BGA solder joints. Experiments were done in the strain rate range from 20 s-1 to 600 s-1. Solder strengthening has been observed with increased strain rate for both SAC solder alloys. The yield stress increases by about 100% in the investigated strain rate range. The yield level differs strongly. A high speed camera system was used to assist the evaluation process of the stress and strain data. Besides the stress and strain data extracted from the experiment the ultimate fracture strain is determined and the fracture surfaces are evaluated using SEM technique considering rate dependency.

  15. Fluxless laser soldering for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Conventional soldering typically requires the use of reactive fluxes to promote wetting. The resulting flux residues are removed primarily with halogenated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the mandated phaseout of CFCs by the year 2000, there has been a concentrated effort to develop alternative, environmentally compatible manufacturing and cleaning technologies that will satisfy the restrictions placed on CFCs, but still yield high quality product. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating a variety of alternative fluxless soldering technologies which can be applied to electronic packaging. Laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere has shown great potential as an environmentally compatible process. The effects of laser heating with a 100 watt CW Nd:YAG laser, joint design, and base/filler metal reactions on achieving fluxless wetting with good metallurgical bonds were examined. Satisfactory Ni-Au plated Kovar{reg_sign} solder joints were made with 80In-15Pb-5Ag and 63Sn-37Pb (wt. %) solder alloys in a slightly reducing cover gas. Wetting generally increased with increasing laser power, decreasing laser beam spot size, and decreasing part travel speed. The materials and processing interaction effects are identified and discussed.

  16. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, Fred; Hosking, Floyd M.; Jellison, James L.; Short, Bruce; Giversen, Terri; Reed, Jimmy R.

    1998-01-01

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time.

  17. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, F.; Hosking, F.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Short, B.; Giversen, T.; Reed, J.R.

    1998-10-27

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time. 11 figs.

  18. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  19. Microstructures of phased-in Cr-Cu/Cu/Au bump-limiting metallization and its soldering behavior with high Pb content and eutectic PbSn solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. Z.; Liu, Ann A.; Kim, H. K.; Tu, K. N.; Totta, Paul A.

    1997-11-01

    The microstructure of phased-in Cr-Cu/Cu/Au multilayer thin films and their solderability with high Pb-content PbSn solder (95/5%) and eutectic PbSn solder (37/63%) were studied by using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We found that the phased-in Cr-Cu layer is intermixed and grains of both Cr and Cu are elongated along the growth direction. This special compositionally graded or functionally graded microstructure presents a lock-in effect of the Cr and Cu grains. It has succeeded in preventing the spalling of Cu3Sn in solder joints formed using the 95/5% solder, but failed in preventing the spalling of Cu6Sn5 in those formed using the eutectic solder. We suggest that the difference may be due to the different dissolution rates of the two compounds in the solders.

  20. Reduced oxide soldering activation (ROSA) PWB solderability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Reed, J.; Tench, D.M.; White, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of ROSA pretreatment on the solderability of environmentally stressed PWB test coupons was investigated. The PWB surface finish was an electroplated, reflowed solder. Test results demonstrated the ability to recover plated-through-hole fill of steam aged samples with solder after ROSA processing. ROSA offers an alternative method for restoring the solderability of aged PWB surfaces.

  1. Thermomechanical fatigue life prediction for several solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Shengmin

    anisotropic small-scale (micron or nano scale) solder joints. More importantly, the theory is materials science based so that the parameters of the fatigue formula can be worked out by testing of bulk specimens while the formula can be applicable to small-scale structures. The theory suggests metallurgical control in the manufacturing process to optimize the fatigue life of solder structures.

  2. Evaluation of soldered connectors of two base metal ceramic alloys.

    PubMed

    Lima Verde, M A; Stein, R S

    1994-04-01

    Soldered connectors for two base metal ceramic alloys (nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium) were compared by use of four different techniques: (1) infrared preceramic soldering, (2) gas and oxygen preceramic soldering, (3) porcelain furnace postsoldering under vacuum, and (4) porcelain furnace postsoldering without vacuum. A control group was established with solid cast specimens of each alloy. No statistically significant difference was noted between infrared and torch preceramic soldering techniques for either of the two alloys. However, the joints postsoldered under vacuum were significantly superior to postsoldered connectors without vacuum (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were observed among techniques 1, 2, and 3, although the three groups were substantially superior to technique 4 for both alloys (p = 0.05). The control group for both alloys was appreciably stronger than the soldered groups (p < 0.0001), and the nickel-chromium samples within the control group were significantly stronger than the Co-Cr samples.

  3. Pull strength evaluation of Sn-Pb solder joints made to Au-Pt-Pd and Au thick film structures on low-temperature co-fired ceramic -final report for the MC4652 crypto-coded switch (W80).

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Fernando; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-06-01

    A study was performed that examined the microstructure and mechanical properties of 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) solder joints made to thick film layers on low-temperature co-fired (LTCC) substrates. The thick film layers were combinations of the Dupont{trademark} 4596 (Au-Pt-Pd) conductor and Dupont{trademark} 5742 (Au) conductor, the latter having been deposited between the 4596 layer and LTCC substrate. Single (1x) and triple (3x) thicknesses of the 4596 layer were evaluated. Three footprint sizes were evaluated of the 5742 thick film. The solder joints exhibited excellent solderability of both the copper (Cu) lead and thick film surface. In all test sample configurations, the 5742 thick film prevented side wall cracking of the vias. The pull strengths were in the range of 3.4-4.0 lbs, which were only slightly lower than historical values for alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates. General (qualitative) observations: (a) The pull strength was maximized when the total number of thick film layers was between two and three. Fewer that two layers did not develop as strong of a bond at the thick film/LTCC interface; more than three layers and of increased footprint area, developed higher residual stresses at the thick film/LTCC interface and in the underlying LTCC material that weakened the joint. (b) Minimizing the area of the weaker 4596/LTCC interface (e.g., larger 5742 area) improved pull strength. Specific observations: (a) In the presence of vias and the need for the 3x 4596 thick film, the preferred 4596:5742 ratio was 1.0:0.5. (b) For those LTCC components that require the 3x 4596 layer, but do not have vias, it is preferred to refrain from using the 5742 layer. (c) In the absence of vias, the highest strength was realized with a 1x thick 5742 layer, a 1x thick 4596 layer, and a footprint ratio of 1.0:1.0.

  4. Nanocopper Based Solder-Free Electronic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabl, K.; Wentlent, L.; Mootoo, K.; Khasawneh, S.; Zinn, A. A.; Beddow, J.; Hauptfleisch, E.; Blass, D.; Borgesen, P.

    2014-12-01

    CuantumFuse nano copper material has been used to assemble functional LED test boards and a small camera board with a 48 pad CMOS sensor quad-flat no-lead chip and a 10 in flexible electronics demo. Drop-in replacement of solder, by use of stencil printing and standard surface mount technology equipment, has been demonstrated. Applications in space and commercial systems are currently under consideration. The stable copper-nanoparticle paste has been examined and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy; this has shown that the joints are nanocrystalline but with substantial porosity. Assessment of reliability is expected to be complicated by this and by the effects of thermal and strain-enhanced coarsening of pores. Strength, creep, and fatigue properties were measured and results are discussed with reference to our understanding of solder reliability to assess the potential of this nano-copper based solder alternative.

  5. Intelligent laser soldering inspection and process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzetti, Riccardo

    1987-01-01

    Component assembly on printed circuitry keeps making giant strides toward denser packaging and smaller dimensions. From a single layer to multilayer, from through holes to surface mounted components and tape applied bonds, unrelenting progress results in new, difficult problems in assembling, soldering, inspecting and controlling the manufacturing process of the new electronics. Among the major problems are the variables introduced by human operators. The small dimensions and the tight assembly tolerances are now successfully met by machines which are faster and more precise than the human hand. The same is true for soldering. But visual inspection of the solder joints is now so severely limited by the ever shrinking area accessible to the human eye that the inspector's diagnosis cannot be trusted any longer. Solutions to correcting these problems are discussed.

  6. Control of Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au/SnO2 by Modification with Ag and Cu for Photoinduced Reactions under Visible-Light Irradiation over a Wide Range.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kominami, Hiroshi

    2016-03-18

    Gold particles supported on tin(IV) oxide (0.2 wt% Au/SnO2) were modified with copper and silver by the multistep photodeposition method. Absorption around λ=550 nm, attributed to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au, gradually shifted to longer wavelengths on modification with Cu and finally reached λ=620 nm at 0.8 wt% Cu. On the other hand, the absorption shifted to shorter wavelength with increasing amount of Ag and reached λ=450 nm at 0.8 wt% Ag. These Cu- and Ag-modified 0.2 wt% Au/SnO2 materials (Cu-Au/SnO2 and Ag-Au/SnO2) and 1.0 wt% Au/SnO2 were used for mineralization of formic acid to carbon dioxide in aqueous suspension under irradiation with visible light from a xenon lamp and three kinds of light-emitting diodes with different wavelengths. The reaction rates for the mineralization of formic acid over these materials depend on the wavelength of light. Apparent quantum efficiencies of Cu-Au/SnO2, Au/SnO2, and Ag-Au/SnO2 reached 5.5% at 625 nm, 5.8% at 525 nm, and 5.1% at 450 nm, respectively. These photocatalysts can also be used for selective oxidation of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. Broad responses to visible light in formic acid mineralization and selective alcohol oxidation were achieved when the three materials were used simultaneously.

  7. Removing Dross From Molten Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S.

    1990-01-01

    Automatic device helps to assure good solder connections. Machine wipes dross away from area on surface of molten solder in pot. Sweeps across surface of molten solder somewhat in manner of windshield wiper. Each cycle of operation triggered by pulse from external robot. Equipment used wherever precise, automated soldering must be done to military specifications.

  8. Effect of Ni and Pd Addition on Mechanical, Thermodynamic, and Electronic Properties of AuSn4-Based Intermetallics: A Density Functional Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yali; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The effects of Ni and Pd addition on the mechanical, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of AuSn4-based intermetallic compounds (IMCs) have been investigated by first-principles calculations to reveal the essence of Au embrittlement. Three kinds of doped (namely Ni-doped, Pd-doped, and Ni/Pd-codoped) IMCs are considered in this work. The polycrystalline elastic properties are deduced from single-crystal elastic constants. It is found that the doped systems together with nondoped AuSn4 are all ductile phases. For Ni-doped AuSn4, the modulus, hardness, brittleness, Debye temperature, and minimum thermal conductivity increase with the Ni fraction, but this is not the case for the Pd-doped material, since Au0.75Pd0.25Sn4 is the more brittle phase. For Au0.5Pd0.25Ni0.25Sn4, the mechanical, thermodynamic, and electronic properties are similar to those of Au0.5Pd0.5Sn4.

  9. An Evaluation of Prototype Circuit Boards Assembled with a Sn-Ag Bi Solder

    SciTech Connect

    ARTAKI,I.; RAY,U.; REJENT,JEROME A.; VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-09-01

    An evaluation was performed which examined the aging of surface mount solder joints assembled with 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder. Defect analysis of the as-fabricated test vehicles revealed excellent solderability, good package alignment, and a minimum number of voids. Continuous DC electrical monitoring of the solder joints did not reveal opens during as many as 10,000 thermal cycles (0 C, 100 C). The solder joints exhibited no significant degradation through 2500 cycles, based upon an absence of microstructural damage and sustained shear and pull strengths of chip capacitors and J-leaded solder joints, respectively. Thermal cycles of 5000 and 10,000 resulted in some surface cracking of the solder fillets and coatings. In a few cases, deeper cracks were observed in the thinner reaches of several solder fillets. There was no deformation or cracking in the solder located in the gap between the package I/O and the circuit board pad nor in the interior of the fillets, both locations that would raise concerns of joint mechanical integrity. A drop in the chip capacitor shear strength was attributed to crack growth near the top of the fillet.

  10. Direct-soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with ultrasonic coating.

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Zhang, Pei-lei; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Yao, Shun

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the authors applied furnace soldering with ultrasonic coating method to solder 6061 aluminum alloy and investigated the effects of both coating time and soldering temperature on its properties. The following results were obtained: firstly, the solder region mainly composed of four kinds of microstructure zones: rich Sn zone, rich-Pb zone, Sn-Pb eutectic phase and rich Al zone. Meanwhile, the microanalysis identified a continuous reaction product at the alumina-solder interface as a rich-Pb zone. Therefore, the joint strength changed with soldering time and soldering temperature. Secondly, the tensile data had significantly greater variability, with values ranging from 13.99MPa to 24.74MPa. The highest value was obtained for the samples coated with Sn-Pb-Zn alloy for 45s. Fractures occurred along the solder-alumina interface for the 6061 aluminum alloy with its surface including hybrid tough fracture of dimple and tear ridge. The interface could initially strip at the rich Bi zone with the effect of shear stress.

  11. Solder Bonding for Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snytsheuvel, H. A.; Mandel, H.

    1985-01-01

    Indium solder boosts power rating and facilitates circuit changes. Efficient heat conduction from power transistor to heat sink provided by layer of indium solder. Low melting point of indium solder (141 degrees C) allows power transistor to be removed, if circuit must be reworked, without disturbing other components mounted with ordinary solder that melts at 181 degrees C. Solder allows devices operated at higher power levels than does conventional attachment by screws.

  12. Laser forward transfer of solder paste for microelectronics fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Ray C.; Kim, Heungsoo; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The progressive miniaturization of electronic devices requires an ever-increasing density of interconnects attached via solder joints. As a consequence, the overall size and spacing (or pitch) of these solder joint interconnects keeps shrinking. When the pitch between interconnects decreases below 200 μm, current technologies, such as stencil printing, find themselves reaching their resolution limit. Laser direct-write (LDW) techniques based on laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offer unique advantages and capabilities for the printing of solder pastes. At NRL, we have demonstrated the successful transfer, patterning, and subsequent reflow of commercial Pb-free solder pastes using LIFT. Transfers were achieved both with the donor substrate in contact with the receiving substrate and across a 25 μm gap, such that the donor substrate does not make contact with the receiving substrate. We demonstrate the transfer of solder paste features down to 25 μm in diameter and as large as a few hundred microns, although neither represents the ultimate limit of the LIFT process in terms of spatial dimensions. Solder paste was transferred onto circular copper pads as small as 30 μm and subsequently reflowed, in order to demonstrate that the solder and flux were not adversely affected by the LIFT process.

  13. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about -40.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  14. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, L.C.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1992-06-16

    Disclosed is a process for production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about [minus]40 C and 110 C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  15. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

  16. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  17. A CTE matched hard solder passively cooled laser diode package combined with nXLT facet passivation enables high power, high reliability operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Aaron; Wang, Jun; DeFranza, Mark; Liu, Xingsheng; Vivian, Bill; Johnson, Curt; Crump, Paul; Leisher, Paul; DeVito, Mark; Martinsen, Robert; Bell, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    A conductively cooled laser diode package design with hard AuSn solder and CTE matched sub mount is presented. We discuss how this platform eliminates the failure mechanisms associated with indium solder. We present the problem of catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) and show that nLight's nXLT TM facet passivation technology effectively eliminates facet defect initiated COMD as a failure mechanism for both single emitter and bar format laser diodes. By combining these technologies we have developed a product that has high reliability at high powers, even at increased operation temperatures. We present early results from on-going accelerated life testing of this configuration that suggests an 808nm, 30% fill factor device will have a MTTF of more than 21khrs at 60W CW, 25°C operating conditions and a MTTF of more than 6.4khrs when operated under hard pulsed (1 second on, 1 second off) conditions.

  18. SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

  19. Wettability of electroless Ni in the under bump metallurgy with lead free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Bi-Lian; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Chiou, Bi-Shiou

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates the wettability of several lead-free solders, including Sn, Sn-Ag, and Sn-Bi, on electroless Ni (EN) with various phosphorus content. The role of phosphorus on solder wettability is studied. Microstructure evolution in the lead-free solder/EN joint is investigated with the aid of electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) to relate metallurgical reactions between the solder and the EN. The SN solder exhibits better wettability on EN, while the Si-Bi solder has a larger contact angle. Wettability degrades as the phosphorus content in EN decreases. The dependence of wetting angle on the phosphorous content can be attributed to the surface roughness and density of EN, along with the interfacial reaction between the solders and EN. An EPMA analysis reveals the presence of a Sn-Bi-Ni-P solid solution at the interface of solder/EN joints due to the interdiffusion of major constituent Ni and Sn. The interaction zone of the solid solution increases with increasing temperature. Wettability of Pb-free solders on EN degrades with the presence of NiO due to oxidation or the existence of Ni3P due to precipitation after annealing. For an adequate wetting behavior in the Sn (Sn-Bi, Sn-Ag)/EN joint, EN deposited with phosphorus contents in the range of 9 to 12 wt% is suggested.

  20. Wetting studies of lead-free solders on lead-free PWB finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattiraju, Seshagirirao Venkata

    as-received, aged and after multiple reflow cycles on Sn PWB test coupons to understand their effect on the growth of oxides and intermetallic compounds. Sn is the best finish in the as-received, unaged condition with all the Pb-free solders tested. It loses its solderability after extended storage and after multiple reflow cycles. The Sn finish is also cheaper compared to other alternatives such as Ag and Ni/Au finishes. Ni/Au and Ag finishes appear to be equal after multiple reflow cycles with all Pb-free solders tested. Halo formation was observed on Ni/Au board finishes with certain solder alloys. Many investigations such as line scans and spot chemical analysis were conducted on the halo to understand the mechanism involved. It was concluded that the halo formation was due to the formation of the Au-Sn intermetallic compounds. Finally, growth of intermetallic compounds at different aging temperatures for different combinations of solders and finishes has been studied and is reported. It appears that the modeling of the growth of IMCs on Sn and Ag PWB finishes based on a completely parabolic growth model may be insufficient. Diffusion is the predominant mechanism for the growth of the Ni-Sn IMCs. NiAu finish has the least thickness of the total intermetallic layer.

  1. Survivability of soldered leadless chip carriers after temperature cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawicki, L. R.; Lenhardt, B. W.; Smith, F. R.

    1994-09-01

    Temperature cycling evaluations were conducted on leadless chip carriers (LCC's) soldered to thick film networks (TKN's). Various temperature ranges, rates of change, cycle times, number of cycles, and sizes of LCC's were used. The TKN's were attached to metal backing plates with 63Sn/37Pb solder preforms using an infrared vacuum soldering process. The LCC's were attached to Pt/Au TKN's with 63Sn/37Pb solder paste using a belt reflow process. Visual examination and cross-sectional analysis were used to evaluate the survivability. Results were also correlated with finite elemental analysis. Considering the initial results, possible solutions included changing the solder from 63Sn/37Pb to 50Pb/50In, deleting the metal backplate, changing the rate of change in the temperature cycle, and/or adding leads to the large LCC's. Because of a system requirement, the rate of change in the temperature cycle could not be changed. Since there was no long term reliability information on the Pt/Au TKN with 50Pb/50In solder, this option was also dropped. Additional evaluations showed little difference in the survivability of large LCC solder joints with or without the metal backing plate. The final results indicated that LCC's beyond a certain physical size required compliant leads to survive the temperature cycle requirements.

  2. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  3. Synthesis, structure, and bonding in K12Au21Sn4. A polar intermetallic compound with dense Au20 and open AuSn4 layers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Miller, Gordon J.; and Corbett, John D.

    2009-10-29

    The new phase K{sub 12}Au{sub 21}Sn{sub 4} has been synthesized by direct reaction of the elements at elevated temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction established its orthorhombic structure, space group Pmmn (No. 59), a = 12.162(2); b = 18.058(4); c = 8.657(2) {angstrom}, V = 1901.3(7) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 2. The structure consists of infinite puckered sheets of vertex-sharing gold tetrahedra (Au{sub 20}) that are tied together by thin layers of alternating four-bonded-Sn and -Au atoms (AuSn{sub 4}). Remarkably, the dense but electron-poorer blocks of Au tetrahedra coexist with more open and saturated Au-Sn layers, which are fragments of a zinc blende type structure that maximize tetrahedral heteroatomic bonding outside of the network of gold tetrahedra. LMTO band structure calculations reveal metallic properties and a pseudogap at 256 valence electrons per formula unit, only three electrons fewer than in the title compound and at a point at which strong Au-Sn bonding is optimized. Additionally, the tight coordination of the Au framework atoms by K plays an important bonding role: each Au tetrahedra has 10 K neighbors and each K atom has 8-12 Au contacts. The appreciably different role of the p element Sn in this structure from that in the triel members in K{sub 3}Au{sub 5}In and Rb{sub 2}Au{sub 3}Tl appears to arise from its higher electron count which leads to better p-bonding (valence electron concentrations = 1.32 versus 1.22).

  4. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  6. A new active solder for joining electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,RONALD W.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HERNANDEZ,CYNTHIA L.; LUGSCHEIDER,E.; RASS,I.; HILLEN,F.

    2000-05-11

    Electronic components and micro-sensors utilize ceramic substrates, copper and aluminum interconnect and silicon. The joining of these combinations require pre-metallization such that solders with fluxes can wet such combinations of metals and ceramics. The paper will present a new solder alloy that can bond metals, ceramics and composites. The alloy directly wets and bonds in air without the use flux or premetallized layers. The paper will present typical processing steps and joint microstructures in copper, aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon joints.

