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Sample records for auckland domain northern

  1. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  2. Speaking power to sex in Auckland.

    PubMed

    Peritore, N Patrick

    2004-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Sex-specific differences in attitudes and behaviors, arising from a division of human nature into male and female types, have been core findings of evolutionary psychology and are now among its key investigational presumptions. These differences have largely been ignored by mainstream political and social theories. METHOD. I explored one potential path toward incorporation, using ''Q'' methodology to test for male-female differences in attitudes toward social power. A 33-factor survey was administered confidentially and in single-blinded fashion to 26 participants, 8 adult males and 18 adult females in Auckland, New Zealand. Nine elite participants were recruited from among wealthy families and the executive staffs of prominent businesses, while 17 non-elite participants were recruited from among the personal networks of university students. RESULTS. 957 acts of subjective prioritization were available for analysis. Sex-specific strategies consistent with the maximization of reproductive success through hypergamous marriage were significantly more pronounced among the non-elites, male and female, than among the elites. Culture-associated behaviors and ideologies were significantly more pronounced among elites, male and female, than among the non-elites. CONCLUSION. Shared elite male-female interest in social control and hierarchy maintenance may affect mating strategies sufficiently to obscure more expected sex-specific differences in attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  4. Acute Surgical Unit at Auckland City Hospital: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsee, Li; Devaud, Marcelo; Middelberg, Lisa; Jones, Wayne; Civil, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Lack of timely assessment and access to acute operating rooms is a worldwide problem and also exists in New Zealand hospitals. To address these issues, an Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) was set up at Auckland City Hospital (ACH) in January 2009. This service has evolved and been modified to address the specific needs of acute surgical patients of ACH. Despite initial challenges inherent to setting up a new service, the Unit has been in steady operation and enhanced its performance over time. This paper is a descriptive analysis of the design of the ACH ASU and discusses some of the indications for streamlining acute surgical services at a large tertiary metropolitan hospital in New Zealand. Performance of the ASU has shown benefits for acute patients and the Hospital. The acute surgical rotation has also been beneficial for surgical training.

  5. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

    PubMed Central

    Swift, S.; Dean, S. J.; Ormonde, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%), followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%). Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p ≤ 0.05). Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%), cefuroxime (33.3%), and chloramphenicol (94.7%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51%) and ciprofloxacin (98.8%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres. PMID:27213052

  6. Multiproxy Paleoenvironmental Records Spanning the INTIMATE Timescale from Auckland Maar Lakes, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinus, Paul; D'Costa, Donna; Stephens, Tom; Atkin, Dan; Shane, Phil; Cochran, Ursula; Snowball, Ian; Nilsson, Andreas; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Davies, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution Late Quaternary paleoclimate archives are preserved in the lake sediment records contained in several maar craters from the Auckland region in northern New Zealand. Tephrochronology, AMS 14C and Ar/Ar -based chronostratigraphies were developed with several lakes containing laminated sediment records spanning much of the last glacial cycle. A multi-proxy approach was taken to construct a reliable record of local and regional paleoenvironments including: pollen and diatom paleoecology, environmental magnetism, grain size, XRF geochemistry, TOC, TN, TS, organic matter δ13C, δ15N and δD, as well as δ18O in biogenic silica. Pollen and diatom analysis of records spanning the last ca 60 ka show marked vegetation changes that reflect orbital forcing, although diatoms suggest significant hydrological changes that are not reflected in the pollen. Reduction of forest with expansion of grass and shrublands at the start of the LGM (29 ka BP), is accompanied by cool, dry and windy conditions, although the situation is complex with multiple brief warmer phases punctuating the LGM. Post-glacial warming commenced ca 17.9 ka BP and is reflected in several proxies, although the pollen record does not display the marked changes displayed in many of the other proxies during the LGIT and Holocene. Some of the inferred environmental changes are similar to the nature and timing of short-duration events during the last glacial cycle from the North Atlantic region, although others appear to reflect a southern polar forcing. The multi-proxy approach used has produced one of the most complete, well-dated and high-resolution paleoenvironmental records spanning the INTIMATE timescale from the mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere with implications for the nature, timing and forcings of climate change in the Southwest Pacific region.

  7. Magnetism of the lower crust: Observations from the Chipman Domain, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Webber, Jeffery; Williams, Michael; Regan, Sean; Seaman, Sheila

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic properties of lower crustal rocks produce anomalies seen in satellite, aeromagnetic, and ground studies, and are assumed to be responsible for observed long wave-length anomalies (LWA) of +/- 20 nT. The soon to be launched SWARM satellites will provide extensive data on the magnetization of the lower to middle crust. In anticipation of this event we are investigating magnetic properties in a superbly exposed section of lower crust in northern Saskatchewan. The Athabasca Granulite Terrain (AGT) is a complex region of felsic and mafic lower crustal rocks, part of the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across the Canadian Shield. The AGT is composed of a sequence of rocks identified as lower crustal in origin by their high pressure (> 1.0 GPa) and high temperature (~ 800 °C) metamorphism, dated at 2.6 Ga and 1.9 Ga, with uplift and exhumation at 1.85-1.80 Ga. The AGT is characterized by low (negative) aeromagnetic anomalies with distinct large positive anomalies in the southern and central regions. The Chipman Domain, on the east side, consists of tonalites, mafic granulites, and granite, intruded by the Chipman dike swarm at ~ 1.9 Ga, where anomalies cut across mapped lithologic boundaries. Susceptibility measurements from both field and lab readings range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 × 10- 5 to 3 × 10- 1 SI, with higher values related to both mafic granulite and some tonalite samples. Remanence values also show considerable variability, from 0.1 mA/m to 90 A/m, with the weakest magnetization found in the Chipman dikes and the Fehr granite. Forty samples out of 89 have Koenigsberger ratios greater than 1, but low initial remanence limits its influence on anomalies. Hysteresis and low temperature measurements identify magnetite as the predominant iron oxide. This section of lower crustal rocks has paramagnetic granites and dikes, with ferromagnetic mafic granulites and bimodal tonalites, defined by geographic location.

  8. Richard Feynman's popular lectures on quantum electrodynamics: The 1979 Robb lectures at Auckland University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, J. M.; Kwan, A. M.

    1996-06-01

    The subject of quantum electrodynamics (QED) was the subject of QED—The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, the popular book by Richard Feynman which was published by Princeton University Press in 1985. On p. 1, Feynman makes passing reference to the fact that the book is based on a series of general lectures on QED which were, however, first delivered in New Zealand. At Auckland University, these lectures were delivered in 1979, as the Sir Douglas Robb lectures, and videotapes of the lectures are held by the Auckland University Physics Department. We have carried out a detailed examination of these videotapes, and we discuss here the major differences between the original Auckland lectures and the published version. We use selected quotations from the lectures to show that the original lectures provide additional insight into Feynman's character, and have great educational value.

  9. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  10. Domain Analysis and Second-Language Instruction in Northern Ontario Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Kelleen; Allen, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the functions of English and native languages in northern Ontario native communities and argues that native children's greatest need for English is in an anglophone classroom environment. Discusses three types of curriculum design and suggests ways to develop content area reading and writing curricula for Canada native children. (SED)

  11. Wintertime organic aerosols in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand: contributions of residential wood and coal burning and petroleum utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Haobo Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; David Shooter

    2006-09-01

    Wintertime PM10 samples from two New Zealand cities (Christchurch and Auckland) have been characterized using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for biomass burning tracers, hopanes, n-alkanes, fatty acids, n-alkanols and sugars. The aerosol samples of Christchurch, which were heavily influenced by residential wood and coal burning, showed substantially higher ambient concentrations for most of the organic compounds than those of Auckland, where major sources of aerosols were vehicular emissions and sea-salt. Mass ratios between the biomass burning tracers studied were found to be significantly different (e.g., {beta}-sitosterol to nssK{sup +} ratios were more than three times higher in Christchurch than in Auckland), although levoglucosan to nssK{sup +} ratios were similar at the both sites. We also estimated, for the first time using stereochemical configurations of hopanes, that 60% of fossil fuel emissions came from petroleum utilization with the remaining 40% being from coal burning in Christchurch. In contrast, contribution of coal burning was negligible in Auckland. Moreover, contributions of most biomass burning tracers to organic carbon (OC) were significantly higher in Christchurch than in Auckland. On the other hand, saccharides (excluding levoglucosan) and hopanes accounted for larger fractions of OC in Auckland. This study demonstrates that intensive wood and coal burning can significantly affect organic aerosol composition in an urban environment. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  13. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  14. Children at risk of giardiasis in Auckland: a case-control analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, M. E.; Hope, V. T.; Scragg, R.; Kjellström, T.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence rate of giardiasis in New Zealand is one of the highest among developed countries, peaking in the 1-4 year age group. A case-control study was undertaken to identify risk factors for giardiasis among Auckland children under 5 years of age. The exposure history of 69 cases and 98 controls were analysed. Ninety-five per cent cases and 86% controls used water from the Auckland Metropolitan mains (AMM) supply for domestic purpose, 44 cases and 42 controls swam and 59 cases and 54 controls wore nappies. Children wearing nappies were at significantly increased risk of the disease (OR = 30, 95% CI = 1.01-8.9), as were those from households which had more than one child wearing a nappy (6.5, 1.8-23.4). The Auckland metropolitan mains water supply was associated with a reduced risk compared to other drinking water sources. Significantly increased risks were also associated with drinking water consumed away from home (4.7, 2.2-10.1), swimming at least once a week (2.4, 1.1-5.3) and travelling domestically (2.5, 1.03-6.0). The study identified vulnerable groups and modifiable risk factors for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly Giardia infection. Nappy wearing was an independent risk factor for infection. Further study is advocated to ensure better protection of public health, especially for children. PMID:12948364

  15. Investigation of zoonotic infections among Auckland Zoo staff: 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, M B; Morris, A J; Sinclair, D A; Pritchard, C P

    2012-12-01

    Investigation was undertaken to assess the occurrence of zoonotic infection among staff at Auckland Zoological Park, New Zealand, in 1991, 2002 and 2010. Serial cross-sectional health surveys in 1991, 2002 and 2010 comprising a health questionnaire, and serological, immunological and microbiological analysis for a range of potential zoonotic infections were performed. Laboratory results for zoo animals were also reviewed for 2004-2010 to assess the occurrence of potential zoonotic infections. Veterinary clinic, animal handler, grounds, maintenance and administrative staff participated in the surveys, with 49, 42 and 46 participants in the 1991, 2002 and 2010 surveys, respectively (29% of total zoo staff in 2010). A small number of staff reported work-related infections, including erysipelas (1), giardiasis (1) and campylobacteriosis (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii closely reflected those in the Auckland community. No carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected, and most of those with anti-HBV antibodies had been vaccinated. Few staff had serological evidence of past leptospiral infection. Three veterinary clinic staff had raised Chlamydophila psittaci antibodies, all < 1 : 160 indicating past exposure. Two staff (in 1991) had asymptomatic carriage of Giardia lamblia and one person (in 2010) had a dermatophyte infection. After 1991, positive tests indicating exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were < 10%, comparable to the general New Zealand population. Zoo animals had infections with potential zoonotic agents, including G. lamblia, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and T. gondii, although the occurrence was low. Zoonotic agents pose an occupational risk to zoo workers. While there was evidence of some zoonotic transmission at Auckland Zoo, this was uncommon and risks appear to be adequately managed under current policies and procedures. Nevertheless, ongoing assessment of risk factors is needed as

  16. A Multiproxy Reconstruction of Holocene Southern Westerlies from the Auckland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Weiss, A.; Curtin, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind belt plays an important role in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and glacial-interglacial climate change. We present a paleoclimate record that is primarily influenced by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds from a late Holocene lake sediment core and a peat core that spans the last 13,000 years, both obtained from New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland Islands (50°S, 166°E). Several proxy indicators contribute to our reconstruction. Hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow us to reconstruct the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation. Using macrofossil counts and the abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at our sites. Model simulations of the Westerlies and the rate and isotope ratios of precipitation allow us to interpret our proxy data as changes in the strength and position of the Westerly Winds. In our lacustrine sediment, we found that the Westerlies have been shifting southward since the Little Ice Age, consistent with modern observations of a southward shift. In the peatland sediment, we found a multi-millennial northward shift in the Westerlies during the middle Holocene. We will present further ongoing work that strengthens the chronology of Auckland Islands environmental change and integrates these results with vegetation shifts identified in pollen and macrofossil data.

  17. Relative effects of climate and source strength on atmospheric lead concentrations in Auckland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, H. C.; de Freitas, C. R.; Hay, J. E.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric lead levels were examined to assess the consequences of the 46 percent reduction in the lead content of premium grade petrol in New Zealand. Since this change was implemented in July 1986 observed levels of atmospheric lead decreased by 38 percent, but all or part of this reduction may have been due to factors other than fluctuations in lead emissions, notably variations in climate. Analysis of detailed atmospheric lead, meteorological and traffic data measured contemporaneously provided insight into the atmospheric processes influencing lead levels in Auckland and formed the basis of a statistical model capable of predicting monthly lead concentrations. The model was used to predict lead levels in Auckland for the period July 1986 through to July 1989 in the absence of any reduction in the lead content of petrol. Comparison with values observed for the same period showed that all of the reduction in atmospheric lead levels since July 1986 can be attributed to the reduction in the lead content of petrol. Policy planning implications of such a finding are considered.

  18. Activating Built Pedagogy: A Genealogical Exploration of Educational Space at the University of Auckland Epsom Campus and Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by a new teaching initiative that involved a redesign of conventional classroom spaces at the University of Auckland's Epsom Campus, this article considers the relationship between architecture, the built environment and education. It characterises the teaching space of the Epsom Campus as the embodiment of educational policy following…

  19. Making the invisible visible: a Photovoice exploration of homeless women's health and lives in central Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Kate; Buetow, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Women and the concept of homelessness are weakly connected in the international discourses on health and housing. This PhotoVoice study gave a sample of homeless women in central Auckland a camera with which to photograph their lives in order to voice their felt health needs as advocates and agents for positive change. Interviews explored the meanings given to street lives captured in the photographs and reveal threats to the women's mental health and worsening addictions. Their tight-knit, resilient community, including dogs, was seen as 'family' who provide support and protection. The women perceived social services as helping them survive and support their health, but not ending their homelessness. Barriers to them getting and staying off the street included a shortage of affordable, secure housing, which has also tended to become overcrowded. They identified their own leaders who could link with state housing services to implement and evaluate new homelessness programmes, such as Housing First.

  20. Ethnic differences in coronary heart disease case fatality rates in Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bullen, C; Beaglehole, R

    1997-12-01

    Data from the Auckland Coronary or Stroke (ARCOS) study for the years 1983 to 1992 were analysed to describe 28-day case fatality rates from coronary heart disease among Europeans, Maori and Pacific Islands people in Auckland, New Zealand. The case fatality rate was consistently higher in each age group and for both sexes among Maori and Pacific Islands people than in Europeans. Age-standardised case fatalities for Maori and Pacific Islands people were similar at around 65 per cent, compared with around 45 per cent among Europeans, and these differences were not explained by ethnic differences in possible underreporting of nonfatal myocardial infarction, in socioeconomic status, smoking, symptoms or past myocardial infarction. There was evidence of a more rapid progression of acute coronary events to a fatal outcome among Maori and Pacific Islands people, partly explained by delays in access to life support and coronary care: greater proportions of Pacific Islands people than Maori or Europeans who died did so within an hour of onset of symptoms (56 per cent of Pacific Islands people, 47 per cent of Maori, 45 per cent of Europeans). Pacific Islands and Maori people with acute coronary events took longer to reach a coronary care unit (mean times: Pacific Islands people 8.6 hours, Maori 7.4 hours, Europeans 6.7 hours, P < 0.05), although the median times were not significantly different; life-support units were used by a majority of Pacific Islands people and Europeans (57 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively), compared with only 46 per cent of Maori, but hospital care was similar for the three groups. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to investigate the reasons for these ethnic disparities in case fatality rates.

  1. Rangitoto Volcano Drilling Project: Life of a Small 'Monogenetic' Basaltic Shield in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, P. A. R.; Linnell, T.; Lindsay, J. M.; Smith, I. E.; Augustinus, P. M.; Cronin, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rangitoto is a small basaltic shield volcano representing the most recent and most voluminous episode of volcanism in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. Auckland City is built on the field, and hence, Rangitoto's importance in hazard-risk modelling. The symmetrical edifice, ~6 km wide and 260 m high, has volume of 1.78 km3. It comprises summit scoria cones and a lava field. However, the lack of deep erosion dissection has prevented the development of an eruptive stratigraphy. Previous studies suggested construction in a relatively short interval at 550-500 yrs BP. However, microscopic tephra have been interpreted as evidence of intermittent activity from 1498 +/- 140 to 504 +/- 6 yrs BP, a longevity of 1000 years. A 150-m-deep hole was drilled through the edifice in February 2014 to obtain a continuous core record. The result is an unparalleled stratigraphy of the evolution of a small shield volcano. The upper 128 m of core comprises at least 27 lava flows with thicknesses in the range 0.3-15 m, representing the main shield-building phase. Underlying marine sediments are interbedded with 8 m of pyroclastic lapilli, and a thin lava flow, representing the explosive phreatomagmatic birth of the volcano. Preliminary geochemical analyses reveal suite of relatively uniform transitional basalts (MgO = 8.1 to 9.7 wt %). However, 4 compositional groups are distinguished that were erupted in sequential order. High-MgO magmas were erupted first, followed by a two more heterogeneous groups displaying differentiation trends with time. Finally, distinct low-MgO basalts were erupted. Each magma type appears to represent a new magma batch. The core places the magma types in a time series, which can be correlated to the surface lava field. Hence, allowing a geometrical reconstruction of the shield growth. Additional petrologic investigations are providing insight to magmatic ascent processes, while radiocarbon and paleomagnetic secular variation studies will reveal the

  2. Optimal likelihood-based matching of volcanic sources and deposits in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Emily; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In monogenetic volcanic fields, where each eruption forms a new volcano, focusing and migration of activity over time is a very real possibility. In order for hazard estimates to reflect future, rather than past, behavior, it is vital to assemble as much reliable age data as possible on past eruptions. Multiple swamp/lake records have been extracted from the Auckland Volcanic Field, underlying the 1.4 million-population city of Auckland. We examine here the problem of matching these dated deposits to the volcanoes that produced them. The simplest issue is separation in time, which is handled by simulating prior volcano age sequences from direct dates where known, thinned via ordering constraints between the volcanoes. The subproblem of varying deposition thicknesses (which may be zero) at five locations of known distance and azimuth is quantified using a statistical attenuation model for the volcanic ash thickness. These elements are combined with other constraints, from widespread fingerprinted ash layers that separate eruptions and time-censoring of the records, into a likelihood that was optimized via linear programming. A second linear program was used to optimize over the Monte-Carlo simulated set of prior age profiles to determine the best overall match and consequent volcano age assignments. Considering all 20 matches, and the multiple factors of age, direction, and size/distance simultaneously, results in some non-intuitive assignments which would not be produced by single factor analyses. Compared with earlier work, the results provide better age control on a number of smaller centers such as Little Rangitoto, Otuataua, Taylors Hill, Wiri Mountain, Green Hill, Otara Hill, Hampton Park and Mt Cambria. Spatio-temporal hazard estimates are updated on the basis of the new ordering, which suggest that the scale of the 'flare-up' around 30 ka, while still highly significant, was less than previously thought.

  3. P- T- t constraints on the development of the Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain and implications for the evolution of the western gneiss belt, northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, A. S.; Barr, S. M.; Miller, B. V.; Reynolds, P. H.; Rhodes, B. P.; Yokart, B.

    2010-01-01

    The western gneiss belt in northern Thailand is exposed within two overlapping Cenozoic structural domains: the extensional Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain located west of the Chiang Mai basin, and the Mae Ping strike-slip fault domain located west of the Tak batholith. New P- T estimates and U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations from the Doi Inthanon domain show that the gneiss there records a complex multi-stage history that can be represented by a clockwise P- T- t path. U-Pb zircon and titanite dating of mylonitic calc-silicate gneiss from the Mae Wang area of the complex indicates that the paragneissic sequence experienced high-grade, medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) in the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic (ca. 210 Ma), in good agreement with previously determined zircon ages from the underlying core orthogneiss exposed on Doi Inthanon. Late Cretaceous monazite ages of 84 and 72 Ma reported previously from the core orthogneiss are attributed to a thermal overprint (M2) to upper-amphibolite facies in the sillimanite field. U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of granitic mylonite from the Doi Suthep area of the complex provides an upper age limit of 40 Ma (Late Eocene) for the early stage(s) of development of the actual core complex, by initially ductile, low-angle extensional shearing under lower amphibolite-facies conditions (M3), accompanied by near-isothermal diapiric rise and decompression melting. 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of muscovite from both Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon provided Miocene ages of ca. 26-15 Ma, representing cooling through the ca. 350 °C isotherm and marking late-stage development of the core complex by detachment faulting of the cover rocks and isostatic uplift of the sheared core zone and mantling gneisses in the footwall. Similarities in the thermochronology of high-grade gneisses exposed in the core complex and shear zone domains in the western gneiss belt of northern Thailand (and also in northern Vietnam, Laos, Yunnan

  4. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    As a collaborative project between the Faculties of Engineering of the University of Sinaloa, Mexico and the University of Auckland, an inter-disciplinary team researched historical information, monitoring results and modelling completed over the last ten years to establish the cause-effect relationship of development and human impacts in the watershed and recommend strategies to offset them .The research program analyzed the performance of the Twin Streams watershed over time with modelling of floods, hydrological disturbance indicators, analysis of water quality and ecological information, cost / benefit, harbor modelling and contaminant loads. The watershed is located in the west of Auckland and comprises 10,356 hectare: 8.19% ecologically protected area, 29.70% buffer zone, 6.67% peri-urban, 30.98% urban, 16.04% parks, and 8.42% other; average impermeability is 19.1%. Current population is 129,475 (2011) forecast to grow to 212,798 by 2051. The watershed includes 317.5 km of streams that drain to the Waitemata Harbor. The human impact can be traced back to the 1850s when the colonial settlers logged the native forests, dammed streams and altered the channel hydro-ecology resulting in significant erosion, sediment and changes to flows. In the early 1900s native vegetation started to regenerate in the headwaters, while agriculture and horticulture become established in rest of the watershed leading to the use of quite often very harmful pesticides and insecticides, such as DDT which is still detected in current environmental monitoring programs, and more erosion and channel alterations. As land become unproductive in the 1950s it stared to be urbanized, followed by more intensive urban development in the 1990s. Curiously there was no regulatory regime to control land use in the early stages and consequently over 400 houses were built in the floodplains, as well there were no legislation to control environmental impacts until 1991. Consequently today there is a

  5. A biosecurity response to Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Holder, Peter; George, Sherly; Disbury, Mark; Singe, Monica; Kean, John M; McFadden, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    A biosecurity response was triggered by the detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Port of Auckland, New Zealand. Ae. albopictus does not occur in New Zealand and is the most significant mosquito threat to this country. The possibility that a founding population had established, resulted in a large-scale biosecurity surveillance and control program. The response was initiated in early March 2007 and completed by mid-May 2007. No further exotic mosquitoes were detected. The response surveillance program consisted of larval habitat surveys and high density ovi- and light trapping. It was coordinated with a habitat modification and S-methoprene treatment control program. The response policies were guided by analysis of surveillance and quality assurance data, population modeling, and trace-back activities. Mosquito habitat and activity close to port were both more abundant than expected, particularly in storm water drain sumps. Sumps are difficult to treat, and during the response some modification was required to the surveillance program and the control regime. We were assured of the absence or eradication of any Ae. albopictus population, as a result of nil detection from surveillance, backed up by four overlapping rounds of insecticide treatment of habitat. This work highlights the importance of port surveillance and may serve as a guide for responses for future urban mosquito incursions.

  6. Performance of irradiated Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in urban Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Charles, J; Allan, D; Chaggan, A; Barrington, A; Burnip, G M; El-Sayed, A M

    2005-10-01

    The Australian moth Teia anartoides Walker has been the target of a major eradication program in Auckland, New Zealand. Information on cold torpor and dispersal was needed to help interpret catches of sterile and wild males in female-baited delta traps operated in a grid of up to 1,696 traps at 500-m spacings across the city. Laboratory experiments indicated male flight was enabled at temperatures above 17 degrees C (confirmed by field trapping of wild and recaptured moths). Male survival in the field or in field cages was determined to be limited to approximately 4 d. Sterilization of males for dispersal studies was achieved by exposing male pupae to either 160 or 100 Gy by using 1.25 MeV gamma rays from a Cobalt source, before release as fluorescent-dyed emerged adults. Dispersal was determined by recapture of males in the trapping grid of 1,696 delta traps baited with virgin female moths and placed at spacings of 50-500 m. Irradiated sterile males dispersed up to a maximum recorded distance of 4,500 m (160 Gy) and 10,000 m (100 Gy). At 100 Gy, the median dispersal distance was 300 m, with 90% of males dispersing 1,600 m or less.

  7. Incidence of injuries and other health problems in the Auckland Citibank marathon, 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, P; Larmer, P; Gardiner, J; Norton, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of injuries and other health problems sustained during participation in a marathon. METHODS: A cohort study was undertaken involving the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon participants. Demographic data and information on injuries and other health problems sustained during, immediately after, and 7 d following the marathon were obtained from a pre-race questionnaire, the medical aid posts, and a post-race questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 1219 starters, 916 (75.1%) completed both questionnaires. Seventy five individuals (6.2%) sought assistance at the medical aid posts. During or immediately after the marathon, 283 systemic health problems were reported by 218 respondents (23.8%) and 2671 specific health problems were reported by 846 respondents (92.4%). In the 7 d following the marathon, 1905 specific health problems were reported by 723 respondents (79.2%). The majority of the specific health problems were blisters, stiffness, and pain, predominantly involving the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Although a high proportion of participants experienced health problem during the race, very few of these problems were serious. Many of the entrants were still experiencing problems 7 d after the marathon. PMID:9015595

  8. Metformin associated lactic acidosis in Auckland City Hospital 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Haloob, Imad; de Zoysa, Janak R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA). METHODS: Auckland City Hospital drains a population of just over 400000 people. All cases presenting with metabolic acidosis between July 2005 and July 2009 were identified using clinical coding. A retrospective case notes review identified patients with MALA. Prescribing data for metformin was obtained from the national pharmaceutical prescribing scheme. RESULTS: There were 42 cases of metabolic lactic acidosis over 1718000 patient years. There were 51000 patient years of metformin prescribed to patients over the study period. There were thirty two cases of lactic acidosis due to sepsis, seven in patients treated with metformin. Ten cases of MALA were identified. The incidence of MALA was estimated at 19.46 per 100000 patient year exposure to metformin. The relative risk of lactic acidosis in patients on metformin was 13.53 (95%CI: 7.88-21.66) compared to the general population. The mean age of patients with MALA was 63 years, range 40-83 years. A baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was obtained in all patients and ranged from 23-130 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Only two patients had chronic kidney disease G4. Three patients required treatment with haemodialysis. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: Lactic acidosis is an uncommon but significant complication of use of metformin which carries a high risk of morbidity. PMID:27458565

  9. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Safar, Atheer; Stewart, Joanna; Trenholme, Adrian; Drinkovic, Dragana; Peat, Briar; Taylor, Susan; Read, Kerry; Roberts, Sally; Voss, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection and the potential effects of a multivalent GAS vaccine in New Zealand. During January 2005–December 2006, we conducted prospective population-based laboratory surveillance of Auckland residents admitted to all public hospitals with isolation of GAS from normally sterile sites. Using emm typing, we identified 225 persons with confirmed invasive GAS infection (median 53 years of age; range 0–97 years). Overall incidence was 8.1 cases per 100,00 persons per year (20.4/100,000/year for Maori and Pacific Islanders; 24.4/100,000/year for persons >65 years of age; 33/100,000/year for infants <1 year of age). Nearly half (49%) of all cases occurred in Auckland’s lowest socioeconomic quintile. Twenty-two persons died, for an overall case-fatality rate of 10% (63% for toxic shock syndrome). Seventy-four percent of patients who died had an underlying condition. To the population in our study, the proposed 26-valent vaccine would provide limited benefit. PMID:21749758

  10. Pyroclastic Density Current Hazards in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, B. D.; Gravley, D.; Clarke, A. B.; Bloomberg, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    The most dangerous phenomena associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions are dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). These are turbulent, ground-hugging sediment gravity currents that travel radially away from the explosive center at up to 100 m/s. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand, consists of approximately 50 eruptive centers, at least 39 of which have had explosive phreatomagmatic behaviour. A primary concern for future AVF eruptions is the impact of dilute PDCs in and around the Auckland area. We combine field observations from the Maungataketake tuff ring, which has one of the best exposures of dilute PDC deposits in the AVF, with a quantitative model for flow of and sedimentation from a radially-spreading, steady-state, depth-averaged dilute PDC (modified from Bursik and Woods, 1996 Bull Volcanol 58:175-193). The model allows us to explore the depositional mechanisms, macroscale current dynamics, and potential impact on societal infrastructure of dilute PDCs from a future AVF eruption. The lower portion of the Maungataketake tuff ring pyroclastic deposits contains trunks, limbs and fragments of Podocarp trees (<1 m in diameter) that were blown down by dilute PDCs up to 0.7-0.9 km from the vent. Beyond this trees were encapsulated and buried in growth position up to the total runout distance of 1.6-1.8 km. This observation suggests that the dynamic pressure of the current quickly dropped as it travelled away from source. Using the tree diameter and yield strength of the wood, we calculate that dynamic pressures (Pdyn) of 10-75 kPa are necessary to topple trees of this size and composition. Thus the two main criteria for model success based on the field evidence include (a) Pdyn must be >10 kPa nearer than 0.9 km to the vent, and <10 kPa beyond 0.9 km, and (b) the total run-out distance must be between 1.6 and 1.8 km. Model results suggest the two main forces controlling the runout distance and Pdyn over the extent of the current are

  11. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  12. Monitoring and predicting community mental health centre utilization in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hall, G B

    1988-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization of mental health care has been in progress in many countries for over a quarter of a century. A comprehensive and detailed literature has evolved focussing on this process and its implications for alternative forms of combatting the incidence of mental illness. Most notably, literature has concentrated on the need for community-based mental health services both to prevent hospitalization in the first place and to ease the return of the hospital patient into the outside environment. In this paper the evolution of such a community-based system in metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand is discussed. More specifically, the focus is on the utilization of four community-based centres, with a view to plan better growth or reduction of service provision. Two dimensions of centre use, spatial and sociodemographic, are analysed and incorporated into four predictive models that, with appropriate refinement, can be used to determine the likely level of centre use in unserviced parts of the metropolitan area. Distance of individuals from centre locations is shown to be a significant factor in affecting use for three suburban primary prevention and intervention centres, whilst distance is non-significant for an inner-city aftercare facility. Also, various combinations of socio-demographic variables, reflecting service-specific needs for specific groups in the population, are shown to contribute significantly to predicting centre use. The paper presents the results against a policy backdrop in New Zealand where community mental health services are very much experimental in nature. The results reaffirm the importance of community mental health care in fulfilling an important need in society that health care administrators should take seriously in future policy developments.