  7. Interdiffusion analysis of the soldering reactions in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, K. S.; Kim, S. J.

    2001-11-01

    Extensive microstructural and kinetic studies on the formation and growth of the intermetallics of Sn-rich solder/Cu couples have been reported. However, experimental data on the interdiffusion mechanisms during soldering reactions are limited and in conflict. The interdiffusion processes for soldering of Sn-3.5Ag alloy/Cu couples were investigated by using the Cr-evaporated surface as a reference line. At the beginning of soldering, Cu was observed to outdiffuse to the molten Sn-3.5Ag alloy until saturation, and the Sn-Ag solder dissolved with Cu collapsed below the reference line. As a result, the scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound was formed at the newly-formed Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu interface below the original Cu surface. When the soldered joint was reflowed at the lower temperature to suppress the Cu dissolution, the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface moved into the Cu substrate. Therefore, Sn is the dominant diffusing species for the intermetallic formation during the soldering process, although the extensive Cu dissolution occurs at the early stage of soldering.

  8. Modeling and Simulation - The Effects of Grain Coarsening on Local Stresses and Strains in Solder Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchani, R.

    1999-01-21

    A critical issue in the long-term reliability of solder connections used in electronic packages is the joint failure during thermal cycling. Presently in most finite element analysis to predict the solder joint fatigue failures, solder is assumed as a homogeneous single-phase metal. However in the last decade, several metallurgical studies have shown that solder microstructure may have a role in early solder joint failures (ref 1). Investigators have observed (ref 1) that solder microstructure coarsens in local bands during aging and during thermal cycle fatigue. In a failed solder joint, the fatigue cracks are found in these bands of coarse grains. It is speculated that the grain coarsening increases the local strains within the microstructure, thereby increasing the likelihood for a crack to initiate. The objective of this study is to model and simulate the effect of grain coarsening on local stresses and strains. During solidification of eutectic Pb/Sn solder, two types of microstructure form, namely lamellar and equiaxed. In this study, I have developed a computer code to generate both types of microstructures of varying grain coarseness. This code is incorporated into the finite element (FE) code that analyzes the local stresses and strains within the computer-generated microstructure. The FE code, specifically developed for this study, uses an algorithm involving the sparse matrix and iterative solver. This code on a typical single-processor machine will allow the analyst to use over 1 million degrees of freedom. For higher number of degrees of freedom, we have also developed a code to run on a parallel machine using message passing interface. The data reported in this paper were obtained using the single-processor code. The solder microstructure, if assumed to be homogeneous single phase, has gradual variation in local stresses and strains. In 2-phase solder, von mises stresses and strains are heterogeneously distributed. In general, the maximum von mises

  9. Assessment of circuit board surface finishes for electronic assembly with lead-free solders

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, U.; Artaki, I.; Finley, D.W.; Wenger, G.M.; Pan, T.; Blair, H.D.; Nicholson, J.M.; Vianco, P.T.

    1996-10-01

    The suitability of various metallic printed wiring board surface finishes was assessed for new technology applications that incorporate assembly with Lead-free solders. The manufacture of a lead-free product necessitates elimination of lead (Pb) from the solder, the circuit board as well as the component lead termination. It is critical however for the selected interconnect Pb-free solder and the corresponding printed wiring board (PWB) and component lead finishes to be mutually compatible. Baseline compatibility of select Pb-free solders with Pb containing PWB surface finish and components was assessed. This was followed by examining the compatibility of the commercially available CASTIN{trademark} (SnAgCuSb) Pb-free solder with a series of PWB metallic finishes: Ni/Au, Ni/Pd, and Pd/Cu. The compatibility was assessed with respect to assembly performance, solder joint integrity and long term attachment reliability. Solder joint integrity and mechanical behavior of representative 50 mil pitch 20I/O SOICs was determined before and after thermal stress. Mechanical pull test studies demonstrated that the strength of SnAgCuSb solder interconnections is notably greater than that of SnPb interconnections.

  10. Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

  11. Relationship between morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints on different Cu pads

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yanhong Zhang, Rui; Hang, Chunjin; Niu, Lina; Wang, Chunqing

    2014-02-15

    The morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds in the Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints both on polycrystalline and single crystal Cu pads under different peak reflow temperatures and times above liquids were investigated. The relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grain orientations and morphologies was clarified. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/polycrystalline Cu pad, scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds formed at 250 °C and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed at 300 °C. Both scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} had a preferred orientation of (0001) plane being parallel to polycrystalline Cu pad surface. Besides, the percentage of large angle grain boundaries increased as the peak reflow temperature rose. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/(111) single crystal Cu pad, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were mainly scallop-type at 250 °C and were prism type at 300 °C. The prismatic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains grew along the three preferred directions with the inter-angles of 60° on (111) single crystal Cu pad while along two perpendicular directions on (100) single crystal Cu pad. The orientation relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains and the single crystal Cu pads was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction technology. In addition, two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were found inside the joints of polycrystalline Cu pads. The long hexagonal Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were observed in the joints reflowing at 250 °C while the hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips with the ‘▪’ shape cross-sections appeared at 300 °C, which was attributed to the different grain growth rates of different Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} crystal faces. - Highlights: • The orientation of interfacial Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains was obtained by EBSD technology. • Two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were found at different temperatures. • The formation

  12. Complex of automated equipment and technologies for waveguides soldering using induction heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.; Laptenok, V. D.; Emilova, O. A.; Bocharov, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of designing complex automated equipment for soldering waveguides based on induction heating technology. A theoretical analysis of the problem, allowing to form a model of the «inductor-waveguide» system and to carry out studies to determine the form of inducing wire, creating a narrow and concentrated heat zone in the area of the solder joint. Also solves the problem of the choice of the temperature control means, the information from which is used later to generate the effective management of induction soldering process. Designed hardware complex in conjunction with the developed software system is a system of automatic control, allowing to manage the process of induction heating, to prevent overheating and destruction of the soldered products, improve the stability of induction soldering process, to improve the quality of products, thereby reducing time and material costs for the production.

  13. Wetting in Soldering and Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Nogi, K.

    2008-08-01

    Wettability of solid metals by molten solders is reviewed. The contact angle and wetting force are tabulated for various combinations of solid metals and molten solders such as Sn-Pb base alloys, Sn-Ag base alloys, Sn-Zn base alloys, Sn-Cu base alloys, and Sn-Bi base alloys. Studies on the wetting rate are also discussed.

  14. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  15. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Iver

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  16. Effects of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Epoxy Solder on ENEPIG-Surface-Finished PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were evaluated by low-speed shear testing as functions of aging time and temperature. To determine the effects of epoxy, the interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of both Sn-58Bi and Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were investigated after aging treatment. The chemical composition and growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the interface between Sn-58Bi solder and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish were analyzed. Sn-58Bi solder paste was applied by stencil-printing on flame retardant-4 substrate, then reflowed. Reflowed samples were aged at 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, and 115°C for up to 1000 h. (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC formed between Sn-58Bi solder and ENEPIG surface finish after reflow. Ni3Sn4 and Ni3P IMCs formed at the interface between (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC and ENEPIG surface finish after aging at 115°C for 300 h. The overall IMC growth rate of Sn-58Bi solder joint was higher than that of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder joint during aging. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder was about 2.4 times higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder due to the blocking effect of epoxy, and the shear strength decreased with increasing aging time.

  17. Solder creep-fatigue interactions with flexible leaded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Wen, L. C.; Mon, G. R.; Jetter, E.

    1992-06-01

    With flexible leaded parts, the solder-joint failure process involves a complex interplay of creep and fatigue mechanisms. To better understand the role of creep in typical multi-hour cyclic loading conditions, a specialized non-linear finite-element creep simulation computer program has been formulated. The numerical algorithm includes the complete part-lead-solder-PWB system, accounting for strain-rate dependence of creep on applied stress and temperature, and the role of the part-lead dimensions and flexibility that determine the total creep deflection (solder strain range) during stress relaxation. The computer program has been used to explore the effects of various solder creep-fatigue parameters such as lead height and stiffness, thermal-cycle test profile, and part/board differential thermal expansion properties. One of the most interesting findings is the strong presence of unidirectional creep-ratcheting that occurs during thermal cycling due to temperature dominated strain-rate effects. To corroborate the solder fatigue model predictions, a number of carefully controlled thermal-cycle tests have been conducted using special bimetallic test boards.

  18. Solder creep-fatigue interactions with flexible leaded parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Wen, L. C.; Mon, G. R.; Jetter, E.

    1992-01-01

    With flexible leaded parts, the solder-joint failure process involves a complex interplay of creep and fatigue mechanisms. To better understand the role of creep in typical multi-hour cyclic loading conditions, a specialized non-linear finite-element creep simulation computer program has been formulated. The numerical algorithm includes the complete part-lead-solder-PWB system, accounting for strain-rate dependence of creep on applied stress and temperature, and the role of the part-lead dimensions and flexibility that determine the total creep deflection (solder strain range) during stress relaxation. The computer program has been used to explore the effects of various solder creep-fatigue parameters such as lead height and stiffness, thermal-cycle test profile, and part/board differential thermal expansion properties. One of the most interesting findings is the strong presence of unidirectional creep-ratcheting that occurs during thermal cycling due to temperature dominated strain-rate effects. To corroborate the solder fatigue model predictions, a number of carefully controlled thermal-cycle tests have been conducted using special bimetallic test boards.

  19. Experimental Methods in Reduced-gravity Soldering Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Struk, Peter M.; Watson, John K.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    The National Center for Microgravity Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. An improved understanding of the effects of the acceleration environment is important to application of soldering during current and future human space missions. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole and surface mounted devices are being investigated. This paper focuses on the experimental methodology employed in this project and the results of macroscopic sample examination. The specific soldering process, sample configurations, materials, and equipment were selected to be consistent with those currently on-orbit. Other apparatus was incorporated to meet requirements imposed by operation onboard NASA's KC-135 research aircraft and instrumentation was provided to monitor both the atmospheric and acceleration environments. The contingent of test operators was selected to include both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a population cross-section that would be representative of the skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews.

  20. Solder creep-fatigue interactions with flexible leaded parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Wen, L. C.; Mon, G. R.; Jetter, E.

    1992-01-01

    With flexible leaded parts, the solder-joint failure process involves a complex interplay of creep and fatigue mechanisms. To better understand the role of creep in typical multi-hour cyclic loading conditions, a specialized non-linear finite-element creep simulation computer program has been formulated. The numerical algorithm includes the complete part-lead-solder-PWB system, accounting for strain-rate dependence of creep on applied stress and temperature, and the role of the part-lead dimensions and flexibility that determine the total creep deflection (solder strain range) during stress relaxation. The computer program has been used to explore the effects of various solder creep-fatigue parameters such as lead height and stiffness, thermal-cycle test profile, and part/board differential thermal expansion properties. One of the most interesting findings is the strong presence of unidirectional creep-ratcheting that occurs during thermal cycling due to temperature dominated strain-rate effects. To corroborate the solder fatigue model predictions, a number of carefully controlled thermal-cycle tests have been conducted using special bimetallic test boards.

  1. Thermal model for optimization of vascular laser tissue soldering.

    PubMed

    Bogni, Serge; Stumpp, Oliver; Reinert, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Laser tissue soldering (LTS) is a promising technique for tissue fusion based on a heat-denaturation process of proteins. Thermal damage of the fused tissue during the laser procedure has always been an important and challenging problem. Particularly in LTS of arterial blood vessels strong heating of the endothelium should be avoided to minimize the risk of thrombosis. A precise knowledge of the temperature distribution within the vessel wall during laser irradiation is inevitable. The authors developed a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the temperature distribution within blood vessels during LTS. Temperature measurements were used to verify and calibrate the model. Different parameters such as laser power, solder absorption coefficient, thickness of the solder layer, cooling of the vessel and continuous vs. pulsed energy deposition were tested to elucidate their impact on the temperature distribution within the soldering joint in order to reduce the amount of further animal experiments. A pulsed irradiation with high laser power and high absorbing solder yields the best results. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. METHOD FOR SOLDERING NORMALLY NON-SOLDERABLE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, J.C.

    1959-11-24

    Methods are presented for coating and joining materials which are considered difficult to solder by utilizing an abrasive wheel and applying a bar of a suitable coating material, such as Wood's metal, to the rotating wheel to fill the cavities of the abrasive wheel and load the wheel with the coating material. The surface of the base material is then rubbed against the loaded rotating wheel, thereby coating the surface with the soft coating metal. The coating is a cohesive bonded layer and holds the base metal as tenaciously as a solder holds to easily solderable metals.

  3. Soldering ceramic-metal restorations.

    PubMed

    Presswood, R G

    1975-09-01

    This is a technique for soldering ceramic-metal restorations in a vacuum-fired furnace. Care must be exercised to prevent adherence of the flux to the porcelain surfaces. Low-heat solders have been used, but they do not flow any better and may result in a weak union. The various colors of impression plaster to form the key for removal of the assembly are used to prevent softening and distortion of the individual units. There are several techniques described in assembling and soldering ceramic-metal restorations. This technique is direct, accurate, and easily accomplished.

  4. Requirements for soldered electrical connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is applicable to NASA programs involving solder connections for flight hardware, mission essential support equipment, and elements thereof. This publication sets forth hand and wave soldering requirements for reliable electrical connections. The prime consideration is the physical integrity of solder connections. Special requirements may exist which are not in conformance with the requirements of this publication. Design documentation contains the detail for these requirements, and they take precedence over conflicting portions of this publication when they are approved in writing by the procuring NASA installation.

  5. A method of damage mechanics analysis for solder material

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H.E.; Chow, C.L.; Yang, Fan

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents as a method of damage mechanics analysis for solder joint material stressed to extensive plastic deformation. The material chosen for the current work is the 60Sn-40Pb eutectic alloy due to its wide use. The analysis is based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes. With the introduction of a set of internal state variables, known as damage variables, and a damage effect tensor, a damage dissipative potential function is proposed to enable the formulation of the constitutive equations of elasticity and plasticity coupled with damage. The equations of damage evolution are also derived to monitor damage initiation and growth. Before a damage analysis can be performed with a finite element analysis, the mechanical properties of the chosen solder joint material and its damage variables must first be determined. A method of experimental analysis was developed and used to successfully measure the highly strain sensitive 60Sn-40Pb solder material. The measured properties are presented and various characteristics of the solder material are examined and discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Fabrication of Sn-Ag/CeO2 Electro-Composite Solder by Pulse Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi

    2013-12-01

    The Sn-Ag/CeO2 nanocomposite solders have been pulse electrodeposited from an aqueous citrate bath containing varying concentrations of CeO2 nanopowders (1 to 30 g/L). Microstructural characterization, hardness, melting point, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, and residual stress measurement of the composite coatings indicate that the composite deposited from an electrolyte containing 15 g/L CeO2 possesses the optimum properties and thus can have potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  7. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  8. Welding, brazing, and soldering handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, A. B.; Koehler, M. L.; Metzler, J. W.; Sturges, S. R.

    1969-01-01

    Handbook gives information on the selection and application of welding, brazing, and soldering techniques for joining various metals. Summary descriptions of processes, criteria for process selection, and advantages of different methods are given.

  9. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Sn-Rich (Pb-Free) Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, R. S.; Chawla, N.

    2008-04-01

    The thermal fatigue resistance of Sn-rich solder joints is dependent on the initial microstructure and damage evolution during thermal cycling. In this study, we have investigated the thermal fatigue behavior of single-lap-shear Sn-rich solder/Cu joints under cyclic thermal loading. Microstructure characterization of the initial and damaged solder-joint microstructures was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Persistent slip band formation, followed by crack nucleation and propagation at the tip of the lap-shear geometry, took place. The influence of the Sn grain orientation on the thermal fatigue damage was modeled using the finite-element method (FEM). The grain orientation was determined by orientation image mapping (OIM), and a Schmid factor analysis was performed to determine the active slip systems in the Sn grains. It was found that the geometry of the lap-shear joint, rather than the Sn grain orientation, was more significant in determining the location of crack initiation.

  10. Solder Interconnect Predictor (SIP) Software v. 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL; NEILSEN, MICHAEL; & REJENT, JEROME

    2008-11-19

    This software tool was developed for predicting the fatigue damage in a wide variety of 63Sn-37Pb solder joints used in electronics applications. This tool is based upon the unified creep plasticity damage model CompSIR developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The software can be used as a design tool for predicting the long term reliability of consumer, military and space electronics. Both service as well as accelerated testing environments can be addressed by the user. The mesh generating function provides the user with the greater versatility to explore different package and I/O configurations. For example, different solder joint geometries can be investigated to determine the effects of workmanship quality on reliability. Graphical user interfaces provide the user with easy data input screens as well as results profiles.

  11. Soldered joints—an essential component of demountable high temperature superconducting fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Yeekin; Surrey, Elizabeth; Hampshire, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Demountable superconducting magnet coils would offer significant benefits to commercial nuclear fusion power plants. Whether large pressed joints or large soldered joints provide the solution for demountable fusion magnets, a critical component or building block for both will be the many, smaller-scale joints that enable the supercurrent to leave the superconducting layer, cross the superconducting tape and pass into the solder that lies between the tape and the conductor that eventually provides one of the demountable surfaces. This paper considers the electrical and thermal properties of this essential component part of demountable high temperature superconducting (HTS) joints by considering the fabrication and properties of jointed HTSs consisting of a thin layer of solder (In52Sn48 or Pb38Sn62) sandwiched between two rare-earth-Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO) second generation HTS coated conductors (CCs). The HTS joints are analysed using numerical modelling, critical current and resistivity measurements on the joints from 300 to 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields up to 12 T, as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. Our results show that the copper/silver layers significantly reduce the heating in the joints to less than a few hundred mK. When the REBCO alone is superconducting, the joint resistivity (R J) predominantly has two sources, the solder layer and an interfacial resistivity at the REBCO/silver interface (∼25 nΩ cm2) in the as-supplied CCs which together have a very weak magnetoresistance in fields up to 12 T. We achieved excellent reproducibility in the R J of the In52Sn48 soldered joints of better than 10% at temperatures below T c of the REBCO layer which can be compared to variations of more than two orders of magnitude in the literature. We also show that demountable joints in fusion energy magnets are viable and need only add a few percent to the total cryogenic cost for a fusion tokamak.

  12. 21 CFR 189.240 - Lead solders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Contact Surfaces § 189.240 Lead solders. (a) Lead solders are alloys of metals that include lead and are used in the construction of metal food cans. (b) Food packaged in any container that makes use of...

  13. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  14. Comparative shear tests of some low temperature lead-free solder pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branzei, Mihai; Plotog, Ioan; Varzaru, Gaudentiu; Cucu, Traian C.

    2016-12-01

    The range of electronic components and as a consequence, all parts of automotive electronic equipment operating temperatures in a vehicle is given by the location of that equipment, so the maximum temperature can vary between 358K and 478K1. The solder joints could be defined as passive parts of the interconnection structure of automotive electronic equipment, at a different level, from boards of electronic modules to systems. The manufacturing costs reduction necessity and the RoHS EU Directive3, 7 consequences generate the trend to create new Low-Temperature Lead-Free (LTLF) solder pastes family9. In the paper, the mechanical strength of solder joints and samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type made using the same LTLF alloys into Vapour Phase Soldering (VPS) process characterized by different cooling rates (slow and rapid) and two types of test PCBs pads finish, were benchmarked at room temperature. The presented work extends the theoretical studies and experiments upon heat transfer in VPSP in order to optimize the technology for soldering process (SP) of automotive electronic modules and could be extended for home and modern agriculture appliances industry. The shear forces (SF) values of the LTLF alloy samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type will be considered as references values of a database useful in the new solder alloy creation processes and their qualification for automotive electronics domain.

  15. Microstructural coarsening in Sn-Ag-based solders and its effects on mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, I.; Kumar, P.; Subbarayan, G.

    2009-06-01

    Solders based on Sn-Ag alloys are susceptible to microstructural coarsening during storage or service, resulting in evolution of joint properties, and hence reliability, over time. Coarsening can occur during static aging, and even faster during thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC). The kinetics of coarsening may also depend on the scale of the joint. These effects lead to evolution of the mechanical properties of the joint over time, as well as spatial variations of property within the joint. Therefore, accurate prediction of joint properties during service or storage requires a quantitative understanding of coarsening under both isothermal and TMC conditions, and incorporating these in constitutive laws. This paper discusses the kinetics of coarsening in Sn-Ag based solders, and presents a rationale for joint-scale dependence of coarsening. The impact of coarsening on creep and fracture properties of joints under drop conditions are also presented.

  16. Ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering 6061 aluminum alloys with Sn-Pb-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-ye; Xing, Wen-qing; Ding, Min

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, 6061 aluminum alloys were soldered without a flux by the ultrasonic semi-solid coating soldering at a low temperature. According to the analyses, it could be obtained that the following results. The effect of ultrasound on the coating which promoted processes of metallurgical reaction between the components of the solder and 6061 aluminum alloys due to the thermal effect. Al2Zn3 was obtained near the interface. When the solder was in semi-solid state, the connection was completed. Ultimately, the interlayer mainly composed of three kinds of microstructure zones: α-Pb solid solution phases, β-Sn phases and Sn-Pb eutectic phases. The strength of the joints was improved significantly with the minimum shear strength approaching 101MPa.

  17. The Maximum Fluidity Length of Solidifying Sn-Cu-Ag-Ni Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, C. M.; Read, J.; Nogita, K.; Dahle, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    During wave soldering, it is important that a solder is able to flow easily to fill joints and to drain away to leave tidy fillets. The maximum fluidity length ( L f) is a simple measure of the flow behavior of solidifying alloys, defined as the distance a cooling and solidifying alloy can flow in a constant cross-section before the developing microstructure arrests flow. This paper explores the influence of alloy composition on L f in Sn-rich Sn-Cu-Ag-Ni alloys with compositions relevant to wave soldering. Significant differences in L f are measured among candidate lead-free solder alloys, which are discussed with respect to the phase diagrams and the mode of solidification.

  18. Post-soldering of nonprecious alloys.

    PubMed

    Saxton, P L

    1980-05-01

    A repeatable post-soldering technique for a nonprecious alloy has been described. With proper metal design, nonprecious alloy crowns can be soldered in a standard vacuum porcelain furnace. Scanning electron micrographs and EDXA confirm that a good union has taken place between the gold solder and nickel alloy.

  19. 21 CFR 189.240 - Lead solders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead solders. 189.240 Section 189.240 Food and... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.240 Lead solders. (a) Lead solders are alloys of metals that include lead and are used in the construction of metal food cans. (b) Food packaged in...

  20. 21 CFR 189.240 - Lead solders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead solders. 189.240 Section 189.240 Food and... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.240 Lead solders. (a) Lead solders are alloys of metals that include lead and are used in the construction of metal food cans. (b) Food packaged in...

  1. 21 CFR 189.240 - Lead solders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead solders. 189.240 Section 189.240 Food and... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.240 Lead solders. (a) Lead solders are alloys of metals that include lead and are used in the construction of metal food cans. (b) Food packaged in...

  2. NASA-DoD Lower Process Temperature Lead-Free Solder Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    This project is a follow-on effort to the Joint Council on Aging AircraftJoint Group on Pollution Prevention (JCAAJG-PP) Pb-free Solder Project and NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project which were the first projects to test the reliability of Pb-free solder joints against the requirements of the aerospace and military community. This effort would continue to build on the results from the JCAAJG-PP Lead-Free Solder Project and NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project while focusing on a particular failure mechanism currently plaguing Pb-free assemblies, pad cratering.The NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project confirmed that pad cratering is one of the dominant failure modes that occur in various board level reliability tests, especially under dynamic loading. Pad Cratering is a latent defect that may occur during assembly, rework, and post assembly handling and testing.

  3. Development of the Regimes of Semiautomatic Contact Soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtennikov, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the soldering rod length on the contact soldering temperature has been studied. The results of investigations were taken as a basis for incorporating a high-speed semiautomatic regime of soldering integrated circuits with planar leads to multilayer printed circuit boards. It has been established that to ensure an optimum soldering temperature it is necessary to take account of the temperature of the soldering rod before soldering, its length and diameter, and the soldering time when the rod is short.

  4. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  5. A note on the transition from coupled plasticity and damage to decohesion in the evolution of solder failure

    SciTech Connect

    CHEN,ZHEN; FANG,HUEI ELIOT

    2000-04-25

    A key issue of solder joint reliability is joint failure due to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). TMF is caused by different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of the materials in an electronic package, combined with changes in the ambient temperature. Different CTEs result in cyclical strain in the assembly, and this strain is concentrated almost entirely in the solder because it is the most deformable portion of the package. Since solder alloy is at a significant fraction of its melting point even at room temperature, the cyclical strain enhances mass diffusion and causes dramatic changes in the alloy microstructure over time. As the microstructure changes and becomes coarser, the solder alloy weakens and eventually microcracks nucleate and grow in the joint, leading to component failure. the failure of solder joints is difficult to detect due to the inert nature of the electrical system. If the system is not on for extended periods then failures can not be observed. Therefore it is important to develop an advanced predictive capability which allows scientists and engineers to predict solder degradation and identify reliability problems in aging electronics early.

  6. The evaluation of solder paste characteristics using AC impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirthe, Richard Walter

    One of the more critical aspects of engineering is often understanding the variety of complex materials that are employed in industry today. This encompasses knowledge of both the physical nature of materials, and how differences in composition and processing affect the properties and performance of the material (or combination of materials) to be utilized. The monitoring of solder paste characteristics during surface mount circuit assembly procedures is ultimately concerned with obtaining a high yield of reliable solder joints. The process control of solder paste systems under manufacturing conditions is, at present, not derived from on-line measurements of the paste. Because these tests are not performed in-process, they cannot detect critical changes in paste behavior caused by varying process conditions, environmental factors, or the loss of rheological characteristics induced by prolonged stress on a screen printer. AC impedance techniques can be a valuable tool in characterizing the properties of materials that possess measurable dielectric behavior. Recent advances in impedance measurement instrumentation (and the evolution of the personal computer) have yielded improved data acquisition and analysis capabilities. This has precipitated efforts to utilize this methodology for the study of more complex materials systems (such as solder paste). The primary focus of this investigation is the implementation of AC impedance techniques as a means of characterizing the behavior of a broad range of solder paste formulations. In the course of this work, it has been determined that it is possible to represent both the dielectric and the electro-chemical nature of these materials in the form of an electrical equivalent circuit model. This modeling yields significant detail concerning the microscopic attributes of these materials, unobtainable from other forms of study. As a process control tool in the manufacturing realm, the use of AC impedance techniques to monitor

  7. Effect of processing parameters and thermal cycling on the microstructure and strength of eutectic tin-silver solder on Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Srinivas

    Detailed studies to characterize the microstructural development and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints were carried out on samples reflow soldered on copper under various processing conditions. Some samples were reflow soldered at 30sp°C above the melting point and then solidified at different cooling rates. Analysis of these samples showed that increasing the cooling rate increased the volume fraction of primary Sn-dendrites, decreased the amount of eta(Cusb6Snsb5) intermetallics in the bulk solder, and resulted in finer microstructures with higher hardnesses. Subsequent isothermal annealing of some of these reflow soldered joints at 125sp°C resulted in an initially fairly rapid decrease in hardness to a given level for each cooling rate studied. However, the cooling rate had little or no effect on the shear strength of the solder joints. Studies of the effect of Cu substrate dissolution on the microstructure of solder joints were carried out using samples reflow soldered isothermally at various temperatures and times. Analysis of some of these samples showed that the Cu concentration, the volume fraction of primary Sn-dendrites and eta(Cusb6Snsb5) intermetallics in the solder increased with reflow temperature and time as a result of Cu dissolution. The isothermal growth kinetics were analyzed using the Nernst-Brunner equation and a numerical method based on it was proposed to predict the amount of Cu dissolution into molten solder for non-isothermal reflow conditions. Isothermal growth of the intermetallic layer between the solder and Cu substrate was investigated, and it was found that layer thickening with time could be described by a power law. A numerical method to predict the layer thickness for non-isothermal reflow was developed which utilized the experimental power law thickening and Nernst-Brunner dissolution kinetic parameters. The method also took into account the additional increase in layer thickness caused by precipitation of

  8. Microstructure of lead-free solder bumps using laser reflow soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Noriya; Kubota, Shinya

    2014-08-01

    Compared with conventional reflow soldering using a furnace, laser reflow soldering brings advantages such as localized heating, rapid rise and fall in temperature, non-contact soldering and the fact that it is an easily automated process. In this study, to elucidate the characteristics of laser reflow soldering, we investigated the microstructures of a Sn-Ag-Cu solder bump and a Sn-Bi solder bump on a Cu pad after reflow and aging. In the as-soldered condition, we found obvious microstructural refinement and a thin intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the interface for both the Sn-Ag-Cu solder bump and the Sn-Bi solder bump using laser reflow soldering. Also, during isothermal aging, the total thickness of the IMC layer increased, and a distinct second layer was observed at the interface between the Cu pad and the first layer, regardless of the soldering method. In particular, the growth of the IMC layer was faster in the case of the laser reflow soldering than in the case of the conventional reflow soldering.

  9. Numerical investigations on the effects of different cooling periods in reflow-soldering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, C.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, C. Y.

    2015-10-01

    Cooling periods in the reflow soldering process significantly influence heat transfer coefficient and temperature distribution on solder joints, which constituently contribute to soldering defects. The domain of a desktop lead-free reflow oven was built based on the actual dimensions of a sample in GAMBIT 2.3.16. The model was exported to FLUENT 6.3.26 for further parametric study. After grid independency test, simulation results were validated by experimental data according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers standard for computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Next, a simulation model was used to analyze the correlation between temperatures, heat transfer coefficient, and heat flux against reflow cooling durations. Results revealed that a very high radiation heat flux (122.760 W/m2) in a short cooling duration result in unmelted solder powders, which contribute to poor wetting. However, the reduced heat flux of 9.262 W/m2 affects the mechanical properties of solder balls with its continued cooling. Temperature variation and heat transfer coefficient on different points of the substrate are attributed to the non-uniform airflow distribution during the cooling stage. To sum up, the numerical investigation correlates temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and heat flux distribution on different reflow cooling periods to determine their effect on soldering quality.

  10. A statistical mechanics model to predict electromigration induced damage and void growth in solder interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuexing; Yao, Yao; Keer, Leon M.

    2017-02-01

    Electromigration is an irreversible mass diffusion process with damage accumulation in microelectronic materials and components under high current density. Based on experimental observations, cotton type voids dominate the electromigration damage accumulation prior to cracking in the solder interconnect. To clarify the damage evolution process corresponding to cotton type void growth, a statistical model is proposed to predict the stochastic characteristic of void growth under high current density. An analytical solution of the cotton type void volume growth over time is obtained. The synchronous electromigration induced damage accumulation is predicted by combining the statistical void growth and the entropy increment. The electromigration induced damage evolution in solder joints is developed and applied to verify the tensile strength deterioration of solder joints due to electromigration. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.

  11. The Reliability of Adhesive Joints Under Piezomechanical Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-04

    actuation was established. Experiments were conducted on Lead Zirconium Titanate ( PZT ) substrates bonded by Lead-Tin eutectic solders. Some experiments were...piezo-mechanical joint consists of a three layer, double lap joint piezo-stack using lead-zirconate-titanate ( PZT ) 5H and solder alloy, as shown in...eliminating bending of the piezo- stack. "+VDC D C PZT +VA C/-VA C Solder -VD PZT 25.4 pm (1 mil) Solder , 190.5 pm (7.5 mils) -VA c/+VA c PZT 4 6.35 mm (0.25

  12. NTF: Soldering Technology Development for Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) brought about a new application for an old joining method, soldering. Soldering for use at cryogenic temperatures requires that solders remain ductile and free from tin-pest (grey tin), have toughness to withstand aerodynamic loads associated with flight research, and maintain their surface finishes. Solders are used to attach 347 Stainless-Steel tubing in surface grooves of models. The solder must fill up the gap and metallurgically bound to the tubing and model. Cryogenic temperatures require that only specific materials for models can be used, including: Vasco Max 200 CVM, lescalloy A-286 Vac Arc, pH 13-8 Mo. Solders identified for testing at this time are: 50% Sn - 49.5% Pb - 0.5% Sb, 95% Sn - 5% Sb, 50% In 50% Pb, and 37.5% Sn - 37.5% Pb - 25% In. With these materials and solders, it is necessary to determine their solderability. After solderability is determined, tube/groove specimens are fabricated and stressed under cryogenic temperatures. Compatible solders are then used for acutual models.

  13. Accumulative small-droplet laser soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric K.; Welch, Ashley J.; Shay, Elaine L.; Springer, Thomas; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Motamedi, Massoud

    1998-07-01

    We conducted in vitro laser fusion experiments of bovine aorta using successive accumulation of solder droplets. The solder was composed of serum albumin, sodium hyaluronate and Indocyanine Green dye. After depositing 0.2 (mu) L of the solder onto an aorta incision with a micro-pipette, we used a diode laser at 808 nm with fixed energy parameters to coagulate the solder droplet. A solder strip was formed from 10 droplets photocoagulated to increase the solder-tissue contact area and coagulum volume. Repair of aorta incision was achieved with both a single solder strip and double solder strips. For half of the welded specimens, tensile measurement was performed immediately following solder experiments. Tensile strength was measured in the rest of the specimens after soaking in saline for 24 hours. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on selected specimens. The average ultimate tensile strengths for the single strip group were 261 N/cm2 for acute, and 81 N/cm2 after 1 day of saline immersion. The average ultimate tensile strengths for the double strip group were 253 N/cm2 for acute, and 77 N/cm2 after soaking is saline for 1 day. We also measured native aorta ultimate tensile strength, which was 76 N/cm2. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using micro droplets of solder to increase tensile strength.

  14. [Studies on silver soldering of super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy wire to Co-Cr alloy wire].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, K

    1994-12-01

    In order to attain joining the super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy wire to the Co-Cr alloy wire and be able to maintain the super-elasticity of the Ti-Ni alloy wire, a new soldering method was devised. The silver solder was first molten on the 0.016 x 0.022 inch Co-Cr alloy wire (Co-Cr) and then flowed onto the 0.016 x 0.022 inch super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy wire (Ti-Ni) to form soldering. The specimens of soldered Ti-Ni to Co-Cr butt joint, TN-CC, were examined for its super-elasticity, torsional strength, tensile strength and the metallographic structure of the soldered joint. The findings were as follows: 1. TN-CC still maintained its super-elasticity. 2. The torsional strength of TN-CC was equal to that of Ti-Ni. The tensile strength of TN-CC was 73% of that of Ti-Ni. 3. The tensile strength of TN-CC immersed in 1%NaCl solution at 37 degrees C for 30 days was considered to be still strong enough for clinical use. 4. During the tensile strength test, the breakage of TN-CC occurred at the area of merger of the solder and Ti-Ni. As the reason for this breakage, it suggested that Ti-Ni was stretched and narrowed at the soldered area and that the Sn-rich phase in the solder was induced along Ti-Ni. 5. This new soldering method was shown to be useful in clinical cases, and the fabrication of new orthodontic appliance using two distinct types of wire, one to independently move teeth and the other to be the anchorage, has already been developed.

  15. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-12-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  16. Characterization of deformation in tin-silver lead-free solders during thermomechanical fatigue using orientation imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telang, Adwait U.

    Eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints with copper substrate with different joint geometries were subjected to isothermal aging, creep at room and elevated temperature, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) studies reveal how the crystallographic orientations are correlated with microstructural features in the solder joints. Certain misorientations appear to be energetically favored during solidification, which have twin and Sigma boundary type relationships. Changes in the crystallographic orientations, grain size and misorientation angles between grains, occurring due to subsequent heating and/or deformation were documented and analyzed. This study shows that the lead-free solder joints are multi-crystals, so that deformation is very heterogeneous and sensitive to crystal orientation, strain and the temperature history. High temperature processes caused polygonization of dislocations into low angle grain boundaries that slid. Special boundaries also show sliding, which adds to the deformation. Mechanisms that cause grain boundary sliding and pop-up are presented and discussed.

  17. Reactions of Sn-3.5Ag-Based Solders Containing Zn and Al Additions on Cu and Ni(P) Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Mokhtari, O.; Bottrill, M.; Clode, M. P.; Green, M. A.; Mannan, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we consider the effect of separately adding 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% Zn or 0.5 wt.% to 2 wt.% Al to the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder alloy to limit intermetallic compound (IMC) growth between a limited volume of solder and the contact metallization. The resultant solder joint microstructure after reflow and high-temperature storage at 150°C for up to 1000 h was investigated. Experimental results confirmed that the addition of 1.0 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% Zn leads to the formation of Cu-Zn on the Cu substrate, followed by massive spalling of the Cu-Zn IMC from the Cu substrate. Growth of the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is significantly suppressed. The addition of 0.5 wt.% Zn does not result in the formation of a Cu-Zn layer. On Ni substrates, the Zn segregates to the Ni3Sn4 IMC layer and suppresses its growth. The addition of Al to Sn-3.5Ag solder results in the formation of Al-Cu IMC particles in the solder matrix when reflowed on the Cu substrate, while on Ni substrates Al-Ni IMCs spall into the solder matrix. The formation of a continuous barrier layer in the presence of Al and Zn, as reported when using solder baths, is not observed because of the limited solder volumes used, which are more typical of reflow soldering.

  18. Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length for three-dimensional integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. T.; Hsu, H. H.; Wu, Albert T.

    2014-01-21

    Because of the miniaturization of electronic devices, the reliability of electromigration has become a major concern when shrinking the solder dimensions in flip-chip joints. Fast reaction between solders and electrodes causes intermetallic compounds (IMCs) to form, which grow rapidly and occupy entire joints when solder volumes decrease. In this study, U-grooves were fabricated on Si chips as test vehicles. An electrode-solder-electrode sandwich structure was fabricated by using lithography and electroplating. Gaps exhibiting well-defined dimensions were filled with Sn3.5Ag solders. The gaps between the copper electrodes in the test sample were limited to less than 15 μm to simulate microbumps. The samples were stressed at various current densities at 100 °C, 125 °C, and 150 °C. The morphological changes of the IMCs were observed, and the dimensions of the IMCs were measured to determine the kinetic growth of IMCs. Therefore, this study focused on the influence of back stress caused by microstructural evolution in microbumps.

  19. 21 CFR 189.240 - Lead solders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lead solders. 189.240 Section 189.240 Food and... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.240 Lead solders. (a) Lead solders are alloys of metals that include lead and are used in the construction of metal food cans. (b) Food packaged in any...

  20. Tin soldering of aluminum and its alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Gino

    1921-01-01

    A method is presented for soldering aluminum to other metals. The method adopted consists of a galvanic application to the surface of the light-metal parts to be soldered, of a layer of another metal, which, without reacting electrolytically on the aluminum, adheres strongly to the surface to which it is applied, and is, on the other hand, adapted to receive the soft solder. The metal found to meet the criteria best was iron.

  1. Circuit reliability boosted by soldering pins of disconnect plugs to sockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    Where disconnect pins must be used for wiring and testing a circuit, improved system reliability is obtained by making a permanent joint between pins and sockets of the disconnect plug. After the circuit has been tested, contact points may be fused through soldering, brazing, or welding.

  2. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  3. Development of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Solders for Electronic Assembly by Micro-Alloying with Al

    SciTech Connect

    Boesenberg, Adam; Anderson, Iver; Harringa, Joel

    2012-03-10

    Of Pb-free solder choices, an array of solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic (T eut = 217°C) composition have emerged with potential for broad use, including ball grid array (BGA) joints that cool slowly. This work investigated minor substitutional additions of Al (<0.25 wt.%) to Sn-3.5Ag-0.95Cu (SAC3595) solders to promote more consistent solder joint microstructures and to avoid deleterious product phases, e.g., Ag3Sn “blades,” for BGA cooling rates, since such Al additions to SAC had already demonstrated excellent thermal aging stability. Consistent with past work, blade formation was suppressed for increased Al content (>0.05Al), but the suppression effect faded for >0.20Al. Undercooling suppression did not correlate specifically with blade suppression since it became significant at 0.10Al and increased continuously with greater Al to 0.25Al. Surprisingly, an intermediate range of Al content (0.10 wt.% to 0.20 wt.% Al) promoted formation of significant populations of 2-μm to 5-μm faceted Cu-Al particles, identified as Cu33Al17, that clustered at the top of the solder joint matrix and exhibited extraordinary hardness. Clustering of Cu33Al17 was attributed to its buoyancy, from a lower density than Sn liquid, and its early position in the nucleation sequence within the solder matrix, permitting unrestricted migration to the top interface. Joint microstructures and implications for the full nucleation sequence for these SAC + Al solder joints are discussed, along with possible benefits from the clustered particles for improved thermal cycling resistance.

  4. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  5. On the temperature dependent current transport mechanisms and barrier inhomogeneity in Au/SnO2-PVA/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilkan, Ç.; Badali, Y.; Fotouhi-Shablou, S.; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y.; Altındal, Ş.

    2017-08-01

    value (112 A/cm2 K2) of n-type Si. Thus, the forward-bias I- V- T characteristics of Au/SnO2-PVA/n-Si (SBDs) were successfully explained in terms of the thermionic-emission (TE) mechanism with a double GD of BHs.