  13. Sedimentology, eruptive mechanism and facies architecture of basaltic scoria cones from the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly

    2016-09-01

    Scoria cones are a common type of basaltic to andesitic small-volume volcanoes (e.g. 10- 1-10- 5 km3) that results from gas-bubble driven explosive eruptive styles. Although they are small in volume, they can produce complex eruptions, involving multiple eruptive styles. Eight scoria cones from the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand were selected to define the eruptive style variability from their volcanic facies architecture. The reconstruction of their eruptive and pyroclastic transport mechanisms was established on the basis of study of their volcanic sedimentology, stratigraphy, and measurement of their pyroclast density, porosity, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 2D particle morphology analysis and Visible and Near Visible Infrared Spectroscopy. Collection of these data allowed defining three end-member types of scoria cones inferred to be constructed from lava-fountaining, transitional fountaining and Strombolian type, and explosive Strombolian type. Using the physical and field-based characteristics of scoriaceous samples a simple generalised facies model of basaltic scoria cones for the AVF is developed that can be extended to other scoria cones elsewhere. The typical AVF scoria cone has an initial phreatomagmatic phases that might reduce the volume of magma available for subsequent scoria cone forming eruptions. This inferred to have the main reason to have decreased cone volumes recognised from Auckland in comparison to other volcanic fields evolved dominantly in dry eruptive condition (e.g. no external water influence). It suggests that such subtle eruptive style variations through a scoria cone evolution need to be integrated into the hazard assessment of a potentially active volcanic field such as that in Auckland.

  14. A survey of emerging contaminants in the estuarine receiving environment around Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Ferreira, Bianca; Jelić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Mira; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-01-15

    Increasing urbanisation in the future will put mounting stresses on the receiving environments around those urban centres due to increased sedimentation and contaminant runoff. Emerging contaminants (ECs) are an extensive array of chemicals and many are not under regulatory action. Within New Zealand likely future pressures from ECs will be in both urban centres and rural areas due to intensive agriculture, although at present there is a lack of information on the state of the environment in both sectors. This study was initiated to gauge the distribution of ECs in the urban environment by measuring concentrations of flame retardants, plasticisers, alkylphenols, herbicides and pesticides, steroid oestrogens, pharmaceuticals and heavy metals in sediment from 13 estuarine sites around Auckland, New Zealand's biggest city. Total polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardant concentrations ((7)ΣPBDE) ranged from 0.55 to 573 ng/g (dw). The phthalate plasticiser di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was measured at up to 11,500 ng/g from one site. Nonylphenol (NP) was found at up to 32,000 ng/g at one site adjacent to the city's major wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). However, median concentrations of NP were 153 ng/g, suggesting this site was not representative of the region. Nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates (NPEO1,2) had highest concentrations (1600 ng/g) at a marina. Highest glyphosate concentrations (up to 950 ng/g) were observed at residential sites. Steroid oestrogens were detected at extremely low concentrations (maximum 2.2 ng/g), while all other pesticides or herbicides were not detected at any sites. Multi-residue analysis of 46 pharmaceuticals showed presence of 21 compounds at one or more sites, with average concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 7.66 ng/g. Generally, environmental concentrations of ECs were similar to those reported world-wide. However, comparisons for pharmaceuticals were problematic, due to very few studies on pharmaceutical

  15. Selection and Testing of Stream Reference Sites in Developed Areas of Delaware USA and Auckland NZL Using Macroinvertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    The selection and testing of reference sites for wadeable streams is an important element of a monitoring program because it sets the standard against which all sites will be assessed. The setting of criteria for reference sties (e.g., 100% native forest, no roads, no dwellings) is the easy part. The hard part is finding sites that meet the criteria in already developed areas. The process often results in compromise to a set of sites defined as "minimally disturbed". A key step is then to test the reference site data to (1) ensure that the sites accurately define undisturbed conditions, and (2) to define the variability in the data in space and time. Experiences developing and testing reference sites in the USA (Delaware) and NZL (Auckland) using macroinvertebrates will be presented. Testing in Delaware involved a multi-state study, and concluded that differences between reference sites followed Ecoregion boundaries and latitude. Testing in Auckland found similarities between sites with differing geologies, vegetation maturity, and feral animal grazing (e.g., goats). Differences detected using multi-dimensional scaling did not affect assessment using 4 common metrics. Reference sites distinguished a wide range of urban and rural land use disturbances.

  16. Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated

  17. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860-1900.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.

  18. Lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of Lake Pupuke sediments as indicators of environmental change in the Auckland region over the last 50,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, Daniel; Augustinus, Paul; Stephens, Thomas; Ficken, Katherine

    2010-05-01

    Lake Pupuke exists as a fresh water lake located on the North Shore of Auckland City, New Zealand. Accumulated sediments within Lake Pupuke represent a continuous record from crater formation ca. 200 Ka to Present, making them an important record of climatic change in northern New Zealand. Lipid composition and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses were carried out on Lake Pupuke sediment cores spanning ca. 50,000 cal. yr BP to Present. Compounds of interest included n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids and botryococcenes. Bulk sediment and compound-specific carbon isotope records exhibit a positive excursion during the period 18,000 to 27,000 cal. yr BP. This coincides with the Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP) and in the absence of native C4 plant species most likely reflects decreased discrimination of the 13C isotope as a result of low pCO2. Termination of the glacial period occurs ca. 18,000 cal. yr BP and is defined by a steady increase in organic carbon content with a decrease in bulk and compound-specific δ13C which continues until ca. 10,000 cal. yr BP. Both aquatic and terrestrial biomarkers (represented by botryococcene and long chain n-alkyl compounds respectively) exhibit an increase in δ13C values beginning ca. 7,500 cal. yr BP through to present day. This is not reflected in the aquatic macrophyte biomarkers (mid chain length n-alkyl compounds) and may be caused by increased carbon recycling as a result of greater lake productivity and an increased canopy effect during this period. A marked increase in botryococcene biomarkers is noted during the period 7,500 to 9,500 cal. yr BP, reaching total concentrations as high as 19 mg/g. This is accompanied by a relative increase in C29 and C31 n-alkane terrestrial biomarkers. This zone is also evident to a lesser degree in the bulk sediment proxies, which exhibit increased carbon content, C/N ratio and δ13C values. The abundance of botryococcenes would suggest algal blooms of Botryococcus Braunii

  19. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejono, Igor; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Žáčková, Eliška; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, Jiří; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Cadomian magmatic complexes of the Brunovistulian Domain crop out at the eastern termination of the Bohemian Massif. However, the age, nature and geotectonic affinity of some of pre-Variscan (meta-)igneous rock complexes from this domain are still unknown. Geochronological and geochemical study of the granitic rocks across the Brunovistulian Domain reveals new information about the timing and nature of this magmatic activity originally situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. Zircon U-Pb data (601 ± 3 Ma, Brno Massif; 634 ± 6 Ma, paraautochtonous core of the Svratka Dome; 568 ± 3 Ma, Bíteš orthogneiss) from the allochtonous Moravicum indicate the prolonged magmatic activity within the Brunovistulian Domain during the Ediacaran. The major- and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures show heterogeneous geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks and suggest a magmatic-arc geotectonic setting. The two-stage Depleted Mantle Nd model ages (c. 1.3-2.0 Ga) indicate derivation of the granitic rocks from a relatively primitive crustal source, as well as from an ancient and evolved continental crust of the Brunovistulian Domain. These results constrain the magmatic-arc activity to c. 635-570 Ma and provide a further evidence for a long-lived (at least c. 65 Myr) and likely episodic subduction-related magmatism at the northern margin of Gondwana. The presence of granitic intrusions derived from variously mature crustal sources at different times suggests heterogeneous crustal segments to having been involved in the magmatic-arc system during its multistage evolution.

  20. Pollen core assemblages as indicator of Polynesian and European impact on the vegetation cover of Auckland Isthmus catchment, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahim, Ghada M. S.; Parker, Robin J.; Horrocks, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Tamaki Estuary is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf situated on the eastern side of central Auckland. Over the last 100 years, Tamaki catchment has evolved from a nearly rural landscape to an urbanised and industrialised area. Pollen, 14C and glass shards analyses, were carried out on three cores collected along the estuary with the aim to reconstruct the estuary's history over the last ˜8000 years and trace natural and anthropogenic effects recorded in the sediments. Glass shard analysis was used to establish key tephra time markers such as the peralkaline eruption of Mayor Island, ˜6000 years BP. During the pre-Polynesian period (since at least 8000 years BP), regional vegetation was podocarp/hardwood forest dominated by Dacrydium cupressinun, Prumnopits taxifolia, and Metrosideros. Major Polynesian settler impact (commencing ˜700 yr BP) was associated with forest clearance as indicated by a sharp decline in forest pollen types. This coincided with an increase in bracken (Pteridium esculentum) spores and grass pollen. Continuing landscape disturbance during European settlement (commencing after 1840 AD) was accompanied by the distinctive appearance of exotic pollen taxa such as Pinus.

  1. Neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands from 1998 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Pomroy, W E; López-Villalobos, N; Gibbs, N J; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-07-01

    As part of a health survey of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (50 degrees 30'S, 166 degrees 17'E), neonatal mortality was closely monitored at the Sandy Bay colony for seven consecutive years. Throughout the breeding seasons 1998-99 to 2004-05, more than 400 postmortem examinations were performed on pups found dead at this site. The primary causes of death were categorized as trauma (35%), bacterial infections (24%), hookworm infection (13%), starvation (13%), and stillbirth (4%). For most pups, more than one diagnosis was recorded. Every year, two distinct peaks of trauma were observed: the first associated with mature bulls fighting within the harem and the second with subadult males abducting pups. In 2001-02 and 2002-03, epidemics caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae increased mortality by three times the mean in nonepidemic years (10.2%). The increased mortality was attributed directly to acute suppurative infection due to the bacterium and also to an increase in traumatic deaths of debilitated pups. Parasitic infection with the hookworm Uncinaria spp. was a common finding in all pups older than three weeks of age and debilitation by the parasite may have contributed to increased susceptibility to other pathogens such as Klebsiella sp. or Salmonella sp. This study provides valuable quantitative data on the natural causes of neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions that can be used in demographic models for management of threatened species.

  2. Clostridium difficile as a cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea among children in Auckland, New Zealand: clinical and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sathyendran, V; McAuliffe, G N; Swager, T; Freeman, J T; Taylor, S L; Roberts, S A

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the molecular epidemiology of circulating C. difficile strains and risk factors for CDI among hospitalised children in the Auckland region. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of hospitalised children <15 years of age in two hospitals investigated for healthcare-associated diarrhoea between November 2011 and June 2012. Stool specimens were analysed for the presence of C. difficile using a two-step testing algorithm including polymerase chain reaction (PCR). C. difficile was cultured and PCR ribotyping performed. Demographic data, illness characteristics and risk factors were compared between children with and without CDI. Non-duplicate stool specimens were collected from 320 children with a median age of 1.2 years (range 3 days to 15 years). Forty-six patients (14 %) tested met the definition for CDI. The overall incidence of CDI was 2.0 per 10,000 bed days. The percentage of positive tests among neonates was only 2.6 %. PCR ribotyping showed a range of strains, with ribotype 014 being the most common. Significant risk factors for CDI were treatment with proton pump inhibitors [risk ratio (RR) 1.74, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-5.59; p = 0.002], presence of underlying malignancy (RR 2.71, 95 % CI 1.65-4.62; p = 0.001), receiving chemotherapy (RR 2.70, 95 % CI 1.41-4.83; p = 0.003) and exposure to antibiotics (RR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.99-1.17; p = 0.03). C. difficile is an important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in this paediatric population. The notion that neonatal populations will always have high rates of colonisation with C. difficile may not be correct. Several risk factors associated with CDI among adults were also found to be significant.

  3. The Auckland Cataract Study: 2 year postoperative assessment of aspects of clinical, visual, corneal topographic and satisfaction outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A M; Sachdev, N; Wong, T; Riley, A F; Grupcheva, C N; McGhee, C N

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical, visual, computerised corneal topographic, and subjective satisfaction with visual acuity, in a cohort of subjects 2 years after phacoemulsification surgery in a public hospital in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective study of a representative sample of 97 subjects (20%) randomly selected from 480 subjects in the original Auckland Cataract Study (ACS) cohort. The clinical assessment protocol was identical to the ACS and included an extensive questionnaire to enable direct comparisons to be made between the two groups. Results: The study population was predominantly female (66%) with a mean age of 76.3 (SD 9.9) years. New systemic and ocular disease affected 18.4% and 10.3% of subjects respectively, and 10.3% required referral to either a general practitioner (2.1%) or ophthalmologist (8.2%). Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.2 (0.2) logMAR units (6/9 Snellen equivalent), with mean spherical equivalent −0.37 (1.01) dioptres (D) and astigmatism −1.07 (0.70) D 2 years postoperatively, compared to mean BSCVA 0.1 (0.2) logMAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), spherical equivalent −0.59 (1.07) D, and astigmatism −1.14 (0.77) D 4 weeks after surgery. 94.9% of subjects retained a BSCVA of 6/12 or better, irrespective of pre-existing ocular disease. The overall posterior capsule opacification (PCO) rate was 20.4% and this was visually insignificant in all but 3.1% of eyes that had already undergone Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Orbscan II elevation technology demonstrated corneal stability 2 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Although corneal astigmatism was eliminated in approximately half of the subjects 1 month postoperatively, astigmatism showed a tendency to regress towards the preoperative level with local corneal thickening at the site of incision 2 years after cataract surgery. Of fellow eyes, 61.2% had undergone cataract surgery. Overall, 75.3% of subjects were moderately to very satisfied with their

  4. Block Slides on Extremely Weak Tectonic Clay Seams in Openly Folded Tertiary Mud-Rocks at Auckland and the Rangitikei Valley, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prebble, Warwick M.; Williams, Ann L.

    2016-06-01

    Block slides have developed on extremely weak, thin clay seams of tectonic origin, parallel to bedding in gently dipping sandstones and mudstones of Tertiary age. Two areas of noted instability are investigated at Auckland and the Rangitikei valley. Dimensions range from 100 m across × 100 m long for short displacement block slides up to 4 km across × 3 km long for large landslide complexes in which block slides are a major component. Displacements of blocks range from incipient (cm) through short (30 m) to 2 or 3 km for large slides. Many of the Auckland slides are dormant but likely to move in a 2000 year return period earthquake or 100 year high intensity rain storm. At Rangitikei there are many active, younger slides. Sliding rates for active failures vary from a few cm/year to 50 m in 30 min. Host rocks are weak to very weak clayey sandstones and sandy mudstones. The seams are rich in smectite. They have polished and crushed walls, may have slickensides and some contain rounded rock fragments. Laboratory shear strength of the seams is 13 kPa cohesion and 13° friction, with a lower bound of 8° at zero cohesion. Strength is increased at the field scale by waviness, steps and splays. Continuity can be demonstrated over distances of hundreds of metres. Key investigation methods were mapping, shafts and trenches. Tectonic uplift, folding and faulting of the weak Tertiary strata and river down-cutting are perpetuating block slide development.

  5. Mathematics Education in the South Pacific. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (25th, Auckland, New Zealand, July 7-10, 2002). Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bill, Ed.; Irwin, Kathryn C., Ed.; Pfannkuch, Maxine, Ed.; Thomas, Michael O. J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia (MERGA) held at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of this meeting is mathematics education in the South Pacific. Presentations are centered around the topic of numeracy in primary or elementary school.…

  6. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  7. Combining probabilistic hazard assessment with cost-benefit analysis to support decision making in a volcanic crisis from the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Jolly, Gill; Lindsay, Jan; Howe, Tracy; Marzocchi, Warner

    2010-05-01

    One of the main challenges of modern volcanology is to provide the public with robust and useful information for decision-making in land-use planning and in emergency management. From the scientific point of view, this translates into reliable and quantitative long- and short-term volcanic hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Because of the complexity in characterizing volcanic events, and of the natural variability of volcanic processes, a probabilistic approach is more suitable than deterministic modeling. In recent years, two probabilistic codes have been developed for quantitative short- and long-term eruption forecasting (BET_EF) and volcanic hazard assessment (BET_VH). Both of them are based on a Bayesian Event Tree, in which volcanic events are seen as a chain of logical steps of increasing detail. At each node of the tree, the probability is computed by taking into account different sources of information, such as geological and volcanological models, past occurrences, expert opinion and numerical modeling of volcanic phenomena. Since it is a Bayesian tool, the output probability is not a single number, but a probability distribution accounting for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. In this study, we apply BET_VH in order to quantify the long-term volcanic hazard due to base surge invasion in the region around Auckland, New Zealand's most populous city. Here, small basaltic eruptions from monogenetic cones pose a considerable risk to the city in case of phreatomagmatic activity: evidence for base surges are not uncommon in deposits from past events. Currently, we are particularly focussing on the scenario simulated during Exercise Ruaumoko, a national disaster exercise based on the build-up to an eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field. Based on recent papers by Marzocchi and Woo, we suggest a possible quantitative strategy to link probabilistic scientific output and Boolean decision making. It is based on cost-benefit analysis, in which all costs

  8. Trace Element Geochemistry of Basaltic Tephra in Maar Cores; Implications for Centre Correlation, Field Evolution, and Mantle Source Characteristics of the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.; Leonard, G.; Timm, C.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Neil, H.; Millet, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing volcanic hazard and risk management strategies hinges on a detailed understanding of the type, timing and tephra dispersal of past eruptions. In order to unravel the pyroclastic eruption history of a volcanic field, genetic links between the deposits and eruption source centre need to be established. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; New Zealand) has been active for ca. 200 kyr and comprises ca. 53 individual centres covering an area of ca. 360km2. These centres show a range of sizes and eruptive styles from maar craters and tuff rings, to scoria cones and lava flows consistent with both phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions. Superimposition of the metropolitan area of Auckland (ca. 1.4 million inhabitants) on the volcanic field makes it critically important to assess the characteristics of the volcanic activity, on which to base assessment and management of the consequent hazards. Here we present a geochemical approach for correlating tephra deposits to their source centres. To acquire the most complete stratigraphic record of pyroclastic events, maar crater cores from different locations, covering various depths and thus ages across the field were selected. Magnetic susceptibility and x-ray density scanning of the cores was used to identify the basaltic tephra horizons, which were sampled and in-situ analysis of individual shards undertaken for major and trace elements using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS techniques, respectively. Our results show that tephra shard trace element ratios are comparable and complementary to the AVF whole rock database. The use of specific trace element ratios (e.g. Gd/Yb vs. Zr/Yb) allows us to fingerprint and cross correlate tephra horizons between cores and, when coupled with newly acquired 40Ar-39Ar age dating and eruption size estimates, correlate horizons to their source centres. This integrated style of study can provide valuable information to help volcanic hazard management and forecasting, and mitigation of related risks.

  9. Disclosing the Paleoarchean to Ediacaran history of the São Francisco craton basement: The Porteirinha domain (northern Araçuaí orogen, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Pinto, Claiton Piva; Magalhães, Joana Tiago Reis; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio Piacentini; Santos, Gabriella Galliac

    2016-07-01

    This geochronological and isotopic study focuses on one of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement domains of the São Francisco craton reworked in the Araçuaí orogen, the Porteirinha domain, Brazil. It also includes a thorough compilation of the U-Pb geochronological data related to the adjacent Archean and Rhyacian terranes from the São Francisco craton and Araçuaí orogen. The main target of this study is the TTG gneisses of the Porteirinha complex (Sample 1). The gneiss dated at 3371 ± 6 Ma unraveled a polycyclic evolution characterized by two metamorphic overprinting episodes, dated at 3146 ± 24 Ma (M1) and ca. 600 Ma (M2). The former (M1) is so far the most reliable evidence of the oldest metamorphic episode ever dated in Brazil. The latter (M2), in turn, is endemic in most of the exposed eastern cratonic margin within the Araçuaí orogen. Whole-rock Sm-Nd analysis from the gneiss provided a slightly negative εNd(t3370) = - 0.78 value, and a depleted mantle model (TDM) age of 3.5 Ga, indicating derivation mainly from the melting of a ca. 3.5 Ga tholeiitic source. Sample 2, a K-rich leuco-orthogneiss from the Rio Itacambiriçu Complex, was dated at 2657 ± 25 Ma and also presents a ca. 600 Ma M2 overprinting M2 age. The other two analyses were obtained from Rhyacian granitoids. Sample 3 is syn-collisional, peraluminous leucogranite from the Tingui granitic complex, showing a crystallization age of 2140 ± 14 Ma and strong post-crystallization Pb*-loss, also ascribed to the Ediacaran overprinting. Accordingly, it is interpreted as a correlative of the late Rhyacian (ca. 2150-2050 Ma) collisional stage of the Mantiqueira orogenic system/belt (ca. 2220-2000 Ma), overprinted by the Ediacaran collage. Sample 4 is a Rhyacian post-orogenic (post-collisional), mixed-source, peralkaline, A1-type suite, with a crystallization age of 2050 ± 10 Ma, presenting an important post-crystallization Pb*-loss related to Ediacaran collision. The focused region records some

  10. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  11. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex.

  12. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. PMID:27211584

  13. Large-amplitude mesospheric response to an orographic wave generated over the Southern Ocean Auckland Islands (50.7°S) during the DEEPWAVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, P.-D.; Taylor, M. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Bossert, K.; Williams, B. P.; Broutman, D.; Ma, J.; Eckermann, S. D.; Doyle, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) project was conducted over New Zealand and the surrounding regions during June and July 2014, to more fully understand the generation, propagation, and effects of atmospheric gravity waves. A large suite of instruments collected data from the ground to the upper atmosphere (~100 km), with several new remote-sensing instruments operating on board the NSF Gulfstream V (GV) research aircraft, which was the central measurement platform of the project. On 14 July, during one of the research flights (research flight 23), a spectacular event was observed as the GV flew in the lee of the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands (50.7°S). An apparent "ship wave" pattern was imaged in the OH layer (at ~83.5 km) by the Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper and evolved significantly over four successive passes spanning more than 4 h. The waves were associated with orographic forcing generated by relatively strong (15-20 m/s) near-surface wind flowing over the rugged island topography. The mountain wave had an amplitude T' ~ 10 K, a dominant horizontal wavelength ~40 km, achieved a momentum flux exceeding 300 m2 s-2, and eventually exhibited instability and breaking at the OH altitude. This case of deep mountain wave propagation demonstrates the potential for strong responses in the mesosphere arising from a small source under suitable propagation conditions and suggests that such cases may be more common than previously believed.

  14. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  15. Combining long- and short-term probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment with cost-benefit analysis to support decision making in a volcanic crisis from the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Jolly, Gill; Lindsay, Jan; Howe, Tracy; Marzocchi, Warner

    2012-04-01

    By using BET_VH, we propose a quantitative probabilistic hazard assessment for base surge impact in Auckland, New Zealand. Base surges resulting from phreatomagmatic eruptions are among the most dangerous phenomena likely to be associated with the initial phase of a future eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field. The assessment is done both in the long-term and in a specific short-term case study, i.e. the simulated pre-eruptive unrest episode during Exercise Ruaumoko, a national civil defence exercise. The most important factors to account for are the uncertainties in the vent location (expected for a volcanic field) and in the run-out distance of base surges. Here, we propose a statistical model of base surge run-out distance based on deposits from past eruptions in Auckland and in analogous volcanoes. We then combine our hazard assessment with an analysis of the costs and benefits of evacuating people (on a 1 × 1-km cell grid). In addition to stressing the practical importance of a cost-benefit analysis in creating a bridge between volcanologists and decision makers, our study highlights some important points. First, in the Exercise Ruaumoko application, the evacuation call seems to be required as soon as the unrest phase is clear; additionally, the evacuation area is much larger than what is recommended in the current contingency plan. Secondly, the evacuation area changes in size with time, due to a reduction in the uncertainty in the vent location and increase in the probability of eruption. It is the tradeoff between these two factors that dictates which cells must be evacuated, and when, thus determining the ultimate size and shape of the area to be evacuated.

  16. Outcomes of renal transplant recipients with BK virus infection and BK virus surveillance in the Auckland region from 2006 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Yuan; Pilmore, Helen L; Zhou, Lifeng; de Zoysa, Janak R

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate incidence, risk factors and treatment outcome of BK polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) in a cohort of renal transplant recipients in the Auckland region without a formal BK polyomavirus (BKV) surveillance programme. METHODS A cohort of 226 patients who received their renal transplants from 2006 to 2012 was retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Seventy-six recipients (33.6%) had a BK viral load (BKVL) test and 9 patients (3.9%) developed BKVN. Cold ischaemia time (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.04-1.35) was found to be a risk factor for BKVN. Four recipients with BKVN had complete resolution of their BKV infection; 1 recipient had BKVL less than 625 copies/mL; 3 recipients had BKVL more than 1000 copies/mL and 1 had graft failure from BKVN. BKVN has a negative impact on graft function [median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 22.5 (IQR 18.5-53.0) mL/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.015), but no statistically significant difference (P = 0.374) in renal allograft function was found among negative BK viraemia group [median eGFR 60.0 (IQR 48.5-74.2) mL/min per 1.73 m2), positive BK viraemia without BKVN group [median eGFR 55.0 (IQR 47.0-76.0) mL/min per 1.73 m2] and unknown BKV status group [median eGFR 54.0 (IQR 43.8-71.0) mL/min per 1.73 m2]. The incidence and treatment outcomes of BKVN were similar to some centres with BKV surveillance programmes. CONCLUSION Recipients with BVKN have poorer graft function. Although active surveillance for BKV has been shown to be effective in reducing incidence of BKVN, it should be tailored specifically to that transplant centre based on its epidemiology and outcomes of BKVN, particularly in centres with limited resources. PMID:27872831

  17. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand (Hooker's) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (New Zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Lyons, E T; Pomroy, W E; Gibbs, N; López-Villalobos, N; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-06-01

    This is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand sea lions (NZSLs; Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands. The examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. Gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly between years and was higher from mid-January to the end of February when the majority of pups were between 3 and 9 weeks old. The average burden of adult parasites per pup was not influenced by the host's sex and body condition or by year. This study also provided evidence for transmission occurring by the transmammary route in NZSLs.

  18. Northern cardiometeopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasnulin, V I; Sevost'yanova, E V; Hasnulina, A V

    2001-04-01

    Our research in high latitudes has allowed the identification of a special class of deadaptive disorders, northern cardiometeopathies, which integrates cardiovascular functional violations connected to biologically significant modifications of meteorological, geomagnetic, electrical, gravitational, rhythmological and other geo-ecological factors of the North. Cardiac and cerebral disorder complexes, and also some psychoemotional modifications manifest cardiometeopathies. Cardiometeopathies can occur with developing of pathology, and in such a case they can be selected in the independent form of deadaptive disease. At the same time, cardiometeopathies in case where cardiovascular pathology already exists could cause complications and become a particular risk factor for the development of injuries and myocardial heart attack. The most important mechanism of cardiometeopathies' formation is the organism's reaction to modifications of the Earth's electromagnetic field, based on internal electromagnetic fields' (first of all pulsing field of heart) dependence on the magnitude and directness of modification of the external electromagnetic fields. The analysis of the high degree of dependence of the blood circulation effiency during geomagnetic perturbations in the North of the modification of electromagnetic heart activity allows us to speak of the discovery of an earlier unknown electromagnetic blood pump.

  19. Securing the Northern Maritime Border Through Maritime Domain Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    and purpose of the agreement” (United States Department of State [USDOS], 2003). According to this pro memoria document, armament consists of M-60, .50...of Justice. United States Department of State. (2003). Pro Memoria of the United States Department of State. Washington, DC. Retrieved August 16

  20. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  1. Understanding the Public Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    2003-01-01

    This overview of the public domain covers: defining the public domain; figuring out if a work is protected by copyright; being sure a work is in the public domain; asserting the copyright protection and term; the Creative Commons initiative; building the Information Commons; when permission is needed for using a public domain work; and special…

  2. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  3. Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view of the martian northern plains. Thousands of square kilometers of the northern middle and polar latitudes of Mars look similar to the scene in this image. In late spring and in summer, dust devils crisscross the northern plains, leaving a variety of dark streaks. The streaks do not survive from year to year, indicating their ephemeral nature. The circular features in this image, including the prominent bright circular feature near the bottom, are the locations of buried meteor impact craters. This image is located near 58.1oN, 207.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Northern Arizona University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael F.; Saltonstall, Margot; Bickel, Sarah; Brandel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university nestled below the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona. It enrolls more than 21,000 undergraduate and graduate students at its main campus in Flagstaff, through its 35 statewide sites, and via online program offerings. Within the university organizational system, Student Affairs has a…

  5. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  6. Current Status and Future Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gordov, Evgeny; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2013-12-01

    Northern Eurasia is a sensitive and rapidly changing area with the signal of climate change effects already observed in many components of the Earth's system. The ongoing warming in the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) domain was substantially larger than for the globe and during the past 50 years, with a rate of the annual temperature increase of 0.33°C per decade. In addition, this region experienced impacts of abrupt institutional and economic changes in the former Soviet Union countries, east Europe, Mongolia, and China.

  7. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  8. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  9. Block rotations, fault domains and crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, A.; Ron, H.

    1987-01-01

    Much of the earth's crust is broken by sets of parallel strike-slip faults which are organized in domains. A simple kinematic model suggests that when subject to tectonic strain, the faults, and the blocks bound by them, rotate. The rotation can be estimated from the structurally-determined fault slip and fault spacing, and independently from local deviations of paleomagnetic declinations from global values. A rigorous test of this model was carried out in northern Israel, where good agreement was found between the two rotations.

  10. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  11. A Domain Analysis Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Bauhaus , a prototype CASE workstation for D-SAPS development. [ARAN88A] Guillermo F. Arango. Domain Engineering for Software Reuse. PhD thesis...34 VITA90B: Domain Analysis within the ISEC Rapid Center 48 CMU/SEI-90-SR-3 Appendix III Alphabetical by Organization/Project BAUHAUS * ALLE87A

  12. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  13. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  14. Causal Learning Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Gopnik, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Five studies investigated (a) children's ability to use the dependent and independent probabilities of events to make causal inferences and (b) the interaction between such inferences and domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, preschoolers used patterns of dependence and independence to make accurate causal inferences in the domains of…

  15. Sac phosphatase domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W E; Cooke, F T; Parker, P J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the roles of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in controlling cellular functions such as endocytosis, exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton have included new insights into the phosphatases that are responsible for the interconversion of these lipids. One of these is an entirely novel class of phosphatase domain found in a number of well characterized proteins. Proteins containing this Sac phosphatase domain include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Sac1p and Fig4p. The Sac phosphatase domain is also found within the mammalian phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase synaptojanin and the yeast synaptojanin homologues Inp51p, Inp52p and Inp53p. These proteins therefore contain both Sac phosphatase and 5-phosphatase domains. This review describes the Sac phosphatase domain-containing proteins and their actions, with particular reference to the genetic and biochemical insights provided by study of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:10947947

  16. Cross Domain Analogies for Learning Domain Theories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Example Problem and Worked Solution All problems and worked solutions used in this work were taken from the same physics textbook ( Giancoli 1991...domain theory. We close with a discussion of related work and our plans for the future. Representations and Problem Solving Representing physics ...small compared to the 30,000+ concepts and 8,000+ predicates already defined in the KB. Thus, objects, relations, and events that appear in physics

  17. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  18. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  19. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  20. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  1. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  2. Modeling Analysis of Multi-Decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WRF-CMAQ modeling system was applied over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the U.S. Model simulations for the 1990-2010 were performed to examine trends in various air pollutant concentrations. Trends in O3 mixing ratios over the U.S. are...

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Multi-decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species Across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-decadal model calculations for the 1990-2010 period are performed with the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the continental U.S. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations acros...

  4. Visualizing Knowledge Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Katy; Chen, Chaomei; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews visualization techniques for scientific disciplines and information retrieval and classification. Highlights include historical background of scientometrics, bibliometrics, and citation analysis; map generation; process flow of visualizing knowledge domains; measures and similarity calculations; vector space model; factor analysis;…

  5. Software architecture design domain

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Software architectures can provide a basis for the capture and subsequent reuse of design knowledge. The goal of software architecture is to allow the design of a system to take place at a higher level of abstraction; a level concerned with components, connections, constraints, rationale. This architectural view of software adds a new layer of abstraction to the traditional design phase of software development. It has resulted in a flurry of activity towards techniques, tools, and architectural design languages developed specifically to assist with this activity. An analysis of architectural descriptions, even though they differ in notation, shows a common set of key constructs that are present across widely varying domains. These common aspects form a core set of constructs that should belong to any ADL in order to for the language to offer the ability to specify software systems at the architectural level. This analysis also revealed a second set of constructs which served to expand the first set thereby improving the syntax and semantics. These constructs are classified according to whether they provide representation and analysis support for architectures belonging to many varying application domains (domain-independent construct class) or to a particular application domain (domain-dependent constructs). This paper presents the constructs of these two classes, their placement in the architecture design domain and shows how they may be used to classify, select, and analyze proclaimed architectural design languages (ADLs).

  6. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  7. Mineralogy of the Northern Llowlands on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; Altieri, Francesca; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Poulet, Francois; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed the spectral properties of the 1 µm band to constrain the composition of the lowland terrains of Mars and compared them with the global mineralogy of the planet. The analysis has been carry out with the data of OMEGA instrument on board of Mars Express using the method of Carrozzo et al. [1]. The spectral behavior in the right shoulder at 1 µm together with that of other spectral indices such as the 1 µm band integral and width confirm the peculiar nature of these terrains. They are characterized by a well known negative slope in the NIR range, but they show a spectral behavior in the visible domain typical of the mafic terrains located on the southern cratered and older regions of Mars. Similar NIR negative is also present in spectra taken from the northern circumpolar dark sand dunes, characterized moreover by the typical hydration bands. Recently, Horgan and Bell III [2] proposed that the northern dark plains are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rind on glass. Our results, together with the recent ones from CRISM [3], seems to confirm that the mineralogy of these peculiar areas is likely linked to a weathered basaltic component. The spectral similarity in the NIR range with the northern circumpolar dark sand dunes, undergoing every Martian year the deposition of the ices and their sublimation, can put some constrains in the weathering processes that took place on the northern lowlands. Unlike the southern and older mafic terrains, they may have interacted with the ices, as also suggested by the morphological structures present in these areas [4]. Reference: [1] Carrozzo F. G. et al. (2012) JGR, 117(E00J17), doi: 10.1029/2012JE004091[2] Horgan and Bell III (2012) Geology, doi:10.1130/G32755.1 [3] Salvatore M. R. et al. (2010) JGR, 115(E07005) [4] Zealey W. J. (2009)Planetary and Space Science, 57(5-6) 699-710.

  8. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  9. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  10. Utilizing wide area maritime domain awareness (MDA) data to cue a remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenor, Anthony W.; Cross, Richard; Webb, Sean; Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.

    2013-10-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada - Atlantic (DRDC Atlantic) is currently involved in research on the topic of northern Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). One project, entitled Situational Information for Enabling Development of Northern Awareness (SEDNA), includes research on the exploitation of MDA data in northern areas. One aspect of this research is to utilize wide area MDA data to provide awareness to an unattended, land-based system. Wide area MDA is attained through the use of space-based AIS (SAIS) data, a data feed used by the Canadian Department of National Defence and supplied by the commercial provider exactEarth Ltd. The land-based surveillance system used is the remote northern system constructed within the DRDC Northern Watch Technology Demonstration Project. Northern Watch is a multi-year project intended to show state-of-the-art, unattended, surveillance capabilities in the Canadian north. The link between the SAIS and Northern Watch is provided by a research infrastructure that consists of an assembly of data sources, users, applications, and product management techniques that collectively support research in areas such as information management and MDA data exploitation. High-level descriptions of the systems are provided along with elaboration on the alerting algorithm, the notifications that would be sent to the Northern Watch southern command site, and the resulting actions that could be taken by the Northern Watch surveillance system.

  11. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  13. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Optimal domain decomposition strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Yonghyun; Soni, Bharat K.

    1995-01-01

    The primary interest of the authors is in the area of grid generation, in particular, optimal domain decomposition about realistic configurations. A grid generation procedure with optimal blocking strategies has been developed to generate multi-block grids for a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The focus of this study is the domain decomposition which optimizes solution algorithm/block compatibility based on geometrical complexities as well as the physical characteristics of flow field. The progress realized in this study is summarized in this paper.

  16. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. The Domains of TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, Betty Wallace

    The domains of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) are those spheres of concern involving persons who speak languages other than English or dialects of English other than the standard. This clientele has been classified traditionally in terms of programs in English as a foreign language, English as a second language, English…

  18. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  19. Domain Validity and Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Michael, William B.

    1975-01-01

    An alternative derivation of Tryon's basic formula for the coefficient of domain validity or the coefficient of generalizability developed by Cronbach, Rajaratnam, and Glaser is provided. This derivation, which is also the generalized Kuder-Richardson coefficient, requires a relatively minimal number of assumptions compared with that in previously…

  20. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  1. Reappraisal of the relationship between the northern Nevada rift and Miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Nevada rift is a prominent mafic dike swarm and magnetic anomaly in north-central Nevada inferred to record the Middle Miocene (16.5-15.0 Ma) extension direction in the northern Basin and Range province in the western United States. From the 245°-250° rift direction, Basin and Range extension is inferred to have shifted 45° clockwise to a modern direction of 290°-300° during the late Miocene. The region surrounding the northern Nevada rift was actively extending while the rift formed, and these domains are all characterized by extension oriented 280°-300°. This direction is distinctly different from the rift direction and nearly identical to the modern Basin and Range direction. Although the rate, structural style, and distribution of Basin and Range extension appear to have undergone a significant change in the late Miocene (ca. 10 Ma), the overall spreading direction does not. Middle Miocene extension was directed perpendicular to the axis of the thickest crust formed during Mesozoic shortening and this orientation may reflect gravitational collapse of this thick crust. Orientation of northern Nevada rift dikes may reflect a short-lived regional stress field related to the onset of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism.

  2. Magnetic domain and domain wall in Co/Pt multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapatra, A.; Mohanty, J.

    2016-05-01

    We report systematic micromagnetic investigation of formation of magnetic domains in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Pt multilayer with the variation in magnetic anisotropy and stack thickness. The lowering of anisotropy makes the domain wall broader and domain formation less efficient. Domain sizeincreases with increasing thickness of the stack to minimize the stray field energy.The minimization of energy of the system due to domain formation makes the M-H loop narrower whereas, lower stack thickness results in a wider loop. The magnetization reversalin this system occurs due tothe nucleation and growth of reverse domains.

  3. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim

    2016-10-01

    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  4. Family Medicine/Northern Medical Services Involvement in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, James

    1988-01-01

    To address the problems of recruitment and retention of family physicians in various remote locations in northern Saskatchewan, the University of Saskatchewan became involved through Northern Medical Services, a division of the Department of Family Medicine. The University's involvement consists of the provision of resident family-physician services, visiting consultant services, family-practise resident training, research, and a consulting role of the Medical Health Officer. This paper reviews the context in which this program was created, its role in health care in the area, and its involvement with the communities in health promotion and research. PMID:21253032

  5. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Australian Air Force’s Air Combat Capability is currently undergoing a significant restructure as new , advanced platforms are introduced to the fleet...the combat fleet of the Royal Australian Air Force has undergone a major shift in force structure, with new platforms and capabilities being...University of Auckland, New Zealand , in 1996. ____________________ ________________________________________________ UNCLASSIFIED

  6. An ice-ocean coupled model for the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Abe; Preller, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    The Hibler ice model has been modified and adapted to a domain that includes most of the sea ice-covered areas in the Northern Hemisphere. This model, joined with the Cox ocean model, is developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Navy's sea ice forecasting, PIPS, and is termed PIPS2.0. Generally, the modeled ice edge is consistent with the Navy-NOAA Joint Ice Center weekly analysis, and the modeled ice thickness distribution agrees with submarine sonar data in the central Arctic basin.

  7. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  8. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  9. Primary Science in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990 the science curriculum in Northern Ireland has gone through three major changes. In the beginning, fifteen attainment targets were introduced to an unsuspecting and largely unprepared teaching population: these were eventually reduced to five in 1993 and then to the present two in 1996. Unlike in England, technology has never stood as…

  10. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account…

  11. Motivating Learners in Northern Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A teacher at a northern Ontario adult Native literacy program describes how she cultivates student motivation. The teacher-student relationship is the most influential factor for motivating students. By focusing on cultural awareness, cultural teaching practices, and a sense of community, teachers can help students be successful. Program…

  12. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  13. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  14. Field Evolution of Antiferromagnetic Domains and Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Eric E.; Hellwig, Olav; Berger, Andreas K.

    2003-03-01

    We have used magnetron sputtered [Co(4Å)Pt(7Å)]X Co(4Å)Ru(9Å)N multiplayer films to create artificially layered antiferromagnets. In contrast to atomic antiferromagnets our model system has an antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange energy comparable to the Zeemann energy in moderate fields and allows to fine tune the relative magnitude of the different magnetic energy terms by varying the parameters X and N. With increasing X and N we observe a transition from traditionally observed sharp AF domain walls towards AF domain walls with a finite width which consist of ferromagnetic stripes, i.e. the AF domains have zero net moment whereas the domain walls carry a finite magnetic moment. Such AF domain walls have not been observed before and are a direct consequence of balancing out exchange and Zeeman energy. We also show that such domain walls are expected from theoretical energy calculations. In this contribution we study the nature and field evolution of the AF stripe domain walls by Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). The surface sensitivity of MFM and the finite moment of the AF domain walls allow us to image AF domains as well as domain walls. We are showing first experiments to study the AF domain wall evolution in real space while applying an external field. O.H. was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via a Forschungsstipendium under the contract number HE 3286/1-1.

  15. Space Domain Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    information required to characterize a space object. Another key parameter to be considered is the frequency of observation. This sampling rate varies...useful to define the values of these parameters that approximate the current and future state of the space domain. The current catalog and network... Parameters used in estimating data needs for SDA Current Threshold Objective βmo , βimg 0.1, 10Kb 0.1, 10Kb 0.1, 10Kb Number of Objects (Na , Np

  16. Swarming in bounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Dieter; Motsch, Sébastien; Thatcher, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Vicsek model is a prototype for the emergence of collective motion. In free space, it is characterized by a swarm of particles all moving in the same direction. Since this dynamic does not include attraction among particles, the swarm, while aligning in velocity space, has no spatial coherence. Adding specular reflection at the boundaries generates global spatial coherence of the swarms while maintaining its velocity alignment. We investigate numerically how the geometry of the domain influences the Vicsek model using three type of geometry: a channel, a disk and a rectangle. Varying the parameters of the Vicsek model (e.g. noise levels and influence horizons), we discuss the mechanisms that generate spatial coherence and show how they create new dynamical solutions of the swarming motions in these geometries. Several observables are introduced to characterize the simulated patterns (e.g. mass profile, center of mass, connectivity of the swarm).

  17. Beyond the Number Domain

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Platt, Michael L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding, or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. In this review, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures, and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain--a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory, and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

  18. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  19. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  20. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  1. Ligand binding by PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context.

  2. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; Chu, Y. H.; He, Q.

    2014-08-14

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  3. The J-domain proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana: an unexpectedly large and diverse family of chaperones.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A

    2001-07-01

    A total of 89 J-domain proteins were identified in the genome of the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced amino acid sequences of the J-domain proteins were analyzed for an assortment of structural features and motifs. Based on the results of sequence comparisons and structure and function predictions, 51 distinct families were identified. The families ranged in size from 1 to 6 members. Subcellular localizations of the A thaliana J-domain proteins were predicted; species were found in both the soluble and membrane compartments of all cellular organelles. Based on digital Northern analysis, the J-domain proteins could be separated into groups of low, medium, and moderate expression levels. This genomics-based analysis of the A thaliana J-domain proteins establishes a framework for detailed studies of biological function and specificity. It additionally provides a comprehensive basis for evolutionary comparisons.

  4. Mapping the Moral Domain

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  5. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A.; Wang, Xin M.; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Gorrell, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell–collagen interactions in chronic liver injury. PMID:21356365

  6. Hydrophobic Compounds Reshape Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barnoud, Jonathan; Rossi, Giulia; Marrink, Siewert J.; Monticelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes have a complex lateral organization featuring domains with distinct composition, also known as rafts, which play an essential role in cellular processes such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. In vivo, perturbations of membrane domains (e.g., by drugs or lipophilic compounds) have major effects on the activity of raft-associated proteins and on signaling pathways, but they are difficult to characterize because of the small size of the domains, typically below optical resolution. Model membranes, instead, can show macroscopic phase separation between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, and they are often used to investigate the driving forces of membrane lateral organization. Studies in model membranes have shown that some lipophilic compounds perturb membrane domains, but it is not clear which chemical and physical properties determine domain perturbation. The mechanisms of domain stabilization and destabilization are also unknown. Here we describe the effect of six simple hydrophobic compounds on the lateral organization of phase-separated model membranes consisting of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol. Using molecular simulations, we identify two groups of molecules with distinct behavior: aliphatic compounds promote lipid mixing by distributing at the interface between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains; aromatic compounds, instead, stabilize phase separation by partitioning into liquid-disordered domains and excluding cholesterol from the disordered domains. We predict that relatively small concentrations of hydrophobic species can have a broad impact on domain stability in model systems, which suggests possible mechanisms of action for hydrophobic compounds in vivo. PMID:25299598

  7. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  8. Rattlesnake Bites in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Alfred N.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 59 cases of rattlesnake bites at two major northern California hospitals, no deaths occurred, no amputations or fasciotomies were required and only one patient had tissue necrosis requiring a graft. Because patients are being seen in major medical facilities earlier, envenomation is encountered in earlier stages. Less specific national standards of treatment, therefore, should receive less emphasis than treatment based on the virulence of the snakes in the particular geographic region. Initial doses of antivenin given intravenously should be based on the degree of envenomation, with additional titration done for worsening symptoms. PMID:6636730

  9. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  10. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; ...

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  11. Diversity in protein domain superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Orengo, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    Whilst ∼93% of domain superfamilies appear to be relatively structurally and functionally conserved based on the available data from the CATH-Gene3D domain classification resource, the remainder are much more diverse. In this review, we consider how domains in some of the most ubiquitous and promiscuous superfamilies have evolved, in particular the plasticity in their functional sites and surfaces which expands the repertoire of molecules they interact with and actions performed on them. To what extent can we identify a core function for these superfamilies which would allow us to develop a ‘domain grammar of function’ whereby a protein's biological role can be proposed from its constituent domains? Clearly the first step is to understand the extent to which these components vary and how changes in their molecular make-up modifies function. PMID:26451979

  12. Microbial starch-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Oviedo, Norma; Sánchez, Sergio

    2005-06-01

    Glucosidic bonds from different non-soluble polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose and xylan are hydrolyzed by amylases, cellulases and xylanases, respectively. These enzymes are produced by microorganisms. They have a modular structure that is composed of a catalytic domain and at least one non-catalytic domain that is involved in polysaccharide binding. Starch-binding modules are present in microbial enzymes that are involved in starch metabolism; these are classified into several different families on the basis of their amino acid sequence similarities. Such binding domains promote attachment to the substrate and increase its concentration at the active site of the enzyme, which allows microorganisms to degrade non-soluble starch. Fold similarities are better conserved than sequences; nevertheless, it is possible to notice two evolutionary clusters of microbial starch-binding domains. These domains have enormous potential as tags for protein immobilization, as well as for the tailoring of enzymes that play a part in polysaccharide metabolism.

  13. Phase-domain photoacoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ruochong; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Ding, Ran; Kishor, Rahul; Qiu, Lei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-01-01

    As one of the fastest-growing imaging modalities in recent years, photoacoustic imaging has attracted tremendous research interest for various applications including anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging. The majority of the photoacoustic imaging systems are based on the time-domain pulsed photoacoustic method, which utilizes a pulsed laser source to induce a wideband photoacoustic signal, revealing optical absorption contrast. An alternative way is the frequency-domain photoacoustic method utilizing the chirping modulation of laser intensity to achieve lower system cost. In this paper, we report another way of the photoacoustic method, called phase-domain photoacoustic sensing, which explores the phase difference between two consequent intensity-modulated laser pulse induced photoacoustic measurements to reveal the optical properties. The basic principle is introduced, modeled, and experimentally validated in this paper, which opens another potential pathway to perform photoacoustic sensing and imaging, eliminating acoustic detection variations beyond the conventional time-domain and frequency-domain photoacoustic methods.

  14. The monocyte binding domain(s) on human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Woof, J M; Nik Jaafar, M I; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1984-06-01

    Monocyte binding has previously been assigned to the C gamma 3 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) largely on the ability of the pFc' fragment to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. This ability is markedly reduced compared to the intact parent IgG. We find this result with a conventional pFc' preparation but this preparation is found to contain trace contamination of parent IgG as demonstrated by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies directed against C gamma 2 domain and light-chain epitopes of human IgG. Extensive immunoaffinity purification of the pFc' preparation removes its inhibitory ability indicating that this originates in the trace contamination of parent IgG (or Fc). Neither of the human IgG1 paraproteins TIM, lacking the C gamma 2 domain, or SIZ, lacking the C gamma 3 domain, are found to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. The hinge-deleted IgG1 Dob protein shows little or no inhibitory ability. Indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain in monocyte binding is considered. We suggest finally that the site of interaction is found either on the C gamma 2 domain alone or between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains.

  15. Magmatismes tholéiitique et alcalin des demi-grabens crétacés de Mayo Oulo Léré et de Babouri Figuil (Nord du Cameroun Sud du Tchad) en domaine d'extension continentaleTholeiitic and alkaline magmatisms of the Early-Cretaceous half-grabens of Mayo Oulo Léré and Babouri Figuil (Northern Cameroon Southern Chad) in extensional structural settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounouno, Ismaı̈la; Déruelle, Bernard; Guiraud, René; Vicat, Jean-Paul

    2001-08-01

    Two major dykes of basalts, microgabbros, olivine dolerites (continental tholeiites), and of camptonites and benmoreites (alkaline rocks) are respectively exposed in the Mayo Oulo-Léré and Babouri-Figuil Early Cretaceous half-grabens (Northern Cameroon-Southern Chad). The tholeiites were probably derived from an asthenospheric source in connection with a lithospheric thinning occurring between Santonian and Eocene times. In contrast, the alkaline rocks may be derived from a deeper metasomatized mantle source.

  16. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I. E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  17. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  18. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  19. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  20. Streamflow simulations of the terrestrial Arctic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fengge; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bowling, Laura C.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2005-04-01

    Predicting riverine discharge to the Arctic Ocean has become increasingly important because of the dominant role that river runoff plays in the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean, and the predicted high sensitivity of the region to global warming. The ability of land surface models to represent runoff and streamflow from northern river basins is critical to an understanding of the Arctic hydrologic cycle. A set of simulations with the land surface scheme VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) implemented at 100 km EASE-Grid across the pan-Arctic domain was conducted to evaluate the model's representation of various hydrologic processes in the Arctic land region, and to provide a consistent baseline hydroclimatology for the region. The pan-Arctic drainage basin system was partitioned into 12 regions for purposes of model implementation and testing. Streamflow observations at various basin outlets, satellite-based snow cover extent, observed dates of lake freeze-up and break-up, and sited monitored summer permafrost maximum active layer thickness were used to evaluate various simulated hydrologic variables. The results indicate that the VIC model was able to reproduce these hydrologic processes in the Arctic region. A 21-year average river inflow (1979-1999) to the Arctic Ocean from the AORB (Arctic Ocean River Basin) illustrated in Prowse and Flegg (2000), was estimated with the simulated streamflow as 3354 km3/yr, and 3596 km3/yr with the inclusion of the Arctic Archepelago, which are comparable to the previous estimates derived from the observed data.

  1. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is

  2. Paleomagnetism and paleogeography of Jurassic radiolarian cherts from the Northern Apennines of Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    Oriented samples of Jurassic radiolarian chert were collected from the Tuscan domain (continental margin) and the Ligurid domain (oceanic) of the northern Apennines for paleomagnetic study to determine the paleogeographic origins of these rocks. The oceanic rocks are all thermochemically overprinted by a mostly reversed-polarity component of magnetization (B) that was likely acquired during late Miocene regional uplift of the northern Apennines. This component also dominates the lower brittle chert of the Tuscan Cherts, but disappears upsection in the more clay-rich and ductile siliceous marlstones. In addition, the Tuscan Cherts retain an inferred primary magnetization (C), isolated at temperatures between 560 and 660 degrees C, which passes a fold test and shows a polarity stratigraphy. This component indicates a paleolatitude of 11 degrees + or -4 degrees N, and a counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation of 29 degrees + or -9 degrees with respect to the southern Alps of Italy, of 49 degrees + or -8 degrees with respect to Africa, and of 91 degrees + or -8 degrees with respect to Eurasia. Our results suggest that the Tuscan domain was farther south than other deep-water continental margin sections of Adria, and that transcurrent faulting might have played a significant role in the orogenic evolution of the northern Apennines.

  3. Mutation of domain III and domain VI in L gene conserved domain of Nipah virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalani, Siti Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2016-11-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is the etiologic agent responsible for the respiratory illness and causes fatal encephalitis in human. NiV L protein subunit is thought to be responsible for the majority of enzymatic activities involved in viral transcription and replication. The L protein which is the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase has high sequence homology among negative sense RNA viruses. In negative stranded RNA viruses, based on sequence alignment six conserved domain (domain I-IV) have been determined. Each domain is separated on variable regions that suggest the structure to consist concatenated functional domain. To directly address the roles of domains III and VI, site-directed mutations were constructed by the substitution of bases at sequences 2497, 2500, 5528 and 5532. Each mutated L gene can be used in future studies to test the ability for expression on in vitro translation.

  4. Modeling software systems by domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  5. Protein domain connectivity and essentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da F. Costa, L.; Rodrigues, F. A.; Travieso, G.

    2006-10-01

    Protein-protein interactions can be properly modeled as scale-free complex networks, while the lethality of proteins has been correlated with the node degrees, therefore defining a lethality-centrality rule. In this work the authors revisit this relevant problem by focusing attention not on proteins as a whole, but on their functional domains, which are ultimately responsible for their binding potential. Four networks are considered: the original protein-protein interaction network, its randomized version, and two domain networks assuming different lethality hypotheses. By using formal statistical analysis, they show that the correlation between connectivity and essentiality is higher for domains than for proteins.

  6. Northern Desegregation: A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danns, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Studies on northern desegregation have focused on political strategies, the role of the courts, the responsibility of the federal government (HEW), and barriers to northern desegregation. Some have conducted individual case studies and comparative studies, and others have examined a number of cities. This article examines the way school…

  7. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  8. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  9. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  10. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  11. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  12. Structure of axionic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  13. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  14. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  15. Electrical Fatalities in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, James

    2009-01-01

    A review of autopsy reports in cases of electrocution in Northern Ireland revealed that there were 50 accidental electrocutions and 9 suicidal electrocutions over a 22 year period (1982 – 2003). No cases of homicidal electrocution were detected in this jurisdiction. Analysis of the cohort of accidental electrocutions showed that there was a clear skew towards young and middle-aged male adults with deaths occurring more frequently in the summer months. Almost 60% of individuals were engaged in occupational tasks when they were accidentally electrocuted. High and low voltage-related deaths occurred with similar frequency and electrical appliances were found to be responsible for approximately one third of accidental electrocutions. The potential hazards of electricity must continue to be stressed in public safety campaigns if these relatively uncommon but tragic deaths are to be prevented. PMID:19252729

  16. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia.

  17. Engineered autonomous human variable domains

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Tessier, Peter M.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2017-01-01

    The complex multi-chain architecture of antibodies has spurred interest in smaller derivatives that retain specificity but can be more easily produced in bacteria. Domain antibodies consisting of single variable domains are the smallest antibody fragments and have been shown to possess enhanced ability to target epitopes that are difficult to access using multidomain antibodies. However, in contrast to natural camelid antibody domains, human variable domains typically suffer from low stability and high propensity to aggregate. This review summarizes strategies to improve the biophysical properties of heavy chain variable domains from human antibodies with an emphasis on aggregation resistance. Several protein engineering approaches have targeted antibody frameworks and complementarity determining regions to stabilize the native state and prevent aggregation of the denatured state. Recent findings enable the construction of highly diverse libraries enriched in aggregation-resistant variants that are expected to provide binders to diverse antigens. Engineered domain antibodies possess unique advantages in expression, epitope preference and flexibility of formatting over conventional immunoreagents and are a promising class of antibody fragments for biomedical development. PMID:27655414

  18. Shielding Achilles’ Heel: Challenges Facing Northern Command in the Maritime Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    crude in Iran and was at anchor, awaiting a harbor pilot, to enter the deep draft port of Ash Shihr to complete her load. In an account of the incident...impact of the explosion “pierced both hulls and penetrated 7-8 metres into the cargo hold, which was loaded with crude oil.”9 All but one of the 25...barrels of crude oil already aboard were lost. In a follow-on report “The militant Yemeni Islamic group Aden-Abyan Islamic Army has claimed

  19. Sixth New Zealand Computer Conference (Auckland 78). Volume I, Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Computer Society, Auckland.

    This collection of conference presentations includes 23 papers on a variety of topics pertaining to the use of computer in New Zealand. Among the topics discussed are computer science techniques in a commercial data processing situation, data processing personnel and their careers, the communication aspects of an airline system, implementation of…

  20. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  1. Domain and Specification Models for Software Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses our approach to representing application domain knowledge for specific software engineering tasks. Application domain knowledge is embodied in a domain model. Domain models are used to assist in the creation of specification models. Although many different specification models can be created from any particular domain model, each specification model is consistent and correct with respect to the domain model. One aspect of the system-hierarchical organization is described in detail.

  2. The northern light. From mythology to space research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, A.; Egeland, A.

    Contents: The northern light in folklore and mythology. The northern light in Norse literature. The northern light - a source of inspiration. Accounts of northern lights in Scandinavia - from the Viking era to the Renaissance. The northern light in Scandinavia during the eighteenth century. Scientific auroral experiments beginning in the nineteenth century. Norwegian auroral pioneers in the dawn of our century. The northern lights as weather signs - and the auroral sound. Northern lights and geomagnetic disturbances - their influence on daily life. Auroral research as a tool to study the upper atmosphere and near space. The first systematic observations of the northern light in Norway. Summary and concluding remarks.

  3. Localization of resistive domains in inhomogeneous superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of resistive domains due to the Joule heating in inhomogeneous superconductors with transport currents are studied. The equilibrium of a domain at an inhomogeneity of arbitrary type and with dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the domain is investigated. It is shown that resistive domains can become localized at inhomogeneities. The temperature distribution in a domain and the current--voltage characteristic of the domain are determined. The stability of localized domains is discussed. It is shown that such domains give rise to a hysteresis in the destruction (recovery) of the superconductivity by the transport current.

  4. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  5. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  6. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  7. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  8. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Ben Amar, Martine; Couder, Yves

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the Faraday instability in floating liquid lenses, as an example of hydrodynamic instability that develops in a domain with flexible boundaries. We show that a mutual adaptation of the instability pattern and the domain shape occurs, as a result of the competition between the wave radiation pressure and the capillary response of the lens border. Two archetypes of behaviour are observed. In the first, stable shapes are obtained experimentally and predicted theoretically as the exact solutions of a Riccati equation, and they result from the equilibrium between wave radiation pressure and capillarity. In the second, the radiation pressure exceeds the capillary response of the lens border and leads to non-equilibrium behaviours, with breaking into smaller domains that have a complex dynamics including spontaneous propagation. The authors are grateful to Université Franco-Italienne (UFI) for financial support.