  6. Effects of hydration on laser soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric K.; Brown, Dennis T.; Kovach, Ian S.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-05-01

    Laser welding with albumin-based tissue solder has been investigated as an alternative to surgical suturing. Many surgical procedures require the soldered tissues to be in a hydrated environment. We have studied the effects of hydration on laser soldered rat dermis and baboon articular cartilage in vitro. The solder is composed of human serum albumin, sodium hyaluronate and indocyanine green. We used a micro-pipette to deposit 2 (mu) l of solder on each tissue specimen. An 808 nm cw laser beam with irradiance of 27 W/cm2 was scanned 4 times over the same solder area at a constant speed of 0.84 mm/sec. After photo-coagulation, each tissue specimen was cut into two halves at the center of the solder, perpendicular to the direction of the scanning laser beam. One half was reserved as control while the other half was soaked in phosphate buffered saline for a designated hydration period. The hydration periods were 1 hr, 1, 2, and 7 days. All tissue specimens were fixed in glutaraldahyde, then prepared for scanning electron microcopy analysis. For most of the specimens, there was non-uniform coagulation across the thickness of the solder. Closer to the laser beam, the upper solder region formed a more dense coagulum. While the region closer to solder-tissue interface, the solder aggregated into small globules. This non-uniform coagulation was likely caused by non-uniform energy distribution during photocoagulation. The protein globules and coagulum seem to be responsible for the solder attachment from the specimen surface. However, we have noted that the solder detached from the cartilage substrate as early as after 1 hr of hydration. On the other hand, the solder attached to the dermis much better than to cartilage. This may be explained by the difference in surface roughness of the two tissue types. The dermal layer of the skin is composed of collagen matrix which may provide a better entrapment of the solder than the smooth surface of articular cartilage.

  7. Low temperature solder process to join a copper tube to a silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, Christo; Scarpim de Souza, Marcio

    2014-06-01

    With the application for wafer level packages, which could be Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) based, and which requires a reduced atmosphere, a copper tube connection to a vacuum pump and the package is proposed. The method evaluated uses laser assisted brazing of a solder, to join the copper tube to a silicon wafer. The method was applied to a silicon wafer coated with a metallic interface to bond to the solder. The hermeticity of the joint was tested with a helium leak rate tester and the bonding energy thermal extent was verified with a thin layer of indium that melted wherever the substrate temperature rose above its melting temperature.

  8. In Situ Electromigration in Cu-Sn and Ni-Sn Critical Solder Length for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. T.; Chen, C. H.; Lee, B. H.; Chen, H. C.; Wang, C. M.; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-12-01

    An in situ electromigration study has been conducted on U-groove Cu/Sn-3.5Ag/Cu and Ni/Sn-3.5Ag/Ni sandwich structures; the results were used to simulate microsolder joints passing current density of 1 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The solder gap was only 15 μm, shorter than the critical length of Sn-3.5Ag solder. Backstress was proved to exist at critical solder lengths and to influence the electromigration mechanism. Theoretical calculations of the diffusivity of Cu and Ni in Sn solder indicated that the degree to which the dominant diffusion species (Cu or Ni atoms) diffused through the solder line is retarded by the backstress effect. The morphologies of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were observed, and the grain boundaries in Sn solder were measured using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the kinetics of intermetallic growth. The results reveal that the unique electromigration characteristics of microbump joints, including the diffusivity, morphology, and backstress, can be determined. The retardation of atomic migration improves the reliability against electromigration.

  9. Finite Element-Assisted Assessment of the Thermo-cyclic Characteristics of Leads Soldered with SnAgCu(+Bi,In) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Nakanishi, Kohei; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Minagawa, Madoka; Okamoto, Masahide; Hirose, Akio

    2017-03-01

    Solder joints between leads and printed circuit boards in thin small outline packages were produced with conventional Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC107) and Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC305) solders as well as various solder alloys with gradually increasing amounts of Bi (up to 3.0 wt.%) and In (up to 1.0 wt.%) within the SAC107 base solder. The reliability of soldered leads in temperature cycle (TC) tests improved most with solder alloys containing both Bi (1.6 wt.%) and In (0.5 wt.%). Microindentation and electron probe microanalysis mappings revealed that the effect originates from a combination of solution and precipitation strengthening of the initial SAC alloy. The distribution of inelastic strain accumulation (ISA), as a measure for degradation, was determined in the solder joints by finite element calculations. It was shown that defects in the solder proximal to the lead (<60-75 μm) strongly impact the reliability and provoke crack initiation around the defect where the highest ISA is located. In particular, similar TC performance can be expected for defect-free joints and for those whose defects exceed the threshold distance from the lead (>60-75 μm), which was underpinned by similar cracking characteristics along the lead-solder interface. The ISA was confirmed to be lower in SAC+Bi/In alloys owing to their enhanced elasto-plastic properties. Moreover, the addition of a thin Cu coating on the leads could improve the joint reliability, as suggested by the calculation of the ISA and the acceleration factor.

  10. Finite Element-Assisted Assessment of the Thermo-cyclic Characteristics of Leads Soldered with SnAgCu(+Bi,In) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Nakanishi, Kohei; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Minagawa, Madoka; Okamoto, Masahide; Hirose, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Solder joints between leads and printed circuit boards in thin small outline packages were produced with conventional Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC107) and Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC305) solders as well as various solder alloys with gradually increasing amounts of Bi (up to 3.0 wt.%) and In (up to 1.0 wt.%) within the SAC107 base solder. The reliability of soldered leads in temperature cycle (TC) tests improved most with solder alloys containing both Bi (1.6 wt.%) and In (0.5 wt.%). Microindentation and electron probe microanalysis mappings revealed that the effect originates from a combination of solution and precipitation strengthening of the initial SAC alloy. The distribution of inelastic strain accumulation (ISA), as a measure for degradation, was determined in the solder joints by finite element calculations. It was shown that defects in the solder proximal to the lead (<60-75 μm) strongly impact the reliability and provoke crack initiation around the defect where the highest ISA is located. In particular, similar TC performance can be expected for defect-free joints and for those whose defects exceed the threshold distance from the lead (>60-75 μm), which was underpinned by similar cracking characteristics along the lead-solder interface. The ISA was confirmed to be lower in SAC+Bi/In alloys owing to their enhanced elasto-plastic properties. Moreover, the addition of a thin Cu coating on the leads could improve the joint reliability, as suggested by the calculation of the ISA and the acceleration factor.

  11. Wetting Behavior in Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Brazing of Aluminum to Graphite Using Sn-Ag-Ti Active Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Sen-Hui; Liu, Xin-Ya; Shao, Jia-Lin; Liu, Min-Pen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, Sn-Ag-Ti ternary alloy has been used as the active solder to braze pure aluminum and graphite in atmospheric conditions using ultrasonic vibration as an aid. The authors studied the formation, composition and decomposition temperature of the surface oxides of the active solder under atmospheric conditions. In addition, the wettability of Sn-5Ag-8Ti active solder on the surface of pure aluminum and graphite has also been studied. The results showed that the major components presented in the surface oxides formed on the Sn-5Ag-8Ti active solder under ambient conditions are TiO, TiO2, Ti2O3, Ti3O5 and SnO2. Apart from AgO and Ag2O2, which can be decomposed at the brazing temperature (773 K), other oxides will not be decomposed. The oxide layer comprises composite oxides and it forms a compact layer with a certain thickness to enclose the melted solder, which will prevent the liquid solder from wetting the base metals at the brazing temperature. After ultrasonic vibration, the oxide layer was destroyed and the liquid solder was able to wet and spread out around the base materials. Furthermore, better wettability of the active solder was observed on the surface of graphite and pure aluminum at the brazing temperature of 773-823 K using ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic wave acts as the dominant driving factor which promotes the wetting and spreading of the liquid solder on the surface of graphite and aluminum to achieve a stable and reliable brazed joint.

  12. Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

  13. Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

  14. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOEpatents

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  15. Soldering iron temperature is automatically reduced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, J. Y.

    1966-01-01

    Hinged cradle-microswitch arrangement maintains a soldering iron at less than peak temperature when not in use. The microswitch introduces a voltage reducing element into the soldering iron power circuit when the iron is placed on the cradle. The iron, when removed from the cradle, returns to operating temperature in 15 to 30 seconds.

  16. Microcantilever Fracture Testing of Intermetallic Cu3Sn in Lead-Free Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, Bastian; Matoy, Kurt; Zechner, Johannes; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Driven by legislation and the abolishment of harmful and hazardous lead-containing solders, lead-free replacement materials are in continuous development. Assessment of the mechanical properties of intermetallic phases such as Cu3Sn that evolve at the interface between solder and copper metalization is crucial to predict performance and meet the high reliability demands in typical application fields of microelectronics. While representative material parameters and fracture properties are required to assess mechanical behavior, indentation-based testing produces different results depending on the sample type. In this work, focused ion beam machined cantilevers were used to unravel the impact of microstructure on the fracture behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder joints. Fracture testing on notched cantilevers showed brittle fracture for Cu3Sn. Unnotched samples allowed measurement of the fracture stress, to estimate the critical defect size in unnotched Cu3Sn microcantilevers.

  17. Microcantilever Fracture Testing of Intermetallic Cu3Sn in Lead-Free Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, Bastian; Matoy, Kurt; Zechner, Johannes; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    Driven by legislation and the abolishment of harmful and hazardous lead-containing solders, lead-free replacement materials are in continuous development. Assessment of the mechanical properties of intermetallic phases such as Cu3Sn that evolve at the interface between solder and copper metalization is crucial to predict performance and meet the high reliability demands in typical application fields of microelectronics. While representative material parameters and fracture properties are required to assess mechanical behavior, indentation-based testing produces different results depending on the sample type. In this work, focused ion beam machined cantilevers were used to unravel the impact of microstructure on the fracture behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder joints. Fracture testing on notched cantilevers showed brittle fracture for Cu3Sn. Unnotched samples allowed measurement of the fracture stress, to estimate the critical defect size in unnotched Cu3Sn microcantilevers.

  18. Investigation of Low-temperature Solders for Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of high Reynolds number cryogenic wind tunnels has forced alteration of manufacturing and assembly techniques and eliminated usage of many materials associated with conventional wind tunnel models. One of the techniques affected is soldering. Solder alloys commonly used for wind tunnel models are susceptible to low-temperature embrittlement and phase transformation. The low-temperature performance of several solder alloys is being examined during research and development activities being conducted in support of design and fabrication of cryogenic wind tunnel models. Among the properties examined during these tests are shear strength, surface quality, joint stability, and durability when subjected to dynamic loading. Results of these tests and experiences with recent models are summarized.

  19. Microstructural characterization and mechanical property of active soldering anodized 6061 Al alloy using Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Lin Tsai, Yi-Chia

    2012-06-15

    Active solders Sn-3.5Ag-xTi varied from x = 0 to 6 wt.% Ti addition were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting and the resultant phase formation and variation of microstructure with titanium concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders are used as metallic filler to join with anodized 6061 Al alloy for potential applications of providing a higher heat conduction path. Their joints and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated in terms of titanium content. The mechanical property of joints was measured by shear testing. The joint strength was very dependent on the titanium content. Solder with a 0.5 wt.% Ti addition can successfully wet and bond to the anodized aluminum oxide layers of Al alloy and posses a shear strength of 16.28 {+-} 0.64 MPa. The maximum bonding strength reached 22.24 {+-} 0.70 MPa at a 3 wt.% Ti addition. Interfacial reaction phase and chemical composition were identified by a transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the Ti element reacts with anodized aluminum oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti phases at the joint interfaces. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active solder joining of anodized Al alloy needs 0.5 wt.% Ti addition for Sn-3.5Ag. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum bonding strength occurs at 3 wt.% Ti addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti reacts with anodized Al oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti at joint interface.

  20. Interfacial Reaction and Die Attach Properties of Zn-Sn High-Temperature Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Keun-Soo; Kim, Sun-Sik; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2009-02-01

    Interfacial reaction and die attach properties of Zn- xSn ( x = 20 wt.%, 30 wt.%, and 40 wt.%) solders on an aluminum nitride-direct bonded copper substrate were investigated. At the interface with Si die coated with Au/TiN thin layers, the TiN layer did not react with the solder and worked as a good protective layer. At the interface with Cu, CuZn5, and Cu5Zn8 IMC layers were formed, the thicknesses of which can be controlled by joining conditions such as peak temperature and holding time. During multiple reflow treatments at 260°C, the die attach structure was quite stable. The shear strength of the Cu/solder/Cu joint with Zn-Sn solder was about 30 MPa to 34 MPa, which was higher than that of Pb-5Sn solder (26 MPa). The thermal conductivity of Zn-Sn alloys of 100 W/m K to 106 W/m K was sufficiently high and superior to those of Au-20Sn (59 W/m K) and Pb-5Sn (35 W/m K).

  1. An Evaluation Method for Tensile Characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs Using Miniature Composite Solder Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohguchi, Ken-ichi; Kurosawa, Kengo

    2016-06-01

    In design of electronic packages, finite-element method (FEM) analysis for evaluating the strength and reliability of solder joints should be conducted with consideration of the presence of Cu/Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) generated at the interface between solder and copper wiring. To conduct such analysis accurately, the deformation characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs must be clarified by conducting tensile tests. This paper describes a method to evaluate tensile characteristics of Cu/Sn IMCs. The method employs a composite specimen with first outer layer of Cu, second layer of Cu/Sn IMCs, and core of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder. The specimen is made by a method in which a copper-plated solder specimen is heat treated at 453 K to generate Cu/Sn IMCs between the solder and copper. Tensile tests were conducted using the composite specimen. After the tests, the fracture appearance and characteristics of the stress-strain relations of the specimens were investigated. Based on the results, a numerical method based on the rule of mixtures (ROM) is proposed to estimate the stress-strain relation of Cu/Sn IMCs under tensile loading.

  2. Intermetallic phase detection in lead-free solders using synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gavin J.; Lu, Hua; Durairaj, Raj; Hoo, Nick; Bailey, Chris; Ekere, Ndy N.; Wright, Jon

    2004-12-01

    The high-intensity, high-resolution x-ray source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) has been used in x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments to detect intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in lead-free solder bumps. The IMCs found in 95.5Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder bumps on Cu pads with electroplated-nickel immersion-gold (ENIG) surface finish are consistent with results based on traditional destructive methods. Moreover, after positive identification of the IMCs from the diffraction data, spatial distribution plots over the entire bump were obtained. These spatial distributions for selected intermetallic phases display the layer thickness and confirm the locations of the IMCs. For isothermally aged solder samples, results have shown that much thicker layers of IMCs have grown from the pad interface into the bulk of the solder. Additionally, the XRD technique has also been used in a temperature-resolved mode to observe the formation of IMCs, in situ, during the solidification of the solder joint. The results demonstrate that the XRD technique is very attractive as it allows for nondestructive investigations to be performed on expensive state-of-the-art electronic components, thereby allowing new, lead-free materials to be fully characterized.

  3. Analysis of lead free tin-silver-copper and tin-lead solder wetting reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anson, Scott J.

    Lead free electronics soldering is driven by a combination of health and environmental concerns, international legislation and marketing pressure by lead free electronics manufacturing competitors. Since July 1, 2006, companies that do not comply with the European Union legislation are not able to sell circuit assemblies with lead solder in the European Union. China has developed its own regulations, based on the European Union documents with a compliance date of March 1, 2007. Extensive testing by the electronics community has determined that the Sn - Ag - Cu (SAC) family of alloys is the preferred choice for lead free Surface Mount Technology (SMT) soldering. The 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu alloy was used in this study. Lead free soldering requires an increase in reflow peak temperatures which further aggravates component moisture sensitivity risks and thereby decreases assembly yield. Prior research has revealed an enhanced solder spreading phenomena at lower peak temperature and shorter time above liquidus with 63Sn/37Pb solder. This current research investigated solder wetting reactions in 63Sn/37Pb and 96.5Sn/3.0Ag/0.5Cu (SAC305) using materials and manufacturing systems that are industry relevant. The objective was to advance the knowledge base of metal wetting while developing a reflow assembly process that minimized the component defect rates. The components are damaged during reflow by popcorn delamination, which is the result of moisture absorption and subsequent rapid evaporation. A classical Design Of Experiments (DOE) approach was used, with wetted area as the response variable. Outside of the DOE, substrate dissolution depth, and substrate surface new phase formation (reaction product) distance from the triple line (solder wetting front) and reaction product thickness in the solder joint (under the solder) were also analyzed. The samples were analyzed for correlation of reflow peak temperature, reflow Time Above Liquidus (TAL), wetted area, reaction product

  4. Effect of rare earth metal Ce addition to Sn-Ag solder on interfacial reactions with Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong-Won; Noh, Bo-In; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2014-05-01

    The effect of adding a small amount of rare earth cerium (Ce) element to low Ag containing Sn-1wt%Ag Pb-free solder on its interfacial reactions with Cu substrate was investigated. The growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between three Sn-1Ag-xCe solders with different Ce contents and a Cu substrate was studied and the results were compared to those obtained for the Ce-free Sn-1Ag/Cu systems. In the solid-state reactions of the Sn-1Ag(-xCe)/Cu solder joints, the two IMC layers, Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn, grew as aging time increased. Compared to the Sn-1Ag/Cu joint, the growth of the Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn layers was depressed for the Ce-containing Sn-1Ag-xCe/Cu joint. The addition of Ce to the Sn-Ag solder reduced the growth of the interfacial Cu-Sn IMCs and prevented the IMCs from spalling from the interface. The evenly-distributed Ce elements in the solder region blocked the diffusion of Sn atoms to the interface and retarded the growth of the interfacial IMC layer.

  5. Impact of 5% NaCl Salt Spray Pretreatment on the Long-Term Reliability of Wafer-Level Packages with Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of Pb-free solder joint reliability to various environmental conditions, such as corrosive gases, low temperatures, and high-humidity environments, is a critical topic in the deployment of Pb-free products in various markets and applications. The work reported herein concerns the impact of a marine environment on Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects. Both Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy wafer-level packages, with and without pretreatment by 5% NaCl salt spray, were thermally cycled to failure. The salt spray test did not reduce the characteristic lifetime of the Sn-Pb solder joints, but it did reduce the lifetime of the Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints by over 43%. Although both materials showed strong resistance to corrosion, the localized nature of the corroded area at critical locations in the solder joint caused significant degradation in the Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints. The mechanisms leading to these results as well as the extent, microstructural evolution, and dependency of the solder alloy degradation are discussed.

  6. Void Evolution in Sub-100-Micron Sn-Ag Solder Bumps during Multi-reflow and Aging and its Effects on Bonding Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Luo, Le

    2008-03-01

    The evolution of voids in the interfacial region of electroplated Sn-3.0Ag solder bumps on electroplated Cu and its effects on bonding reliability were studied. Results show that volume shrinkage resulted in void formation during multi-reflow, while the Kirkendall effect led to void formation during aging. A thick η-phase and voids at the boundaries among Cu6Sn5 grains promoted the void growth in the ɛ-phase. Though the formation of voids had a trivial weakening effect on the shear strength of the solder joints, the voids were a threat to the bonding reliability of solder bumps.

  7. Optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chan, Eric K.; Welch, Ashley J.; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1998-07-01

    Variations in laser irradiance, exposure time, solder composition, chromophore type and concentration have led to inconsistencies in published results of laser-solder repair of tissue. To determine optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering, an in vitro study was performed using an 808-nm diode laser in conjunction with an indocyanine green (ICG)- doped albumin protein solder to weld bovine aorta specimens. Liquid and solid protein solders prepared from 25% and 60% bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, were compared. The effects of laser irradiance and exposure time on tensile strength of the weld and temperature rise as well as the effect of hydration on bond stability were investigated. Optimum irradiance and exposure times were identified for each solder type. Increasing the BSA concentration from 25% to 60% greatly increased the tensile strength of the weld. A reduction in dye concentration from 2.5 mg/ml to 0.25 mg/ml was also found to result in an increase in tensile strength. The strongest welds were produced with an irradiance of 6.4 W/cm2 for 50 s using a solid protein solder composed of 60% BSA and 0.25 mg/ml ICG. Steady-state solder surface temperatures were observed to reach 85 plus or minus 5 degrees Celsius with a temperature gradient across the solid protein solder strips of between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. Finally, tensile strength was observed to decrease significantly (20 to 25%) after the first hour of hydration in phosphate-buffered saline. No appreciable change was observed in the strength of the tissue bonds with further hydration.

  8. Length-Dependent Electromigration Behavior of Sn58Bi Solder and Critical Length of Electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xu; Muraoka, Mikio; Saka, Masumi

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of a developed test structure, electromigration (EM) tests of Sn58Bi solder strips with lengths of 50 μm, 100 μm, and 150 μm were simultaneously conducted at a current density of 27 kA/cm2 at 373 K. Length-dependent EM behavior was detected, and the mechanism is discussed. Bi atoms were segregated to the anode side more easily as the strip length increased, which resulted in the formation of a thicker Bi-rich layer or Sn-Bi mixed hillocks. The results reveal the existence of back flow that depends on the solder joint length. The back flow is most likely caused by an oxide layer formed on the Sn58Bi solder. By measuring the thicknesses of the Bi-rich layers, the Bi drift velocities were obtained. The critical length of the solder joint and the critical product of the length and the current density were estimated to be 16 μm and 43 A/cm, respectively. This observation will assist design of advanced electronic devices to anticipate EM reliability.

  9. Laser Assisted Soldering: Effects of Hydration on Solder-Tissue Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, E.K.; Welch, A.J.; Brown, D.T.; Kovach, I.S.