  9. Sinh-domain complex integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotis, George-Drosos; Khanday, Farooq A.; Psychalinos, Costas

    2015-07-01

    The basic building blocks for performing complex signal processing in the Sinh-domain are introduced in this article. Attractive offered benefits are the capabilities for achieving resistorless realisations with electronic adjustment of their frequency characteristics, independent tuning of centre frequency and bandwidth and operating in a low-voltage environment. In addition, the inherent class-AB operation of Sinh-domain filters allows the handling of signals greater than the bias current, leading to a power saving. The aforementioned benefits have been evaluated through simulation results, using the Analog Design Environment of the Cadence software.

  10. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  11. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  12. A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan

    2011-01-01

    After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…

  13. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  14. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  15. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  16. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  17. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  18. Albian ammonites from northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Fatmi, Ali N.

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of rich Albian ammonite faunas in what is now northern Pakistan has been known for more than 80 years, but there has been no comprehensive account of the assemblages present. A total of 36 taxa are described below. The middle part of the Lumshiwal Formation yields Upper Aptian ammonites south of the Samana Range. Elsewhere, it yields Douvilleiceras leightonense Casey, 1962, of the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella regularis Zone and the Sonneratia perinflata and S. kitchini Subzones of the Sonneratia chalensis Zone of the northwest European sequence. The top one to two metres of the Lumshiwal yields an abundant fauna of rolled and phosphatised ammonites that includes elements from much of the Albian. Of these, Prolyelliceras gevreyi (Jacob, 1907) first appears in the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella tardefurcata Zone. The commonest ammonite is Douvilleiceras mammillatum (Schlotheim, 1813) sensu lato, which ranges from the perinflata Subzone of the chalensis Zone to the Otohoplites bulliensis Subzone of the O. auritiformis Zone of the Lower Albian. The presence of Lyelliceras pseudolyelli (Parona and Bonarelli, 1897) indicates the uppermost, pseudolyelli Subzone of the auritiformis Zone. The presence of Lyelliceras lyelli (d'Orbigny, 1841) indicates the basal Middle Albian lyelli Subzone of the Hoplites dentatus Zone. There is no evidence for the higher parts of the Middle Albian. Dipoloceras (Rhytidoceras ) sp. indicates the presence of lower Upper Albian, possibly the pricei Zone. There is evidence, in the form of specifically indeterminate Mortoniceras (Mortoniceras) sp., of a level within the inflatum to fallax Zone inteval from a single locality, but no evidence of the succeeding parts of the upper Upper Albian. The base of the Kawagarth Formation that succeeds the Lumshiwal yields lower Upper Albian Mortoniceras (M.) geometricum Spath, 1932 of the Mortoniceras pricei Zone, northwest of Darmasand in the Samana range.

  19. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. Development in the Food Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems of general interest in developmental psychology that can be successfully studied in the domain of food; these include (1) development of food likes and dislikes; (2) establishment of the edible/inedible distinction; (3) disgust and contagion; (4) transgenerational communication of preferences; and (5) transition to food…

  1. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  2. Impact of Domain Analysis on Reuse Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-06

    libraries with very different domain models . The semantic network knowledge representation system (differing in this respect from object-oriented approaches...2.1.4 Organizational Strategies ...... ............. 10 2.1.5 Role of Existing Systems ..... .............. ..11 2.2 Process Models for Domain Analysis...Acquire Domain Analysis Resources. ... 15 2.2.4 Develop the Domain Model ..... .............. .16 2.2.4.1 Identification of Domain Objects

  3. 2-D Fourier transform analysis of the gravitational field of Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad; El-Kenawy, Abeer

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has fascinated the consideration of many geophysical studies as it is influenced by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Moreover, the shear zones inside Sinai have affected intensely the structure development of the northern Sinai area. 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been applied to transfer the data from space domain to frequency domain, in which basic gradients and derived gradients have been estimated. The frequency domain operations resulted in frequency filtering, first and second degree xyz gradients, horizontal, total (analytical signal) and tilt gradients, maximum horizontal gradient amplitude (total horizontal derivative), and theta map. As a result, the basic and derived gradient maps have succeeded to outline the major structure elements of Northern Sinai Peninsula. Comparisons with some well known surface structures showed a large degree of matching.

  4. Deep seismic imaging of the Cadomian thrust wedge of Northern Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitri, Adnand; Brun, Jean Pierre; Truffert, Catherine; Guennoc, Pol

    2001-02-01

    The Armor seismic profile (AR1, AR2) crosscuts the major units of the Cadomian Domain (600-540 Ma) of Northern Brittany and extends the offshore SWAT 10 profile (BIRPS-ECORS program). We thus have a combined 95-km-long NNW-SSE section for describing the regional-scale structure of the Cadomian crust in the area. Following reprocessing and migration of the southern end of the SWAT 10 profile so that it could be compared with the AR1-AR2 Armor profile, a structural interpretation of the composite profile was carried out taking into account gravity modelling and magnetotelluric soundings. The SWAT 10-Armor profile reveals the existence of steeply dipping thrust faults in the upper crust representing a thrust wedge with a gently northwest-dipping sole. This Cadomian thrust system continues below the unmetamorphosed Brioverian and Palaeozoic sediments of central Brittany and beyond the southern end of the profile in the Central Armorican Domain. It supports previous interpretations of dominant oblique-type thrusting during Cadomian tectonics proposed on the basis of geological field evidence and confirms the existence of a major northwest-dipping thrust fault that brings the volcanic-arc formations of the Saint-Brieuc Unit onto the metasediments of the Saint-Malo Unit. The profile also emphasises the regional extent of a thrust wedge at the scale of the whole Cadomian domain of Northern Brittany.

  5. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  6. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  7. Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja

    Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT), first reported in 1991, makes use of the low temporal coherence properties of a NIR broadband laser to create depth sectioning of up to 2mm under the surface using optical interferometry and point to point scanning. Prior and ongoing work in OCT in the research community has concentrated on improving axial resolution through the development of broadband sources and speed of image acquisition through new techniques such as Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). In SD-OCT, an entire depth scan is acquired at once with a low numerical aperture (NA) objective lens focused at a fixed point within the sample. In this imaging geometry, a longer depth of focus is achieved at the expense of lateral resolution, which is typically limited to 10 to 20 mum. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), introduced in 1994, combined the advantages of high axial resolution obtained in OCT with high lateral resolution obtained by increasing the NA of the microscope placed in the sample arm. However, OCM presented trade-offs caused by the inverse quadratic relationship between the NA and the DOF of the optics used. For applications requiring high lateral resolution, such as cancer diagnostics, several solutions have been proposed including the periodic manual re-focusing of the objective lens in the time domain as well as the spectral domain C-mode configuration in order to overcome the loss in lateral resolution outside the DOF. In this research, we report for the first time, high speed, sub-cellular imaging (lateral resolution of 2 mum) in OCM using a Gabor domain image processing algorithm with a custom designed and fabricated dynamic focus microscope interfaced to a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm within an SD-OCM configuration. It is envisioned that this technology will provide a non-invasive replacement for the current practice of multiple biopsies for skin cancer diagnosis. The research reported here presents three important advances

  8. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  9. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  10. Domain Processes in Ferroelectric Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-14

    WALLS Electron holography utilizing the wave characteristics of electrons. Through a sharp emission tip, the emitted electron beam is largely coherent, or...mirostructural modulation at 25% doping. The strongly first order ferroelectric phase transition in PbTiO3 is also gradually changed to a nearly second...a new domain configuraton. 13 The end-member of the PZT solid solution, PbTiO3 , has the highest transition temperature (Tc = 490 °C) and the largest

  11. Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-04-21

    We describe a dynamic Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system which enables real time, long range, acoustic sensing at high sampling rate. The system is based on a fast scanning laser and coherent detection scheme. Distributed sensing is obtained by probing the Rayleigh backscattered light. The system was tested by interrogation of a 10 km communication type single mode fiber and successfully detected localized impulse and sinusoidal excitations.

  12. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  13. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    PubMed

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  14. Cross-Domain Network Fault Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    digest, or simply digest, for Gi. • Gj = ( n ] i6=j f(Gi) ) ] Gj , where j is a domain performing cross-domain inference and ] is a model-specific union... Gj is the cross-domain model integrating the digests from all the other domains with domain j’s undigested graph. Now, domain j may use an existing...algorithm such as SHRINK to perform inference over Gj . Before a practical graph digest design can be implemented, interoperability standards must be

  15. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  16. A novel domain-by-domain survivable mechanism in multi-domain wavelength-division-multiplexing optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Xingwei; Li, Ying; Wang, Chongshan; Li, Hongming; Wang, Hongpeng; Liu, Xin

    2009-03-01

    In multi-domain wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, the inter-domain routing is a challenge since each single-domain cannot view the full network topology. At the same time, survivability is also an important issue in optical networks since the failures of fiber links or network nodes may lead to a lot of traffic being blocked. In this paper, we study the survivability in multi-domain WDM optical networks, and propose a new survivable mechanism called load balanced domain-by-domain routing (LBDDR). In LBDDR, in order to obtain the efficient inter-domain survivable routes, we present the domain-by-domain routing (DDR) method which can find the intra-domain sub-working path and sub-backup path in each single-domain to form the inter-domain working path and backup path for each demand. In order to reduce the blocking probability, we present the load balanced routing method which can encourage the traffic to be uniformly distributed on the links with more free wavelengths. Simulation results show that, compared with conventional mechanism, LBDDR can obtain better performances.

  17. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    funded projects (always with international participation) in the United States, Russian Federation, China, European Union, Japan, and Canada have been mutually united to explore the scientifically significant Northern Eurasian region. NEESPI scientists have been quite productive during the past two years (2005 2006) publishing more than 200 books, book chapters, and papers in refereed journals. NEESPI sessions at international conferences are open to everyone who works on environmental and climate change problems in Northern Eurasia and the circumpolar boreal zone. This thematic issue brings together articles from the authors who presented their latest results at the Annual Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco (December 2006). The research letters in this issue are preceded by two editorial papers (Leptoukh et al and Sherstyukov et al) devoted to informational support of research in the NEESPI domain that is critical to the success of the Initiative. The following papers are quite diverse and are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions in the NEESPI domain and the circumpolar boreal zone. Focus on Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Editorials NASA NEESPI Data and Services Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Information Gregory Leptoukh, Ivan Csiszar, Peter Romanov, Suhung Shen, Tatiana Loboda and Irina Gerasimov NEESPI Science and Data Support Center for Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia B G Sherstyukov, V N Razuvaev, O N Bulygina and P Ya Groisman Climate and hydrology Changes in the fabric of the Arctic's greenhouse blanket Jennifer A Francis and Elias Hunter Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973 2005 Heejun

  18. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  19. On nonlinear cascades of enstrophy over the tropics at 200 mb during two Northern Hemisphere summers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, T.-C.; Tribbia, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Diagnostic computations of nonlinear cascades of enstrophy have been performed in the wavenumber domain for two northern summers. Attention is focused on the interactions among the waves, the interaction between the zonal flow and a given wave and the exchanges due to the beta effect. It is found that two wave ranges (low and intermediate wavenumbers) cascade enstrophy to two ranges of wavenumbers. Calculations are also performed to evaluate the contribution from the standing (92-day mean) and transient modes to the nonlinear enstrophy cascade.

  20. Sequence variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing; Tang, Xiuming; Jia, Yuping; Wang, Yun; Chao, Yan; Zhao, Chengquan

    2011-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene can trigger EBV from latent infection to lytic replicative phase. The functions of BZLF1 are well known, while little is known about its gene polymorphism. In order to elucidate the sequence variations of BZLF1 and its association with malignancies, we analyzed BZLF1 gene in 24 EBV-associated gastric carcinomas, 41 nasopharyngeal carcinomas and 24 throat washing samples from healthy donors in Northern China using PCR-direct sequencing method. Three types and 8 subtypes of BZLF1 were identified. A dominant type BZLF1-A was found in 67 of 89 (75.3%) isolates. Type BZLF1-B was characterized by a common Ala deletion at residue 127, which was detected in 21 of 89 isolates (23.6%). Type BZLF1-C contained only one isolate (GC103), which had the same sequence with the prototype B95-8. Among 3 functional domains of BZLF1 protein, the transactivation domain had most mutations, followed by the bZIP domains (the DNA binding domain and dimerization domain). No prevalence of any subtypes or mutations in the functional domains among three specimen groups was found (P > 0.05). Our study indicates that BZLF1 subtypes and amino acid changes in functional domains are not preferentially associated with EBV-associated gastric carcinomas or nasopharyngeal carcinomas in Northern China. BZLF1 gene variations are geographically restricted rather than tumor-specific polymorphisms.

  1. Characterization of lipid domains in erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, W; Glaser, M

    1991-02-15

    Fluorescence digital imaging microscopy was used to study the lateral distribution of the lipid components in erythrocyte membranes. Intact erythrocytes labeled with phospholipids containing a fluorophore attached to one fatty acid chain showed an uneven distribution of the phospholipids in the membrane thereby demonstrating the presence of membrane domains. The enrichment of the lipotropic compound chlor-promazine in domains in intact erythrocytes also suggested that the domains are lipid-enriched regions. Similar membrane domains were present in erythrocyte ghosts. The phospholipid enrichment was increased in the domains by inducing membrane protein aggregation. Double-labeling experiments were done to determine the relative distributions of different phospholipids in the membrane. Vesicles made from extracted lipids did not show the presence of domains consistent with the conclusion that membrane proteins were responsible for creating the domains. Overall, it was found that large domains exist in the red blood cell membrane with unequal enrichment of the different phospholipid species.

  2. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  3. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  4. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  5. DEP domains: structurally similar but functionally different.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Sarah V; Maurice, Madelon M; Bos, Johannes L

    2014-05-01

    The Dishevelled, EGL-10 and pleckstrin (DEP) domain is a globular protein domain that is present in about ten human protein families with well-defined structural features. A picture is emerging that DEP domains mainly function in the spatial and temporal control of diverse signal transduction events by recruiting proteins to the plasma membrane. DEP domains can interact with various partners at the membrane, including phospholipids and membrane receptors, and their binding is subject to regulation.

  6. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  7. Domain wall orientation and domain shape in KTiOPO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Vaskina, E. M.; Pelegova, E. V.; Chuvakova, M. A.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Kizko, O. V.; Ivanov, M.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Domain shape evolution and domain wall motion have been studied in KTiOPO4 (KTP) ferroelectric single crystals using complementary experimental methods. The in situ visualization of domain kinetics has allowed revealing: (1) qualitative change of the domain shape, (2) dependence of the domain wall velocity on its orientation, (3) jump-like domain wall motion caused by domain merging, (4) effect of domain shape stability. The model of domain wall motion driven by generation of elementary steps (kink-pair nucleation) and subsequent kink motion is presented. The decrease in the relative velocity of the approaching parallel domain walls is attributed to electrostatic interaction. The effect of polarization reversal induced by chemical etching is observed. The obtained results are important for the development of domain engineering in the crystals of KTP family.

  8. 22 CFR 120.11 - Public domain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public domain. 120.11 Section 120.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.11 Public domain. (a) Public domain means information which is published and which is generally...

  9. 22 CFR 120.11 - Public domain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public domain. 120.11 Section 120.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.11 Public domain. (a) Public domain means information which is published and which is generally...

  10. 22 CFR 120.11 - Public domain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public domain. 120.11 Section 120.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.11 Public domain. (a) Public domain means information which is published and which is generally...

  11. Pectin Homogalacturonans: Nanostructural Characterization of Methylesterified Domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functionality of pectic hydrocolloids is largely dependent on the two major domains commonly found in their homogalacturonan (HG) regions, i.e., methylester protected domains (MPDs)and non methylesterified domains (NMDs). MPDs can participate in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions but unli...

  12. Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A.; Berer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698

  13. The Promise of Domain Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; Li, Jingling; Vaijanapurkar, Samarth; Bue, Brian; Miller, Adam; Donalek, Ciro; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Graham, Matthew; CRTS, iPTF

    2016-01-01

    Most new surveys spend an appreciable time in collecting data on which to train classifiers before they can be used on future observations from the same dataset. The result generating phase can start much earlier if the training could incorporate data accumulated from older surveys enhanced with a small set from the new survey. This is exactly what Domain Adaptation (DA) allows us to do. The main idea behind DAs can be summarized thus: if we have two classes of separable objects in some feature space of a Source survey (S), we can define a hyperplane to separate the two types. In a second Target survey (T), for the same features the hyperplane would be inclined differently. DA methods get the mapping between the two hyperplanes using a small fraction of data from the Target (T) survey and can then be used to predict the classes of the remaining majority of data in T. We discuss the parameters that need to be tuned, the difficulties involved, and ways to improve the results. As we move towards bigger, and deeper surveys, being able to use existing labelled information to conduct classification in future surveys will be more cost-effective and promote time efficiency as well. Starting with the light curve data of 50,000 periodic objects from Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), we have applied domain adaptation techniques such as Geodesic Flow Kernel (GFK) with Random forest classifier and Co-training for domain adaptation (CODA) to the CRTS data which has 35,000 points overlapping with Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and 12,000 with Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR). The results suggest that domain adaptation is an area worth exploring as the knowledge between these surveys is transferable and the approaches to find the mappings between these surveys can be applied to the remaining data as well as for near future surveys such as CRTS-II, Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to name a few at the optical

  14. Walking droplets in confined domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáenz, Pedro; Bush, John

    2016-11-01

    A millimetric liquid drop can walk spontaneously along the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, propelled by a resonant interaction with its own wave field. These walking droplets exhibit features previously thought to be exclusive to the microscopic quantum realm. We here explore experimentally the dynamics and statistics of this macroscopic wave-particle system in confined domains, or 'corrals'. Particular attention is given to characterizing the influence of the corral geometry on the emergent probability distributions. The relation to analogous quantum systems (specifically, quantum corrals, the quantum mirage and scarring in Bose-Einstein condensates) is discussed. NSF support via CMMI-1333242.

  15. The Divorced Chicana of Northern New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Mary Lou; Casaus, Luis

    County demographic records and the voluntary responses of 80 Chicanas to a questionnaire and a self-concept examination were analyzed to identify the patterns, problems, and dynamics in the lives of divorced Northern New Mexico Chicanas. The women, half of whom were divorced and most of whom were Roman Catholics, were from urban Bernalillo County…

  16. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  17. Equality in Higher Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in Northern Ireland has been fully involved in the public policies designed to enhance equality. Starting with measures designed to secure greater employment between Catholics and Protestants, known as fair employment, the policies are now designed to promote equality of opportunity across nine designated groups…

  18. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  19. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  20. Religion, Education and Conflict in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to re-evaluate and reaffirm the contribution of the churches and of Christianity to the realization in Northern Ireland schools of legitimate and progressive educational values such as the cultivation of tolerance, moral integrity and civic virtue. Implicit in this is a critique of educational initiatives that seek to…

  1. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  2. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  3. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  4. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  5. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  6. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  7. Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of natural gas, composed mainly of methane, can occur in arctic sedimentary basins in the form of gas hydrates under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Gas hydrates are solids, composed of rigid cages of water molecules that trap molecules of gas. These substances are regarded as a potential unconventional source of natural gas because of their enormous gas-storage capacity. Most published gas hydrate resource estimates are highly simplified and based on limited geological data. The gas hydrate resource assessment for northern Alaska presented in this paper is based on a "play analysis" scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation and preservation of gas hydrates are individually evaluated and risked for each hydrate play. This resource assessment identified two gas hydrate plays; the in-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of northern Alaska are estimated to range from 6.7 to 66.8 trillion cubic metres of gas (236 to 2,357 trillion cubic feet of gas), at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels respectively. The mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic metres of gas (590 trillion cubic feet of gas). If this assessment is valid, the amount of natural gas stored as gas hydrates in northern Alaska could be almost seven times larger then the estimated total remaining recoverable conventional natural gas resources in the entire United States.

  8. Racism and Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Eamonn

    2007-01-01

    Racist attitudes towards, and attacks on, the minority ethnic populations in Northern Ireland (NI) have increased dramatically over the last number of years. Despite the increased media attention regarding racist attacks, the fallacy that racism is not a major problem in NI is an enduring one. However, there is a growing recognition that minority…

  9. Northern Russian "People" Games for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasil'nikov, Valeriy P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that people games and contests have always occupied a special place in the traditional physical training of the native people in northern Russia. This article is prepared on the basis of materials obtained as a result of expeditions conducted from 1990 through 1993 into Siberia's "Khanty-Mansyyski" and…

  10. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  11. Time domain backcalculation of pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kunihito; Nishizawa, Tatsuo; Kikuta, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Falling weight deflectometor (FWD) has been frequently used to evaluate structural integrity of pavement. The device applies an impulsive force on the surface of pavement and measure surface deflections at several locations including the place of loading. Although the test is dynamic, the data is regarded as pseudo-static data. According to common practice, using the peak load and the corresponding peak deflections, layer moduli are estimated in a static domain such that the measured peak deflections coincide with the corresponding calculated deflections based on the assumption of the theory of linear elasticity. This paper presents a method to back calculate layer moduli in dynamic domain such that the histories of both measured and calculated responses corresponding to the impulsive force coincide. Pavement is modeled by an axisymmetric linear elastic system. FEM is utilized coupled with Ritz vector to reduce a matrix and thus to improve computational efficiency. The backcalculation algorithm used is the Gauss-Newton method coupled with a truncated singular value decomposition.

  12. One Health Core Competency Domains

    PubMed Central

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting “One Health” approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches. PMID:27679794

  13. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  14. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development.

  15. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, 1957) PIER III DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. Domain adaptive boosting method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jie; Miao, Zhenjiang

    2015-03-01

    Differences of data distributions widely exist among datasets, i.e., domains. For many pattern recognition, nature language processing, and content-based analysis systems, a decrease in performance caused by the domain differences between the training and testing datasets is still a notable problem. We propose a domain adaptation method called domain adaptive boosting (DAB). It is based on the AdaBoost approach with extensions to cover the domain differences between the source and target domains. Two main stages are contained in this approach: source-domain clustering and source-domain sample selection. By iteratively adding the selected training samples from the source domain, the discrimination model is able to achieve better domain adaptation performance based on a small validation set. The DAB algorithm is suitable for the domains with large scale samples and easy to extend for multisource adaptation. We implement this method on three computer vision systems: the skin detection model in single images, the video concept detection model, and the object classification model. In the experiments, we compare the performances of several commonly used methods and the proposed DAB. Under most situations, the DAB is superior.

  1. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  2. Collective magnetism at multiferroic vortex domain walls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanan; Lee, N; Choi, Y J; Cheong, S-W; Wu, Weida

    2012-12-12

    Cross-coupled phenomena of multiferroic domains and domain walls are of fundamental scientific and technological interest. Using cryogenic magnetic force microscopy, we find alternating net magnetic moments at ferroelectric domain walls around vortex cores in multiferroic hexagonal ErMnO(3), which correlate with each other throughout the entire vortex network. This collective nature of domain wall magnetism originates from the uncompensated Er(3+) moments at domain walls and the self-organization of the vortex network. Our results demonstrate that the collective domain wall magnetism can be controlled by external magnetic fields and represent a major advancement in the manipulation of local magnetic moments by harnessing cross-coupled domain walls.

  3. Functional innovation from changes in protein domains and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jonathan G; Dawson, Natalie L; Sillitoe, Ian; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Domains are the functional building blocks of proteins. In this work we discuss how domains can contribute to the evolution of new functions. Domains themselves can evolve through various mechanisms, altering their intrinsic function. Domains can also facilitate functional innovations by combining with other domains to make novel proteins. We discuss the mechanisms by which domain and domain combinations support functional innovations. We highlight interesting examples where changes in domain combination promote changes at the domain level.

  4. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  5. Structure and function of KH domains.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Roberto; Edwards, Laura; Regan, Lynne

    2008-06-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and function.

  6. Structure and Function of KH Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde, R.; Regan, E

    2008-01-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and function.

  7. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  8. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  9. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  10. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  11. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  12. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  13. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  14. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  15. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  16. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  17. Functional domains in tetraspanin proteins.

    PubMed

    Stipp, Christopher S; Kolesnikova, Tatiana V; Hemler, Martin E

    2003-02-01

    Exciting new findings have emerged about the structure, function and biochemistry of tetraspanin proteins. Five distinct tetraspanin regions have now been delineated linking structural features to specific functions. Within the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, there is a variable region that mediates specific interactions with other proteins, as well as a more highly conserved region that has been suggested to mediate homodimerization. Within the transmembrane region, the four tetraspanin transmembrane domains are probable sites of both intra- and inter-molecular interactions that are crucial during biosynthesis and assembly of the network of tetraspanin-linked membrane proteins known as the 'tetraspanin web'. In the intracellular juxtamembrane region, palmitoylation of cysteine residues also contributes to tetraspanin web assembly, and the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail region could provide specific functional links to cytoskeletal or signaling proteins.

  18. Changes in the carbon cycle of northern Eurasia simulated by process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Pronounced warming across the northern high latitudes is impacting water and carbon cycles and raising concern over possible feedbacks to global climate. Recent model studied point toward a weakening of the terrestrial land carbon sink across the northern high latitudes, one notable manifestation of a warming Arctic. We explore links between regional climate and the carbon cycle using data from models participating in the Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon Research Coordination Network (RCN). The domain of interest is the drainage basin within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) region. Model outputs examined include gross primary production (GPP), heterotrophic respiration (RH), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and total soil carbon storage. Mean flux budgets and their changes over the period 1960-2009 are calculated from the model estimates for the entire NEESPI region and for each major land cover category within the region. Use of an independent model, which captures well the spatial pattern in soil freeze/thaw dynamics, indicates that the reduction in permafrost extent over the NEESPI basin was 4-6% over recent decades. Modeled influences of permafrost thaw on the region's water and carbon cycles are evaluated in the context of recent measurements. Estimates of the flux of CO2 due to fire are also examined in order to better understand how these disturbances are altering regional carbon sink/source dynamics.

  19. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  20. Grenvillian remnants in the Northern Andes: Rodinian and Phanerozoic paleogeographic perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Chew, D.; Valencia, V. A.; Bayona, G.; Mišković, A.; Ibañez-Mejía, M.

    2010-01-01

    Grenvillian crust is encountered in several basement inliers in the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and is also represented as a major detrital or inherited component within Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks. This review of the tectonic and geochronological record of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes suggests that these crustal segments probably formed on an active continental margin in which associated arc and back-arc magmatism evolved from ca. 1.25 to 1.16 Ga, possibly extending to as young as 1.08 Ga. The lithostratigraphic and tectonic history of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes differs from that of the Sunsas belt on the southwest Amazonian Craton and from the Grenvillian belt of Eastern Laurentia. It is considered that this belt, along with similar terranes of Grenvillian age in Middle America and Mexico define a separate composite orogen which formed on the northwestern margin of the Amazonian Craton. Microcontinent accretion and interaction with the Sveconorwegian province on Baltica is a feasible tectonic scenario, in line with recent paleogeographic reconstructions of the Rodinian supercontinent. Although Phanerozoic tectonics may have redistributed some of these terranes, they are still viewed as para-autocthonous domains that remained in proximity to the margin of Amazonia. Paleogeographic data derived from Phanerozoic rocks suggest that some of the Colombian Grenvillian fragments were connected to northernmost Peru and Ecuador until the Mesozoic, whereas the Mexican terranes where attached to the Colombian margin until Pangea fragmentation in Late Triassic times.

  1. Domain Adaptation with Conditional Transferable Components

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mingming; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Glymour, Clark; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Domain adaptation arises in supervised learning when the training (source domain) and test (target domain) data have different distributions. Let X and Y denote the features and target, respectively, previous work on domain adaptation mainly considers the covariate shift situation where the distribution of the features P(X) changes across domains while the conditional distribution P(Y∣X) stays the same. To reduce domain discrepancy, recent methods try to find invariant components T(X) that have similar P(T(X)) on different domains by explicitly minimizing a distribution discrepancy measure. However, it is not clear if P(Y∣T(X)) in different domains is also similar when P(Y∣X) changes. Furthermore, transferable components do not necessarily have to be invariant. If the change in some components is identifiable, we can make use of such components for prediction in the target domain. In this paper, we focus on the case where P(X∣Y) and P(Y) both change in a causal system in which Y is the cause for X. Under appropriate assumptions, we aim to extract conditional transferable components whose conditional distribution P(T(X)∣Y) is invariant after proper location-scale (LS) transformations, and identify how P(Y) changes between domains simultaneously. We provide theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation on both synthetic and real-world data to show the effectiveness of our method. PMID:28239433

  2. Domain Adaptation with Conditional Transferable Components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingming; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Glymour, Clark; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Domain adaptation arises in supervised learning when the training (source domain) and test (target domain) data have different distributions. Let X and Y denote the features and target, respectively, previous work on domain adaptation mainly considers the covariate shift situation where the distribution of the features P(X) changes across domains while the conditional distribution P(Y∣X) stays the same. To reduce domain discrepancy, recent methods try to find invariant components [Formula: see text] that have similar [Formula: see text] on different domains by explicitly minimizing a distribution discrepancy measure. However, it is not clear if [Formula: see text] in different domains is also similar when P(Y∣X) changes. Furthermore, transferable components do not necessarily have to be invariant. If the change in some components is identifiable, we can make use of such components for prediction in the target domain. In this paper, we focus on the case where P(X∣Y) and P(Y) both change in a causal system in which Y is the cause for X. Under appropriate assumptions, we aim to extract conditional transferable components whose conditional distribution [Formula: see text] is invariant after proper location-scale (LS) transformations, and identify how P(Y) changes between domains simultaneously. We provide theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation on both synthetic and real-world data to show the effectiveness of our method.

  3. Electron-beam-induced ferroelectric domain behavior in the transmission electron microscope: Toward deterministic domain patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, James L.; Liu, Shi; Lang, Andrew C.; Hubert, Alexander; Zukauskas, Andrius; Canalias, Carlota; Beanland, Richard; Rappe, Andrew M.; Arredondo, Miryam; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on transmission electron microscope beam-induced ferroelectric domain nucleation and motion. While previous observations of this phenomenon have been reported, a consistent theory explaining induced domain response is lacking, and little control over domain behavior has been demonstrated. We identify positive sample charging, a result of Auger and secondary electron emission, as the underlying mechanism driving domain behavior. By converging the electron beam to a focused probe, we demonstrate controlled nucleation of nanoscale domains. Molecular dynamics simulations performed are consistent with experimental results, confirming positive sample charging and reproducing the result of controlled domain nucleation. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of sample geometry and electron irradiation conditions on induced domain response. These findings elucidate past reports of electron beam-induced domain behavior in the transmission electron microscope and provide a path towards more predictive, deterministic domain patterning through electron irradiation.

  4. Simulated versus observed patterns of warming over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents during the cold season

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John M.; Fu, Qiang; Smoliak, Brian V.; Lin, Pu; Johanson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    A suite of the historical simulations run with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) models forced by greenhouse gases, aerosols, stratospheric ozone depletion, and volcanic eruptions and a second suite of simulations forced by increasing CO2 concentrations alone are compared with observations for the reference interval 1965–2000. Surface air temperature trends are disaggregated by boreal cold (November-April) versus warm (May-October) seasons and by high latitude northern (N: 40°–90 °N) versus southern (S: 60 °S–40 °N) domains. A dynamical adjustment is applied to remove the component of the cold-season surface air temperature trends (over land areas poleward of 40 °N) that are attributable to changing atmospheric circulation patterns. The model simulations do not simulate the full extent of the wintertime warming over the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere continents during the later 20th century, much of which was dynamically induced. Expressed as fractions of the concurrent trend in global-mean sea surface temperature, the relative magnitude of the dynamically induced wintertime warming over domain N in the observations, the simulations with multiple forcings, and the runs forced by the buildup of greenhouse gases only is 7∶2∶1, and roughly comparable to the relative magnitude of the concurrent sea-level pressure trends. These results support the notion that the enhanced wintertime warming over high northern latitudes from 1965 to 2000 was mainly a reflection of unforced variability of the coupled climate system. Some of the simulations exhibit an enhancement of the warming along the Arctic coast, suggestive of exaggerated feedbacks. PMID:22847408

  5. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  6. Hydrologic data for northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; McManus, B.C.; Rowland-Lesitsky, C. J.; Sloto, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected in northern Bucks County, Pa., as part of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bridgeton, Buckingham, Nockamixon, Plumstead, Solebury, Springfield, Tinicum, and Wrightstown Townships and New Hope Borough. Hydrologic data on ground water and surface water were collected to provide basic information on the quality and quantity of water resources in northern Bucks County. Ground-water data include descriptions of 1,357 wells and water levels for 28 observation wells measured during 1990-93. Ground-water-quality analyses for 117 wells include physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, selected metals and other trace constituents, radon, and volatile organic compounds. Surface-water data include chemical analyses of water samples collected at sites on Beaver Creek, Crooks Creek, Geddes Run, Little Tinicum Creek, Paunnacussing Creek, Pidcock Creek, Rapp Creek, Smithtown Creek, and Tinicum Creek.

  7. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  8. Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal wildfire activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q.; Richmond, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the final report of Project 24 of the International Geological Correlation Programme. The publication is drawn from the contributions of leading individual scientist as well as from scientific research teams. It reflects the present state of knowledge of the Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere and their correlation in space and time, as well as providing a unique summary of climatic change.

  10. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    facilitate enlightened management of this eagle. 3 _!tz ’.~ ~ - [ GERAL BIOLOGY Description. As is the case of most birds of prey, the female northern bald...adult birds of the same sex. Yet the average weight of juveniles was less than adults, indi- cating the greater dimensions of juveniles are attributable...male was still living in 1967 at the age of 34 years (Han- cock, 1973). While birds of prey may live to considerable age in captivity, they seldom

  11. Domain-specific control of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources.

  12. Domain Decomposition for the SPN Solver MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® code.

  13. Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)

  14. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  15. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  16. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  17. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio.

  18. Domain walls in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Olav; Berger, Andreas; Fullerton, Eric E

    2003-11-07

    We report experimentally observed magnetic domain-wall structures in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films with perpendicular anisotropy. Our studies reveal a first-order phase transition from domain walls with no net moment to domain walls with ferromagnetic cores. The transition originates from the competition between dipolar and exchange energies, which we tune by means of layer thickness. Although observed in a synthetic antiferromagnetic system, such domain-wall structures may be expected to occur in A-type antiferromagnets with anisotropic exchange coupling.

  19. Stability on Time-Dependent Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.; Krechetnikov, R.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the key differences in the stability picture between extended systems on time-fixed and time-dependent spatial domains. As a paradigm, we take the complex Swift-Hohenberg equation, which is the simplest nonlinear model with a finite critical wavenumber, and use it to study dynamic pattern formation and evolution on time-dependent spatial domains in translationally invariant systems, i.e., when dilution effects are absent. In particular, we discuss the effects of a time-dependent domain on the stability of spatially homogeneous and spatially periodic base states, and explore its effects on the Eckhaus instability of periodic states. New equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the pattern wavenumber on time-dependent domains are derived, and the results compared with those on fixed domains. Pattern coarsening on time-dependent domains is contrasted with that on fixed domains with the help of the Cahn-Hilliard equation extended here to time-dependent domains. Parallel results for the evolution of the Benjamin-Feir instability on time-dependent domains are also given.

  20. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  1. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  2. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    PubMed

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.

  3. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  4. Elastic Thickness Estimates for the Northern Lowlands of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    The northern lowlands cover 1/3 of Mars' surface and are a fundamental part of the geologic evolution of Mars. We examine the admittance, (ratio of gravity to topography in the spectral domain), to better constrain the timing of northern lowlands formation. Prior to this study there have been no successful estimates of elastic thickness (Te) in the lowlands (with the exception of Utopia) due to low topographic signal. We use a Cartesian multitaper approach (that has been successful for topographically eroded regions on Earth) to estimate Te for 4 lowland regions. These regions are well resolved in the gravity data, display well constrained lithospheric parameters, and topographic power spectra similar to many highlands regions. We use the latest spherical harmonic gravity field (MGS95J), carried out to degree and order 95. The field is determined globally to degree 70 (~305km), where the noise of the unconstrained solution equals the signal. Spherical harmonic coefficients for the topography were created in the same reference as the gravity. We compare the observed admittance with those predicted from lithospheric flexure models. On the basis of these comparisons, we estimate the Te required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. Top and bottom loading models are used to derive Te and crustal thickness or apparent depth of compensation. All 4 regions are best fit by a bottom-loading model. We obtain best fit Te estimates between 10-25km with an acceptable error range of 0-45km. These small estimates are similar to previous studies of the southern highlands and are consistent with formation in the Noachian when heat flow was high. The consistency in Te estimates between the Noachian highlands and lowlands basement suggests that both regions of the crust formed within a short time. The paucity of crustal magnetization in the lowlands is thus more likely a result of demagnetization than formation following shutdown of the dynamo. Most

  5. Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.

  6. High resolution Moho topography map beneath Iberia and Northern Morocco from RF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Diaz, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    The Topoiberia-Iberarray broad-band seismic network has covered in three successive legs the Iberian Peninsula and the Northern part of Morocco, allowing to acquire new seismological data with unprecedented resolution and coverage. One of the classical approaches used to infer information on the structure of the crust using passive seismic data is the inspection of the P-to-S conversions at the main discontinuities. In particular, the application of the H-K technique allows to evaluate the thickness and the mean Vp/Vs ratio for the crust beneath each available station. In this contribution, we benefit from the dense Topoiberia-Iberarray seismic network, with stations distributed on a regular 60 x 60 km grid, to obtain a detailed map of the Moho topography and the Vp/Vs variations beneath Iberia and Northern Morocco. This region show a great geodynamical diversity, including, North to South, crustal imbrication in the Pyrenean range, a large and relatively undisturbed Variscan Massif in the center of Iberia and areas of complex and still not completely understood geodynamics in the Alboran domain and the Atlas range. Beneath Northern Morocco, strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed, depicting three domains: a previously unidentified thick crust (reaching at least 45 km) beneath the Rif, a thinned crust region beneath NE Morocco, with depths ranging from 22 to 30 km, and a region of 27-34 km thick crust in the Atlas domain and its foreland regions. Vp/Vs ratios show normal values close to 1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations give low Vp/Vs ratios of around 1.71. Beneath Southern Iberia, the Moho show also significant variations. The highest values of crustal thickness in this region, reaching 46 km, are found under the External zones of the Betic range, near the contact with the Alboran Domain. Southeastern Iberia is affected by significant crustal thinning (from 19 km to 30 km) occurring over a short

  7. PP2C gamma: a human protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain.

    PubMed

    Travis, S M; Welsh, M J

    1997-08-04

    We have cloned a novel cDNA from human skeletal muscle which encodes a protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain. It is 34% identical to mammalian PP2C alpha and PP2C beta and we call it PP2C gamma. It more closely resembles PP2Cs from Paramecium tetraurelia and Schizosaccharomyces pombe than mammalian PP2Cs. Northern blot analysis shows that PP2C gamma is widely expressed, and is most abundant in testis, skeletal muscle, and heart. Like known PP2Cs, recombinant PP2C gamma requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. Unlike any other known phosphatase, PP2C gamma has a highly acidic domain: 75% of the 54 residues are glutamate or aspartate.

  8. Bioconvection in spatially extended domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Paul, M. R.

    2013-05-01

    We numerically explore gyrotactic bioconvection in large spatially extended domains of finite depth using parameter values from available experiments with the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas nivalis. We numerically integrate the three-dimensional, time-dependent continuum model of Pedley [J. Fluid Mech.10.1017/S0022112088002393 195, 223 (1988)] using a high-order, parallel, spectral-element approach. We explore the long-time nonlinear patterns and dynamics found for layers with an aspect ratio of 10 over a range of Rayleigh numbers. Our results yield the pattern wavelength and pattern dynamics which we compare with available theory and experimental measurement. There is good agreement for the pattern wavelength at short times between numerics, experiment, and a linear stability analysis. At long times we find that the general sequence of patterns given by the nonlinear evolution of the governing equations correspond qualitatively to what has been described experimentally. However, at long times the patterns in numerics grow to larger wavelengths, in contrast to what is observed in experiment where the wavelength is found to decrease with time.

  9. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  10. Discoidin Domain Receptors in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to diseases progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  11. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  12. Molecular dynamics study of ferroelectric domain nucleation and domain switching dynamics.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Vishal; Endres, Florian; Steinmann, Paul

    2017-04-11

    Ferroelectric materials contain domains of ordered electric dipoles, separated by domain walls, that can undergo polarisation switching under externally applied electric fields. The domain switching dynamics in ferroelectric materials plays an essential role in their application to electronic and electro-optic de- vices. Previous studies suggest that the switching occurs largely through domain wall motion which is explained from the viewpoint of statistical physics on surface growth as the behaviour of a pinned elas- tic interface. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the domain switching process and quantitatively estimate the switching speed of anti-parallel 180° domains in ferroelectric, tetragonal BaTiO3 perfect single crystals at room temperature using the core-shell model. We observe an unprece- dented, non-linear increase in the domain switching speed caused by the nucleation of new domains within the switching domain. We determine the strength of the electric field to evoke nucleation of new domains and show that the nucleated domains diffuse into nearby favourable domains when the electric field is removed. Furthermore, we discuss the prominence of domain nucleations during ferroelectric switching.

  13. Fuzzy domains: new way of describing flexibility and interdependence of the protein domains.

    PubMed

    Yesylevskyy, Semen O; Kharkyanen, Valery N

    2009-03-01

    We proposed the innovative method of domain identification based on the concept of the fuzzy domains. In this method each residue of the protein can belong to several domains simultaneously with certain weights, which reflect to what extent this residue shares the motion pattern of the given domain. Our method allows describing the fuzzy boundaries between the domains and the gradual changes of the motion pattern from one domain to the other. It provides the reasonable compromise between the continuous change of the protein dynamics from one residue to the other and the discrete description of the structure in terms of small number of domains. We suggested quantitative criterion, which shows the overall degree of domain flexibility in the protein. The concept of the fuzzy domains provides an innovative way of visualization of domain flexibility, which makes the gradual transitions between the domains clearly visible and comparable to available experimental and structural data. In the future, the concept of the fuzzy domains can be used in the coarse-grained simulations of the domain dynamics in order to account for internal protein flexibility.

  14. Movements of a polar bear from northern Alaska to northern Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Using satellite telemetry, we monitored the movements of an adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as she traveled from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast to northern Greenland. She is the first polar bear known to depart the Beaufort Sea region for an extended period, and the first polar bear known to move between Alaska and Greenland. This bear traveled for four months across the polar basin and came within 2 degrees of the North Pole. During the first year following her capture, she traveled 5256 km. Evidence to suggest her use of maternity dens in northern Alaska and in northern Greenland demonstrates the potential for genetic exchange between two widely separate populations of polar bears. The long life spans of polar bears and the rarity of their long-range movements means the significance of interpopulation movement can be assessed after long-term monitoring of individuals.

  15. Thermodynamics of heme-induced conformational changes in hemopexin: role of domain-domain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. L.; Morgan, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Hemopexin is a serum glycoprotein that binds heme with high affinity and delivers heme to the liver cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. A hinge region connects the two non-disulfide-linked domains of hemopexin, a 35-kDa N-terminal domain (domain I) that binds heme, and a 25-kDa C-terminal domain (domain II). Although domain II does not bind heme, it assumes one structural state in apo-hemopexin and another in heme-hemopexin, and this change is important in facilitating the association of heme-hemopexin with its receptor. In order to elucidate the structure and function of hemopexin, it is important to understand how structural information is transmitted to domain II when domain I binds heme. Here we report a study of the protein-protein interactions between domain I and domain II using analytical ultracentrifugation and isothermal titration calorimetry. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis showed that domain I associates with domain II both in the presence and absence of heme with Kd values of 0.8 microM and 55 microM, respectively. The interaction between heme-domain I and domain II has a calorimetric enthalpy of +11 kcal/mol, a heat capacity (delta Cp) of -720 cal/mol.K, and a calculated entropy of +65 cal/mol.K. By varying the temperature of the centrifugation equilibrium runs, a van't Hoff plot with an apparent change in enthalpy (delta H) of -3.6 kcal/mol and change in entropy (delta S) of +8.1 cal/mol.K for the association of apo-domain I with domain II was obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773173

  16. The Domain Specificity of Academic Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyzed the domain specificity of emotions and focused on experiences of enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom in the domains of mathematics, Latin, German, and English. On the basis of assumptions in R. Pekrun's (2000; in press) control-value theory and findings of pilot studies, the authors hypothesized the existence of a largely…

  17. Domains of the Florida Performance Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This monograph sets forth in detail the concepts included in the five domains of teaching as identified by the Florida Coalition for the Development of a Performance Evaluation System. The first domain, planning, includes the concepts: (1) content coverage; (2) utilization of instructional materials; (3) activity structure; (4) goal focusing; and…

  18. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  19. XML Based Markup Languages for Specific Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde, Aparna; Rundensteiner, Elke; Fahrenholz, Sally

    A challenging area in web based support systems is the study of human activities in connection with the web, especially with reference to certain domains. This includes capturing human reasoning in information retrieval, facilitating the exchange of domain-specific knowledge through a common platform and developing tools for the analysis of data on the web from a domain expert's angle. Among the techniques and standards related to such work, we have XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This serves as a medium of communication for storing and publishing textual, numeric and other forms of data seamlessly. XML tag sets are such that they preserve semantics and simplify the understanding of stored information by users. Often domain-specific markup languages are designed using XML, with a user-centric perspective. Standardization bodies and research communities may extend these to include additional semantics of areas within and related to the domain. This chapter outlines the issues to be considered in developing domain-specific markup languages: the motivation for development, the semantic considerations, the syntactic constraints and other relevant aspects, especially taking into account human factors. Illustrating examples are provided from domains such as Medicine, Finance and Materials Science. Particular emphasis in these examples is on the Materials Markup Language MatML and the semantics of one of its areas, namely, the Heat Treating of Materials. The focus of this chapter, however, is not the design of one particular language but rather the generic issues concerning the development of domain-specific markup languages.

  20. Time Domain Switched Accelerometer Design and Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2052 September 2014 Time -Domain Switched Accelerometer Design and Fabrication Paul Swanson Andrew Wang...Approved for public release. SSC Pacific San Diego, CA 92152-5001 TECHNICAL REPORT 2052 September 2014 Time ...objective of this report is to record the decision-making process for developing the device design and fabrication workflow for the time -domain switched

  1. ENH, containing PDZ and LIM domains, heart/skeletal muscle-specific protein, associates with cytoskeletal proteins through the PDZ domain.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, N; Hoshijima, M; Oyasu, M; Saito, N; Tanizawa, K; Kuroda, S

    2000-06-07

    The Enigma homologue protein (ENH), containing an N-terminal PDZ domain and three C-terminal LIM domains, is a heart and skeletal muscle-specific protein that has been shown to preferentially interact with protein kinase C beta (PKCbeta) through the LIM domains (Kuroda et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31029-31032, 1996). We here demonstrate that ENH is colocalized with a cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin in the Z-disk region of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Pull-down assays using the glutathione-S-transferase-fusion system also showed the interaction of the PDZ domain of ENH with actin and alpha-actinin. Furthermore, by combined use of the in silico and conventional cDNA cloning methods, we have isolated three ENH-related clones from a mouse heart-derived cDNA library: mENH1 (591 amino acid residues) corresponding to rat ENH, mENH2 (337 residues), and mENH3 (239 residues); the latter two containing only a single PDZ domain. Deciphering their cDNA sequences, these mENH1-3 mRNAs appear to be generated from a single mENH gene by alternative splicing. Northern blot analyses using human cancer cells and mouse embryos have shown expression of each mENH mRNA to vary considerably among the cell types and during the developmental stage. Together with a recent finding that PKCbeta is markedly activated in the cardiac hypertrophic signaling, these results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the heart development by scaffolding PKCbeta to the Z-disk region and that ENH2 and ENH3 negatively modulate the scaffolding activity of ENH1.

  2. FERM Domain Interaction Promotes FAK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dunty, Jill M.; Gabarra-Niecko, Veronica; King, Michelle L.; Ceccarelli, Derek F. J.; Eck, Michael J.; Schaller, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    From the results of deletion analyses, the FERM domain of FAK has been proposed to inhibit enzymatic activity and repress FAK signaling. We have identified a sequence in the FERM domain that is important for FAK signaling in vivo. Point mutations in this sequence had little effect upon catalytic activity in vitro. However, the mutant exhibits reduced tyrosine phosphorylation and dramatically reduced Src family kinase binding. Further, the abilities of the mutant to transduce biochemical signals and to promote cell migration were severely impaired. The results implicate a FERM domain interaction in cell adhesion-dependent activation of FAK and downstream signaling. We also show that the purified FERM domain of FAK interacts with full-length FAK in vitro, and mutation of this sequence disrupts the interaction. These findings are discussed in the context of models of FAK regulation by its FERM domain. PMID:15169899

  3. Investigation of multilayer magnetic domain lattice file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, E. J.; Kamin, M.; Tolman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the self structured multilayered bubble domain memory as a mass memory medium for satellite applications is examined. Theoretical considerations of multilayer bubble supporting materials are presented, in addition to the experimental evaluation of current accessed circuitry for various memory functions. The design, fabrication, and test of four device designs is described, and a recommended memory storage area configuration is presented. Memory functions which were demonstrated include the current accessed propagation of bubble domains and stripe domains, pinning of stripe domain ends, generation of single and double bubbles, generation of arrays of coexisting strip and bubble domains in a single garnet layer, and demonstration of different values of the strip out field for single and double bubbles indicating adequate margins for data detection. All functions necessary to develop a multilayer self structured bubble memory device were demonstrated in individual experiments.

  4. Discoidin Domains as Emerging Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Villoutreix, Bruno O; Miteva, Maria A

    2016-08-01

    Discoidin (DS) domains are found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic extracellular and transmembrane multidomain proteins. These small domains play different functional roles and can interact with phospholipids, glycans, and proteins, including collagens. DS domain-containing proteins are often involved in cellular adhesion, migration, proliferation, and matrix-remodeling events, while some play a major role in blood coagulation. Mutations in DS domains have been associated with various disease conditions. This review provides an update on the structure, function, and modulation of the DS domains, with a special emphasis on two circulating blood coagulation cofactors, factor V and factor VIII, and the transmembrane neuropilin receptors that have been targeted for inhibition by biologics and small chemical compounds.

  5. Time-Domain Stability Margin Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  6. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  7. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  8. Geologic implications of topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data in the northern Yukon-Koyukuk province and its borderlands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Yukon-Koyukuk province is characterized by low elevation and high Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in contrast to the adjacent Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. Using newly compiled digital topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic maps, the province is divided into three geophysical domains. The Koyukuk domain, which is nearly equivalent to the Koyukuk lithotectonic terrane, is a horseshoe-shaped area, open to the south, of low topography, high gravity, and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies caused by an intraoceanic magmatic arc. The Angayucham and Kanuti domains are geophysical subdivisions of the Angayucham lithotectonic terrane that occur along the northern and southeastern margins of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, where oceanic rocks have been thrust over continental rocks of the Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. The modeling supports, but does not prove, the hypothesis that the crust of the Kobuk-Koyukuk basin is 32-35 km thick, consisting of a tectonically thickened section of Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks and older oceanic crust. -from Author

  9. Has Northern Hemisphere Heat Flow Been Underestimated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Majorowicz, J.; Safanda, J.; Szewczyk, J.

    2005-05-01

    We present three lines of evidence to suggest the hypothesis that heat flow in the northern hemisphere may have been underestimated by 15 to 60 percent in shallow wells due to a large post-glacial warming signal. First, temperature vs. depth (T-z) measurements in parts of Europe and North America show a systematic increase in heat flow with depth. This phenomenon is best recognized in analyses of deep (greater than 2km) boreholes in non-tectonic regions with normal to low background heat flow. In Europe, the increase in heat flow with depth has been observed by analysis of more than 1500 deep boreholes located throughout the Fennoscandian Shield, East European Platform, Danish Basin, Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland. There are significantly fewer deep boreholes in North America, but the increase in heat flow with depth appears in a suite of 759 sites in the IHFC Global Heat Flow Database for the region east of the Rocky Mountains and north of latitude 40 N. Second, surface heat flow values in southern hemisphere shields average approximately 50 mWm-2, but surface heat flow values in northern hemisphere shields average 33 mWm-2. Unless crustal radioactivity or mantle heat flow or both factors are greater in southern hemisphere continents, there is no reason for the northern and southern shield areas having similar ages to have different heat flow values. Third, two recently published surface heat flow maps show anomalously low heat flow in the Canadian Shield in a pattern that is coincident with the Wisconsinan ice sheet. The coincidence of low heat flow and ice accumulation has no geophysical basis, thus the coincidence may suggest the existence of a transient signal caused by a warming event. Recent studies of heat flow in North America indicate that in several sites, the ice base temperature was close to the pressure melting point. We hypothesize that there may have been cold ice-free periods during the Pleistocene that would account for the apparent colder

  10. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in northern Colombia 1994-2003. Evidence for human and fox rabies associated with dogs.

    PubMed

    Páez, A; Saad, C; Núñez, C; Bóshell, J

    2005-06-01

    During the period 2000-2003, wild grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northern Colombia became infected with rabies. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans in this region, 902 nt cDNA fragments containing the G-L intergenic region and encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans belonged to a single genetic variant. Speculative analysis together with epidemiological data indicated that rabies in foxes may have been due to contact with rabid dogs. Rabies transmission between dogs, wild foxes and humans may happen in natural conditions in northern Colombia. This finding is the first to suggest dog-to-fox rabies transmission in South America, and provides another example of dog rabies variants being able to successfully colonize wildlife hosts.

  11. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  12. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  13. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  14. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  15. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  17. The Northern Walker Lane Seismic Refraction Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Smith, S. B.; Thelen, W.; Scott, J. B.; Clark, M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional reference seismic velocity model for the western Great Basin region of Nevada and eastern California. The northern Walker Lane had not been characterized well by previous work. In May 2002 we collected a new crustal refraction profile from Battle Mountain, Nev. across western Nevada, the Reno area, Lake Tahoe, and the northern Sierra to Auburn, Calif. Mine blasts and earthquakes were recorded by 199 Texan instruments (loaned by the PASSCAL Instrument Center) extending across this more than 450-km-long transect. The seismic sources at the eastern end were mining blasts at Barrick's GoldStrike pit. We recorded additional blasts at the Florida Canyon and other mines between Lovelock and Battle Mountain, Nevada. The GoldStrike mine produced several ripple-fired blasts using 10,000-40,000 kg of ANFO each. First arrivals from the larger blasts are obvious to distances exceeding 250 km in the raw records. A M2.4 earthquake near Bridgeport, Calif. also produced pickable P-wave arrivals across at least half the transect, providing fan-shot data. We recorded only during working hours, and so missed an M4 earthquake that occurred at night. Events of M2 occurred during our recording to the west on the San Andreas fault near Pinnacles, Calif.; M3 events occurred near Portola and Mammoth Lakes, Calif. Arrivals from M5 events in the Mariana and Kuril Islands also appear in the records. Time-picks from these earthquakes may be possible after more work on synthetic-time modeling, data filtering, and display. We plan to record blasts at quarries in the western Sierra in future experiments, for a direct refraction reversal. We will compare our time picks against times generated from regional velocity models, to identify potential crustal and upper-mantle velocity anomalies. Such anomalies may be associated with the Battle Mountain heat-flow high, the northern Walker Lane belt, or the northern Sierran block.

  18. Atrazine Residues in Northern Ohio 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A09A 279 HEIDELBERG COLL TIFFIN OH WATER QUALITY LAS F/G 13/2 ATRAZINE RESIDUES IN NORTHERN OHIO 1980.(Ul SE P AG J V SETZLER DACW49-79-C0020 F...NUMBERS Water Quality Laboawtry Heidelberg College Tiff in, Ohio 44883 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Water Quality Section NCBED-HQ ebwwW U.S...are available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 It. KEY WORDS (Continue On revere. side if necessren d identify by

  19. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  20. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  1. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  2. Seasonal modelling assessment of ozone sensitivity to precursors in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabusi, Veronica; Volta, Marialuisa

    One of the major thrusts of model application is to assess the relative importance of NOx and VOC controls in reducing ozone levels; in this paper, the long-term assessment of ozone exposure and sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions, in terms of mean values and seasonal indicators, has been investigated over a complex domain in northern Italy, including Milan metropolitan area. The analysis has been carried out comparing eight seasonal simulations performed by the Gas Aerosol Modelling Evaluation System (GAMES): the summer season 1996, selected as reference case, and seven simulations obtained feeding the modelling system with increasing or decreasing precursor emissions. The study allowed to: (1) recognize the photochemical regimes of the domain, (2) investigate the influence of Milan plume in ozone production and accumulation processes over neighbouring suburban and rural areas, (3) identify parts of the domain where local emission reduction strategies are not effective, (4) provide a support system for local Air Quality Authorities in selecting effective emission reduction strategies.

  3. Field tuning of ferromagnetic domain walls on elastically coupled ferroelectric domain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Kévin J. A.; Lahtinen, Tuomas H. E.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2012-03-01

    We report on the evolution of ferromagnetic domain walls during magnetization reversal in elastically coupled ferromagnetic-ferroelectric heterostructures. Using optical polarization microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we demonstrate that the spin rotation and width of ferromagnetic domain walls can be accurately controlled by the strength of the applied magnetic field if the ferromagnetic walls are pinned onto 90∘ ferroelectric domain boundaries. Moreover, reversible switching between magnetically charged and uncharged domain walls is initiated by magnetic field rotation. Switching between both wall types reverses the wall chirality and abruptly changes the width of the ferromagnetic domain walls by up to 1000%.

  4. Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Scenario Earthquakes in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, S.; Dreger, D.; Dolenc, D.

    2006-12-01

    3-D simulations of seismic ground motions are performed to better characterize the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and to investigate the seismic consequences from scenario events in northern California. Specifically, we perform simulations of: 1) the 1906 earthquake, which bilaterally ruptured a 480-km segment of the San Andreas fault from San Juan Bautista to Cape Mendocino (epicenter a few kilometers off the coast of San Francisco); 2) large scenario San Andreas events with different epicentral locations; and 3) smaller scenario events along faults local to the San Francisco Bay Area. Simulations of the 1906 earthquake indicate that significant ground motion occurred up and down the northern California coast and out into the Central Valley. Comparisons between the simulated motions and observed data (e.g., shaking intensities, Boatwright and Bundock, 2005), suggest that the moment magnitude of this event was between M7.8 and M7.9. Simulations of 1906-like scenario events along the San Andreas fault reveal that ground motions in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the Sacramento Delta region would be significantly stronger for earthquakes initiating along the northern section of the fault and rupturing to the southeast. Simulations of smaller scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area indicate areas of concentrated shaking. These simulations are performed using a recently developed 3-D geologic model of northern California (Brocher and Thurber, 2005; Jachens et al., 2005), together with finite-difference codes (E3D and a new public domain package). The effects of topography and attenuation are included. The full computational domain spans most of the geologic model and is 630x320x50 km3. The minimum S-wave velocity is constrained to 500 m/s, except in water. Frequencies up to 1.0 Hz are modeled. The grid spacing ranges from 75 m to 200 m. High performance supercomputers are used for the simulations, which include models of over 23 billion grid nodes using 2000

  5. Northern Conference Film and Video Guide on Native and Northern Justice Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby (British Columbia).

    Intended for teachers and practitioners, this film and video guide contains 235 entries pertaining to the administration of justice, culture and lifestyle, and education and services in northern Canada. It is divided into eight sections: Native lifestyle (97 items); economic development (28), rights and self-government (20); education and training…

  6. A dendrochronological analysis of driftwood in the Northern Dvina delta and on northern Novaya Zemlya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Stein

    2001-09-01

    Analysis of the wood anatomy of modern driftwood logs deposited by the Northern Dvina River, Russia, reveals nearly identical amounts of Picea and Pinus in contrast to the driftwood deposits in the European Arctic, which are dominated by Pinus. Two Picea and two Pinus driftwood chronologies that were constructed could be cross-dated with several chronologies available from the drainage area of the Northern Dvina as well as with driftwood chronologies from Jan Mayen in the Greenland Sea or the Barents Sea coast of north Norway. The degree of cross dating indicates that two major source areas are represented among the driftwood logs examined, i.e., the lower part of the Pinega drainage basin and the eastern central part of the province of Archangel. The origin suggested corresponds with the development of the important logging areas. Driftwood pine and spruce logs from northern Novaya Zemlya cross-dated with chronologies from northwest Russia and the Lower Angara region reveal a transport of ice-rafted wood between the Barents Sea and the northern Kara Sea. Two dispersal routes of driftwood from northwest Russia to locations in the Barents Sea and the Norwegian and Greenland Sea are proposed, via a counter-clockwise circulation in the Barents Sea and via export of drift ice to the Arctic Ocean north of Novaya Zemlya.