    1998-10-01

    Wound stabilization is critical in early wound healing. Other than superficial skin wounds, most tissue repair is exposed to a hydrated environment postoperatively. To simulate the stability of laser-soldered tissue in a wet environment, we studied the effects of hydration on laser soldered rat dermis and baboon articular cartilage. In this {ital in vitro} study, we used a solder composed of human serum albumin, sodium hyaluronate, and Indocyanine Green. A 2 {mu}L solder droplet was deposited on each tissue specimen and then the solder was irradiated with a scanning laser beam (808 nm and 27thinspW/cm{sup 2}). After photocoagulation, each tissue specimen was cut into two halves dividing the solder. One half was reserved as control while the other half was soaked in saline for a designated period before fixation (1 h, 1, 2, and 7 days). All tissue specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM examinations revealed nonuniform coagulation across the solder thickness for most of the specimens, likely a result of the temperature gradient generated by laser heating. Closer to the laser beam, the uppermost region of the solder formed a dense coagulum. The solder aggregated into small globules in the region anterior to the solder-tissue interface. All cartilage specimens soaked in saline suffered coagulum detachment from tissue surface. We noted a high concentration of the protein globules in the detached coagulum. These globules were likely responsible for solder detachment from the cartilage surface. Solder adhered better to the dermis than to cartilage. The dermal layer of the skin, composed of collagen matrix, provided a better entrapment of the solder than the smooth surface of articular cartilage. Insufficient laser heating of solder formed protein globules. Unstable solder-tissue fusion was likely a result of these globules being detached from tissue substrate when the specimen was submerged in a hydrated environment. The solder-tissue bonding

  10. Highly reliable hard-soldered 1.6kW QCW laser diode stack packaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Reichert, Patrick; Du, Jihua; Fouksman, Michael; Zhou, Hailong; McNulty, John; Tolman, Sherry; Luong, Calvin

    2007-02-01

    We describe the performance and reliability of multi-bar diode stacks assembled with hard solder attachment of the laser diode bar to the conduction-cooled package substrate. The primary stack package design is based on a modular platform that makes use of common piece parts to incorporate anywhere from 2-7 bars, operating at peak powers of 80W/bar to 200W/bar. In assembling monolithic type diode stack packages, it is typical to use a soft solder material such as indium for P-side bar attachment into the package. Due to its low melting point and low yield stress, indium can provide a solder joint that transfers low stress to the laser bar. However, during CW and QCW operation, indium is prone to migration that can cause device failure due to a number of well-known mechanisms. This shortcoming of soft-solder bar attachment can limit the number of shots the stack delivers over its operating life. By replacing the soft solder typically used for P-side attachment with a hard solder, it is possible to greatly reduce or eliminate certain failure modes, thereby increasing the operating life of the part. We demonstrate lifetime of > 1E9 shots at 80 W/bar, 250 us/40 Hz pulses, and 50C package operating temperature.

  11. Evaluation of the Bondability of the Epoxy-Enhanced Sn-58Bi Solder with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2015-11-01

    The effect of different surface finishes, electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi bumps made with solder paste enhanced with epoxy were investigated. The microstructure and fracture surfaces were observed with scanning electron microscopy, and the compositions of the IMC and solder were measured using energy dispersive spectrometry and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). To evaluate the mechanical properties, low-speed shear tests and board-level drop tests were performed. The result of the shear tests showed that the bonding strength of the epoxy-enhanced Sn-58Bi solder bumps was higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder for all surface finishes, because of the epoxy surrounding the solder, and the fracture surfaces of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58Bi indicated ductile fracture in the solder joint. However, the result of the drop tests showed that samples with the ENIG and ENEPIG surface finishes had lower drop numbers compared to the sample without these surface finishes. The lower performance resulted from insufficient ejection of epoxy from the ENIG and ENEPIG surface finishes during reflow, which reduced the interfacial bonding area.

  12. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  13. Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.

    1997-03-01

    An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

  14. High temperature solder device for flat cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature solder device for flat cables includes a microwelder, an anvil which acts as a heat sink and supports a flexible flat ribbon cable that is to be connected to a multiple pin connector. The microwelder is made from a modified commercially available resistance welding machine such as the Split Tip Electrode microwelder by Weltek, which consists of two separate electrode halves with a removable dielectric spacer in between. The microwelder is not used to weld the items together, but to provide a controlled compressive force on, and energy pulse to, a solder preform placed between a pin of the connector and a conductor of the flexible flat ribbon cable. When the microwelder is operated, an electric pulse will flow down one electrode, through the solder preform and back up the other electrode. This pulse of electrical energy will cause the solder preform to heat up and melt, joining the pin and conductor.

  15. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  16. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  17. An evaluation of the blind lap joint for the surface mount attachment of chip components

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P T; Dal Porto, J F

    1992-01-01

    Blind lap solder joints were used to attach leadless ceramic chip resistors to polyimidequartz circuit boards. Hand soldering and vapor phase reflow techniques were evaluated. The solder was 62Sn-36Pb-2Ag (wt.%). The integrity of the solder joints was assessed by microstructural examination and room temperature shear tests. These analyses were performed on as-fabricated circuit boards as well as an those samples exposed to thermal cycling (308 cycles; {minus}55{degree} to 125{degree}C; 6{degree}C/min ramps; 120 min hold periods;) or thermal shock (100 cycles, {minus}55{degree}C to 125{degree}C; liquid-to-liquid transfer; 10 min hold periods). In all cases, microscopy revealed no cracks within the solder joints. The shear strengths of the joints were 13.4 lb (59 N), as-fabricated; 10.5 lb (47 N), 308 thermal cycles; and 14.0 lb (62 N), 100 thermal shock cycles. All values were well within acceptability limits for the particular application. Measurements of the intermetallic compound thicknesses at the copper land/solder interface indicated that the additional heating cycle of the hand soldering step decreased the layer thickness as compared to non-hand soldered joints. The successful implementation of the blind lap joint can provide increased device densities on circuit boards by reducing bonding pad extension beyond the ceramic chip foot print.

  18. Alloying effects in near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys for improved microstructural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. E.; Foley, J. C.; Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J.; Terpstra, R. L.; Unal, O.

    2001-09-01

    This study included a comparison of the baseline Sn-3.5Ag eutectic to one near-eutectic ternary alloy, Sn-3.6 Ag-1.0Cu and two quaternary alloys, Sn-3.6Ag-1.0Cu-0.15Co and Sn-3.6Ag-1.0 Cu-0.45 Co, to increase understanding of the beneficial effects of Co on Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints cooled at 1 3 C/sec, typical of reflow practice. The results indicated that joint microstructure refinement is due to Co-enhanced nucleation of the Cu6Sn5 phase in the solder matrix, as suggested by Auger elemental mapping and calorimetric measurements. The Co also reduced intermetallic interface faceting and improved the ability of the solder joint samples to maintain their shear strength after aging for 72 hr at 150 C. The baseline Sn-3.5Ag joints exhibited significantly reduced strength and coarser microstructures.

  19. SNL initiatives in electronic fluxless soldering

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Vianco, P.T.; Keicher, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional soldering of electronic components generally requires the application of a chemical flux to promote solder wetting and flow. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halogenated solvents are normally used to remove the resulting flux residues. While such practice has been routinely accepted throughout the electronics industry, the environmental impact of hazardous solvents on ozone depletion will eventually limit or prevent their use. Solvent substitution or alternative technologies must be developed to meet these goals. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque has a comprehensive environmentally conscious electronics manufacturing program underway that is funded by the DOE Office of Technology Development. Primary elements of the integrated task are the characterization and development of alternative fluxless soldering technologies that would eliminate circuit board cleaning associated with flux residue removal. Storage and handling of hazardous solvents and mixed solvent-flux waste would be consequently reduced during electronics soldering. This paper will report on the progress of the SNL fluxless soldering initiative. Emphasis is placed on the use of controlled atmospheres, laser heating, and ultrasonic soldering.

  20. Mounting of molded AFM probes by soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantschel, Thomas; Pape, Uwe; Slesazeck, Stefan; Niedermann, Philippe; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2000-08-01

    Electrical probes consisting of cantilever beams with integrated pyramidal metal or diamond tips have to be mounted to small holder chips before they can be used in electrical atomic force microscopy (AFM). Gluing procedures have been developed for this step but such a connection suffers mainly from low electrical conductivity and often also from low mechanical stability. Furthermore, it is not very suitable for massfabrication. Soldering is a well-established mounting method in microelectronics (e.g. surface mounted devices (SMD)) and could overcome these problems. Therefore, we have developed a soldering procedure for moulded AFM probes. This paper presents the optimized soldering procedure and demonstartes its use for probe mounting. Excellent results were obtained using a metallization system of Ti:W+Ni+Au and a SnBi58 solder paste in combination with a hotplate for the soldering step. The soldered probes are highly conductive and the mechanical connection between probe and holder chip is very rigid. They show clear resonance peaks in tapping mode AFM which we could not obtain with our glued probes before.

  1. PWB solder wettability after simulated storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    A new solderability test method has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories that simulates the capillary flow physics of solders on circuit board surfaces. The solderability test geometry was incorporated on a circuit board prototype that was developed for a National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) program. The work was conducted under a cooperative research and development agreement between Sandia National Laboratories, NCMS, and several PWB fabricators (AT&T, IBM, Texas Instruments, United Technologies/Hamilton Standard and Hughes Aircraft) to advance PWB interconnect technology. The test was used to investigate the effects of environmental prestressing on the solderability of printed wiring board (PWB) copper finishes. Aging was performed in a controlled chamber representing a typical indoor industrial environment. Solderability testing on as-fabricated and exposed copper samples was performed with the Sn-Pb eutectic solder at four different reflow temperatures (215, 230, 245 and 260{degrees}C). Rosin mildly activated (RMA), low solids (LS), and citric acid-based (CA) fluxes were included in the evaluation. Under baseline conditions, capillary flow was minimal at the lowest temperatures with all fluxes. Wetting increased with temperature at both baseline and prestressing conditions. Poor wetting, however, was observed at all temperatures with the LS flux. Capillary flow is effectively restored with the CA flux.

  2. An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, Onofrio A.

    2002-06-01

    Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.

  3. Use of organic solderability preservatives on solderability retention of copper after accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R.; Lucero, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    Organic solderability preservatives (OSP`s) have been used by the electronics industry for some time to maintain the solderability of circuit boards and components. Since solderability affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability, there is significant interest in maintaining good solder wettability. There is often a considerable time interval between the initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, in many cases not well controlled. Solder wettability can deteriorate during storage, especially in harsh environments. This paper describes the ongoing efforts at Sandia National Laboratories to quantify solder watability on bare and aged copper surfaces. Benzotriazole and imidazole were applied to electronic grade copper to retard aging effects on solderability. The coupons were introduced into Sandia`s Facility for Atmospheric Corrosion Testing (FACT) to simulate aging in a typical indoor industrial environment. H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} mixed gas was introduced into the test cell and maintained at 35{degrees}C and 70% relative humidity for test periods of one day to two weeks. The OSP`s generally performed better than bare Cu, although solderability diminished with increasing exposure times.

  4. Real-time wetting dynamics and interfacial chemistry in low-melting 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder paste on Ni-Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozack, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    We report the observation of real-time, in situ, wetting and spreading dynamics for 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder paste on Ni-Au surfaces during melting in a scanning electron microscope. The 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag is a low melting (139 °C) Pb-free eutectic alloy currently under consideration by automobile manufacturers for use in instrument displays. We find that, while there is excellent wetting of 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder paste on Ni-Au, there is almost no spreading. A large amount of Bi segregates to the surface of 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder balls during the sintering process. At melting, excessive flux outgassing and pooling are observed, several melted solder balls float on top of the flux, and substantial elemental segregation occurs during the first minutes of wetting. Neither Ni nor Au fully intermixes throughout the alloy at the interface within seconds of wetting. Bi does not move outward with the expanding alloy front. This combination of detrimental effects forms voids in the solder paste, contributes to low reliability of solder joints, and complicates the materials science at the solder-substrate interface as shown by Auger electron spectroscopy. Reliability work in progress (3000 cycles) shows that 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag on Ni-Au is less reliable than eutectic Sn-37Pb on Ni-Au for 2512 chip resistors cycled from -40 to 125 °C.

  5. Recent Observations on Tin Pest Formation in Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumbridge, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    The most recent observations of the response of bulk samples of several lead-free solder alloys, exposed to temperatures below the allotropic transition for tin for extended periods, are reported. Tin pest has been observed in Sn-0.5Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu, and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloys at both -18°C and -40°C. The process is slow and inconsistent, usually requiring several years, but may eventually result in complete disintegration of the sample. No tin pest was detected in Sn-Zn-3Bi or in the traditional Sn-37Pb solder alloy after exposure for up to 4 and 10 years, respectively. It is suggested that nucleation is affected by local composition and that extremely small amounts of either intentional solute or impurity are influential. Growth of tin pest is accompanied by a large volume change, and it is likely that stress relaxation ahead of the expanding grey tin front is a controlling factor. A stronger matrix would be more resistant in this case, and at the temperatures of exposure Sn-37Pb is stronger than either Sn-3.5Ag or Sn-0.5Cu. The absence of tin pest, to date, on actual joints is attributed to their restricted free surface area and the greater strength associated with very small samples.

  6. Evaluation of Bulk Mechanical Properties of Selected Lead-Free Solders in Tension and in Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaki Rani, S.; Murthy, G. S.

    2013-08-01

    Lead-free solders are fast emerging as better alternatives to Sn-Pb solders. The reliability of a soldered joint to withstand imposed stresses in an assembly is decided by its mechanical properties. The present work is about the investigation of tensile and shear properties of four binary eutectic alloys Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-58Bi, Sn-0.7Cu, Sn-9Zn and a ternary alloy Sn-57Bi-1.3Zn in comparison with conventional Sn-38Pb alloy. It is observed that the lead-free solders have better mechanical properties than the latter. SEM studies of tensile and shear fracture show ductile dimples circular in tension and parabolic in shear modes supporting the mechanical behavior of the alloys investigated. Eutectic alloys Sn-Ag, Sn-Zn, and Sn-Cu form potential substitutes for Sn-Pb for electronic interconnects exposed to high temperatures, while Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Zn are attractive alternatives in addressing the need of lower processing temperatures in printed circuit boards and other applications.

  7. The effect of ultrasound on the gold plating of silica nanoparticles for use in composite solders.

    PubMed

    Cobley, A J; Mason, T J; Alarjah, M; Ashayer, R; Mannan, S H

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce electronic devices that can survive harsh environments it is essential that the solder joints are very reliable and this has led to the development of composite solders. One approach to the manufacture of such solders is to disperse silica nanoparticles into it to improve their mechanical and fatigue characteristics. However, this is difficult to achieve using bare silica particles because they are not "wettable" in the solder matrix and so cannot be dispersed efficiently. In an attempt to alleviate this issue it has been found that if the silica nanoparticles are first plated with gold then this problem of wetting can, to some extent, be overcome. However, the particles must be completely encapsulated with gold which, using the method previously described by workers at Kings College London, was found to be difficult to accomplish. In this short communication the effect of ultrasound on the gold coverage is described. Different frequencies of ultrasound were used (20, 850 and 1176 kHz) and it was found that higher frequencies of ultrasound improved the coverage and dispersion of the gold nanoparticles over silica during the seeding step compared to simple mechanical agitation. This subsequently led to a more complete encapsulation of gold in the plating stage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Norann, Randy A

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  9. Thermal resistances of solder-boss/potting compound combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Formulas, which can be used as a design tool, are derived to calculate the thermal resistance of solder-boss/potting compound combinations, for different depths of a solder boss, in electronic cordwood modules. Since the solder boss is the heat source, its shape and position will affect the thermal resistance of the surrounding potting compound.

  10. Carboxylate-Passivated Silver Nanoparticles and Their Application to Sintered Interconnection: A Replacement for High Temperature Lead-Rich Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Minoru; Matsubayashi, Ryo; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Komatsu, Teruo; Nagasawa, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Akio; Isoda, Seiji

    2010-08-01

    Lead-free silver nanoparticle pastes have been tested as a replacement for high temperature lead-rich solders used in electronic manufacturing. The pastes contain a small amount of solvent, and primarily consist of submicron-silver powder and passivated silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized from Ag2CO3 and a long-chain alcohol by a method that produced a passivating layer consisting almost exclusively of the carboxylate of the reactant alcohol. The pastes were used to connect a silicon diode chip to copper bases without applied pressure when sintered at 350°C under nitrogen. Diode packages made with sintered silver interconnects had electrical and thermal properties equal to those with lead-soldered interconnects, even after 3000 thermal cycles between -55°C and +150°C. The mechanical strength was half that of lead-rich solder joints, but still strong enough for practical use.

  11. Pb-Free Soldering Iron Temperature Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamane, Hiroto; Wajima, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoichi; Komiyama, Eiichi; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi

    Recently, much importance has been attached to the environmental problem. The content of two directives to better control the management of waste electronic equipment was approved. The two directives are the Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). These set phase-out dates for the use of lead materials contained in electronic products. Increasingly, attention is focusing on the potential use of Pb-free soldering in electronics manufacturing. It should be noted that many of the current solding irons are not suitable for Pb-free technology, due to the inferior wetting ability of Pb-free alloys compared with SnPb solder pastes. This paper presents a Pb-free soldering iron temperature controller using an embedded micro-processor with a low memory capacity.

  12. Evaluation of no-clean solder process designed to eliminate the use of ozone-depleting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Paffett, M.T.; Farr, J.D.; Rogers, Y.C.; Hutchinson, W.B.

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the LANL contributions to a joint Motorola/SNLA/LANL cooperative research and development agreement study on the reliability of an alternative solder process that is intended to reduce or eliminate the use of ozone-depleting chemicals in the manufacture of printed wire boards (PWBs). This process is termed self-cleaning because of the nature of the thermal chemistry associated with the adipic and formic acid components used in place of traditional solder rosin fluxes. Traditional rosin fluxes used in military electronic hardware applications are cleaned (by requirement) using chlorofluorohydrocarbons. The LANL contribution centers around analytical determination of PWB cleanliness after soldering using the self-cleaning method. Results of these analytical determinations involving primarily surface analysis of boards following temperature, temperature and humidity, and long-term storage testing are described with representative data. It is concluded that the self-cleaning process leaves behind levels of solid residue that are visually and analytically observable using most of these surface analysis techniques. The materials compatibility of electronic components soldered using the self-cleaning soldering process is more fully described in the project report issued by SNLA that encompasses the complete project with statistical lifetime and accelerated aging studies. Analytical surface specificity and suggestions for further work are also given.

  13. Parallel-gap welding for joints between copper conductors and Kovar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Daniel, G. E.

    1971-01-01

    Welding technique produces more reliable joints than soldering. Investigation used different sizes of copper conductors and component lead ribbons, corrosion protection platings, and melting points of metals being joined. Optimum combination is gold-plated component lead ribbons and solder-plated copper conductors.

  14. Moisture and aging effects of solder wettability of copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R.; Lucero, S.J.

    1996-12-01

    Solderability is a critical property of electronic assembly that affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability. There is often a considerable time interval between initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, usually not controlled. Solder wettability can soon deteriorate during storage, especially in extreme environments. This paper describes ongoing efforts at Sandia to quantify solder wettability on bare and aged Cu surfaces. In addition, organic solderability preservatives (OSPs) were applied to the bare Cu to retard solderability loss due to aging. The OSPs generally performed well, although wetting did decrease with exposure time.

  15. Parametric study on the solderability of etched PWB copper

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Stevenson, J.O.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has resulted in a more engineered approach to designing and fabricating printed wiring board (PWB) surface features. Recent research at Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated the importance of surface roughness on solder flow. This paper describes how chemical etching was used to enhance the solderability of surfaces that were normally difficult to wet. The effects of circuit geometry, etch concentration, and etching time on solder flow are discussed. Surface roughness and solder flow data are presented. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of surface roughness on the solderability of fine PWB surface mount features.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.605 - Joints and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... watertight for the pressures required under testing procedures. (1) Assembling of pipe. All joints and... connected to a public water system, made with solder having not more than 0.2 percent lead. (4) Plastic pipe... joints. Metal unions in water piping shall have metal-to-metal ground seats. (6) Flared joints. Flared...

  17. Microwave Tissue Soldering for Immediate Wound Closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Plan, Chau T.; Byerly, Diane; Dusl, John; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the immediate sealing of traumatic wounds is under development. A portable microwave generator and handheld antenna are used to seal wounds, binding the edges of the wound together using a biodegradable protein sealant or solder. This method could be used for repairing wounds in emergency settings, by restoring the wound surface to its original strength within minutes. This technique could also be utilized for surgical purposes involving solid visceral organs (i.e., liver, spleen, and kidney) that currently do not respond well to ordinary surgical procedures. A miniaturized microwave generator and a handheld antenna are used to deliver microwave energy to the protein solder, which is applied to the wound. The antenna can be of several alternative designs optimized for placement either in contact with or proximity to the protein solder covering the wound. In either case, optimization of the design includes the matching of impedances to maximize the energy delivered to the protein solder and wound at a chosen frequency. For certain applications, an antenna could be designed that would emit power only when it is in direct contact with the wound. The optimum frequency or frequencies for a specific application would depend on the required depth of penetration of the microwave energy. In fact, a computational simulation for each specific application could be performed, which would then match the characteristics of the antenna with the protein solder and tissue to best effect wound closure. An additional area of interest with potential benefit that remains to be validated is whether microwave energy can effectively kill bacteria in and around the wound. Thus, this may be an efficient method for simultaneously sterilizing and closing wounds. Using microwave energy to seal wounds has a number of advantages over lasers, which are currently in experimental use in some hospitals. Laser tissue welding is unsuitable for emergency use because its large, bulky

  18. Lead (Pb)-Free Solder Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO,PAUL T.

    2000-08-15

    Legislative and marketing forces both abroad and in the US are causing the electronics industry to consider the use of Pb-free solders in place of traditional Sn-Pb alloys. Previous case studies have demonstrated the satisfactory manufacturability and reliability of several Pb-free compositions for printed circuit board applications. Those data, together with the results of fundamental studies on Pb-free solder materials, have indicated the general feasibility of their use in the broader range of present-day, electrical and electronic components.