  7. Structural organization of human replication timing domains.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Rasha E; Drillon, Guénola; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain; Audit, Benjamin

    2015-10-07

    Recent analysis of genome-wide epigenetic modification data, mean replication timing (MRT) profiles and chromosome conformation data in mammals have provided increasing evidence that flexibility in replication origin usage is regulated locally by the epigenetic landscape and over larger genomic distances by the 3D chromatin architecture. Here, we review the recent results establishing some link between replication domains and chromatin structural domains in pluripotent and various differentiated cell types in human. We reconcile the originally proposed dichotomic picture of early and late constant timing regions that replicate by multiple rather synchronous origins in separated nuclear compartments of open and closed chromatins, with the U-shaped MRT domains bordered by "master" replication origins specified by a localized (∼200-300 kb) zone of open and transcriptionally active chromatin from which a replication wave likely initiates and propagates toward the domain center via a cascade of origin firing. We discuss the relationships between these MRT domains, topologically associated domains and lamina-associated domains. This review sheds a new light on the epigenetically regulated global chromatin reorganization that underlies the loss of pluripotency and the determination of differentiation properties.

  8. J domain independent functions of J proteins.

    PubMed

    Ajit Tamadaddi, Chetana; Sahi, Chandan

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock proteins of 40 kDa (Hsp40s), also called J proteins, are obligate partners of Hsp70s. Via their highly conserved and functionally critical J domain, J proteins interact and modulate the activity of their Hsp70 partners. Mutations in the critical residues in the J domain often result in the null phenotype for the J protein in question. However, as more J proteins have been characterized, it is becoming increasingly clear that a significant number of J proteins do not "completely" rely on their J domains to carry out their cellular functions, as previously thought. In some cases, regions outside the highly conserved J domain have become more important making the J domain dispensable for some, if not for all functions of a J protein. This has profound effects on the evolution of such J proteins. Here we present selected examples of J proteins that perform J domain independent functions and discuss this in the context of evolution of J proteins with dispensable J domains and J-like proteins in eukaryotes.

  9. Chiral spin torque at magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwang-Su; Thomas, Luc; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized currents provide a powerful means of manipulating the magnetization of nanodevices, and give rise to spin transfer torques that can drive magnetic domain walls along nanowires. In ultrathin magnetic wires, domain walls are found to move in the opposite direction to that expected from bulk spin transfer torques, and also at much higher speeds. Here we show that this is due to two intertwined phenomena, both derived from spin-orbit interactions. By measuring the influence of magnetic fields on current-driven domain-wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni/Co trilayers, we find an internal effective magnetic field acting on each domain wall, the direction of which alternates between successive domain walls. This chiral effective field arises from a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Co/Pt interfaces and, in concert with spin Hall currents, drives the domain walls in lock-step along the nanowire. Elucidating the mechanism for the manipulation of domain walls in ultrathin magnetic films will enable the development of new families of spintronic devices.

  10. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  11. Thermal variations of domain wall thickness and number of domains in magnetic rectangular grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Song; Merrill, Ronald T.

    1990-12-01

    Equilibrium domain wall thickness and number of domains in rectangular magnetic grains are determined by using a modified Amar model. It is shown that domain structure, particularly domain wall thickness, in a magnetized grain depends strongly on grain shape and orientation. These dependencies are attributed to the existence of two competing self-magnetostatic interactions, one from the ends of the grain and the other from the sides. One of the consequences of this is that the thermal variation of domain wall thickness in an elongated grain is greater (smaller) than predicted by classical theory when the grain is magnetized along the shortest (longest) dimension. For magnetite, classical theory provides a good approximation in predicting both domain wall thickness and number of domains in equal-dimensional grains larger than about 4 μm.

  12. The domain-specific and domain-general relationships of visuospatial working memory to reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Shipstead, Zach; Yonehiro, Jade

    2016-10-01

    The degree to which visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is separable from working memory in general is an open question. On one hand, the construct is often researched as a unitary, domain-specific system. On the other, there is evidence that VWSM shares a common processing component with verbal memory. One might interpret this shared component as domain-general attention. We used confirmatory factor analysis to demonstrate that VSWM shares a domain-general component with verbal memory tasks and has a domain-specific component that is independent of verbal memory. Furthermore, the domain-general component was found to correlate with reasoning ability in both the visuospatial and verbal domains. The domain-specific component only correlated with reasoning ability when the tests had a strong visuospatial component. We argue that theories of VSWM need to place greater emphasis on its multiply determined nature.

  13. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  14. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  15. Compositional Dictionaries for Domain Adaptive Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Qiang Qiu; Chellappa, Rama

    2015-12-01

    We present a dictionary learning approach to compensate for the transformation of faces due to the changes in view point, illumination, resolution, and so on. The key idea of our approach is to force domain-invariant sparse coding, i.e., designing a consistent sparse representation of the same face in different domains. In this way, the classifiers trained on the sparse codes in the source domain consisting of frontal faces can be applied to the target domain (consisting of faces in different poses, illumination conditions, and so on) without much loss in recognition accuracy. The approach is to first learn a domain base dictionary, and then describe each domain shift (identity, pose, and illumination) using a sparse representation over the base dictionary. The dictionary adapted to each domain is expressed as the sparse linear combinations of the base dictionary. In the context of face recognition, with the proposed compositional dictionary approach, a face image can be decomposed into sparse representations for a given subject, pose, and illumination. This approach has three advantages. First, the extracted sparse representation for a subject is consistent across domains, and enables pose and illumination insensitive face recognition. Second, sparse representations for pose and illumination can be subsequently used to estimate the pose and illumination condition of a face image. Last, by composing sparse representations for the subject and the different domains, we can also perform pose alignment and illumination normalization. Extensive experiments using two public face data sets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for face recognition.

  16. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) towards the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than 170 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. NEESPI was endorsed by major ESSP Programs and Projects and the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Now it is the time to synthesis the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers and to re-assess its Science Questions and Objectives of the regional research within the new Future Earth Program paradigm with the focus on interdisciplinary solution-oriented approach that will allow effective policy-making in environment management and control. At the sequence of Workshops (the last of them will be in Prague one week prior to this Assembly) we formulated a major Science Question of the new Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): "What will the changes in the regional ecosystems dynamics and interactions mean for the societal well-being, activities, health, and strategic planning in Northern Eurasia?" The major NEFI challenge will be the services aimed on providing in Northern Eurasia a sustainable societal development in changing climate, ecosystems, and societies. At this presentation we shall brief the audience about the main results of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future NEFI studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we shall initiate preparation of the book which will synthesize major NEESPI achievements.

  17. Domain-decomposed preconditionings for transport operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The performance was tested of five different interface preconditionings for domain decomposed convection diffusion problems, including a novel one known as the spectral probe, while varying mesh parameters, Reynolds number, ratio of subdomain diffusion coefficients, and domain aspect ratio. The preconditioners are representative of the range of practically computable possibilities that have appeared in the domain decomposition literature for the treatment of nonoverlapping subdomains. It is shown that through a large number of numerical examples that no single preconditioner can be considered uniformly superior or uniformly inferior to the rest, but that knowledge of particulars, including the shape and strength of the convection, is important in selecting among them in a given problem.

  18. Domain decomposition algorithms and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the new domain decomposition algorithms are applied to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics: the two-dimensional convection-diffusion problem and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. First, a brief introduction to the various approaches of domain decomposition is given, and a survey of domain decomposition preconditioners for the operator on the interface separating the subdomains is then presented. For the convection-diffusion problem, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is examined.

  19. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  20. An introduction to recognizing functional domains.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Gary D

    2006-10-01

    This unit provides an overview of issues involved in domain recognition in protein and DNA sequences. It opens with a discussion of the two primary methods of domain representation, namely consensus sequences and alignment matrices (e.g., the log-odds matrix). The unit continues with a brief overview of some of the resources available for identifying functional domains in nucleotide sequences (e.g., TRANSFAC). In addition, it reviews databases such as Pfam, InterPro and Blocks, which are available for protein analysis.

  1. Inferring Evolutionary Scenarios for Protein Domain Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhoeft, John; Krause, Roland; Eulenstein, Oliver

    Essential cellular processes are controlled by functional interactions of protein domains, which can be inferred from their evolutionary histories. Methods to reconstruct these histories are challenged by the complexity of reconstructing macroevolutionary events. In this work we model these events using a novel network-like structure that represents the evolution of domain combinations, called plexus. We describe an algorithm to find a plexus that represents the evolution of a given collection of domain histories as phylogenetic trees with the minimum number of macroevolutionary events, and demonstrate its effectiveness in practice.

  2. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  3. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  4. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals.

  5. Zinc and lead deposits of northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Edwin T.

    1935-01-01

    Zinc and lead ores occur in the northern counties of Arkansas, from the Arkansas-Oklahoma line on the west to the Coastal Plain, in Lawrence County, on the east, but are concentrated chiefly in Marion, Boone, Newton, Searcy, Sharp, and Lawrence Counties.  Lead ore was reported in the region as early as 1818, and small reduction plants were built in the vicinity of Lead Hill in 1851 or 1852.  The Confederate forces obtained lead from northern Arkansas during the Civil War.  Zinc mining began at a somewhat later date and reached its peak between 1914 and 1917, but since that time mining has been at a low ebb.  The later history of lead mining in the region has closely paralleled that of zinc.  The production from the region since 1907, according to statistics compiled by the United States Geological Survey, has been, in round numbers, 1,900 tons of lead sulphide concentrates, 11,5000 tons of zinc sulphide concentrates, and 51,3000 tons of zinc carbonate and silicate concentrates.

  6. Melioidosis and Aboriginal seasons in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis, an infection due to the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with cases strongly correlated with the monsoonal wet season. We hypothesized that seasonal variation in the mode of acquisition, informed by traditional knowledge, would result in variations in disease characteristics as well as disease incidence. We explored the seasonal variation in acute, culture-confirmed melioidosis using local Aboriginal definitions of seasons in presentations to the Royal Darwin Hospital, the referral centre for the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. In 387 patients, we observed an increased proportion of patients with pneumonia (60%) and severe sepsis (25%) associated with presentations in the wet seasons Gunumeleng (October-December) and Gudjewg (January-March) compared with the drier seasons Wurrgeng (June August) and Gurrung (August-October) (pneumonia 26%, severe sepsis 13%). This observation supports the hypothesis that in the wet seasons there may be changes in the mode and/or magnitude of exposure to B. pseudomallei, with a shift from percutaneous inoculation to aerosol inhalation, for instance.

  7. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  8. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  9. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Turbulent times in the northern polar ionosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, Robert; Astin, Ivan; Mitchell, Cathryn; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Pedersen, Todd; Skone, Susan

    2010-04-01

    A model is presented of the growth rate of turbulently generated irregularities in the electron concentration of northern polar cap plasma patches. The turbulence is generated by the short-term fluctuations in the electric field imposed on the polar cap ionosphere by electric field mapping from the magnetosphere. The model uses an ionospheric imaging algorithm to specify the state of the ionosphere throughout. The growth rates are used to estimate mean amplitudes for the irregularities, and these mean amplitudes are compared with observations of the scintillation indices S4 and σ$\\phi$ by calculating the linear correlation coefficients between them. The scintillation data are recorded by GPS L1 band receivers stationed at high northern latitudes. A total of 13 days are analyzed, covering four separate magnetic storm periods. These results are compared with those from a similar model of the gradient drift instability (GDI) growth rate. Overall, the results show better correlation between the GDI process and the scintillation indices than for the turbulence process and the scintillation indices. Two storms, however, show approximately equally good correlations for both processes, indicating that there might be times when the turbulence process of irregularity formation on plasma patches may be the controlling one.

  11. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  12. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  13. Choice policies in Northern European health systems.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten; Robertson, Ruth; Winblad, Ulrika; Van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Dixon, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the introduction of policies to promote or strengthen patient choice in four Northern European countries - Denmark, England, the Netherlands and Sweden. The paper examines whether there has been convergence in choice policies across Northern Europe. Following Christopher Pollitt's suggestion, the paper distinguishes between rhetorical (discursive) convergence, decision (design) convergence and implementation (operational) convergence (Pollitt, 2002). This leads to the following research question for the article: Is the introduction of policies to strengthen choice in the four countries characterised by discursive, decision and operational convergence? The paper concludes that there seems to be convergence among these four countries in the overall policy rhetoric about the objectives associated with patient choice, embracing both concepts of empowerment (the intrinsic value) and market competition (the instrumental value). It appears that the institutional context and policy concerns such as waiting times have been important in affecting the timing of the introduction of choice policies and implementation, but less so in the design of choice policies. An analysis of the impact of choice policies is beyond the scope of this paper, but it is concluded that further research should investigate how the institutional context and timing of implementation affect differences in how the choice policy works out in practice.

  14. Invasive bacterial diseases in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Degani, Naushaba; Navarro, Christine; Deeks, Shelley L; Lovgren, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) is a population-based invasive bacterial disease surveillance network. Participating Canadian regions include Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and northern regions of Québec and Labrador (total population 132,956, 59% aboriginal). Clinical and demographic information were collected by using standardized surveillance forms. Bacterial isolates were forwarded to reference laboratories for confirmation and serotyping. After pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction, crude annual incidence rates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased from 34.0/100,000 population (1999-2002) to 23.6/100,000 population (2003-2005); substantial reductions were shown among aboriginals. However, incidence rates of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and group A streptococci were higher in aboriginal populations than in non-aboriginal populations. H. influenzae type b was rare; 52% of all H. influenzae cases were caused by type a. Data collected by ICS contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of invasive bacterial diseases among northern populations, which assists in formulation of prevention and control strategies, including immunization recommendations.

  15. Active deformation of the northern front of the Eastern Great Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niviere, Bertrand; Gagala, Lukasz; Callot, Jean-Paul; Regard, Vincent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Arabia-Eurasia collision involved a mosaic of island arcs and microcontinents. Their accretion to the complex paleogeographic margin of Neotethys was marked by numerous collisional events. The Greater Caucasus constitute the northernmost tectonic element of this tectonic collage, developed as a back arc extensional zone now inverted, which relationships to the onset of Arabia-Eurasia continental collision and/or to the reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia plate boundary at ˜5 Ma remain controversial. Structurally, the Greater Caucasus are a former continental back arc rift, now the locus of ongoing continental shortening. Modern geodetic observations suggest that in the west, the strain north of the Armenian Plateau is accommodated almost exclusively along the margins of the Greater Caucasus. This differs from regions further east where strain accommodation is distributed across both the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, and within the Greater Caucasus range, with a unique southward vergence. We question here the amount and mechanisms by which the Eastern Greater Caucasus accommodate part of the Arabia-Eurasia convergence. Morphostructural analysis of the folded late Pleistocene marine terrace along the northern slope of the Eastern Greater Caucasus evidences an on going tectonic activity in the area where GPS measurements record no motion. Most of the recent foreland deformation is accommodated by south-vergent folds and thrust, i. e. opposite to the vergence of the Caucasus frontal northern thrust. A progressive unconformity in the folded beds shows that it was already active during the late Pliocene. Cosmogenic dating of the terrace and kinematic restoration of the remnant terrace, linked to the subsurface geology allows for the estimation of a shortening rate ranging from a few mm/yr to 1 cm/yr over the last 5 Myr along the greater Caucasus northern front. Thus more than one third of the shortening between the Kura block / Lesser Caucasus domain and the Stable

  16. Supporting multiple domains in a single reuse repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David

    1992-01-01

    Domain analysis typically results in the construction of a domain-specific repository. Such a repository imposes artificial boundaries on the sharing of similar assets between related domains. A lattice-based approach to repository modeling can preserve a reuser's domain specific view of the repository, while avoiding replication of commonly used assets and supporting a more general perspective on domain interrelationships.

  17. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  18. Crustal structure of the Archaean granite-greenstone terrane in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debeer, J. H.; Stettler, E. H.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Bearncombe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations of the electrical resistivity, gravity and aeromagnetic signatures of the various granite-greenstone units in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal craton have revealed three features of significance: (1) the Archean greenstone belts are shallow features, rarely exceeding 5 km in depth; (2) the high resistivity upper crustal layer typical of the lower grade granite-greenstone terranes is absent in the granulite facies terrane; and (3) the aeromagnetic lineation patterns allow the granite-greenstone terrane to be subdivided into geologically recognizable tectono-metamorphic domains on the basis of lineation frequency and direction. A discussion follows.

  19. FHA domains: Phosphopeptide binding and beyond.

    PubMed

    Almawi, Ahmad W; Matthews, Lindsay A; Guarné, Alba

    2016-12-08

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are small phosphopeptide recognition modules found in eubacterial and eukaryotic, but not archeal, genomes. Although they were originally found in forkhead-type transcription factors, they have now been identified in many other signaling proteins. FHA domains share a remarkably conserved fold despite very low sequence conservation. They only have five conserved amino acids that are important for binding to phosphorylated epitopes. Recent work from several laboratories has demonstrated that FHA domains can mediate many interactions that do not depend on their ability to recognize a phosphorylated threonine. In this review, we present structural and biochemical work that has unveiled novel interaction interfaces on FHA domains. We discuss how these non-canonical interactions modulate the recognition of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated substrates, as well as protein oligomerization - events that collectively determine FHA function.

  20. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  1. Time-domain flicker measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miseli, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    The visibility of flicker on a display depends upon many factors, including the observer's sensitivity to flicker. Whenever flicker is observed, it is probably undesirable and often unacceptable. Much has been written about flicker, its perception, and its variability. Methods have been presented to the industry that use frequency domain analysis of measured flicker response. Here we prose an alternate method to quantify flicker in the time domain, just as people see it, and we will try to understand how the measurements relate to what people see. Both the frequency domain and time domain flicker measurements can be found in the Video Electronics Standards Association Flat Panel Display Measurements Standard. An attempt is made to compare the two methods and show how the simpler measurement can be employed for many display technologies.

  2. Domain wall magneto-Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzysteczko, Patryk; Hu, Xiukun; Liebing, Niklas; Sievers, Sibylle; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2015-10-01

    The interplay between charge, spin, and heat currents in magnetic nanostructures subjected to a temperature gradient has led to a variety of novel effects and promising applications studied in the fast-growing field of spin caloritronics. Here, we explore the magnetothermoelectrical properties of an individual magnetic domain wall in a permalloy nanowire. In thermal gradients of the order of few K /μ m along the long wire axis, we find a clear magneto-Seebeck signature due to the presence of a single domain wall. The observed domain wall magneto-Seebeck effect can be explained by the magnetization-dependent Seebeck coefficient of permalloy in combination with the local spin configuration of the domain wall.

  3. Magnified time-domain ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryczkowski, Piotr; Barbier, Margaux; Friberg, Ari T.; Dudley, John M.; Genty, Goëry

    2017-04-01

    Ghost imaging allows the imaging of an object without directly seeing this object. Originally demonstrated in the spatial domain, it was recently shown that ghost imaging can be transposed into the time domain to detect ultrafast signals, even in the presence of distortion. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a temporal ghost imaging scheme which generates a 5× magnified ghost image of an ultrafast waveform. Inspired by shadow imaging in the spatial domain and building on the dispersive Fourier transform of an incoherent supercontinuum in an optical fiber, the approach overcomes the resolution limit of standard time-domain ghost imaging generally imposed by the detectors speed. The method can be scaled up to higher magnification factors using longer fiber lengths and light source with shorter duration.

  4. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  5. Investigations on polarimetric terahertz frequency domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yandong; Zhang, Banghong; Notake, Takashi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Olivo, Malini; Sugii, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    A polarimetric Terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy system is presented which has an additional polarization measurement function at the Terahertz band. The achromatic Terahertz waveplate, which acts as the key device in the system, is also presented.

  6. Epistemic Analysis of Interrogative Domains using Cuboids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Cameron; Hughes, Tracey

    We are interested in analyzing the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from interrogative domains. The interrogative domains that have our current focus are taken from transcripts of legal trials, congressional hearings, or law enforcement interrogations. These transcripts have be encoded in XML or HTML formats. The agent uses these transcripts as a primary knowledge source. The complexity, size, scope and potentially conflicting nature of transcripts from interrogative domains bring into question the quality of propositional knowledge that can be garnered by the agent. Epistemic Cuboids or Cubes are used as a knowledge analysis technique that helps determine the quality and quantity of the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from an interrogative domain. In this paper we explore how 'Epistemic Cubes' can be used to evaluate the nature of the agent's propositional knowledge.

  7. Time-Domain vs. Frequency-Domain CSEM: Implications for Marine Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, D. M.; Key, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    The frequency-domain marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method is now routinely applied to map resistive hydrocarbons buried beneath the seabed in deepwater. Alternatively, it has been suggested that time-domain CSEM methods may offer improved resolution of difficult targets such as deeply buried reservoirs. Furthermore, time-domain methods may overcome a sensitivity limitation imposed by the airwave saturation that is experienced for shallow-water frequency-domain CSEM. In order to examine and test these claims, we have developed a modeling code for computing time-domain responses for layered 1D models with arbitrarily located and oriented transmitters and receivers. Our code extends the open-source frequency domain code Dipole1D by efficiently computing the time-domain step-on and impulse responses by Fourier transformation of the frequency-domain kernels. By applying a realistic noise model to synthetic data generated from this code, we systematically examine the sensitivity and resolution of time-domain and frequency-domain CSEM to representative targets of interest for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploration surveys of seafloor volcanic and hydrothermal systems. These studies have practical implications for marine EM survey systems that use either towed or stationary transmitters and receivers.

  8. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  9. Forum domain in Drosophila melanogaster cut locus possesses looped domains inside.

    PubMed

    Tchurikov, N A; Krasnov, A N; Ponomarenko, N A; Golova, Y B; Chernov, B K

    1998-07-01

    We have studied the relationship between chromosomal forum domains and looped domains in the cut locus of Drosophila melanogaster . Forum domains were earlier detected by separation in pulsed-field gels of 50-150 kb chromosomal DNA fragments obtained after spontaneous non-random degradation of chromosomes. We have localized the boundary region where cleavage sites are scattered between two forum domains in the regulatory region of the cut locus. We have sequenced a 13 kb region spanning few kilobases from distal domain, the boundary region and part of the proximal forum domain where several scaffold associated regions (SARs) were observed. We conclude that forum domains and looped domains are physically different types of domains and belong to different levels of organization in eukaryotic chromosomes. The boundary region between the neighboring forum domains in the cut locus possesses the Doc element insertion and a micro-satellite stretch and thus might remind a small island of heterochromatin and correspond to so-called intercalary heterochromatin that is known to be located in the 7B1-2 band where the major part of the cut locus is reside.

  10. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...DDRs in prostate cancer . During the first funding period, we conducted immunohistochemical studies by staining a 200 case Grade/Stage tissue

  11. Work Domain Analysis: Theoretical Concepts and Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    method to elicit expert knowledge: A case study in the methodology of cognitive task analysis. Human Factors, 40, 254-276. Itoh, J., Sakuma, A...Work Domain Analysis: Theoretical Concepts and Methodology Neelam Naikar, Robyn Hopcroft, and Anna Moylan Air Operations...theoretical and methodological approach for work domain analysis (WDA), the first phase of cognitive work analysis. The report: (1) addresses a number of

  12. Planning with Continuous Resources in Stochastic Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausam, Mausau; Benazera, Emmanuel; Brafman, Roneu; Hansen, Eric

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal planning in stochastic domains with metric resource constraints. Our goal is to generate a policy whose expected sum of rewards is maximized for a given initial state. We consider a general formulation motivated by our application domain--planetary exploration--in which the choice of an action at each step may depend on the current resource levels. We adapt the forward search algorithm AO* to handle our continuous state space efficiently.

  13. Multi-domain training enhances attentional control.

    PubMed

    Binder, Julia C; Martin, Mike; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Röcke, Christina; Mérillat, Susan; Eschen, Anne; Jäncke, Lutz; Shing, Yee Lee

    2016-06-01

    Multi-domain training potentially increases the likelihood of overlap in processing components with transfer tasks and everyday life, and hence is a promising training approach for older adults. To empirically test this, 84 healthy older adults aged 64 to 75 years were randomly assigned to one of three single-domain training conditions (inhibition, visuomotor function, spatial navigation) or to the simultaneous training of all three cognitive functions (multi-domain training condition). All participants trained on an iPad at home for 50 training sessions. Before and after the training, and at a 6-month follow-up measurement, cognitive functioning and training transfer were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including tests targeting the trained functions (near transfer) and transfer to executive functions (far transfer: attentional control, working memory, speed). Participants in all four training groups showed a linear increase in training performance over the 50 training sessions. Using a latent difference score model, the multi-domain training group, compared with the single-domain training groups, showed more improvement on the far transfer attentional control composite. Individuals with initially lower baseline performance showed higher training-related improvements, indicating that training compensated for lower initial cognitive performance. At the 6-month follow-up, performance on the cognitive test battery remained stable. This is one of the first studies to investigate systematically multi-domain training including comparable single-domain training conditions. Our findings suggest that multi-domain training enhances attentional control involved in handling several different tasks at the same time, an aspect in everyday life that is particularly challenging for older people. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Moving Towards Domain Wall Devices in Ferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    Domain walls in ferroelectric, ferroelastic and multiferroic oxides are distinct functional materials in their own right. They can be conducting, or even superconducting, when surrounding domains are insulating; they can demonstrate magnetism when the surrounding bulk is non-magnetic and they can contain ordered electrical dipoles when the matrix containing them is non-polar. Since domain walls can also be created, destroyed, and controllably moved from place to place, there is an amazing opportunity for us to design new forms of devices in which functionality is actively and dynamically deployed (now you see it; now you don't). This is the essence of the emerging field known as ``domain wall nanoelectronics''. In time, this arena of research could change the way we think of nanoscale functional devices, moving increasingly towards agile circuitry and neuromorphic device architectures. While the control of domain wall injection, movement and annihilation has been developed rather well in the nanomagnetics community (in race-track and domain wall logic research), similar research has not been widely performed in nanoscale ferroelectrics, ferroelastics and multiferroics. This talk will discuss progress that has been made to date and the way in which nanomagnetics research can be used as a source of inspiration. Site-specific domain wall injection and motion control in both proper and improper ferroelectrics using inhomogeneous electric and elastic fields, as well as dielectric patterning in uniaxial ferroelectrics, will be specifically considered. As will be shown, sufficient control has been developed to allow the creation of a diode for domain wall motion in ferroelectrics, for example. The author acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  15. Kinematics of the Torcal Shear Zone: transpressional tectonics shaping orogenic curves in the northern Gibraltar Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos, Leticia; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Structural trend line patterns of orogenic arcs depict diverse geometries resulting from multiple factors such as indenter geometry, thickness of pre-deformational sequences and rheology of major decollement surfaces. Within them, salient-recess transitions often result in transpressive deformation bands. The Gibraltar Arc results from the Neogene collision of a composite metamorphic terrane (Alboran Domain, acting as a relative backstop) against two foreland margins (Southiberian and Maghrebian Domains). Within it, the Western Gibraltar Arc (WGA) is a protruded salient, 200 km in length cord, closely coinciding with the apex zone of the major arc. The WGA terminates at two transpressional zones. The main structure in the northern (Betic) end zone is a 70 km long and 4-5 km wide brittle deformation band, the so-called Torcal Shear Zone (TSZ). The TSZ forms a W-E topographic alignment along which the kinematic data show an overall dextral transpression. Within the TSZ strain is highly partitioned into mainly shortening, extensional and strike-slip structures. The strain partitioning is heterogeneous along the band and, accordingly, four distinct sectors can be identified. i) The Peñarrubia-Almargen Transverse Zone (PATZ), located at the W-end of the TSZ presents WNW-ESE folds and dextral faults, together with normal faults that accommodate extension parallel to the dominant structural trend. WNW ESE dextral faults might be related with synthetic splays at the lateral end of the TSZ. ii) The Sierra del Valle de Abdalajís (SVA) is characterized by WSW-ENE trending folds and dextral-reverse faults dipping to SSE, and NW-SE normal faults. The southern boundary of the SVA is a dextral fault zone. iii) The Torcal de Antequera Massif (TAM) presents two types of structural domains. Two outer domains located at both margins characterized by E-W trending, dextral strike-slip structures, and an inner domain, characterized by en echelon SE-vergent open folds and reverse shear

  16. Functional domains of the poliovirus receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Satoshi; Ise, Iku; Nomoto, Akio )

    1991-05-15

    A number of mutant cDNAs of the human poliovirus receptor were constructed to identify essential regions of the molecule as the receptor. All mutant cDNAs carrying the sequence coding for the entire N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain (domain I) confer permissiveness for poliovirus to mouse L cells, but a mutant cDNA lacking the sequence for domain I does not. The transformants permissive for poliovirus were able to bind the virus and were also recognized by monoclonal antibody D171, which competes with poliovirus for the cellular receptor. These results strongly suggest that the poliovirus binding site resides in domain I of the receptor. Mutant cDNAs for the sequence encoding the intracellular peptide were also constructed and expressed in mouse L cells. Susceptibility of these cells to poliovirus revealed that the entire putative cytoplasmic domain is not essential for virus infection. Thus, the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule appears not to play a role in the penetration of poliovirus.