  19. ESD Test Apparatus for Soldering Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancho, Jose; Esser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ESDA (Electrostatic Discharge Association) ESD STM 13.1-2000 requires frequent testing of the voltage leakage from the tip of a soldering iron and the resistance from the tip of the soldering iron to the common point ground. Without this test apparatus, the process is time-consuming and requires several wires, alligator clips, or test probes, as well as additional equipment. Soldering iron tips must be tested for electrostatic discharge risks frequently, and this typically takes a lot of time in setup and testing. This device enables the operator to execute the full test in one minute or less. This innovation is a simple apparatus that plugs into a digital multimeter (DMM) and the Common Point Ground (CPG) reference. It enables the user to perform two of the electrostatic discharge tests required in ESD STM 13.1-2000. The device consists of a small black box with two prongs sticking out of one end, two inputs on the opposite end (one of the inputs is used to connect the reference CPG to the DMM), and a metal tab on one side. Inside the box are wires, several washers of various materials, and assembly hardware (nuts and screws/bolts). The device is a passive electronic component that is plugged into a DMM. The operator sets the DMM to read voltage. The operator places the heated tip of the soldering iron onto the metal tab with a small amount of solder to ensure a complete connection. The voltage is read and recorded. The operator switches the DMM to read resistance. The operator places the heated tip of the soldering iron onto the metal tab with a small amount of solder to ensure a complete connection. The resistance is recorded. If the recorded voltage and resistance are below a number stated in ESDA ESD STM 13.1-2000, the test is considered to pass. The device includes all the necessary wiring internal to its body so the operator does not need to do any independent wiring, except for grounding. It uses a stack of high-thermal-resistance washers to minimize the

  20. Effects of Zn-Containing Flux on Sn-3.5Ag Soldering with an Electroless Ni-P/Au Surface Finish: Microstructure and Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hitoshi; Baated, Alongheng; Lee, Kiju; Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Keun-Soo; Kukimoto, Youichi; Kumamoto, Seishi; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2010-12-01

    The microstructure resulting from Sn-3.5Ag soldering on an electroless Ni-P/Au pad using flux containing Zn(II) stearate was investigated. The content of zinc compound in the flux was 0 wt.% (Z-0), 20 wt.% (Z-20) or 50 wt.% (Z-50). A study of the interfacial microstructure revealed that both Z-20 and Z-50 fluxes yielded a thinner P-rich layer at the interface than did the Z-0 flux. In addition, compared with the bulky Ni-Sn intermetallics of the Z-0 joint interface, refined interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were observed when using Zn-containing fluxes, Z-20 and Z-50. Based on qualitative analyses of both Z-20 and Z-50 joint interfaces, it was presumed that their intermetallic layers would consist of Ni, Zn, and Sn. Additionally, the Ni content in the IMC layer of the Z-50 joint was lower than that of the Z-20 joint. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the initial Z-50 joint interface revealed Zn in the interfacial reaction layer, suggesting that Zn participated in the reaction between solder and the surface finish at an early stage of soldering. Consequently, the supply of Zn from the flux diminished Ni diffusion into the molten solder during heating. This effect may have caused a thin P-rich layer to form at the joint interface.

  1. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  2. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  3. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  4. The creep and strain rate sensitivity of a high Pb content solder with comparisons to 60Sn/40Pb solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Harvey D.

    1990-09-01

    Creep plays an important role in the mechanical behavior of solder alloys. This paper presents creep and strain rate sensitivity data for a Pb rich solder (92.5Pb, 2.5Ag, 5Sn-Indalloy 151) and compares it to the behavior of near eutectic 60Sn/40Pb solder. The high Pb alloy is used for exposures to higher temperatures than can be withstood by eutectic Sn/Pb solders. The Pb rich solder tested here is less strain rate sensitive than 60Sn/40Pb. There are also differences in the creep behavior.

  5. Aging Characteristics of Sn-Ag Eutectic Solder Alloy with the Addition of Cu, In, and Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, M.; Kar, Abhijit; Das, S. K.; Ray, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    In the present investigation, three types of solder alloy, i.e., Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag-In, and Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn, have been prepared and joined with Cu substrate. In the reflowed condition, the joint interface is decorated with Cu6Sn5 intermetallic in all cases. During aging at 100 °C for 50 to 200 hours, Cu3Sn formation took place in the diffusion zone of the Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-In vs Cu assembly, which was not observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Aging also leads to enhancement in the width of reaction layers; however, the growth is sluggish (~134 KJ/mol) for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu transition joint. In the reflowed condition, the highest shear strength is obtained for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Increment in aging time results in decrement in shear strength of the assemblies; yet small reduction is observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. The presence of Mn in the solder alloy is responsible for the difference in microstructure of the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn solder alloy vs Cu assembly in the reflowed condition, which in turn influences the microstructure of the same after aging with respect to others.

  6. Multilead, Vaporization-Cooled Soldering Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John

    1995-01-01

    Vaporization-cooled heat sink proposed for use during soldering of multiple electrical leads of packaged electronic devices to circuit boards. Heat sink includes compliant wicks held in grooves on edges of metal fixture. Wicks saturated with water. Prevents excessive increases in temperature at entrances of leads into package.

  7. Solder Paste and Residue Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-21

    flouridic conversion of fee S„0 oxide caused the solder paste material to shear fein more readily under high stress. This shear thinning phenom...enon was tracked by an increase in the thixotropic index. In FIG. 19, Tau-2 was tracking this flouridic conversion. Once fee O—S„—F formed on fee

  8. The effect of micro alloying on the microstructure evolution of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werden, Jesse

    The microelectronics industry is required to obtain alternative Pb-free soldering materials due to legal, environmental, and technological factors. As a joining material, solder provides an electrical and mechanical support in electronic assemblies and therefore, the properties of the solder are crucial to the durability and reliability of the solder joint and the function of the electronic device. One major concern with new Pb-free alternatives is that the microstructure is prone to microstructural coarsening over time which leads to inconsistent properties over the device's lifetime. Power aging the solder is a common method of stabilizing the microstructure for Pb-based alloys, however, it is unclear if this will be an appropriate solution to the microstructural coarsening of Pb-free solders. The goal of this work is to develop a better understanding of the coarsening process in new solder alloys and to suggest methods of stabilizing the solder microstructure. Microalloying is one potential solution to the microstructural coarsening problem. This experiment consists of a microstructural coarsening study of SAC305 in which each sample has been alloyed with one of three different solutes, directionally solidified at 100microm/s, and then aged at three different temperatures over a total period of 20 days. There are several important conclusions from this experiment. First, the coarsening kinetics of the intermetallics in the ternary eutectic follow the Ostwald ripening model where r3 in proprotional to t for each alloying constituent. Second, the activation energy for coarsening was found to be 68.1+/-10.3 kJ/mol for the SAC305 samples, Zn had the most significant increase in the activation energy increasing it to 88.8+/-34.9 kJ/mol for the SAC+Zn samples, Mn also increased the activation energy to 83.2+/-20.8 kJ/mol for the SAC+Mn samples, and Sb decreased the activation energy to 48.0+/-3.59 kJ/mol for the SAC+Sb samples. Finally, it was found that the

  9. Creep deformation behavior of Sn-3.5Ag solder/Cu couple at small length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Chawla, N

    2004-09-06

    In order to adequately characterize the behavior of solder balls in electronic devices, the mechanical behavior of solder joints needs to be studied at small length scales. The creep behavior of single solder ball Sn-Ag/Cu solder joints was studied in shear, at 25, 60, 95, and 130 deg. C, using a microforce testing system. A change in the creep stress exponent with increasing stress was observed and explained in terms of a threshold stress for bypass of Ag{sub 3}Sn particles by dislocations. The stress exponent was also temperature dependent, exhibiting an increase in exponent of two from lower to higher temperature. The activation energy for creep was found to be temperature dependant, correlating with self-diffusion of pure Sn at high temperatures, and dislocation core diffusion of pure Sn at lower temperatures. Normalizing the creep rate for activation energy and the temperature-dependence of shear modulus allowed for unification of the creep data. Microstructure characterization, including preliminary TEM analysis, and fractographic analysis were conducted in order to fully describe the creep behavior of the material.

  10. Microwave Tissue Soldering for Immediate Wound Closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Phan, Chau T.; Byerly, Diane; Dusl, John; Sognier, Marguerite A.; Carl, James

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the immediate sealing of traumatic wounds is under development. A portable microwave generator and handheld antenna are used to seal wounds, binding the edges of the wound together using a biodegradable protein sealant or solder. This method could be used for repairing wounds in emergency settings by restoring the wound surface to its original strength within minutes. This technique could also be utilized for surgical purposes involving solid visceral organs (i.e., liver, spleen, and kidney) that currently do not respond well to ordinary surgical procedures. A miniaturized microwave generator and a handheld antenna are used to deliver microwave energy to the protein solder, which is applied to the wound. The antenna can be of several alternative designs optimized for placement either in contact with or in proximity to the protein solder covering the wound. In either case, optimization of the design includes the matching of impedances to maximize the energy delivered to the protein solder and wound at a chosen frequency. For certain applications, an antenna could be designed that would emit power only when it is in direct contact with the wound. The optimum frequency or frequencies for a specific application would depend on the required depth of penetration of the microwave energy. In fact, a computational simulation for each specific application could be performed, which would then match the characteristics of the antenna with the protein solder and tissue to best effect wound closure. An additional area of interest with potential benefit that remains to be validated is whether microwave energy can effectively kill bacteria in and around the wound. Thus, this may be an efficient method for simultaneously sterilizing and closing wounds.

  11. Interfacial Reaction Between Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder and ENEPIG for Fine Pitch BGA by Stencil Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziyu; Cai, Jian; Wang, Qian; He, Xi; Chen, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this work, solder balls in ball grid array packaging technology with the pitch of 300 μm were fabricated by stencil printing solder paste and then reflowed at high temperature. In order to evaluate the quality of solder ball after printing and reflowing processes, the mechanical performance of the joint between the solder balls and the pad was measured by shear test and the electrical resistance was tested after assembly of the substrate and printed circuit board. A comparative study of pad size on the interfacial reaction between solder paste and surface finish of electroless nickel-electroless palladium-immersion gold on the organic substrate was performed and then analyzed by observing the microstructure at the interface. Large discontinuous (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 was found at the interface of the solder with the pad size of 120 μm, while spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn4 and thin (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 layer appeared for a pad size of 140 μm. The IMC (intermetallic compounds) was determined by the residual Cu concentration, the Pd concentration in the solder, and the Ni2SnP barrier layer morphology at the interface, which were significantly influenced by the pad size. A reaction model during the reflow was proposed to illustrate the growth of the IMC and the relationship between the IMC and the pad size. With Pd concentration higher than the solubility of Pd in the solder, spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn4 took shape along the interface. The solubility of Pd was influenced by Ni concentration; however, the Ni diffusion from the substrate was largely dependent on the barrier layer Ni2SnP. Furthermore, the Ni diffusion also impacted the growth and morphology of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, which was not only limited by the Cu concentration.

  12. Further Observations on Tin Pest Formation in Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumbridge, W. J.

    2010-04-01

    The most recent observations of the response of bulk samples of several commercial solder alloys, exposed to temperatures below the allotropic transition for tin (13°C) for extended periods, are reported. Damage associated with tin pest development has been arbitrarily graded into six levels, and the formation of visible α-phase warts used for comparative purposes. Since the previous examination, some 2 years ago, tin pest has been observed for the first time in the traditional Sn-37Pb solder alloy after exposure at -18°C and -40°C, and actual warts were apparent in as-cast Sn-0.5Cu stored at -40°C and in as-cast Sn-3.5Ag after exposure at -18°C. No tin pest was detected in Sn-Zn-3Bi after exposure for periods up to 6 years. Tin pest continued to develop in those lead-free alloys in which it had previously been observed, indicating the probability that all would eventually disintegrate in time. In general, prior thermal or mechanical treatment accentuated tin pest formation. The influence of exposure temperature was unclear, since some alloys (Sn-0.5Cu and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu) experienced more damage at -18°C, but others (Sn-37Pb and Sn-3.5Ag) were more susceptible at -40°C. From a consideration of the findings and other published information, it is contended that impurity levels below 0.1 mass% (1000 ppm) play a vital role in determining whether tin pest develops in realistic timescales. A major factor in the absence of tin pest, to date, on actual joints may be simply the mismatch between the timescales experienced in service and those in long-duration laboratory tests.

  13. Soldering in a Reduced Gravity Environment (SoRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Future long-duration human exploration missions will be challenged by constraints on mass and volume allocations available for spare parts. Addressing this challenge will be critical to the success of these missions. As a result, it is necessary to consider new approaches to spacecraft maintenance and repair that reduce the need for large replacement components. Currently, crew members on the International Space Station (ISS) recover from faults by removing and replacing, using backup systems, or living without the function of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs). These ORUs are returned to a depot where the root cause of the failure is determined and the ORU is repaired. The crew has some limited repair capability with the Modulation/DeModulation (MDM) ORU, where circuit cards are removed and replace in faulty units. The next step to reducing the size of the items being replaced would be to implement component-level repair. This mode of repair has been implemented by the U.S. Navy in an operational environment and is now part of their standard approach for maintenance. It is appropriate to consider whether this approach can be adapted for future spaceflight operations. To this end, the Soldering in a Reduced Gravity Environment (SoRGE) experiment studied the effect of gravity on the formation of solder joints on electronic circuit boards. This document describes the SoRGE experiment, the analysis methods, and results to date. This document will also contain comments from the crew regarding their experience conducting the SoRGE experiment as well as recommendations for future improvements. Finally, this document will discuss the plans for the SoRGE samples which remain on ISS.

  14. Effects of AlN Nanoparticles on the Microstructure, Solderability, and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Do-Hyun; Sharma, Ashutosh; Lim, Dong-Uk; Yun, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Jae-Pil

    2017-09-01

    The addition of nanosized AlN particles to Sn-3.0 wt pctAg-0.5 wt pctCu (SAC305) lead-free solder alloy has been investigated. The various weight fractions of AlN (0, 0.03, 0.12, 0.21, 0.60 wt pct) have been dispersed in SAC305 solder matrix by a mechanical mixing and melting route. The influences of AlN nanosized particles on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and solderability ( e.g., spreadability and wettability) have been carried out. The structural and morphological features of the nanocomposite solder were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experimental results show that the best combination of solderability and mechanical properties is obtained at 0.21 wt pct AlN in the solder matrix. The reinforced composite solder with 0.21 wt pct AlN nanoparticles shows ≈25 pct improvement in ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and ≈4 pct increase in the spreadability. In addition, the results of microstructural analyses of composite solders indicate that the nanocomposite solder, especially reinforced with 0.21 wt pct of AlN nanoparticles, exhibits better microstructure and improved elongation percentage, compared with the monolithic SAC305 solder.

  15. Interconnection of thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties in directionally solidified Sn–Sb lead-free solder alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Marcelino; Costa, Thiago; Rocha, Otávio; Spinelli, José E.; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2015-08-15

    Considerable effort is being made to develop lead-free solders for assembling in environmental-conscious electronics, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. The search for substitute alloys of Pb–Sn solders has increased in order to comply with different soldering purposes. The solder must not only meet the expected levels of electrical performance but may also have appropriate mechanical strength, with the absence of cracks in the solder joints. The Sn–Sb alloy system has a range of compositions that can be potentially included in the class of high temperature solders. This study aims to establish interrelations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Sb alloys (2 wt.%Sb and 5.5 wt.%Sb) samples, which were directionally solidified under cooling rates similar to those of reflow procedures in industrial practice. A complete high-cooling rate cellular growth is shown to be associated with the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy and a reverse dendrite-to-cell transition is observed for the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy. Strength and ductility of the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy are shown not to be affected by the cellular spacing. On the other hand, a considerable variation in these properties is associated with the cellular region of the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy casting. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Sn–2 wt.%Sb alloy is characterized by high-cooling rates cells. • Reverse dendrite > cell transition occurs for Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: cells prevail for cooling rates > 1.2 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: the dendritic region occurs for cooling rates < 0.9 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: tensile properties are improved with decreasing cellular spacing.

  16. Effect of Thick Film Firing Conditions on the Solderability and Structure of Au-Pt-Pd Conductor for Low-Temperature, Co-Fired Ceramic Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L; Vianco, P.T.

    1999-03-16

    Low-temperature, co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are the substrate material-of-choice for a growing number of multi-chip module (MCM) applications. Unlike the longer-standing hybrid microcircuit technology based upon alumina substrates, the manufacturability and reliability of thick film solder joints on LTCC substrates have not been widely studied. An investigation was undertaken to fully characterize such solder joints. A surface mount test vehicle with Daisy chain electrical connections was designed and built with Dupont{trademark} 951 tape. The Dupont{trademark} 4569 thick film ink (Au76-Pt21 -Pd3 wt.%) was used to establish the surface conductor pattern. The conductor pattern was fired onto the LTCC substrate in a matrix of process conditions that included: (1) double versus triple prints, (2) dielectric frame versus no frame, and (3) three firing temperatures (800 C, 875 C and 950 C). Pads were examined from the test vehicles. The porosity of the thick film layers was measured using quantitative image analysis in both the transverse and short transverse directions. A significant dependence on firing temperature was recorded for porosity. Solder paste comprised of Sn63-Pb37 powder with an RMA flux was screen printed onto the circuit boards. The appropriate components, which included chip capacitors of sizes 0805 up to 2225 and 50 mil pitch, leadless ceramic chip carriers having sizes of 16 I/O to 68 I/O, were then placed on the circuit boards. The test vehicles were oven reflowed under a N{sub 2} atmosphere. The solderability of the thick film pads was also observed to be sensitive to the firing conditions. Solderability appeared to degrade by the added processing steps needed for the triple print and dielectric window depositions. However, the primary factor in solderability was the firing temperature. Solderability was poorer when the firing temperature was higher.

  17. Issues in the replacement of lead-bearing solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianco, Paul T.; Frear, Darrel R.

    1993-07-01

    The use of soft solders, particularly those containing lead, dates back nearly 5,000 years. Solders similar to the materials used to seal the aqueducts of ancient Rome are now an important building block in the manufacture of high-speed computer assemblies. This history attests to the technological versatility of soft solders and, in particular, the solder alloys that contain lead. However, the health effects of prolonged exposure to lead have also been documented; measures to limit human exposure—at the work place and indirectly through the environment—are being considered. The successful introduction of lead-free solders into future electronic products will rely heavily upon their solderability, which can be evaluated by test procedures such as the meniscometer/wetting balance technique and the capillary flow test.

  18. Investigation of Solder Cracking Problems on Printed Circuit Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, M. J.

    1967-01-01

    A Solder Committee designated to investigate a solder cracking phenomena occurring on the SATURN electrical/electronic hardware found the cause to be induced stress in the soldered connections rather than faulty soldering techniques. The design of the printed circuit (PC) board assemblies did not allow for thermal expansion of the boards that occurred during normal operation. The difference between the thermal expansion properties of the boards and component lead materials caused stress and cracking in the soldered connections. The failure mechanism and various PC boards component mounting configurations are examined in this report. Effective rework techniques using flanged tubelets, copper tubelets, and soft copper wiring are detailed. Future design considerations to provide adequate strain relief in mounting configurations are included to ensure successful solder terminations.

  19. Miniaturization of Micro-Solder Bumps and Effect of IMC on Stress Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Soud Farhan; Ladani, Leila

    2016-07-01

    As the joints become smaller in more advanced packages and devices, intermetallic (IMCs) volume ratio increases, which significantly impacts the overall mechanical behavior of joints. The existence of only a few grains of Sn (Tin) and IMC materials results in anisotropic elastic and plastic behavior which is not detectable using conventional finite element (FE) simulation with average properties for polycrystalline material. In this study, crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulation is used to model the whole joint including copper, Sn solder and Cu6Sn5 IMC material. Experimental lap-shear test results for solder joints from the literature were used to validate the models. A comparative analysis between traditional FE, CPFE and experiments was conducted. The CPFE model was able to correlate the experiments more closely compared to traditional FE analysis because of its ability to capture micro-mechanical anisotropic behavior. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of IMC thickness on stress distribution in micro-bumps using a systematic numerical experiment with IMC thickness ranging from 0% to 80%. The analysis was conducted on micro-bumps with single crystal Sn and bicrystal Sn. The overall stress distribution and shear deformation changes as the IMC thickness increases. The model with higher IMC thickness shows a stiffer shear response, and provides a higher shear yield strength.