  17. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-01

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Nanoscopic Lipid Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, Jonathan D.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Mostofian, Barmak; Stanley, Christopher; Lindner, Benjamin; Heberle, Frederick A.; Perticaroli, Stefania; Feygenson, Mikhail; Egami, Takeshi; Standaert, Robert F.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Myles, Dean A. A.; Ohl, Michael; Katsaras, John

    2015-09-28

    We found that the lipid raft hypothesis presents insight into how the cell membrane organizes proteins and lipids to accomplish its many vital functions. Yet basic questions remain about the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation, stability, and size of lipid rafts. Thus, much interest has been generated in the study of systems that contain similar lateral heterogeneities, or domains. In the current work we present an experimental approach that is capable of isolating the bending moduli of lipid domains. This is accomplished using neutron scattering and its unique sensitivity to the isotopes of hydrogen. Combining contrast matching approaches with inelastic neutron scattering, we isolate the bending modulus of ~13 nm diameter domains residing in 60 nm unilamellar vesicles, whose lipid composition mimics the mammalian plasma membrane outer leaflet. Importantly, the bending modulus of the nanoscopic domains differs from the modulus of the continuous phase surrounding them. Moreover, from additional structural measurements and all-atom simulations, we also determine that nanoscopic domains are in-register across the bilayer leaflets. Taken together, these results inform a number of theoretical models of domain/raft formation and highlight the fact that mismatches in bending modulus must be accounted for when explaining the emergence of lateral heterogeneities in lipid systems and biological membranes.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Nanoscopic Lipid Domains

    DOE PAGES

    Nickels, Jonathan D.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Mostofian, Barmak; ...

    2015-09-28

    We found that the lipid raft hypothesis presents insight into how the cell membrane organizes proteins and lipids to accomplish its many vital functions. Yet basic questions remain about the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation, stability, and size of lipid rafts. Thus, much interest has been generated in the study of systems that contain similar lateral heterogeneities, or domains. In the current work we present an experimental approach that is capable of isolating the bending moduli of lipid domains. This is accomplished using neutron scattering and its unique sensitivity to the isotopes of hydrogen. Combining contrast matching approachesmore » with inelastic neutron scattering, we isolate the bending modulus of ~13 nm diameter domains residing in 60 nm unilamellar vesicles, whose lipid composition mimics the mammalian plasma membrane outer leaflet. Importantly, the bending modulus of the nanoscopic domains differs from the modulus of the continuous phase surrounding them. Moreover, from additional structural measurements and all-atom simulations, we also determine that nanoscopic domains are in-register across the bilayer leaflets. Taken together, these results inform a number of theoretical models of domain/raft formation and highlight the fact that mismatches in bending modulus must be accounted for when explaining the emergence of lateral heterogeneities in lipid systems and biological membranes.« less

  20. Constant domain-regulated antibody catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; McLean, Gary; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-10-19

    Some antibodies contain variable (V) domain catalytic sites. We report the superior amide and peptide bond-hydrolyzing activity of the same heavy and light chain V domains expressed in the IgM constant domain scaffold compared with the IgG scaffold. The superior catalytic activity of recombinant IgM was evident using two substrates, a small model peptide that is hydrolyzed without involvement of high affinity epitope binding, and HIV gp120, which is recognized specifically by noncovalent means prior to the hydrolytic reaction. The catalytic activity was inhibited by an electrophilic phosphonate diester, consistent with a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. All 13 monoclonal IgMs tested displayed robust hydrolytic activities varying over a 91-fold range, consistent with expression of the catalytic functions at distinct levels by different V domains. The catalytic activity of polyclonal IgM was superior to polyclonal IgG from the same sera, indicating that on average IgMs express the catalytic function at levels greater than IgGs. The findings indicate a favorable effect of the remote IgM constant domain scaffold on the integrity of the V-domain catalytic site and provide a structural basis for conceiving antibody catalysis as a first line immune function expressed at high levels prior to development of mature IgG class antibodies.

  1. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  2. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-01-01

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics. PMID:28195565

  3. Joining RDC data from flexible protein domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgheri, Luca

    2010-11-01

    We study the inverse problem of determining the conformational freedom of two protein domains from residual dipolar coupling (RDC) measurements. For each paramagnetic ion attached to one of the domains we obtain a magnetic susceptibility tensor χ from the RDC of couples of atoms of that domain, and a mean paramagnetic susceptibility tensor {\\bar{\\chi }} from the RDC of couples of atoms of the other domain. The latter is an integral average of rotations of χ which depends on the conformational freedom of the two domains. In this paper we consider the case when we have data from paramagnetic ions attached separately to each of the domains. We prove that in this case not all the elements of χ and {\\bar{\\chi }} are independent. We derive the mathematical equations for the compatibility of the measurements and show how these relations can be used in the presence of noisy data to determine a compatible set of χ and {\\bar{\\chi }} with an unconstrained minimization. If available, information about the shape of the noise can be included in the target function. We show that in this case the compatible set obtained has a reduced error with respect to the noisy data.

  4. Protein function prediction using domain families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we assessed the use of domain families for predicting the functions of whole proteins. These 'functional families' (FunFams) were derived using a protocol that combines sequence clustering with supervised cluster evaluation, relying on available high-quality Gene Ontology (GO) annotation data in the latter step. In essence, the protocol groups domain sequences belonging to the same superfamily into families based on the GO annotations of their parent proteins. An initial test based on enzyme sequences confirmed that the FunFams resemble enzyme (domain) families much better than do families produced by sequence clustering alone. For the CAFA 2011 experiment, we further associated the FunFams with GO terms probabilistically. All target proteins were first submitted to domain superfamily assignment, followed by FunFam assignment and, eventually, function assignment. The latter included an integration step for multi-domain target proteins. The CAFA results put our domain-based approach among the top ten of 31 competing groups and 56 prediction methods, confirming that it outperforms simple pairwise whole-protein sequence comparisons. PMID:23514456

  5. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  6. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hishiro T; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-14

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.

  7. Antarctic Role in Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, S. C.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Lawrence, K. T.; Chiu, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    The late Pliocene, ~3 million years ago (Ma), is the most recent period in geologic history with elevated atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature estimates analogous to those projected for the end of the 21st century making it a focus of paleoclimate research. Proxy reconstructions suggest average global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were ~2-3°C above present during the late Pliocene warm period (~3.3-2.9 Ma). In the North Atlantic, regional SST anomalies reached as much as +6°C and even larger temperature anomalies occurred on land in the northern hemisphere. An episode of global cooling and sea level fall following the warm late Pliocene is attributed to a major expansion of northern hemisphere ice sheets at ~2.73 Ma and referred to as the intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG). We reconstruct the thermal and geochemical history of North Pacific deep water (ODP Site 1208) from 3.3-2.5 Ma at orbital scale resolution using benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable isotopic ratios (δ18O, δ13C) in order to evaluate changes in continental ice volume and deep ocean circulation as the climate deteriorated and NHG intensified. We find that the oceanic cooling trend which followed late Pliocene warmth did not occur in the deep Pacific Ocean and an average ~21±10 m sea level equivalent ice growth occurred from 3.15-2.75 Ma prior to the intensification of NHG. Furthermore, both the benthic d18Oc and BWTs in the Pacific are offset from the North Atlantic prior to 2.75 Ma. By ~2.73 Ma (interglacial-glacial cycle G7-G6), the Atlantic-Pacific BWT and d18O gradients were reduced to <1°C and <0.1‰, respectively. We interpret these abrupt hydrographic changes as the initiation of stronger heat and salt transfer from the North Atlantic to the Pacific due to a fundamental change in deep ocean circulation driven by late Pliocene ice growth on Antarctica.

  8. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  9. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  10. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet

  11. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  12. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  13. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence

  14. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  15. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  16. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-autonomous region in the north of Australia. It is one of three Territories and six States that constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The mainland States and Territories all maintain separate education systems, responsible to the Minister for Education in each State or Territory. In the Northern Territory's…

  17. 76 FR 55345 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  18. 75 FR 47259 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  19. 75 FR 80788 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural...

  20. 76 FR 31299 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correct FR Doc. 2011-12588; Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure...

  1. 76 FR 29722 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  2. 75 FR 44821 - Northern Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    .... Applicants: Northern Funds (``NF''), Northern Institutional Funds (``NIF'', each of NF and NIF a ``Trust...; Applicants: NF, NIF, and NTI, 50 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60603; NTGIL, 50 Bank Street, Canary... Trust Corporation. NTI is a national banking ] association and serves as the investment adviser to...

  3. Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine trends in the development of e-learning in Northern Ireland, report on existing policies, practices and issues affecting its implementation across the sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The present study draws on e-learning policies and strategies that have been developed for Northern Ireland. Examples were drawn from…

  4. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V/ KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  5. A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

  6. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  7. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  8. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235.9 Section 235.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS... Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States entered into force on November 3,...

  9. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  10. Building the New Northern Ontario Rural Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James T. B.

    2002-01-01

    Opening in 2004, the new Northern Ontario Rural Medical School will address the rural doctor shortage in Canada. Supported by Laurentian University and Lakehead University, learning sites will be in hospitals, community clinics, and physicians' offices throughout northern Ontario. The curriculum will be patient-centered and clinical problem-based…

  11. Primary Languages in Northern Ireland: Too Little, Too Late?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Siberry, Laurence; Beale, George

    2010-01-01

    There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom…

  12. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.

  13. Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.

  14. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  15. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  16. Science teachers as metascientists: an inductive-deductive dialectic immersion in northern alpine field ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Elshof, Leo

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to promote more realistic conceptions about science are often limited by teachers' inexperience in this domain. In this paper, we describe an 'inductive-deductive, dialectic immersion' approach towards assisting teachers in developing more realistic conceptions about science -- along with corresponding revised perspectives about science teaching. Three secondary teachers of science with minimal science research experience engaged in a case study of science in action -- specifically, in an episode of northern alpine ecological field research. Qualitative data analyzed by constant comparative methods suggested that these teachers shifted along a modernist through postmodernist continuum -- as indicated by increased support for a more Naturalist epistemology of science, a more Antirealist ontology of science, and corresponding priorities towards science teaching and learning. Results suggest that teachers of science can develop postmodern views about science and science teaching if given opportunities to induce and deduce propositions about science in realistic cases of science in action.

  17. Estimation of regional CO2 fluxes in northern Wisconsin using the ring of towers concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-12-01

    The WLEF TV tower in northern Wisconsin is instrumented to take continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio at 6 levels from 11 to 396m. During the spring and summer of 2004 additional CO2 measurements were deployed on five 76 m communication towers forming a ring around the WLEF tower with a 100-150 km radius. The data from the ring of towers are being used to estimate regional fluxes of CO2. The modeling framework developed for this purpose is based on SiB-RAMS: Regional Atmospheric Modeling System linked to Simple Biosphere model. The RAMS domain extends over the entire continental US with nested grids centered in northern Wisconsin. The CO2 lateral boundary conditions are provided by a global transport model PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model). This model system is capable to realistically reproduce diurnal cycle of CO2 fluxes as well as their spatial patterns in regional scale related to different vegetation types. However, there is still significant uncertainty in simulating atmospheric transport of CO2 due to synoptic and mesoscale circulations. We are attempting to assimilate available CO2 tower data into our modeling system in order to provide corrections for the fluxes simulated by the SiB-RAMS. These corrections applied separately to respiration and assimilation fluxes have spatial patterns but are assumed constant in time during a period of 10 days. Another correction is estimated for the CO2 inflow concentration entering the regional domain. The CO2 data assimilation is based the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) model and the Bayessian inversion technique. The LPD model is driven by meteorological fields from the SiB-RAMS and is used for a regional domain in its adjoint mode to trace particles backward in time to derive influence functions for each concentration sample. The influence functions provide information on potential contributions both from surface sources and inflow fluxes that make their way through the modeling domain

  18. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  19. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  20. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  1. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C.; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies. PMID:25530466

  2. Geologic mapping of northern Lunae Planun, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Lunae Planum is an elevated region east of the Tharsis rise, and ridged plains containing numerous Sacra Dorsa wrinkle ridges, cross-cutting Sacra Fossae grabens, and lobate scarps compose this Martian Plateau. Geologic mapping of the northern Lunae Planum region was undertaken to better understand to emplacement history of the ridge plains, the structural history of deformation, and the periods of fluvial processes that have modified the region. These investigations are important for several reasons: (1) the history of plains emplacement yields information valuable for understanding the evolution of Tharsis volcanism; (2) interpretation of structural deformation has implications on the lithology of the Martian crust; and (3) determining the history and fate of Martian volatiles is dependent upon knowing the periods of outflow activity. A discussion of the findings is presented.

  3. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment.

  4. Suspended sediment yield mapping of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.; Mozzherin, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    The mapping of river sediment yields at continental or global scale involves a number of technical difficulties that have largely been ignored. The maps need to show the large zonal peculiarities of river sediment yields, as well as the level (smoothed) local anomalies. This study was carried out to create a map of river sediment yields for Northern Eurasia (within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union, 22 × 106 km2) at a scale of 1:1 500 000. The data for preparing the map were taken from the long-term observations recorded at more than 1000 hydrological stations. The data have mostly been collected during the 20th century by applying a single method. The creation of this map from the study of river sediment yield is a major step towards enhancing international research on understanding the mechanical denudation of land due mainly to erosion.

  5. Unique rig designed for northern areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The development of a new generation of drilling and support vessels specially designed to allow year-round drilling off the northern coast of Norway is discussed. New and better equipment is necessary so year-round operations can be done safely and without danger to the environment. To achieve that, a specially designed drilling rig, as well as support and standby vessels are being developed. A quantitative safety analysis of the rig is presently being carried out. The rig will be highly computerized. The computer software will contain programs for stability calculation, ballast recommendation, automatic trim, automatic ballast, automatic mud mix, strain/stress monitoring, dynamic stability, warehouse/maintenance and drilling data acquisition.

  6. Atmospheric Motion in Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    True-color (left) and false-color (right) mosaics of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric motions are controlled by alternating eastward and westward bands of air between Jupiter's equator and polar regions. The direction and speed of these bands influences the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. The high and thin clouds are represented by light blue, deep clouds are reddish, and high and thick clouds are white. A high haze overlying a clear, deep atmosphere is represented by dark purple. This image was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft on April 3, 1997 at a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (.86 million miles).

  7. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  8. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  9. Water Ice Clouds over the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 48.5 N and 240.5 W, displays splotchy water ice clouds that obscure the northern lowland plains in the region where the Viking 2 spacecraft landed. This image is far enough north to catch the edge of the north polar hood that develops during the northern winter. This is a cap of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds that form over the Martian north pole. As Mars progresses into northern spring, the persistent north polar hood ice clouds will dissipate and the surface viewing conditions will improve greatly. As the season develops, an equatorial belt of water ice clouds will form. This belt of water ice clouds is as characteristic of the Martian climate as the southern hemisphere summer dust storm season. Seasons on Mars have a dramatic effect on the state of the dynamic Martian atmosphere. The Story Muted in an almost air-brushed manner, this image doesn't have the crispness that most THEMIS images have. That's because clouds were rising over the surface of the red planet on the day this picture was taken. Finding clouds on Mars might remind us of conditions here on Earth, but these Martian clouds are made of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide -- in other words, clouds of ice and 'dry ice.' Strange as that may sound, the clouds seen here form on a pretty regular basis at the north Martian pole during its winter season. As springtime comes to the northern hemisphere of Mars (and fall comes to the southern), these clouds will slowly disappear, and a nice belt of water ice clouds will form around the equator. So, if you were a THEMIS camera aimer, that might tell you when your best viewing conditions for different areas on Mars would be. As interesting as clear pictures of Martian landforms are, however, you wouldn't want to bypass the weather altogether. Pictures showing seasonal shifts are great for scientists to study, because they reveal a lot about the patterns of the Martian climate and the

  10. Pneumonic plague outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011.

    PubMed

    Richard, Vincent; Riehm, Julia M; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies.

  11. Hand anthropometric study in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Martínez Buelvas, Laura; Hernández, José; Escobar, Jaime

    2016-09-02

    The main purpose of this study is to gather information about the dimensions of the northern Colombian (Caribbean region) population, focusing on the dimensions of the hand and comparing them with measurements from other regions. Thirty-two hand dimensions were chosen and 120 males and 86 females were measured. Results indicated that there were differences between the dimensions of the hand for men and women, showing that men are larger. Also, there was a comparison made between some measurements of other studies in different regions of Colombia, the USA, Chile, Jordan, Korea and Japan. The results indicated important physiological differences between regions in Colombia and across countries. It was therefore concluded that differences in anthropometric measurements must be included in the design and procurement of machinery and apparatus in order to avoid productivity loss, occupational injuries or illness.

  12. Marginal selenium status in northern Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Jeffrey M; Ball, Madeleine J

    2011-09-01

    Se plays many important roles in humans. Marginal Se status has been associated with adverse health effects including an increased risk of chronic disease such as cancer. There are few Australian data, but the population of Tasmania, Australia, is potentially at risk of marginal Se status. A cross-sectional study of 498 men and women aged 25-84 years was undertaken to assess the Se status of the northern Tasmanian population. Se status was assessed using dietary estimates and measures of serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean Se intakes were 77·4 (sd 31·3) and 65·1 (sd 23·7) μg/d for men and women, respectively; 27 % of the subjects consumed less than the Australian/New Zealand estimated average requirement. Mean serum Se concentration was 89·1 (sd 15·1) μg/l; 83 % of the study subjects had serum Se concentrations below 100 μg/l and 60 % had serum Se concentration below 90 μg/l, suggesting that Se status in many subjects was inadequate for maximal GPx activity. This was supported by the positive association between serum Se and serum GPx (P < 0·001), indicating that enzyme activity was limited by Se concentrations. The lowest mean serum Se concentrations were observed in the oldest age ranges; however, the prevalence of marginal Se status was similar across age ranges and did not appear to be influenced by sex or socio-economic status. The prevalence of marginal Se status was high in all sex and age subgroups, suggesting that the northern Tasmanian population could benefit from increasing Se intakes.

  13. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  14. Reproductive strategies of northern geese: Why wait?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Densmore, R.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Migration and reproductive strategies in waterbirds are tightly linked, with timing of arrival and onset of nesting having important consequences for reproductive success. Whether migratory waterbirds are capital or income breeders is predicated by their spring migration schedule, how long they are on breeding areas before nesting, and how adapted they are to exploiting early spring foods at northern breeding areas. However, for most species, we know little about individual migration schedules, arrival times, and duration of residence on breeding areas before nesting. To document these relationships in a northern nesting goose, we radiotracked winter-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi; hereafter “Tule Geese”; n = 116) from the time of their arrival in Alaska through nesting. Tule Geese arrived on coastal feeding areas in mid-April and moved to nesting locations a week later. They initiated nests 15 days (range: 6–24 days) after arrival, a period roughly equivalent to the duration of rapid follicle growth. Tule Geese that arrived the earliest were more likely to nest than geese that arrived later; early arrivals also spent more time on the breeding grounds and nested earlier than geese that arrived later. The length of the prenesting period was comparable to that of other populations of this species, but longer than for goose species that initiate rapid follicle growth before arrival on the breeding grounds. We suggest that Tule Geese nesting in more temperate climates are more likely to delay breeding to exploit local food resources than Arctic-nesting species that may be constrained by short growing seasons.

  15. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  16. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  17. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, G.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 ?? 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos likely formed through closed system freezing, typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 ??C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 ??C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, hundreds of pingos along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth. ?? 2010 Author(s).

  18. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2010-09-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 × 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos likely formed through closed system freezing, typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 °C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 °C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, hundreds of pingos along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth.

  19. Spatial distribution of pingos in northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of 6059 pingo locations in a 3.5×106 km2 region of northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos are likely hydrostatic pingos, which are typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 °C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 °C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, about 2073 pingos (34%) along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth.

  20. Receiver function studies of Northern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volti, T.; Gorbatov, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Sumatra subduction zone is distinguished by the occurrence of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake and has a peculiar subduction of two major bathymetric structures; the Investigator fracture zone and the Wharton fossil ridge. Four stations in Northern Sumatra (BSI, PSI, PPI, GSI) and two stations in Malaysia (KUM and KOM) have been selected to construct migrated images based on receiver functions (RF) in order to study Earth structure and subduction processes in the region. Waveforms from 304 teleseismic earthquakes with Mb >5.5 and a distance range of 30o to 95o recorded from April 2006 to December 2008 were used for the analysis. The number of RF for each station varies from 20 to 192 depending on the signal/noise ratio. The computed RF clearly show pS conversions at major seismic velocity discontinuities associated with the subduction process where the Moho is visible at 5.5, 4, 3.5, and 2 sec for BSI, PSI, PPI, and GSI, respectively. RF for KUM and KOM have only conversions at the Moho near ~4 sec. The subducted slab is visible below Sumatra as a positive amplitude conversion preceded by a negative one, which we interpret as a low-velocity structure above the subducted slab. RF for PSI located at Toba supervolcano reveal pockets of low-velocity zones extending from a ~50 km depth down to the subducted slab. Forward modellings of RF suggest that seismic velocity contrasts can reach ~18% that is in accordance with previous local tomographic studies.

  1. Geology and hydrogeology of northern Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Recent site characterization activities on the northern portion of the island of Guam have provided data challenging the perception of expected rapid flow within the karst ground water system. The main water bearing formations consist of Tertiary and Quaternary age coralline reef limestones of the Barrigada and Mariana formations. The Barrigada formation lies on top of the underlying Tertiary aged volcanics, and the younger Mariana formation overlies and onlaps the Barrigada formation as a vertical and transgressional facies, changing from a deep to a shallow water depositional sequence. Rain water rapidly infiltrates through the limestone recharging the fresh water aquifer. Conditions that affect the occurrence and extent of the fresh water aquifer are: tidal fluctuations, storm surges, stratigraphic settings, and karstification of the limestone. Evidence from boreholes drilled inland and near the coast suggest karstification has occurred between the phreatic and vadose zone at a depth of approximately 150 meters below ground surface, and within the transition zone between the fresh and salt water interface, near sea level. Although one might expect a rapid flow system in this karst aquifer, non-flashy responses on water levels in wells, and current results from a dye tracing study, suggest ground water movement is indicative of diffuse porous flow. However, flow velocity within the vadose zone has been found to be several times that occurring within the aquifer and it is very difficult to predict the direction of movement. Andersen Air Force Base, located on the northern portion of the island of Guam, has been operating since World War II after re-capturing the island from the Japanese in 1944. In the intervening years, sanitary and industrial wastes have been disposed in various trenches, borrow pits, quarries, and sinkholes. Potential ground water degradation may result if hazardous substances, in the form of leachate, are released from these disposal areas.

  2. Prolonged swimming performance of northern squawfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Olson, Todd M.

    1993-01-01

    We determined the prolonged swimming performance of two size-classes of northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis at 12 and 18°C. The percentage of fish fatigued was positively related to water velocity and best described by an exponential model. At 12°C, the velocity at which 50% of the fish fatigued (FV50) was estimated to be 2.91 fork lengths per second (FL/s; 100 cm/s) for medium-sized fish (30–39 cm) and 2.45 FL/s (104 cm/s) for large fish (40–49 cm). At 18°C, estimated FV50 was 3.12 FL/s (107 cm/s) for medium fish and 2.65 FL/s (112 cm/s) for large fish. Rate of change in percent fatigue was affected by fish size and water temperature. Large fish fatigued at a higher rate than medium-sized fish; all fish fatigued faster at 12 than at 18°C. The mean times to fatigue at velocities of 102–115 cm/s ranged from 14 to 28 min and were not affected by fish size or water temperature. Our results indicate that water velocities from 100 to 130 cm/s may exclude or reduce predation by northern squawfish around juvenile salmonid bypass outfalls at Columbia River dams, at least during certain times of the year. We recommend that construction or modification of juvenile salmonid bypass facilities place the outfall in an area of high water velocity and distant from eddies, submerged cover, and littoral areas.

  3. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  4. Harmful and favourable ultraviolet conditions for human health over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    We provide the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation over Northern Eurasia taking into account for both its detrimental (erythema and eye-damage effects) and favourable (vitamin D synthesis) influence on human health. The UV effects on six different skin types are considered in order to cover the variety of skin types of European and Asian inhabitants. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1x 1 degree grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia, which can be of separate interest for the different multidisciplinary scientific applications over the PEEX domain. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol and cloud transmittance from different satellite and re-analysis datasets for calculating the solar UV irradiance at ground. Using model simulations and some experimental data we provide the altitude parameterization for different types of biologically active irradiance in mountainous area taking into account not only for the effects of molecular scattering but for the altitude dependence of aerosol parameters and surface albedo. Based on the new classification of UV resources (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we show that the distribution of harmful (UV deficiency and UV excess) and favorable UV conditions is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. The interactive tool for providing simulations of biologically active irradiance and its attribution to the different

  5. The northern Caribbean plate boundary in the Jamaica Passage: Structure and seismic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.

    2016-04-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been collected at the end of 2012 along the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. Analysis of the data set reveals the tectonic evolution and the stratigraphic complexity of the northern Caribbean boundary. Stratigraphic correlations with previous marine and on land studies are proposed to place the identified seismic sequences in their regional tectonic history. Two distinct crustal domains are interpreted. Typical stratigraphic sequences for the rifted blocks of the Eastern Cayman Trough margin are identified in five basins of the Jamaica Passage, highlighting the eastward limit of the Cayman Trough margin. These inherited basins are deformed and folded during a first phase of compression that could correspond to the regional tectonic rearrangement recorded in the early Miocene (about 20 Ma). A distinct crustal domain that we propose to relate to the Carib Beds (Caribbean typical reflectors A″, B″ and V) is identified in the southern part of the Jamaica Passage, indicating that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province could extend up to the extreme northeast part of the Lower Nicaragua Rise. The left-lateral EPGFZ currently cuts across two pre-existing basins, the Morant and Matley basins. During the activity of the EPGFZ, these basins are deformed and folded indicating a second phase of compression. In contrast, the Navassa basin, located in the middle of the Jamaica Passage, results from the strike-slip motion of the EPGFZ and is interpreted as an asymmetrical basin bordered by the EPGFZ only on its northern side.

  6. Low energy electron imaging of domains and domain walls in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Nataf, G. F.; Grysan, P.; Guennou, M.; Kreisel, J.; Martinotti, D.; Rountree, C. L.; Mathieu, C.; Barrett, N.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of domain structures, specifically domain walls, currently attracts a significant attention in the field of (multi)-ferroic materials. In this article, we analyze contrast formation in full field electron microscopy applied to domains and domain walls in the uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate, which presents a large 3.8 eV band gap and for which conductive domain walls have been reported. We show that the transition from Mirror Electron Microscopy (MEM – electrons reflected) to Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM – electrons backscattered) gives rise to a robust contrast between domains with upwards (Pup) and downwards (Pdown) polarization, and provides a measure of the difference in surface potential between the domains. We demonstrate that out-of-focus conditions of imaging produce contrast inversion, due to image distortion induced by charged surfaces, and also carry information on the polarization direction in the domains. Finally, we show that the intensity profile at domain walls provides experimental evidence for a local stray, lateral electric field. PMID:27608605

  7. A new and unexpected domain-domain interaction in the AraC protein.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephanie Dirla; Schleif, Robert

    2012-05-01

    An interaction between the dimerization domains and DNA binding domains of the dimeric AraC protein has previously been shown to facilitate repression of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon by AraC in the absence of arabinose. A new interaction between the domains of AraC in the presence of arabinose is reported here, the regulatory consequences of which are unknown. Evidence for the interaction is the following: the dissociation rate of arabinose-bound AraC from half-site DNA is considerably faster than that of free DNA binding domain, and the affinity of the dimerization domains for arabinose is increased when half-site DNA is bound. In addition, an increase in the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan residues located in the arabinose-bound dimerization domain is observed upon binding of half-site DNA to the DNA binding domains. Direct physical evidence of the new domain-domain interaction is demonstrated by chemical crosslinking and NMR experiments.

  8. Motion of continental slivers and creeping subduction in the northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Villegas-Lanza, J. C.; Chlieh, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Rolandone, F.; Jarrin, P.; Cisneros, D.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Bondoux, F.; Martin, X.; Font, Y.; Régnier, M.; Vallée, M.; Tran, T.; Beauval, C.; Maguiña Mendoza, J. M.; Martinez, W.; Tavera, H.; Yepes, H.

    2014-04-01

    Along the western margin of South America, plate convergence is accommodated by slip on the subduction interface and deformation of the overriding continent. In Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia, continental deformation occurs mostly through the motion of discrete domains, hundreds to thousands of kilometres in scale. These continental slivers are wedged between the Nazca and stable South American plates. Here we use geodetic data to identify another large continental sliver in Peru that is about 300-400 km wide and 1,500 km long, which we call the Inca Sliver. We show that movement of the slivers parallel to the subduction trench is controlled by the obliquity of plate convergence and is linked to prominent features of the Andes Mountains. For example, the Altiplano is located at the boundary of converging slivers at the concave bend of the central Andes, and the extending Gulf of Guayaquil is located at the boundary of diverging slivers at the convex bend of the northern Andes. Motion of a few large continental slivers therefore controls the present-day deformation of nearly the entire Andes mountain range. We also show that a 1,000-km-long section of the plate interface in northern Peru and southern Ecuador slips predominantly aseismically, a behaviour that contrasts with the highly seismic neighbouring segments. The primary characteristics of this low-coupled segment are shared by ~20% of the subduction zones in the eastern Pacific Rim.

  9. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Covello, S P; Irvine, A D; McKenna, K E; Munro, C S; Nevin, N C; Smith, F J; Uitto, J; McLean, W H

    1998-12-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK, MIM #144200) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hyperkeratosis confined to the palms and soles is characterized histologically by cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), a type 1 keratin expressed exclusively in the suprabasal keratinocytes of palmoplantar epidermis, have previously been demonstrated in this disorder. Here, we have studied four Northern Irish kindreds presenting with EPPK. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products, heterozygous missense mutations in exon 1 of KRT9 were detected in all the families. These included a novel mutation M156T; as well as M156V in two kindreds; and R162Q in the remaining family. All mutations were confirmed by reverse strand sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The point prevalence of EPPK in Northern Ireland was found to be 4.4 per 100,000. To date, all reported EPPK mutations occur in the helix initiation motif at the start of the central coiled-coil rod domain of K9.

  10. 75 FR 61786 - Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Northern Lights Fund Trust (``NLFT''), Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (``AIA''), and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (``NLD''). Filing Dates:...

  11. 78 FR 50405 - Amended Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Amended Application. SUMMARY: Northern Pass Transmission LLC (Northern Pass) has submitted an amended application for a Presidential permit to construct,...