  20. Solderability preservation through the use of organic inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Hosking, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Organic inhibitors can be used to prevent corrosion of metals and have application in the electronics industry as solderability preservatives. We have developed a model to describe the action of two inhibitors (benzotriazole and imidazole) during the environmental aging and soldering process. The inhibitors bond with the metal surface and form a barrier that prevents or retards oxidation. At soldering temperatures, the metal-organic complex breaks down leaving an oxide-free metal surface that allows excellent wetting by molten solder. The presence of the inhibitor retards the wetting rate relative to clean copper, but provides a vast improvement relative to oxidized copper.

  1. Aging, stressing and solderability of electroplated and electroless copper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Hosking, F.M.

    1995-08-01

    Organic inhibitors can be used to prevent corrosion of metals have application in the electronics industry as solderability preservatives. We have developed a model to describe the action of two inhibitors (benzotriazole and imidazole) during the environmental aging and soldering process. The inhibitors bond with the metal surface and form a barrier that prevents or retards oxidation. At soldering temperatures, the metal-organic complex breaks down leaving an oxide-free metal surface that allows excellent wetting by the molten solder. The presence of the inhibitor retards the wetting rate relative to clean copper but provides a vast improvement relative to oxidized copper.

  2. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  3. Tin pest in Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu lead-free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, Yoshiharu; Williams, Naomi; Gagg, Colin; Plumbridge, William

    2001-06-01

    Tin pest (the product of the allotropic transformation of β-tin into α-tin at temperatures below 286 K) has been observed in a Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu solder alloy. Some 40 percent of the specimen surface was transformed into gray tin after aging at 255K for 1.5 years, and after 1.8 years, the proportion increased to about 70 percent. The degree of transformation in work-hardened areas is much higher than in other areas, suggesting residual stress might provide an additional driving force for the transformation into α-tin. The allotropic change results in a 26 percent increase in volume, and cracks are initiated to accommodate the changes in volume. Results indicate that tin pest could lead to total disintegration of micro-electronic solder joints. The tin-copper eutectic system may become a prominent lead-free solder, and tin pest could have major ramifications on service lifetime of electronic assemblies.

  4. Superconducting silver brazing alloy (silver solder).

    PubMed

    Thompson, J R; Thomson, J O

    1978-10-01

    A superconducting transition has been observed in a type BAg-3 silver brazing alloy (silver solder) with T(c)=96.(6) mK and H(c)=4.7 Oe. The associated diamagnetism indicates that approximately 1/3 of the sample volume displays the Meissner effect. This property dictates caution in its use at very low temperatures, particularly near sensitive magnetic devices such as ac and SQUID magnetometers.

  5. Microstructural development and mechanical properties of a near-eutectic directionally solidified Sn–Bi solder alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Bismarck Luiz; Reinhart, Guillaume; Nguyen-Thi, Henri; Mangelinck-Noël, Nathalie; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José Eduardo

    2015-09-15

    Sn–Bi solders may be applied for electronic applications where low-temperature soldering is required, i.e., sensitive components, step soldering and soldering LEDs. In spite of their potential to cover such applications, the mechanical response of soldered joints of Sn–Bi alloys in some cases does not meet the strength requirements due to inappropriate resulting microstructures. Hence, careful examination and control of as-soldered microstructures become necessary with a view to pre-programming reliable final properties. The present study aims to investigate the effects of solidification thermal parameters (growth rate — V{sub L} and cooling rate — T-dot{sub L}) on the microstructure of the Sn–52 wt.%Bi solder solidified under unsteady-state conditions. Samples were obtained by upward directional solidification (DS), followed by characterization through metallography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructures are shown to be formed by Sn-rich dendrites decorated with Bi precipitates surrounded by a complex regular eutectic mixture, with alternated Bi-rich and Sn-rich phases. Experimental correlations of primary (λ{sub 1}), secondary (λ{sub 2}), tertiary (λ{sub 3}) dendritic and eutectic spacings (λ{sub coarse} and λ{sub fine}) with cooling rate and growth rate are established. Two ranges of lamellar eutectic sizes were determined, described by two experimental equations λ = 1.1 V{sub L}{sup −1/2} and λ = 0.67 V{sub L}{sup −1/2}. The onset of tertiary branches within the dendritic array along the Sn–52 wt.%Bi alloy DS casting is shown to occur for cooling rates lower than 1.5 °C/s. - Highlights: • The Sn–52 wt.%Bi solder was shown to have two eutectic sizes. • The fishbone eutectic is preferably located adjacent to the Bi-rich lamellar phases. • The onset of tertiary dendritic branches in Sn–Bi is associated with T-dot{sub L} < 1.5 °C/s. • Higher eutectic fraction and λ{sub 3} provoked a reverse increase in

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Investigation of Lead Free Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qing; Gail, William F.; Johnson, R. Wayne; Strickland, Mark; Blanche, Jim

    2005-01-01

    While the electronics industry appears to be focusing on Sn-Ag-Cu as the alloy of choice for lead free electronics assembly, ,the exact composition varies by geographic region, supplier and user. Add to that dissolved copper and silver from the printed circuit board traces and surface finish, and there can be significant variation in the final solder joint composition. A systematic study of the mechanical and microstructural properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys with Ag varying from 2wt% to 4wt% and Cu varying from 0.5wt% to lSwt%, was undertaken in this research study. Different sample preparation techniques (water quenched, oil quenched and water quenched followed by reflow) were explored and the resulting microstructure compared to that of a typical reflowed lead free chip scale package (CSP) solder joint. Tensile properties (modulus, 0.2% yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength) and creep behavior of selected alloy compositions (Sn-4Ag-1 X u , Sn-4Ag-OSCu, Sn- 2Ag-1 X u , Sn-2Ag-OSCu, Sn-3.5Ag-O.SCu) were determined for three conditions: as- cast; aged for 100 hours at 125OC; and aged for 250 hours at 125OC. There was no significant difference in Young's Modulus as a function of alloy composition. After an initial decrease in modulus after 100 hours at 125"C, there was an insignificant change with further aging. The distribution of 0.2% strain yield stress and ultimate tensile strength as a function of alloy composition was more significant and decreased with aging time and temperature. The microstructures of these alloys were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM) respectively and SEM based energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Fracture surface and cross-section analysis were performed on the specimens after creep testing. The creep testing results and the effect of high temperature aging on mechanical properties is presented for the oil quenched samples. In general the microstructure of oil quenched specimen exhibited a

  7. Gold Plated Lead-Clinched Lead Solder Joint Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    20362 San Antonio ALC (SFRM) Commandant of the Marine Corps Kelly Air Force Base, Texas 78241 Headquarters Marine Corps (Code LMO-1) 1 Washington, DC...20380 AFLC CASO /LODS Federal Center Commandant, US Coast Guard (G-FSL-3) 1 Battle Creek, Michigan 49016 Washington, DC 20590 Commander Commanding

  8. Evolution of the Deformation Behavior of Sn-Rich Solders during Cyclic Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentlent, Luke Arthur

    Continuous developments in the electronics industry have provided a critical need for a quantitative, fundamental understanding of the behavior of SnAgCu (SAC) solders in both isothermal and thermal fatigue conditions. This study examines the damage behavior of Sn-based solders in a constant amplitude and variable amplitude environment. In addition, damage properties are correlated with crystal orientation and slip behavior. Select solder joints were continuously characterized and tested repeatedly in order to eliminate the joint to joint variation due to the anisotropy of beta-Sn. Characterization was partitioned into three different categories: effective properties and slip behavior, creep mechanisms and crystal morphology development, and atomic behavior and evolution. Active slip systems were correlated with measured properties. Characterization of the mechanical behavior was performed by the calculation and extrapolation of the elastic modulus, work, effective stiffness, Schmid factors, and time-dependent plasticity (creep). Electron microscopy based characterization methods included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Testing showed a clear evolution of the steady-state creep mechanism when the cycling amplitudes were varied, from dislocation controlled to diffusion controlled creep. Dislocation behavior was examined and shown to evolve differently in single amplitude vs. variable amplitude testing. Finally, the mechanism of the recrystallization behavior of the beta-Sn was observed. This work fills a gap in the literature, providing a systematic study which identifies how the damage behavior in Sn-alloys depends upon the previous damage. A link is made between the observed creep behavior and the dislocation observations, providing a unified picture. Information developed in this work lays a stepping stone to future fundamental analyses as well as clarifying aspects of the

  9. Liquid-phase diffusion bonding: Temperature effects and solute redistribution in high temperature lead-free composite solders

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver; Choquette, Stephanie

    2015-05-17

    Liquid-phase diffusion bonding (LPDB) is being studied as the primary phenomena occurring in the development of a high temperature lead-free composite solder paste composed of gas-atomized Cu-10Ni, wt.% (Cu-11Ni, at.%) powder blended with Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni-0.01Ge (Sn-1.3Cu-0.1Ni-0.02Ge, at.%) Nihon-Superior SN100C solder powder. Powder compacts were used as a model system. LPDB promotes enhanced interdiffusion of the low-melting alloy matrix with the solid Cu-10Ni reinforcement powder above the matrix liquidus temperature. The initial study involved the effective intermetallic compound (IMC) compositions and microstructures that occur at varying reflow temperatures and times between 250-300°C and 30-60s, respectively. Certain reflow temperatures encourage adequate interdiffusion to form a continuous highly-conductive network throughout the composite solder joints. The diffusion of nickel, in particular, has a disperse pattern that foreshadows the possibility of a highly-conductive low-melting solder that can be successfully utilized at high temperatures.

  10. The In-Space Soldering Investigation: Research Conducted on the International Space Station in Support of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fincke, M.; Sergre, P. N.; Ogle, J. A.; Funkhouser, G.; Parris, F.; Murphy, L.; Gillies, D.; Hua, F.

    2004-01-01

    Soldering is a well established joining and repair process that is of particular importance in the electronics industry. Still. internal solder joint defects such as porosity are prevalent and compromise desired properties such as electrical/thermal conductivity and fatigue strength. Soldering equipment resides aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will likely accompany Exploration Missions during transit to, as well as on, the moon and Mars. Unfortunately, detrimental porosity appears to be enhanced in lower gravity environments. To this end, the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Workbench Area (MWA) aboard the ISS as "Saturday Science" with the goal of promoting our understanding of joining techniques, shape equilibrium, wetting phenomena, and microstructural development in a microgravity environment. The work presented here will focus on direct observation of melting dynamics and shape determination in comparison to ground-based samples, with implications made to processing in other low-gravity environments. Unexpected convection effects, masked on Earth, will also be shown as well as the value of the ISS as a research platform in support of Exploration Missions.

  11. The In-Space Soldering Investigation: To Date Analysis of Experiments Conducted on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Soldering is a well established joining and repair process that is of particular importance in the electronics industry. Still, internal solder joint defects such as porosity are prevalent and compromise desired properties such as electrical/thermal conductivity and fatigue strength. Soldering equipment resides aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will likely accompany Exploration Missions during transit to, as well as on, the moon and Mars. Unfortunately, detrimental porosity appears to be enhanced in lower gravity environments. To this end, the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Workbench Area (MWA) aboard the ISS as "Saturday Science" with the goal of promoting our understanding of joining techniques, shape equilibrium, wetting phenomena, and microstructural development in a microgravity environment. The work presented here will focus on direct observation of melting dynamics and shape determination in comparison to ground-based samples, with implications made to processing in other low-gravity environments. Unexpected convection effects, masked on Earth, will also be shown as well as the value of the ISS as a research platform in support of Exploration Missions.

  12. (abstract) A Brief, Selective Review of Thermal Cycling Fatigue in Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews selected parts of the current literature relevant to thermo-mechanical fatigue mechanisms in eutectic tin-lead solder, and suggests a general outline to account for some observed failures. The field is found to be complex. One recent experimental study finds some failure modes to be sensitive to joint geometry. Attempts to extrapolate from test environments to service environments have had only limited success. Much work remains to be done before fatigue failures in this material can be considered as under practical control.

  13. Microstructurally Adaptive Constitutive Relations and Reliability Assessment Protocols for Lead Free Solder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-05

    for 30 mil SAC305 on Cu. Figure 3.7b: Effective stiffness at ‘saturation’ vs. stress amplitude for 30 mil bumps of 4 different alloys Figure 3.8...minute dwells. Figure 5.2.7: Weibull plot of failure distributions for 0.4mm pitch wafer level CSP assemblies with SnPb (A3) and mixed (A4) joints...this system, may provide insight on nucleation mechanisms in this system. Interfacial reactions between SAC solder and Cu/Ni(V)/Al under bump

  14. (abstract) A Brief, Selective Review of Thermal Cycling Fatigue in Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews selected parts of the current literature relevant to thermo-mechanical fatigue mechanisms in eutectic tin-lead solder, and suggests a general outline to account for some observed failures. The field is found to be complex. One recent experimental study finds some failure modes to be sensitive to joint geometry. Attempts to extrapolate from test environments to service environments have had only limited success. Much work remains to be done before fatigue failures in this material can be considered as under practical control.

  15. Formation of interconnections between carbon nanotubes and copper using tin solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Jagjiwan; Lina, Kwang-Lung

    2013-06-01

    A process is developed for connecting Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between Cu terminals using tin solder. Connections were made on the Cu grid after heating the Sn coated nanotubes above the melting point of tin. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs demonstrated the joining by CNTs either as straight between two sides or on the one side after bending in the middle. The connections were found to be stable in air and electron beam under TEM observations. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showed that the formation of intermetallic compound η-C6Sn5 was responsible for the formation and stability of joints between Cu and MWCNT.

  16. Experimental studies of diffusion welding of YBCO to copper using solder layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Ouyang, Z.; Shi, L.; Kuang, Z.; Meng, M.

    2017-02-01

    The welding technology is of great importance in YBCO application. To make better joints, the diffusion welding of YBCO tape to copper has been carried out in a vacuum environment. In consideration of high welding temperature (above 200°C) could do damage to the material performance, a new kind of diffusion welding method with temperature below 200 °C has been developed recently. A new welding appliance which can offer pressure over 35Kg/mm2 and controlled temperature has been designed and built; several YBCO coated conductors joints soldered with different melting points of tins has been tested. The results showed that the diffusion can perfectly connect YBCO to copper as well as stainless steel and resistance of the joint was low, and the YBCO tape could bear 217°C for at least 15mins.

  17. Low-temperature solder for laser tissue welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Stewart, Robert B.; Felsen, D.; Foster, John; Poole-Warren, Laura; Poppas, Dix P.

    2003-12-01

    In this study, a two layer (TL) solid solder was developed with a fixed thickness to minimize the difference in temperature across the solder (ΔT) and to weld at low temperature. Solder strips comprising two layers (65% albumin, 35% water) were welded onto rectangular sections of dog small intestine by a diode laser (λ = 808 nm). The laser delivered a power of 170 +/- 10 mW through an optical fiber (spot size approximately 1 mm) for 100 seconds. A solder layer incorporated also a dye (carbon black, 0.25%) to absorb the laser radiation. A thermocouple and an infrared thermometer system recorded the temperatures at the tissue interface and at the external solder surface, during welding. The repaired tissue was tested for tensile strength by a calibrated tensiometer. The TL strips were able to minimize ΔT (12 +/- 4°C) and control the temperature at tissue-interface. The strips fused on tissue at 55<=T<=62°C had higher tensile strength than the strips soldered at 51<=T<55°C (19.1 +/- 6.6 versus 13.1 +/- 6.4 gmf). The solid solder could efficiently weld at 60°C as it became insoluble and formed stable bonds with tissue. Fluid albumin solders, by contrast, requires temperatures >=70°C for tissue repair, which cause more irreversible thermal damage.

  18. Local and Global Properties of a Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z.; Chalon, F.; Leroy, R.; Ranganathan, N.; Beake, B. D.

    2013-07-01

    Elastic and viscous properties including Young's modulus, hardness, creep rate sensitivity, and fatigue resistance of Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni lead-free solder have been investigated. The properties of bulk specimens and in situ solder balls are compared. Experiments show good correlations of Young's modulus and creep rate sensitivity between conventional measurements and nanoindentation results on bulk specimens. Further mechanical properties of the beach-ball microstructure in solder balls are characterized by nanoindentation. The load-partial unload technique has been used to determine the variation in mechanical properties with increasing depth of penetration into the intermetallic inclusions in the in situ solder. The fatigue resistances of the bulk specimens and solder balls are compared by using the novel nanoimpact method. In comparison with bulk specimens, it is found that in situ solder has higher Young's modulus, lower creep strain rate sensitivity, and better fatigue resistance. The effects of soldering and the scale differences strongly affect the mechanical and fatigue properties of in situ solder.

  19. Modified soldering iron speeds cutting of synthetic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, W. G., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Modified soldering iron cuts large lots of synthetic materials economically without leaving frayed or jagged edges. The soldering iron is modified by machining an axial slot in its heating element tip and mounting a cutting disk in it. An alternate design has an axially threaded bore in the tip to permit the use of various shapes of cutting blades.

  20. Effects of Microstructure and Loading on Fracture of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Joints on Cu Substrates with ENIG Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-12-01

    When dropped, electronic packages often undergo failure by propagation of an interfacial crack in solder joints under a combination of tensile and shear loading. Hence, it is crucial to understand and predict the fracture behavior of solder joints under mixed-mode high-rate loading conditions. In this work, the effects of the loading conditions (strain rate and loading angle) and microstructure [interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) morphology and solder yield strength] on the mixed-mode fracture toughness of Sn-3.8 wt.%Ag-0.7 wt.%Cu solder joints sandwiched between two Cu substrates with electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) metallization have been studied, and compared with the fracture behavior of joints attached to bare Cu. Irrespective of the surface finish, the fracture toughness of the solder joints decreased monotonically with strain rate and mode-mixity, both resulting in increased fracture proportion through the interfacial IMC layer. Furthermore, the proportion of crack propagation through the interfacial IMC layer increased with increase in the thickness and the roughness of the interfacial IMC layer and the yield strength of the solder, resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness of the joint. However, under most conditions, solder joints with ENIG finish showed higher resistance to fracture than joints attached directly to Cu substrates without ENIG metallization. Based on the experimental observations, a fracture mechanism map is constructed correlating the yield strength of the solder, the morphology and thickness of the interfacial IMC, and the fracture mechanisms as well as the fracture toughness values for different solder joints under mode I loading.

  1. Bonding Low-density Nanoporous Metal Foams Using Sputtered Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M; Cervantes, O; Akaba, C; Hamza, A; Foreman, R; Teslich, N

    2007-08-21

    could benefit from the bonding technology developed in this study, such as small-scale lightweight structural members, high-strength thermal insulating layers for electronics, and micro-scale mechanical dampers, to name but a few. Each of these applications requires one or more small metal foam components precisely bonded to a substrate. Several methods for bonding metal foam components have been developed by previous researchers. Macroscopic metal foam parts have been successfully bonded by laser welding to create T-sections and butt joints. Ultrasonic welding has been used to join aluminum sheet metal to aluminum foam for structural applications. These methods work well for bonding large foam components, but reducing these methods to a smaller length scale would be challenging. One method that has shown great potential for bonding layers of metal foams to substrates is a brazing process that uses a sputter-deposited interface material. Shirzadi et al.[9] have demonstrated bonds between stainless steel foam and a stainless steel substrate using a layer of copper-titanium filler metal that is sputtered onto the interface surfaces. The foam pieces that they bonded were approximately 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with a cell size of approximately 200 {micro}m. After depositing the filler material, pressing the materials together, and heating them with an induction heater, bonds were achieved without causing significant damage to the foam. The current study also uses a sputter-deposited interface material to bond foam to a substrate. However, in contrast to previous work, the current study examines bonding microscale pieces of fragile nanoporous metal foam. In this study, a method is developed to bond a thin sheet of fragile, low-density nanoporous copper foam to an aluminum foil substrate of thickness 40 {micro}m. By sputter depositing an indium-silver alloy onto the foam and the substrate, a solder joint with a thickness of less than 2 {micro}m was achieved.

  2. A Study of Solder Alloy Ductility for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Shapiro, A. A.; Suh, J-O.; Minor, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    For aerospace applications it is important to understand the mechanical performance of components at the extreme temperature conditions seen in service. For solder alloys used in microelectronics, cryogenic temperatures can prove problematic. At low temperatures Sn-based solders undergo a ductile to brittle transition that leads to brittle cracks, which can result in catastrophic failure of electronic components, assemblies and spacecraft payloads. As industrial processes begin to move away from Pb-Sn solder, it is even more critical to characterize the behavior of alternative Sn-based solders. Here we report on initial investigations using a modified Charpy test apparatus to characterize the ductile to brittle transformation temperature of nine different solder systems.

  3. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  4. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, Janda K. G.; Jellison, James L.; Staley, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  5. A Study of Solder Alloy Ductility for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Shapiro, A. A.; Suh, J-O.; Minor, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    For aerospace applications it is important to understand the mechanical performance of components at the extreme temperature conditions seen in service. For solder alloys used in microelectronics, cryogenic temperatures can prove problematic. At low temperatures Sn-based solders undergo a ductile to brittle transition that leads to brittle cracks, which can result in catastrophic failure of electronic components, assemblies and spacecraft payloads. As industrial processes begin to move away from Pb-Sn solder, it is even more critical to characterize the behavior of alternative Sn-based solders. Here we report on initial investigations using a modified Charpy test apparatus to characterize the ductile to brittle transformation temperature of nine different solder systems.

  6. Laser beam soldering of fine-pitch technology packages with solid solder deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucher, Hans-Joerg; Glasmacher, Mathias; Geiger, Manfred

    1996-04-01

    Micro electronics is a key technology attracting the attention of information, communication, automation and data processing technologies. Ongoing miniaturization combined with an increasing number of I/Os has inevitably lead to ever finer lead geometries. Therefore the demands put upon the surface mount technology are increasing continuously. Processing of high lead count fine pitch packages, for example those which are applied in high-capacity computers, has not increased the demands put upon the assembly process only, but also on the connecting techniques. By reflow soldering with laser beam radiation the benefits from the tool `laser beam' are used extensively, for example contact and force free processing, strictly localized heating and the good controllability thereof, formation of fine crystalline and homogeneous structures, etc. Within the scope of this paper the fundamentals of laser beam soldering are discussed for fine pitch lead frames (pitch 300 micrometers ) for plastic packages, made by a modified CuFe2P alloy with a 5 micrometers Sn90Pb plating, on solid solder depths (Sn63Pb) performed by the so called High-Pad process. These investigations are unique in the field of laser beam soldering and are carried out by means of a Nd:YAG-laser. A pyrometer is used for detection of the emission of the temperature radiation of the joining area for process control. The additional use of a high-speed camera gives a detailed description of the melting and wetting process. The influence of laser beam parameters and the volume of the solid solder deposits on the joining result are presented.

  7. Effect of Aluminum Concentration on the Interfacial Reactions of Sn-3.0Ag- xAl Solders with Copper and ENIG Metallizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y. H.; Jee, Y. K.; Yu, J.; Lee, T. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Aluminum was added into Sn-3.0Ag (wt.%) solder to investigate the effect of aluminum concentration on the interfacial reaction of Sn-3.0Ag- xAl solders with copper or electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) metallizations. Four different Sn-3.0Ag- xAl solders ( x = 0 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.%) were used for comparison. It was found that the composition, morphology, and thickness of interfacial reaction products were strongly dependent on aluminum concentration. At low aluminum concentration (0.1 wt.%), the typical Cu6Sn5 layer was formed at the interface. When the aluminum concentration was 0.5 wt.%, a continuous CuAl2 layer spalled off from the interfacial Cu-Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) layer. Only a planar CuAl2 layer was observed at the interface when the aluminum concentration was increased to 1.0 wt.%. In Sn-Ag-Al/ENIG reactions, Ni3Sn4 was formed and spallation occurred near the interface in the Sn-3.0Ag and Sn-3.0Ag-0.1Al solder joints. When the aluminum concentration was higher than 0.1 wt.%, a thin planar AuAl compound formed at the interface. There was no P-rich phase formation that retarded the spalling phenomenon. The aluminum additive in Sn-Ag solder inhibited the growth of IMCs in the reaction with copper or ENIG metallizations, which was favorable for the reliability of solder joints.

  8. Printability Optimization For Fine Pitch Solder Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2011-01-17

    Effect of metal mask and pad design on solder printability was evaluated by DOE in this study. The process parameters were stencil thickness, squeegee angle, squeegee speed, mask separating speed, and pad angle of PCB. The main process parameters for printability were stencil thickness and squeegee angle. The response surface showed that maximum printability of 1005 chip was achieved at the stencil thickness of 0.12 mm while the maximum printability of 0603 and 0402 chip was obtained at the stencil thickness of 0.05 mm. The bonding strength of the MLCC chips was also directly related with the printability.

  9. Printability Optimization For Fine Pitch Solder Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2011-01-01

    Effect of metal mask and pad design on solder printability was evaluated by DOE in this study. The process parameters were stencil thickness, squeegee angle, squeegee speed, mask separating speed, and pad angle of PCB. The main process parameters for printability were stencil thickness and squeegee angle. The response surface showed that maximum printability of 1005 chip was achieved at the stencil thickness of 0.12 mm while the maximum printability of 0603 and 0402 chip was obtained at the stencil thickness of 0.05 mm. The bonding strength of the MLCC chips was also directly related with the printability.

  10. In vitro toxicity evaluation of silver soldering, electrical resistance, and laser welding of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Sestini, Silvia; Notarantonio, Laura; Cerboni, Barbara; Alessandrini, Carlo; Fimiani, Michele; Nannelli, Pietro; Pelagalli, Antonio; Giorgetti, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    The long-term effects of orthodontic appliances in the oral environment and the subsequent leaching of metals are relatively unknown. A method for determining the effects of various types of soldering and welding, both of which in turn could lead to leaching of metal ions, on the growth of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and oral keratinocytes in vitro, is proposed. The effects of cell behaviour of metal wires on osteoblast differentiation, expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity; on fibroblast proliferation, assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenil)-2H-tetrazolium-phenazine ethosulphate method; and on keratinocyte viability and migration on the wires, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were tested. Two types of commercially available wires normally used for orthodontic appliances, with a similar chemical composition (iron, carbon, silicon, chromium, molybdenum, phosphorus, sulphur, vanadium, and nitrogen) but differing in nickel and manganese content, were examined, as well as the joints obtained by electrical resistance welding, traditional soldering, and laser welding. Nickel and chromium, known as possible toxic metals, were also examined using pure nickel- and chromium-plated titanium wires. Segments of each wire, cut into different lengths, were added to each well in which the cells were grown to confluence. The high nickel and chromium content of orthodontic wires damaged both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, but did not affect keratinocytes. Chromium strongly affected fibroblast growth. The joint produced by electrical resistance welding was well tolerated by both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, whereas traditional soldering caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in both osteoblast ALP activity and fibroblast viability, and prevented the growth of keratinocytes in vitro. Laser welding was the only joining process well tolerated by all tested cells.

  11. Electromigration of composite Sn-Ag-Cu solder bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Xu, Di Erick; Chow, Jasper; Mayer, Michael; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the electromigration (EM) behavior of lead free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys that were reinforced with different types of nanoparticles [Copper-coated carbon nanotubes (Cu/CNT), La2O3, Graphene, SiC, and ZrO2]. The composite solders were bumped on a Cu substrate at 220°C, and the resistance of the bumped solders was measured using a four wire setup. Current aging was carried out for 4 hours at a temperature of 160°C, and an increase in resistance was noted during this time. Of all the composite solders that were studied, La2O3 and SiC reinforced SAC solders exhibited the smallest resistances after current aging. However, the rate of change in the resistance at room temperature was lower for the SiC-reinforced SAC solder. The SAC and Graphene reinforced SAC solder bumps completely failed within 15 - 20 min of these tests. The SiC nanoparticles were reported to possibly entrap the SAC atoms better than other nanoparticles with a lower rate of EM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Albumin-genipin solder for laser tissue welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Foster, John; Avolio, Albert; Poole-Warren, Laura

    2004-07-01

    Background. Laser tissue soldering (LTS) is an alternative technique to suturing for tissue repair. One of the major drawbacks of LTS is the weak tensile strength of the solder welds when compared to sutures. In this study, the possibility was investigated for a low cytotoxic crosslinker, acting on amino groups, to enhance the bond strength of albumin solders. Materials and Methods. Solder strips were welded onto rectangular sections of sheep small intestine by a diode laser. The laser delivered in continuous mode mode a power of 170 +/- 10 mW at λ=808 nm, through a multimode optical fiber (core size = 200 μm) to achieve a dose of 10.8 +/- 0.5 J/mg. The solder thickness and surface area were kept constant throughout the experiment (thickness = 0.15 +/- 1 mm, area = 12 +/- 1.2 mm2). The solder incorporated 62% bovine serum albumin, 0.38% genipin, 0.25% indocyanin green dye (IG) and water. Tissue welding was also performed with a similar solder, which did not incorporate genipin, as a control group. The repaired tissue was tested for tensile strength by a calibrated tensiometer. Results. The tensile strength of the "genipin" solder was twice as high as the strength of the BSA solder (0.21 +/- 0.04 N and 0.11 +/- 0.04 N respectively; p~10-15 unpaired t-test, N=30). Discussion. Addition of a chemical crosslinking agent, such as genipin, significantly increased the tensile strength of adhesive-tissue bonds. A proposed mechanism for this enhanced bond strength is the synergistic action of mechanical adhesion with chemical crosslinking by genipin.

  13. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  14. Teaching minority middle-school students to solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, James; Gates, Billy J., Jr.

    2014-03-01

    We aspired to teach minority middle school students to solder. We found that important variables affecting our ability to do so included: student-to-teacher ratio, venue of instruction, relationships with community partners, and understanding of the structure of the student's worldview. Once the effects of these variables had been understood, we found the students readily learned to solder. We now want to see whether the acquisition of the skill of soldering leads the students to be more interested in technical careers and in going to college. Supported by an APS Outreach Mini-grant.

  15. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  16. High temperature solder alloys for underhood applications. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Drewien, C.A.; Yost, F.G.; Sackinger, S.; Kern, J.; Weiser, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Under a cooperative research and development agreement with General Motors Corporation, lead-free solder systems including the flux, metallization, and solder are being developed for high temperature, underhood applications. Six tin-rich solders, five silver-rich metallizations, and four fluxes were screened using an experimental matrix whereby every combination was used to make sessile drops via hot plate or Heller oven processing. The contact angle, sessile drop appearance, and in some instances the microstructure was evaluated to determine combinations that would yield contact angles of less than 30{degrees}, well-formed sessile drops, and fine, uniform microstructures. Four solders, one metallization, and one flux were selected and will be used for further aging and mechanical property studies.

  17. Standard Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-10

    4.7.14.9 Stacking (piggybacking) ........................... 15 4.7.15 Adhesive coverage limits ............................... 15 4.8 Electrostatic...plated (ceramic boards). tin/lead plated and fused, or solder coated. Bonding/ adhesion promoters may be required (used). Solder mask shall not be...designed to accept another part into its configuration, there shall be no stacking (piggybacking) of parts or components. 4.7.15 Adhesive coverage

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Printed Wiring Board Solder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-04

    F.rA[. ,i.j. R’F.NI3 i-RA’ F.i*-H- - . 12 CIRCUMFERENCE O-F HOLE s 15’& , OF HiItE i c-.. J ,62T0~~~~~~4 .F1.+AlRE£tli f :+-.’ 3 - LOCAT 30ON - ±NN= iOT... training portion. That is, a technique for storing the data on a "good" board in some compacted form should be developed. One suggested technique is to...system uses a training board. The defects on soldered boards were not studies using this system since the illumination scheme did not give satisfactory

  19. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  20. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  1. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  2. Nickel (Ni) Microalloying Additions in Sn-Cu Lead-free Solder. Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. A. A. Mohd; Sandu, I. G.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Sandu, I.; Saleh, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this digital-age era, solder plays important role in electronic packaging industries. As interconnects material, solder provide an electrical and mechanical support to the electronics devices. Solder usually consist of two or more addition of microalloying. By microalloying addition, the solidification structure can be modified. This paper reviews the addition of Ni as microalloying in Sn-Cu lead free solder. Small additions of Ni resulted with an improvement of solder in microstructure and in intermetallic compounds. The stabilization of hexagonal structure of Cu6Sn5 in lead-free solder alloys occurred due to present of Ni.

  3. Microsurgical anastomosis of sperm duct by laser tissue soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Martin M.; Teutu-Kengne, Alain-Fleury; Brkovic, Drasko; Henning, Thomas; Klee, Doris; Poprawe, Reinhart; Jakse, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Connection of small vessels is usually done by suturing which is very cumbersome. Laser tissue soldering can circumvent that obstacle if a handy procedure can be defined. Our principle approach consists of a bioresorbable hollow stent with an expected degradation time of 3 weeks in combination with laser soldering. The stent is to be fed into the vessel to stabilize both ends and should allow percolation immediately after joining. The stents are made of Poly(D,L-lactid-co-glycolid) and solder is prepared from bovine serum albumin (BSA) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG) as chromophore to increase the absorption of laser light. After insertion, solder is applied onto the outer surface of the vessel and coagulated by laser radiation. The wavelength of 810 nm of a diode laser fits favorably to absorption properties of tissue and solder such that heating up of tissue is limited to prevent from necrosis and wound healing complications. In our study the preparation of stents, the consistency and doping of solder, a beam delivery instrument and the irradiation conditions are worked out. In-vitro tests are carried out on sperm ducts of Sprague-Dowlae (SD) rats. Different irradiation conditions are investigated and a micro-optical system consisting of a lens and a reflecting prism to ensure simultaneous irradiation of front and back side of the vessels tested. Under these conditions, the short-term rupture strength of laser anastomosis revealed as high as those achieved by suturing.

  4. Soldering in prosthodontics--an overview, part I.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Gerard

    2011-04-01

    The fit of fixed multiunit dental prostheses (FDP), traditionally termed fixed partial dentures (FPDs), is an ongoing problem. Poorly fitting restorations may hasten mechanical failure, due to abutment caries or screw failure. Soldering and welding play an important role in trying to overcome misfit of fixed multiunit prostheses. The term FPD will be used to denote multiunit fixed dental prostheses in this review. This is the first of a series of articles that review the state of the art and science of soldering and welding in relation to the fit of cemented or screw-retained multiunit prostheses. A comprehensive archive of background information and scientific findings is presented. Texts in dental materials and prosthodontics were reviewed. Scientific data were drawn from the numerous laboratory studies up to and including 2009. The background, theory, terminology, and working principles, along with the applied research, are presented. This first article focuses on soldering principles and dimensional accuracy in soldering. There is some discussion and suggestions for future research and development. Soldering may improve dimensional accuracy or reduce the distortion of multiunit fixed prostheses. Many variables can affect the outcome in soldering technique. Research science has developed some helpful guidelines. Research projects are disconnected and limited in scope. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    1999-10-19

    To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a Pb

  6. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, G.K. Haseeb, A.S.M.A. Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  7. Impact of Cooling Rate-Induced Recrystallization on High G Mechanical Shock and Thermal Cycling in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas R.; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical stability and thermo-mechanical fatigue performance of solder joints with low silver content Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) (SAC105) alloy based on different cooling rates are investigated in high G level shock environment and thermal cycling conditions. The cooling rate-controlled samples ranging from 1°C/min to 75°C/min cooling rate, not only show differences in microstructure, where a fine poly-granular microstructure develops in the case of fast cooling versus normal cooling, but also show various shock performances based on the microstructure changes. The fast cooling rate improves the high G shock performance by over 90% compared to the normal cooled SAC105 alloy air-cooling environment commonly used after assembly reflow. The microstructure effect on thermal cycling performance is also discussed, which is analyzed based on the Sn grain orientation, interconnect stability, and solder joint bulk microstructure.

  8. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P.; Iman, R.; Paffett, M.T.

    1991-12-31

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC`s and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  9. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P. . Government Electronics Group); Iman, R. ); Paffett, M.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC's and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  10. Thermo-Mechanical Response of Monolithic and NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Solder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    still exist from this high thermal mismatch deformation , resulting in large solder-joint stresses and strains and causing fatigue failure. The...life, but have not shown the needed improvements in thermo-mechanical fatigue life under strain - controlled conditions, which is a primary deformation ...A NiTi fiber will deform until it consists only of the correspondence variant (crystallographic orientation) that produces maximum strain . However

  11. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyan; Peng, Jianke; Fu, Li; Wang, Xincheng; Xie, Yan

    2016-04-01

    In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  12. Development of a new Pb-free solder: Sn-Ag-Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Chad M.

    1995-02-10

    With the ever increasing awareness of the toxicity of Pb, significant pressure has been put on the electronics industry to get the Pb out of solder. This work pertains to the development and characterization of an alloy which is Pb-free, yet retains the proven positive qualities of current Sn-Pb solders while enhancing the shortcomings of Sn-Pb solder. The solder studied is the Sn-4.7Ag-1.7Cu wt% alloy. By utilizing a variety of experimental techniques the alloy was characterized. The alloy has a melting temperature of 217°C and exhibits eutectic melting behavior. The solder was examined by subjecting to different annealing schedules and examining the microstructural stability. The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure of the solder was also examined. Overall, this solder alloy shows great promise as a viable alternative to Pb-bearing solders and, as such, an application for a patent has been filed.

  13. Microbial leaching of waste solder for recovery of metal.

    PubMed

    Hocheng, H; Hong, T; Jadhav, U

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an environment-friendly bioleaching process for recovery of metals from solders. Tin-copper (Sn-Cu), tin-copper-silver (Sn-Cu-Ag), and tin-lead (Sn-Pb) solders were used in the current study. The culture supernatant of Aspergillus niger removed metals faster than the culture supernatant of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Also, the metal removal by A. niger culture supernatant is faster for Sn-Cu-Ag solder as compared to other solder types. The effect of various process parameters such as shaking speed, temperature, volume of culture supernatant, and increased solder weight on bioleaching of metals was studied. About 99 (±1.75) % metal dissolution was achieved in 60 h, at 200-rpm shaking speed, 30 °C temperature, and by using 100-ml A. niger culture supernatant. An optimum solder weight for bioleaching was found to be 5 g/l. Addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in the bioleached solution from Sn-Cu-Ag precipitated tin (85 ± 0.35 %) and silver (80 ± 0.08 %), respectively. Passing of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas at pH 8.1 selectively precipitated lead (57.18 ± 0.13 %) from the Sn-Pb bioleached solution. The proposed innovative bioleaching process provides an alternative technology for recycling waste solders to conserve resources and protect environment.

  14. Lead-free Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Bi solder powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. L.; Duh, J. G.

    2003-04-01

    A mechanical alloying (MA) process was used to produce lead-free solder pastes of Sn-3.5Ag and the Sn-3.5Ag-4Bi system. Because of the high energy induced by repeated fracturing and welding, the grinding media played an important role during the MA process. A ceramic container was used to provide stronger impact force, which could induce phase transformation better than a Teflon container. In addition, it was found that 1-cm balls could fracture Bi particles and promote their dissolution into the Sn matrix. On the contrary, the milling process tended to achieve homogeneous mixing when using 3-mm balls. The MA powders, after milling with 3-mm balls, showed a small endothermic peak from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile at around 138°C, which was the eutectic temperature of Sn-Bi. The melting points of the MA powders in the ceramic container were measured to be 221°C and 203°C, respectively, for Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.5Ag-4Bi from the DSC curves. The reduced melting point ensured the complete melting during reflow with a peak temperature of 240°C. The formation of Ag3Sn was also observed from the x-ray diffraction peaks, indicating successful alloying by MA. The solder pastes could, thus, be produced by adding flux into the MA powders. The wetting property of the solder joint was also evaluated. The as-prepared solder pastes on electroless Ni-P/Cu/Si showed good metallurgical bonding with a contact angle less than 20°.

  15. Effect of Ag, Ni and Bi Additions on Solderability of Lead-Free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobari, Amir Hossein; Maalekian, Mehran; Seelig, Karl; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Ag, Ni and Bi additions on the melting, solidification, fluidity and wetting behavior of Sn-0.7Cu base solder alloy are studied. The addition of a small amount of Ni reduces the undercooling and improves the feeding distance (fluidity length); however, Ni does not improve the wetting and the spreading performance. The effect of Ni on the fluidity length of Ag-containing Sn-0.7Cu (SAC alloy) is marginal. Bi and Ag both improve wetting performance and also lower the melting temperature; however, they do not improve the fluidity; instead, they reduce the maximum length of fluidity.

  16. Methylene blue solder re-absorption in microvascular anastomoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Jeremy F.; Hepplewhite, J.; Frier, Malcolm; Bell, Peter R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Soldered vascular anastomoses have been reported using several chromophores but little is known of the optimal conditions for microvascular anastomosis. There are some indications of the optimal protein contents of a solder, and the effects of methylene blue on anastomotic strength. The effects of varying laser power density in vivo have also been described, showing a high rate of thrombosis with laser power over 22.9Wcm-2. However no evidence exists to describe how long the solder remains at the site of the anastomosis. Oz et al reported that the fibrin used in their study had been almost completely removed by 90 days but without objective evidence of solder removal. In order to address the issue of solder re-absorption from the site of an anastomosis we used radio-labelled albumin (I-125) incorporated into methylene blue based solder. This was investigated in both the situation of the patent and thrombosed anastomosis with anastomoses formed at high and low power. Iodine-125 (half life: 60.2 days) was covalently bonded to porcine albumin and mixed with the solder solution. Radio-iodine has been used over many years to determine protein turnover using either I-125 or I-131. Iodine-125 labelled human albumin is regularly used as a radiopharmaceutical tool for the determination of plasma volume. Radio-iodine has the advantages of not affecting protein metabolism and the label is rapidly excreted after metabolic breakdown. Labelling with chromium (Cr-51) causes protein denaturation and is lost from the protein with time. Labelled albumin has been reported in human studies over a 21-day period, with similar results reported by Matthews. Most significantly McFarlane reported a different rate of catabolism of I-131 and I-125 over a 22-day period. The conclusion from this is that the rate of iodine clearance is a good indicator of protein catabolism. In parallel with the surgery a series of blank standards were prepared with a known mass of solder to correct for isotope

  17. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...