  12. Competition between LIM-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jacqueline M; Bhati, Mugdha; Craig, Vanessa J; Deane, Janet E; Jeffries, Cy; Lee, Christopher; Nancarrow, Amy L; Ryan, Daniel P; Sunde, Margaret

    2008-12-01

    LMO (LIM-only) and LIM-HD (LIM-homeodomain) proteins form a family of proteins that is required for myriad developmental processes and which can contribute to diseases such as T-cell leukaemia and breast cancer. The four LMO and 12 LIM-HD proteins in mammals are expressed in a combinatorial manner in many cell types, forming a transcriptional 'LIM code'. The proteins all contain a pair of closely spaced LIM domains near their N-termini that mediate protein-protein interactions, including binding to the approximately 30-residue LID (LIM interaction domain) of the essential co-factor protein Ldb1 (LIM domain-binding protein 1). In an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the LIM code, we have determined the molecular basis of binding of LMO and LIM-HD proteins for Ldb1(LID) through a series of structural, mutagenic and biophysical studies. These studies provide an explanation for why Ldb1 binds the LIM domains of the LMO/LIM-HD family, but not LIM domains from other proteins. The LMO/LIM-HD family exhibit a range of affinities for Ldb1, which influences the formation of specific functional complexes within cells. We have also identified an additional LIM interaction domain in one of the LIM-HD proteins, Isl1. Despite low sequence similarity to Ldb1(LID), this domain binds another LIM-HD protein, Lhx3, in an identical manner to Ldb1(LID). Through our and other studies, it is emerging that the multiple layers of competitive binding involving LMO and LIM-HD proteins and their partner proteins contribute significantly to cell fate specification and development.

  13. Domain structure of Lassa virus L protein.

    PubMed

    Brunotte, Linda; Lelke, Michaela; Hass, Meike; Kleinsteuber, Katja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The 200-kDa L protein of arenaviruses plays a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. This study aimed at providing evidence for the domain structure of L protein by combining bioinformatics with a stepwise mutagenesis approach using the Lassa virus minireplicon system. Potential interdomain linkers were predicted using various algorithms. The prediction was challenged by insertion of flexible sequences into the predicted linkers. Insertion of 5 or 10 amino acid residues was tolerated at seven sites (S407, G446, G467, G774, G939, S1952, and V2074 in Lassa virus AV). At two of these sites, G467 and G939, L protein could be split into an N-terminal and a C-terminal part, which were able to trans-complement each other and reconstitute a functional complex upon coexpression. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed physical interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains, irrespective of whether L protein was split at G467 or G939. In confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, the N-terminal domains showed a dot-like, sometimes perinuclear, cytoplasmic distribution similar to that of full-length L protein, while the C-terminal domains were homogenously distributed in cytoplasm. The latter were redistributed into the dot-like structures upon coexpression with the corresponding N-terminal domain. In conclusion, this study demonstrates two interdomain linkers in Lassa virus L protein, at G467 and G939, suggesting that L protein is composed of at least three structural domains spanning residues 1 to 467, 467 to 939, and 939 to 2220. The first domain seems to mediate accumulation of L protein into cytoplasmic dot-like structures.

  14. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  15. Algorithms for propagating uncertainty across heterogeneous domains

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heyrim; Yang, Xiu; Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, George E.

    2015-12-30

    We address an important research area in stochastic multi-scale modeling, namely the propagation of uncertainty across heterogeneous domains characterized by partially correlated processes with vastly different correlation lengths. This class of problems arise very often when computing stochastic PDEs and particle models with stochastic/stochastic domain interaction but also with stochastic/deterministic coupling. The domains may be fully embedded, adjacent or partially overlapping. The fundamental open question we address is the construction of proper transmission boundary conditions that preserve global statistical properties of the solution across different subdomains. Often, the codes that model different parts of the domains are black-box and hence a domain decomposition technique is required. No rigorous theory or even effective empirical algorithms have yet been developed for this purpose, although interfaces defined in terms of functionals of random fields (e.g., multi-point cumulants) can overcome the computationally prohibitive problem of preserving sample-path continuity across domains. The key idea of the different methods we propose relies on combining local reduced-order representations of random fields with multi-level domain decomposition. Specifically, we propose two new algorithms: The first one enforces the continuity of the conditional mean and variance of the solution across adjacent subdomains by using Schwarz iterations. The second algorithm is based on PDE-constrained multi-objective optimization, and it allows us to set more general interface conditions. The effectiveness of these new algorithms is demonstrated in numerical examples involving elliptic problems with random diffusion coefficients, stochastically advected scalar fields, and nonlinear advection-reaction problems with random reaction rates.

  16. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research (NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation – Autonomous Research...NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea Ramsey R. Harcourt Applied Physics Laboratory University of...barrier layers and surface mixed layers in the N. Arabian Sea • The penetration of radiative and atmospheric fluxes into the ocean interior

  17. The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis encodes novel type I-like polyketide synthases containing discrete catalytic domains.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Emily A; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2008-07-01

    Karenia brevis is the Florida red tide dinoflagellate responsible for detrimental effects on human and environmental health through the production of brevetoxins. Brevetoxins are thought to be synthesized by a polyketide synthase (PKS) complex, but the gene cluster for this PKS has yet to be identified. Here, eight PKS transcripts were identified in K. brevis by high throughput cDNA library screening. Full length sequences were obtained through 3' and 5' RACE, which demonstrated the presence of polyadenylation, 3'-UTRs, and an identical dinoflagellate-specific spliced leader sequence at the 5' end of PKS transcripts. Six transcripts encoded for individual ketosynthase (KS) domains, one ketoreductase (KR), and one transcript encoded both acyl carrier protein (ACP) and KS domains. Transcript lengths ranged from 1875 to 3397 nucleotides, based on sequence analysis, and were confirmed by northern blotting. Baysian phylogenetic analysis of the K. brevis KS domains placed them well within the protist type I PKS clade. Thus although most similar to type I modular PKSs, the presence of individual catalytic domains on separate transcripts suggests a protein structure more similar to type II PKSs, in which each catalytic domain resides on an individual protein. These results identify an unprecedented PKS structure in a toxic dinoflagellate.

  18. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices. PMID:27882932

  19. The architecture of the protein domain universe.

    PubMed

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2005-03-14

    Understanding the design of the universe of protein structures may provide insights into protein evolution. We study the architecture of the protein domain universe, which has been found to poses peculiar scale-free properties. We examine the origin of these scale-free properties of the graph of protein domain structures (PDUG) and determine that that the PDUG is not modular, i.e. it does not consist of modules with uniform properties. Instead, we find the PDUG to be self-similar at all scales. We further characterize the PDUG architecture by studying the properties of the hub nodes that are responsible for the scale-free connectivity of the PDUG. We introduce a measure of the betweenness centrality of protein domains in the PDUG and find a power-law distribution of the betweenness centrality values. The scale-free distribution of hubs in the protein universe suggests that a set of specific statistical mechanics models, such as the self-organized criticality model, can potentially identify the principal driving forces of protein evolution. We also find a gatekeeper protein domain, removal of which partitions the largest cluster into two large sub-clusters. We suggest that the loss of such gatekeeper protein domains in the course of evolution is responsible for the creation of new fold families.

  20. Lipid membrane domains in the brain.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Grassi, Sara; Prioni, Simona; Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    The brain is characterized by the presence of cell types with very different functional specialization, but with the common trait of a very high complexity of structures originated by their plasma membranes. Brain cells bear evident membrane polarization with the creation of different morphological and functional subcompartments, whose formation, stabilization and function require a very high level of lateral order within the membrane. In other words, the membrane specialization of brain cells implies the presence of distinct membrane domains. The brain is the organ with the highest enrichment in lipids like cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and the most recently discovered brain membrane lipid, phosphatidylglucoside, whose collective behavior strongly favors segregation within the membrane leading to the formation of lipid-driven membrane domains. Lipid-driven membrane domains function as dynamic platforms for signal transduction, protein processing, and membrane turnover. Essential events involved in the development and in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the brain depend on the organization of lipid-driven membrane domains, and alterations in lipid homeostasis, leading to deranged lipid-driven membrane organization, are common in several major brain diseases. In this review, we summarize the forces behind the formation of lipid membrane domains and their biological roles in different brain cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  1. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  2. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-11-01

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices.

  3. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-11-24

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices.

  4. Direct measurement of antiferromagnetic domain fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Shpyrko, O G; Isaacs, E D; Logan, J M; Feng, Yejun; Aeppli, G; Jaramillo, R; Kim, H C; Rosenbaum, T F; Zschack, P; Sprung, M; Narayanan, S; Sandy, A R

    2007-05-03

    Measurements of magnetic noise emanating from ferromagnets owing to domain motion were first carried out nearly 100 years ago, and have underpinned much science and technology. Antiferromagnets, which carry no net external magnetic dipole moment, yet have a periodic arrangement of the electron spins extending over macroscopic distances, should also display magnetic noise. However, this must be sampled at spatial wavelengths of the order of several interatomic spacings, rather than the macroscopic scales characteristic of ferromagnets. Here we present a direct measurement of the fluctuations in the nanometre-scale superstructure of spin- and charge-density waves associated with antiferromagnetism in elemental chromium. The technique used is X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, where coherent X-ray diffraction produces a speckle pattern that serves as a 'fingerprint' of a particular magnetic domain configuration. The temporal evolution of the patterns corresponds to domain walls advancing and retreating over micrometre distances. This work demonstrates a useful measurement tool for antiferromagnetic domain wall engineering, but also reveals a fundamental finding about spin dynamics in the simplest antiferromagnet: although the domain wall motion is thermally activated at temperatures above 100 K, it is not so at lower temperatures, and indeed has a rate that saturates at a finite value-consistent with quantum fluctuations-on cooling below 40 K.

  5. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  6. Evolution of magnetic domain structures from Pseudo-Single-Domain to Multidomain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wyn; Nagy, Lesleis; Fabian, Karl; Muxworthy, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic observations over the last 60 years have made a significant contribution to our understanding of the geological structure of the Earth. The interpretation of these recordings is almost entirely based on the assumption that the remanence is held in uniformly magnetised (single-domain) particles. However it has long been recognised that the upper limit for SD magnetite is at about 80nm (for equidimensional grains of magnetite) and it is likely that many palaeomagnetic samples will contain a much broader range of grain sizes, which may be dominated by non-uniformly magnetised pseudo-single-domain (PSD) grains. Recent progress in determining energy barriers between the different possible domain states in a grain (to be discussed in this session by Nagy et al.) shows that the thermal stability of PSD grains are dominated by energy barriers and domain transitions whose characteristics are SD-like. The magnetic structures in PSD grains undergo a form of domain rotation rather than the domain wall motions observed in multidomain (MD) grains. Thus transition in stability and fidelity of palaeomagentic recorders from the more reliable PSD to less reliable MD structures can be mapped to the evolution of domain walls from the vortex cores of PSD grains. In this talk we will discuss our preliminary results for very large scale micromagnetic models using a new parallel numerical model called DUNLOP. We will outline the magnetic properties and structures of what we classify as PSD grains and how these types of domains evolve from vortex-dominated to MD structures for easy-axis aligned domains. Such domains are separated by narrow Bloch and Néel - type walls and we discuss the likely impact on the classification of reliable palaeomagentic domain structures.

  7. Structure and function of WD40 domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Min, Jinrong

    2011-03-01

    The WD40 domain exhibits a β-propeller architecture, often comprising seven blades. The WD40 domain is one of the most abundant domains and also among the top interacting domains in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we will discuss the identification, definition and architecture of the WD40 domains. WD40 domain proteins are involved in a large variety of cellular processes, in which WD40 domains function as a protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction platform. WD40 domain mediates molecular recognition events mainly through the smaller top surface, but also through the bottom surface and sides. So far, no WD40 domain has been found to display enzymatic activity. We will also discuss the different binding modes exhibited by the large versatile family of WD40 domain proteins. In the last part of this review, we will discuss how post-translational modifications are recognized by WD40 domain proteins.

  8. A Domain Description Language for Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an application of planning to data processing, a planning problem which poses unique challenges for domain description languages. We discuss these challenges and why the current PDDL standard does not meet them. We discuss DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative, object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which we are using to provide automation for an ecological forecasting application. We compare DPADL to PDDL and discuss changes that could be made to PDDL to make it more suitable for representing planning domains that involve data processing actions.

  9. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α. The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine.

  10. Moment domain representation of nonblind image deblurring.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ahlad; Paramesran, Raveendran; Shakibaei, Barmak Honarvar

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of geometric moments to the field of nonblind image deblurring. Using the developed relationship of geometric moments for original and blurred images, a mathematical formulation based on the Euler-Lagrange identity and variational techniques is proposed. It uses an iterative procedure to deblur the image in moment domain. The theoretical framework is validated by a set of experiments. A comparative analysis of the results obtained using the spatial and moment domains are evaluated using a quality assessment method known as the Blind/Reference-less Image Spatial Quality Evaluator (BRISQUE). The results show that the proposed method yields a higher quality score when compared with the spatial domain method for the same number of iterations.

  11. Time domain reflectometry in time variant plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherner, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of time-dependent electron density fluctuations on a synthesized time domain reflectometry response of a one-dimensional cold plasma sheath are considered. Numerical solutions of the Helmholtz wave equation, which describes the electric field of a normally incident plane wave in a specified static electron density profile, are used. A study of the effects of Doppler shifts resulting from moving density fluctuations in the electron density profile of the sheath is included. Varying electron density levels corrupt time domain and distance measurements. Reducing or modulating the electron density levels of a given electron density profile affects the time domain response of a plasma and results in motion of the turning point, and the effective motion has a significant effect on measuring electron density locations.

  12. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  13. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximate body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems. A dynamic hole expansion/contraction algorithm is also implemented to obtain optimum domain connectivity; however, it is tested only for geometry of generic shapes.

  14. Adaptive corrector operating in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikaynen, Y. M.

    1984-11-01

    An interference-immune corrector for a signal converter with automatic regulation of adaptation speed is described which operates in the frequency domain with fast convergence and high signal-to-noise ratio. It contains an analog-to-digital converter, a demodulator, and a filter array with equidistant spacing of center frequencies, three multipliers and two summators, as well as a reference signal generator, a frequency divider, a counter, and a noise meter. Filtering is done by a n-point Fourier transformation or bunching with a memory at the filter input followed by inverse Fourier transformation or debunching, respectively. The algorithm of corrector operation in the frequency domain can be constructed heuristically by an analog to the complex algorithm of minimizing the mean-square error in the time domain. Each weight factor can be processed independently and only once per Fourier transformation cycle, which ensures fast convergence without preliminary phase correction even with large distortions in the communication channel.

  15. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  16. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  17. Conducting Ferroelectric Walls, Domain Topology, and Domain Switching Kinetics in a Hybrid Improper Ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rutgers CenterEmergent Materials Team

    Charged polar interfaces such as charged ferroelectric domain walls or heterostructured interfaces of ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O and LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , across which the normal component of electric polarization changes suddenly, can host large two-dimensional conduction. Charged ferroelectric domain walls can be highly conducting but energetically unfavored; however, they were found to be mysteriously abundant in hybrid improper ferroelectric (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 single crystals. From the exploration of antiphase domain boundaries, which are hidden in piezoresponse force microscopy, using dark-field electron microscopy, we have explored the macroscopic topology of polarization domains and antiphase domains. We found that the macroscopic domain topology is directly responsible for the presence of charged domain walls, and is closely related with the polarization domain switching mechanism in (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 . Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

  18. Continuous and discontinuous domains: an algorithm for the automatic generation of reliable protein domain definitions.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A. S.; Barton, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the fast and accurate definition of protein structural domains from coordinate data without prior knowledge of the number or type of domains. The algorithm explicitly locates domains that comprise one or two continuous segments of protein chain. Domains that include more than two segments are also located. The algorithm was applied to a nonredundant database of 230 protein structures and the results compared to domain definitions obtained from the literature, or by inspection of the coordinates on molecular graphics. For 70% of the proteins, the derived domains agree with the reference definitions, 18% show minor differences and only 12% (28 proteins) show very different definitions. Three screens were applied to identify the derived domains least likely to agree with the subjective definition set. These screens revealed a set of 173 proteins, 97% of which agree well with the subjective definitions. The algorithm represents a practical domain identification tool that can be run routinely on the entire structural database. Adjustment of parameters also allows smaller compact units to be identified in proteins. PMID:7663343

  19. Design PID controllers for desired time-domain or frequency-domain response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yugeng; Yang, Genke; Xu, Xiaoming

    2002-10-01

    Practical requirements on the design of control systems, especially process control systems, are usually specified in terms of time-domain response, such as overshoot and rise time, or frequency-domain response, such as resonance peak and stability margin. Although numerous methods have been developed for the design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, little work has been done in relation to the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses. In this paper, we study the following problem: Given a nominal stable process with time delay, we design a suboptimal PID controller to achieve the required time-domain response or frequency-domain response for the nominal system or the uncertain system. An H(infinity) PID controller is developed based on optimal control theory and the parameters are derived analytically. Its properties are investigated and compared with that of two developed suboptimal controllers: an H2 PID controller and a Maclaurin PID controller. It is shown that all three controllers can provide the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses.

  20. SH3 Domains Differentially Stimulate Distinct Dynamin I Assembly Modes and G Domain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sai; Collett, Michael; Robinson, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamin I is a highly regulated GTPase enzyme enriched in nerve terminals which mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. One regulatory mechanism involves its interactions with proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. At least 30 SH3 domain-containing proteins bind dynamin at its proline-rich domain (PRD). Those that stimulate dynamin activity act by promoting its oligomerisation. We undertook a systematic parallel screening of 13 glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged endocytosis-related SH3 domains on dynamin binding, GTPase activity and oligomerisation. No correlation was found between dynamin binding and their potency to stimulate GTPase activity. There was limited correlation between the extent of their ability to stimulate dynamin activity and the level of oligomerisation, indicating an as yet uncharacterised allosteric coupling of the PRD and G domain. We examined the two variants, dynamin Iab and Ibb, which differ in the alternately splice middle domain α2 helix. They responded differently to the panel of SH3s, with the extent of stimulation between the splice variants varying greatly between the SH3s. This study reveals that SH3 binding can act as a heterotropic allosteric regulator of the G domain via the middle domain α2 helix, suggesting an involvement of this helix in communicating the PRD-mediated allostery. This indicates that SH3 binding both stabilises multiple conformations of the tetrameric building block of dynamin, and promotes assembly of dynamin-SH3 complexes with distinct rates of GTP hydrolysis. PMID:26659814

  1. Electric-field-driven dynamics of magnetic domain walls in magnetic nanowires patterned on ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-03-01

    Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which depends on material parameters, nanowire geometry and the direction of domain wall motion, the magnetic domain walls depin abruptly from the ferroelastic boundaries. Depinning evolves either smoothly or via the emission and annihilation of a vortex or antivortex core (Walker breakdown). In both cases, the magnetic domain wall slows down after depinning in an oscillatory fashion and eventually comes to a halt. The simulations provide design rules for hybrid ferromagnetic-ferroelectric domain-wall-based devices and indicate that material disorder and structural imperfections only influence Walker-breakdown-like depinning at high domain wall velocities.

  2. Quantum Oscillations of Interacting Nanoscale Structural Inhomogeneities in a Domain Wall of Magnetic Stripe Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Andriy; Barabash, Maksym

    2016-10-01

    It was established that at low temperatures, quantum oscillations of a pair of interacting nanoscale structural inhomogeneities (vertical Bloch lines) occur in a domain wall of stripe domain in uniaxial ferromagnetic film. The effective mass of vertical Bloch line and conditions for this effect were determined. The effect can be used in the hybrid storage devices bit + q-bit.

  3. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  4. An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, J; Beato, M; Suske, G

    1996-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed human transcription factor closely related to Sp1 and Sp4. All three proteins contain a highly conserved DNA binding domain and two glutamine-rich regions, suggesting that they possess similar activation functions. In our previous experiments, however, Sp3 failed to activate transcription. Instead, it repressed Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation, suggesting that it is an inhibitory member of this family of regulatory factors. Here we show that Sp3 can also act as a positive regulator of transcription. The glutamine-rich domains on their own have a strong activation function and interact with the TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor dTAFII110. However, in full-length Sp3 as well as in Gal4-Sp3 fusion proteins, both activation domains are silenced by an inhibitory domain located between the second glutamine-rich region and the DNA binding domain. The inhibitory domain completely suppressed transcriptional activation when fused to a heterologous glutamine-rich domain but only moderately suppressed transcription when linked to an acidic activation domain. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a stretch of highly charged amino acid residues essential for inhibitor function. Substitution of the amino acid triplet KEE by alanine residues within this region changed the almost transcriptionally inactive Sp3 into a strong activator. Our results suggest that the transcriptional activity of Sp3 might be regulated in vivo by relief of inhibition. Images PMID:8896459

  5. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses

  6. Proteins and cholesterol-rich domains.

    PubMed

    Epand, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    Biological membranes are composed of many molecular species of lipids and proteins. These molecules do not mix ideally. In the plane of the membrane components are segregated into domains that are enriched in certain lipids and proteins. Cholesterol is a membrane lipid that is not uniformly distributed in the membrane. Proteins play an important role in determining cholesterol distribution. Certain types of protein lipidation are known to cause the lipoprotein to sequester with cholesterol and to stabilize cholesterol-rich domains. However, proteins that are excluded from such domains also contribute to the redistribution of cholesterol. One of the motifs that favor interaction with cholesterol is the CRAC motif. The role of the CRAC motif of the gp41 fusogenic protein of HIV is discussed. The distribution of the multianionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bis-phosphate (PtnIns(4,5)P2), is also not uniform in cell membranes. This lipid has several functions in the cell, including a morphological role in determining the sites of attachment of the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. PtnIns(4,5)P2 is sequestered by proteins having clusters of cationic residues in their sequence. Certain proteins containing cationic clusters also contain moieties such as myristoylation or a CRAC segment that would also endow them with the ability to sequester to a cholesterol-rich domain. These proteins interact with PtnIns(4,5)P2 in a cholesterol-dependent manner forming domains that are enriched in both cholesterol and in PtnIns(4,5)P2 but can also be distinct from liquid-ordered raft-like domains.

  7. Identification and characterization of structural domains of human ERp57: association with calreticulin requires several domains.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Laura; Myllyharju, Johanna; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Orrù, Stefania; Caterino, Marianna; Kivirikko, Kari I; Koivunen, Peppi

    2004-04-02

    The amino acid sequence of ERp57, which functions in the endoplasmic reticulum together with the lectins calreticulin and calnexin to achieve folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins, is highly similar to that of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), but they have their own distinct roles in protein folding. We have characterized the domain structure of ERp57 by limited proteolysis and N-terminal sequencing and have found it to be similar but not identical to that of PDI. ERp57 had three major protease-sensitive regions, the first of which was located between residues 120 and 150, the second between 201 and 215, and the third between 313 and 341, the data thus being consistent with a four-domain structure abb'a'. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli was used to verify the domain boundaries. Each single domain and a b'a' double domain could be produced in the form of soluble, folded polypeptides, as verified by circular dichroism spectra and urea gradient gel electrophoresis. When the ability of ERp57 and its a and a' domains to fold denatured RNase A was studied by electrospray mass analyses, ERp57 markedly enhanced the folding rate at early time points, although less effectively than PDI, but was an ineffective catalyst of the overall process. The a and a' domains produced only minor, if any, increases in the folding rate at the early stages and no increase at the late stages. Interaction of the soluble ERp57 domains with the P domain of calreticulin was studied by chemical cross-linking in vitro. None of the single ERp57 domains nor the b'a' double domain could be cross-linked to the P domain, whereas cross-linking was obtained with a hybrid ERpabb'PDIa'c polypeptide but not with ERpabPDIb'a'c, indicating that multiple domains are involved in this protein-protein interaction and that the b' domain of ERp57 cannot be replaced by that of PDI.

  8. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  9. The moisture sources and transport for the northern Xinjiang of China during 1979 to 2013 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    From the perspective of the recycling precipitation, this work examines the moisture sources of the northern Xinjiang during the summer season through the regionally unbounded dynamic recycling model (DRM) with Lagrangian back-trajectory track method by using the ERA-interim reanalysis during 1979~2013. The 10-day moisture trajectories identify the majority humidity contributions to the precipitation of northern Xinjiang are from the upwind westerly water transport and the sources can be traced to the North Atlantic and Arctic region. Furthermore, the moist air evaporated from Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea provides a large of amount moisture through west to east moist transport belt to the northern Xinjiang. Although the westerly moisture transport is the main source for the precipitation of the study region, the strongest moisture transport belt starting from eastern margin of Tibet plateau and then swinging northward and along the southern Tianshan Moutian arriving the domain. Moreover, the moisture contribution from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and more easterly water streams cannot be ignored during the heavy rainfall events in the study region.

  10. Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However

  11. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L.

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which still

  12. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  13. Improving Seismic Monitoring in Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We currently densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 10 stations. The new network aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of Mc = 1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs. The first station went into operation in September 2012. In this study, we present lessons learnt during the network realization. We review the proposed assessment-scheme and demonstrate potentials and limitations for seismic monitoring in such an environment. We find that the step-wise search for the optimum installation site was successful. Test measurements conducted and analyzed for the assessment-scheme are representative for the performance of the later installed stations. In one case a significantly improved installation was possible, because the test measurement revealed noise sources that could be diminished. The assessment scheme allowed to compare station from different regions, which was especially helpful in judging, whether the

  14. Primary production in the northern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurban, Mohammed Ali; Balala, Arvin C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bhavya, P. S.; Wafar, Mohideen

    2014-04-01

    Rates of uptake of carbon and nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate and urea) by phytoplankton, along with concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a, in the Saudi Arabian waters of the northern Red Sea (23 °N-28 °N) were measured in autumn, 2012. Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and phosphate within the euphotic zone were in trace amounts while those of silicon were in excess of 0.5 μmol L- 1. Concentrations of chlorophyll (Chl a) were very low within the euphotic zone (0.01-0.6 μg L- 1 at discrete depths and 1.53-21.5 mg m- 2 as column-integrated values). A deep chlorophyll maximum and a nitrite maximum were present between 60 and 80 m at almost all of the stations occupied. Rates of carbon uptake at discrete depths ranged from 0.02 to 3 μg C L- 1 h- 1. Chl-normalized carbon uptake rates related with ambient light in a Michaelis-Menten kinetic pattern. About 80% of the carbon uptake was attributable to the < 20 μm fraction. Ammonium and urea were the nitrogen compounds taken up in preference by phytoplankton and accounted for close to 90% of the total N uptake. Considered together, these results indicate that the waters of the northern Red Sea are oligotrophic and that the primary production is strongly N-controlled. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results led to the following speculations: (1) the perceived north-south gradient in Chl a (and possibly in primary production) in the Red Sea is maintained by circulation of Chl- and nutrient-rich waters through a series of gyres, (2) there is a greater role for heterotrophy and microbial loop in the trophic dynamics, and (3) in situ nitrification in the euphotic zone is an important source of N for phytoplankton and consequently export of carbon to deep sea could be lesser than that indicated by f-ratios.

  15. Oak ecosystem succession of the Northern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2014-05-01

    English oak (Quercus robur L.) along with its well-known good properties has a high sanitary-hygienic and curative potential. Its volatile metabolites (VM) influence bacteriostatically Staphylococcus aureus 209r, oppressing it in vitro by 85% compared with the control, and Escherichia coli by 45%. There is the least amount of epiphytic microorganisms on the leaves of Q. robur L. compared with some tree species [1]. In addition, VM of Q. robur L. have direct milieu (hypotensive) effects on the organism under its canopy, lowering blood pressure by 20-25 mm Hg [2]. A.P. Kazankin (1993) [4] calculated the prehistoric formula of forest species composition of Caucasian Mineral Waters region (Northern Caucasus): 6Qr3Crp1Fr which was based on the theory of calcium-magnesium absorption complex. According to the theory, underground mineral water, soil, forest litter and the leaves of ground vegetation of the area have the same ratio of the cations Ca and Mg - calcium-magnesium index [3]. Hence oldgrowth in the region consisted of oak (Qr) by 60%, hornbeam (Carpinus-Crp) by 30% and ash (Fraxinus-Fr) only by 10%. Currently, the formula of the forests of the region has been changed by man: 5Fr3Crp2Qr. The proportion of oak forests has decreased to 20%, the proportion of ash has increased by 50%, but the proportion of hornbeam hasn't changed. So it is relevant to restore oak forests of the region in the former ratio to other forest-forming species - ash and hornbeam. Taking into consideration the change of economic formation of society in Russia, it is extremely important to restore natural seed oak forests. Therein the luminance of surface areal is a limiting factor. We have calculated that the natural recovery of oak forests is possible providing observation of optimal moisture standards and soil fertility in combination with solar light within 10-24% from the light of open space. Measures for promotion of oak natural regeneration in mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus

  16. Reconstituting Protein Interaction Networks Using Parameter-Dependent Domain-Domain Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    Superfamily ( SF ) [33], and SMART [34,35]. PFAM domains: FH2, Drf_FH3, and two Drf_GBD domains; SF domains: Formin homology 2 domain (FH2 domain) and ARM...annotation data from six commonly used annotation databases: PFAM-A (release 25.0) [32], Superfamily ( SF ) [33], SMART [34,35], PRODOM [36], TIGRFAM [37... SF 3,651 62.1 962,602 33.0 1,355 1,307 0.79 SMART 3,023 51.4 455,523 15.6 392 379 0.66 PRODOM 146 2.5 19,760 0.7 111 111 0.02 TIGRFAM 3,019 51.3

  17. Casimir forces in the time domain: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2009-07-15

    We present a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. The method involves the time evolution of electric and magnetic fields in response to a set of current sources, in a modified medium with frequency-independent conductivity. The advantage of this approach is that it allows one to exploit existing FDTD software, without modification, to compute Casimir forces. In this paper, we focus on the derivation, implementation choices, and essential properties of the time-domain algorithm, both considered analytically and illustrated in the simplest parallel-plate geometry.

  18. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    PubMed

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  19. Anderson localization in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Delande, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    In analogy with the usual Anderson localization taking place in time-independent disordered quantum systems where the disorder acts in configuration space, systems exposed to temporally disordered potentials can display Anderson localization in the time domain. We demonstrate this phenomenon with one-dimensional examples where a temporally disordered potential induces localization during the quantum evolution of wave packets, in contrast with a fully delocalized classical dynamics. This is an example of a time crystal phenomenon, i.e., a crystalline behavior in the time domain.

  20. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau

    1994-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximated body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian Systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems.