Science.gov

Sample records for audio feature space

  1. Digital audio authentication by robust feature embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Munir, Badar; Steinebach, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We introduce an approach for verifying the integrity of digital audio recording by means of content-based integrity watermarking. Here an audio fingerprint is extracted from the Fourier domain and embedded as a digital watermark in the same domain. The design of the feature extraction allows a fine temporal resolution of the verification of the integrity. Experimental results show a good distinction between authentic and tampered audio content.

  2. Video salient event classification using audio features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchs, Silvia; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Fiori, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the events in video sequences that are salient with respect to the audio signal. In particular, we focus on the audio analysis of a video, with the goal of finding which are the significant features to detect audio-salient events. In our work we have extracted the audio tracks from videos of different sport events. For each video, we have manually labeled the salient audio-events using the binary markings. On each frame, features in both time and frequency domains have been considered. These features have been used to train different classifiers: Classification and Regression Trees, Support Vector Machine, and k-Nearest Neighbor. The classification performances are reported in terms of confusion matrices.

  3. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    PubMed

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  4. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  5. Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Centroid and Statistical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yin, Xiong

    Experimental testing shows that the relative relation in the number of samples among the neighboring bins and the audio frequency centroid are two robust features to the Time Scale Modification (TSM) attacks. Accordingly, an audio watermark algorithm based on frequency centroid and histogram is proposed by modifying the frequency coefficients. The audio histogram with equal-sized bins is extracted from a selected frequency coefficient range referred to the audio centroid. The watermarked audio signal is perceptibly similar to the original one. The experimental results show that the algorithm is very robust to resample TSM and a variety of common attacks. Subjective quality evaluation of the algorithm shows that embedded watermark introduces low, inaudible distortion of host audio signal.

  6. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  7. Audio-video feature correlation: faces and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gwenael; Montacie, Claude; Caraty, Marie-Jose; Faudemay, Pascal

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlation of features automatically extracted from the audio stream and the video stream of audiovisual documents. In particular, we were interested in finding out whether speech analysis tools could be combined with face detection methods, and to what extend they should be combined. A generic audio signal partitioning algorithm as first used to detect Silence/Noise/Music/Speech segments in a full length movie. A generic object detection method was applied to the keyframes extracted from the movie in order to detect the presence or absence of faces. The correlation between the presence of a face in the keyframes and of the corresponding voice in the audio stream was studied. A third stream, which is the script of the movie, is warped on the speech channel in order to automatically label faces appearing in the keyframes with the name of the corresponding character. We naturally found that extracted audio and video features were related in many cases, and that significant benefits can be obtained from the joint use of audio and video analysis methods.

  8. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space. PMID:26226930

  9. Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Biggers, W. P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thomas, W. G.; Thagard, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eighth shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal.

  10. Environment Recognition for Digital Audio Forensics Using MPEG-7 and MEL Cepstral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alghathbar, Khalid

    2011-07-01

    Environment recognition from digital audio for forensics application is a growing area of interest. However, compared to other branches of audio forensics, it is a less researched one. Especially less attention has been given to detect environment from files where foreground speech is present, which is a forensics scenario. In this paper, we perform several experiments focusing on the problems of environment recognition from audio particularly for forensics application. Experimental results show that the task is easier when audio files contain only environmental sound than when they contain both foreground speech and background environment. We propose a full set of MPEG-7 audio features combined with mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to improve the accuracy. In the experiments, the proposed approach significantly increases the recognition accuracy of environment sound even in the presence of high amount of foreground human speech.

  11. Robust identification/fingerprinting of audio signals using spectral flatness features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herre, Juergen; Allamanche, Eric; Hellmuth, Oliver; Kastner, Thorsten

    2002-05-01

    Recently, the problem of content-based identification material has received increased attention as an important technique for managing the ever-increasing amount of multimedia assets available to users today. This talk discusses the problem of robust identification of audio signals by comparing them to a known reference (``fingerprint'') in the feature domain. Desirable properties of the underlying features include robustness with respect to common signal distortions and compactness of representation. A family of suitable features with favorable properties is described and evaluated for their recognition performance. Some applications of signal identification are discussed, including MPEG-7 Audio.

  12. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences. PMID:25373962

  13. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences.

  14. An Accurate Scene Segmentation Method Based on Graph Analysis Using Object Matching and Audio Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Haseyama, Miki

    A method for accurate scene segmentation using two kinds of directed graph obtained by object matching and audio features is proposed. Generally, in audiovisual materials, such as broadcast programs and movies, there are repeated appearances of similar shots that include frames of the same background, object or place, and such shots are included in a single scene. Many scene segmentation methods based on this idea have been proposed; however, since they use color information as visual features, they cannot provide accurate scene segmentation results if the color features change in different shots for which frames include the same object due to camera operations such as zooming and panning. In order to solve this problem, scene segmentation by the proposed method is realized by using two novel approaches. In the first approach, object matching is performed between two frames that are each included in different shots. By using these matching results, repeated appearances of shots for which frames include the same object can be successfully found and represented as a directed graph. The proposed method also generates another directed graph that represents the repeated appearances of shots with similar audio features in the second approach. By combined use of these two directed graphs, degradation of scene segmentation accuracy, which results from using only one kind of graph, can be avoided in the proposed method and thereby accurate scene segmentation can be realized. Experimental results performed by applying the proposed method to actual broadcast programs are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Reconsidering the Role of Recorded Audio as a Rich, Flexible and Engaging Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Audio needs to be recognised as an integral medium capable of extending education's formal and informal, virtual and physical learning spaces. This paper reconsiders the value of educational podcasting through a review of literature and a module case study. It argues that a pedagogical understanding is needed and challenges technology-centred or…

  16. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio...

  17. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio...

  18. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio...

  19. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio...

  20. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio...

  1. Transfer Learning across Feature-Rich Heterogeneous Feature Spaces via Feature-Space Remapping (FSR)

    PubMed Central

    Feuz, Kyle D.; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer learning aims to improve performance on a target task by utilizing previous knowledge learned from source tasks. In this paper we introduce a novel heterogeneous transfer learning technique, Feature- Space Remapping (FSR), which transfers knowledge between domains with different feature spaces. This is accomplished without requiring typical feature-feature, feature instance, or instance-instance co-occurrence data. Instead we relate features in different feature-spaces through the construction of meta-features. We show how these techniques can utilize multiple source datasets to construct an ensemble learner which further improves performance. We apply FSR to an activity recognition problem and a document classification problem. The ensemble technique is able to outperform all other baselines and even performs better than a classifier trained using a large amount of labeled data in the target domain. These problems are especially difficult because in addition to having different feature-spaces, the marginal probability distributions and the class labels are also different. This work extends the state of the art in transfer learning by considering large transfer across dramatically different spaces. PMID:27019767

  2. Unique features of space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Feature integration across space, time, and orientation

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas U.; Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    The perception of a visual target can be strongly influenced by flanking stimuli. In static displays, performance on the target improves when the distance to the flanking elements increases- proposedly because feature pooling and integration vanishes with distance. Here, we studied feature integration with dynamic stimuli. We show that features of single elements presented within a continuous motion stream are integrated largely independent of spatial distance (and orientation). Hence, space based models of feature integration cannot be extended to dynamic stimuli. We suggest that feature integration is guided by perceptual grouping operations that maintain the identity of perceptual objects over space and time. PMID:19968428

  4. Audio 2008: Audio Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio…

  5. Memory-guided tracking through physical space and feature space.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Chauhan, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    People can estimate the current position of an occluded moving target. This is called motion extrapolation, and it has been suggested that the performance in such tasks is mediated by the smooth-pursuit system. Experiment 1 contrasted a standard position extrapolation task with a novel number extrapolation task. In the position extrapolation task, participants saw a horizontally moving target become occluded, and then responded when they thought the target had reached the end of the occluder. Here the stimuli can be tracked with pursuit eye movements. In the number extrapolation task, participants saw a rapid countdown on the screen that disappeared before reaching zero. Participants responded when they thought the hidden counter would have reached zero. Although this stimulus cannot be tracked with the eyes, performance was comparable on both the tasks. The response times were also found to be correlated. Experiments 2 and 3 extended these findings, using extrapolation through color space as well as number space, while Experiment 4 found modest evidence for similarities between color and number extrapolation. Although more research is certainly needed, we propose that a common rate controller guides extrapolation through physical space and feature space. This functions like the velocity store module of the smooth-pursuit system, but with a broader function than previously envisaged.

  6. Audio Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  7. Feature Integration across Space, Time, and Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Thomas U.; Ogmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The perception of a visual target can be strongly influenced by flanking stimuli. In static displays, performance on the target improves when the distance to the flanking elements increases--presumably because feature pooling and integration vanishes with distance. Here, we studied feature integration with dynamic stimuli. We show that features of…

  8. Searching Fragment Spaces with feature trees.

    PubMed

    Lessel, Uta; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Lilienthal, Markus; Claussen, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Virtual combinatorial chemistry easily produces billions of compounds, for which conventional virtual screening cannot be performed even with the fastest methods available. An efficient solution for such a scenario is the generation of Fragment Spaces, which encode huge numbers of virtual compounds by their fragments/reagents and rules of how to combine them. Similarity-based searches can be performed in such spaces without ever fully enumerating all virtual products. Here we describe the generation of a huge Fragment Space encoding about 5 * 10(11) compounds based on established in-house synthesis protocols for combinatorial libraries, i.e., we encode practically evaluated combinatorial chemistry protocols in a machine readable form, rendering them accessible to in silico search methods. We show how such searches in this Fragment Space can be integrated as a first step in an overall workflow. It reduces the extremely huge number of virtual products by several orders of magnitude so that the resulting list of molecules becomes more manageable for further more elaborated and time-consuming analysis steps. Results of a case study are presented and discussed, which lead to some general conclusions for an efficient expansion of the chemical space to be screened in pharmaceutical companies.

  9. Real World Audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crystal River Engineering was originally featured in Spinoff 1992 with the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. The Convolvotron was developed for Ames' research on virtual acoustic displays. Crystal River is a now a subsidiary of Aureal Semiconductor, Inc. and they together develop and market the technology, which is a 3-D (three dimensional) audio technology known commercially today as Aureal 3D (A-3D). The technology has been incorporated into video games, surround sound systems, and sound cards.

  10. Oversampling the Minority Class in the Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ortiz, Maria; Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio; Tino, Peter; Hervas-Martinez, Cesar

    2016-09-01

    The imbalanced nature of some real-world data is one of the current challenges for machine learning researchers. One common approach oversamples the minority class through convex combination of its patterns. We explore the general idea of synthetic oversampling in the feature space induced by a kernel function (as opposed to input space). If the kernel function matches the underlying problem, the classes will be linearly separable and synthetically generated patterns will lie on the minority class region. Since the feature space is not directly accessible, we use the empirical feature space (EFS) (a Euclidean space isomorphic to the feature space) for oversampling purposes. The proposed method is framed in the context of support vector machines, where the imbalanced data sets can pose a serious hindrance. The idea is investigated in three scenarios: 1) oversampling in the full and reduced-rank EFSs; 2) a kernel learning technique maximizing the data class separation to study the influence of the feature space structure (implicitly defined by the kernel function); and 3) a unified framework for preferential oversampling that spans some of the previous approaches in the literature. We support our investigation with extensive experiments over 50 imbalanced data sets.

  11. Oversampling the Minority Class in the Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ortiz, Maria; Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio; Tino, Peter; Hervas-Martinez, Cesar

    2016-09-01

    The imbalanced nature of some real-world data is one of the current challenges for machine learning researchers. One common approach oversamples the minority class through convex combination of its patterns. We explore the general idea of synthetic oversampling in the feature space induced by a kernel function (as opposed to input space). If the kernel function matches the underlying problem, the classes will be linearly separable and synthetically generated patterns will lie on the minority class region. Since the feature space is not directly accessible, we use the empirical feature space (EFS) (a Euclidean space isomorphic to the feature space) for oversampling purposes. The proposed method is framed in the context of support vector machines, where the imbalanced data sets can pose a serious hindrance. The idea is investigated in three scenarios: 1) oversampling in the full and reduced-rank EFSs; 2) a kernel learning technique maximizing the data class separation to study the influence of the feature space structure (implicitly defined by the kernel function); and 3) a unified framework for preferential oversampling that spans some of the previous approaches in the literature. We support our investigation with extensive experiments over 50 imbalanced data sets. PMID:26316222

  12. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  13. Multiclass Bayes error estimation by a feature space sampling technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    A general Gaussian M-class N-feature classification problem is defined. An algorithm is developed that requires the class statistics as its only input and computes the minimum probability of error through use of a combined analytical and numerical integration over a sequence simplifying transformations of the feature space. The results are compared with those obtained by conventional techniques applied to a 2-class 4-feature discrimination problem with results previously reported and 4-class 4-feature multispectral scanner Landsat data classified by training and testing of the available data.

  14. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  15. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  16. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  17. Space Station services and design features for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.

    1987-01-01

    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  18. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Daniel D.; Pyles, John A.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm3 brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features

  19. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  20. Feature space optical coherence tomography based micro-angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anqi; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Current optical coherence tomography (OCT) based micro-angiography is prone to noise that arises from static background. This work presents a novel feature space based optical micro-angiography (OMAG) method (fsOMAG) that can effectively differentiate flow signal from static background in the feature space. fsOMAG consists of two steps. In the first step a classification map is generated that provides criterion for classification in the second step to extract functional blood flow from experimental data set. The performance of fsOMAG is examined through phantom experiments and in-vivo human retinal imaging, and compared with the existing OMAG. The results indicate its potential for clinical applications. PMID:26137391

  1. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, William; Green, Gaylord

    2007-04-01

    Space vehicle performance enabled successful relativity data collection throughout the Gravity Probe B mission. Precision pointing and drag-free translation control was maintained using proportional helium micro-thrusters. Electrical power was provided by rigid, double sided solar arrays. The 1.8 kelvin science instrument temperature was maintained using the largest cryogenic liquid helium dewar ever flown in space. The flight software successfully performed autonomous operations and safemode protection. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle mechanisms include: 1) sixteen helium micro-thrusters, the first proportional thrusters flown in space, and large-orifice thruster isolation valves, 2) seven precision and high-authority mass trim mechanisms, 3) four non-pyrotechnic, highly reliable solar array deployment and release mechanism sets. Early incremental prototyping was used extensively to reduce spacecraft development risk. All spacecraft systems were redundant and provided multiple failure tolerance in critical systems. Lockheed Martin performed the spacecraft design, systems engineering, hardware and software integration, environmental testing and launch base operations, as well as on-orbit operations support for the Gravity Probe B space science experiment.

  2. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2006-12-01

    Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM)) approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  3. Audio characterization for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nilesh V.; Sethi, Ishwar K.

    1996-03-01

    The major problem facing video databases is that of content characterization of video clips once the cut boundaries have been determined. The current efforts in this direction are focussed exclusively on the use of pictorial information, thereby neglecting an important supplementary source of content information, i.e. the embedded audio or sound track. The current research in audio processing can be readily applied to create many different video indices for use in Video On Demand (VOD), educational video indexing, sports video characterization, etc. MPEG is an emerging video and audio compression standard with rapidly increasing popularity in multimedia industry. Compressed bit stream processing has gained good recognition among the researchers. We have also demonstrated feature extraction in MPEG compressed video which implements a majority of scene change detection schemes on compressed video. In this paper, we examine the potential of audio information for content characterization by demonstrating the extraction of widely used features in audio processing directly from compressed data stream and their application to video clip classification.

  4. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  5. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  6. Feature Space Mapping as a universal adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duch, Włodzisław; Diercksen, Geerd H. F.

    1995-06-01

    The most popular realizations of adaptive systems are based on the neural network type of algorithms, in particular feedforward multilayered perceptrons trained by backpropagation of error procedures. In this paper an alternative approach based on multidimensional separable localized functions centered at the data clusters is proposed. In comparison with the neural networks that use delocalized transfer functions this approach allows for full control of the basins of attractors of all stationary points. Slow learning procedures are replaced by the explicit construction of the landscape function followed by the optimization of adjustable parameters using gradient techniques or genetic algorithms. Retrieving information does not require searches in multidimensional subspaces but it is factorized into a series of one-dimensional searches. Feature Space Mapping is applicable to learning not only from facts but also from general laws and may be treated as a fuzzy expert system (neurofuzzy system). The number of nodes (fuzzy rules) is growing as the network creates new nodes for novel data but the search time is sublinear in the number of rules or data clusters stored. Such a system may work as a universal classificator, approximator and reasoning system. Examples of applications for the identification of spectra (classification), intelligent databases (association) and for the analysis of simple electrical circuits (expert system type) are given.

  7. Enhancing Manual Scan Registration Using Audio Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntsoko, T.; Sithole, G.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor mapping and modelling requires that acquired data be processed by editing, fusing, formatting the data, amongst other operations. Currently the manual interaction the user has with the point cloud (data) while processing it is visual. Visual interaction does have limitations, however. One way of dealing with these limitations is to augment audio in point cloud processing. Audio augmentation entails associating points of interest in the point cloud with audio objects. In coarse scan registration, reverberation, intensity and frequency audio cues were exploited to help the user estimate depth and occupancy of space of points of interest. Depth estimations were made reliably well when intensity and frequency were both used as depth cues. Coarse changes of depth could be estimated in this manner. The depth between surfaces can therefore be estimated with the aid of the audio objects. Sound reflections of an audio object provided reliable information of the object surroundings in some instances. For a point/area of interest in the point cloud, these reflections can be used to determine the unseen events around that point/area of interest. Other processing techniques could benefit from this while other information is estimated using other audio cues like binaural cues and Head Related Transfer Functions. These other cues could be used in position estimations of audio objects to aid in problems such as indoor navigation problems.

  8. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements. PMID:17436871

  9. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  10. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  11. Reproducibility of MRI segmentation using a feature space method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.; Scarpace, Lisa; Murnock, Tanya

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents reproducibility studies for the segmentation results obtained by our optimal MRI feature space method. The steps of the work accomplished are as follows. (1) Eleven patients with brain tumors were imaged by a 1.5 T General Electric Signa MRI System. Four T2- weighted and two T1-weighted images (before and after Gadolinium injection) were acquired for each patient. (2) Images of a slice through the center of the tumor were selected for processing. (3) Patient information was removed from the image headers and new names (unrecognizable by the image analysts) were given to the images. These images were blindly analyzed by the image analysts. (4) Segmentation results obtained by the two image analysts at two time points were compared to assess the reproducibility of the segmentation method. For each tissue segmented in each patient study, a comparison was done by kappa statistics and a similarity measure (an approximation of kappa statistics used by other researchers), to evaluate the number of pixels that were in both of the segmentation results obtained by the two image analysts (agreement) relative to the number of pixels that were not in both (disagreement). An overall agreement comparison was done by finding means and standard deviations of kappa statistics and the similarity measure found for each tissue type in the studies. The kappa statistics for white matter was the largest (0.80) followed by those of gray matter (0.68), partial volume (0.67), total lesion (0.66), and CSF (0.44). The similarity measure showed the same trend but it was always higher than kappa statistics. It was 0.85 for white matter, 0.77 for gray matter, 0.73 for partial volume, 0.72 for total lesion, and 0.47 for CSF.

  12. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  13. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.

  14. Detecting Image Splicing Using Merged Features in Chroma Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangjie; Dai, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Image splicing is an image editing method to copy a part of an image and paste it onto another image, and it is commonly followed by postprocessing such as local/global blurring, compression, and resizing. To detect this kind of forgery, the image rich models, a feature set successfully used in the steganalysis is evaluated on the splicing image dataset at first, and the dominant submodel is selected as the first kind of feature. The selected feature and the DCT Markov features are used together to detect splicing forgery in the chroma channel, which is convinced effective in splicing detection. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can detect splicing forgeries with lower error rate compared to the previous literature. PMID:24574877

  15. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    DOE PAGES

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally,more » these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.« less

  16. Robust audio hashing for audio authentication watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Current systems and protocols based on cryptographic methods for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code in the context of content fragile authentication watermarking to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information. Furthermore, it is well suited for the integration in a content-based authentication watermarking system.

  17. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  18. Audio detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, B.; Mansager, B.

    1992-08-01

    Audio information concerning targets generally includes direction, frequencies, and energy levels. One use of audio cueing is to use direction information to help determine where more sensitive visual direction and acquisition sensors should be directed. Generally, use of audio cueing will shorten times required for visual detection, although there could be circumstances where the audio information is misleading and degrades visual performance. Audio signatures can also be useful for helping classify the emanating platform, as well as to provide estimates of its velocity. The Janus combat simulation is the premier high resolution model used by the Army and other agencies to conduct research. This model has a visual detection model which essentially incorporates algorithms as described by Hartman(1985). The model in its current form does not have any sound cueing capability. This report is part of a research effort to investigate the utility of developing such a capability.

  19. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of videos accessible to ...

  20. Reverse engineering the face space: Discovering the critical features for face identification.

    PubMed

    Abudarham, Naphtali; Yovel, Galit

    2016-01-01

    How do we identify people? What are the critical facial features that define an identity and determine whether two faces belong to the same person or different people? To answer these questions, we applied the face space framework, according to which faces are represented as points in a multidimensional feature space, such that face space distances are correlated with perceptual similarities between faces. In particular, we developed a novel method that allowed us to reveal the critical dimensions (i.e., critical features) of the face space. To that end, we constructed a concrete face space, which included 20 facial features of natural face images, and asked human observers to evaluate feature values (e.g., how thick are the lips). Next, we systematically and quantitatively changed facial features, and measured the perceptual effects of these manipulations. We found that critical features were those for which participants have high perceptual sensitivity (PS) for detecting differences across identities (e.g., which of two faces has thicker lips). Furthermore, these high PS features vary minimally across different views of the same identity, suggesting high PS features support face recognition across different images of the same face. The methods described here set an infrastructure for discovering the critical features of other face categories not studied here (e.g., Asians, familiar) as well as other aspects of face processing, such as attractiveness or trait inferences. PMID:26928056

  1. Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Forrest F.

    1993-01-01

    A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

  2. Topological features of rugged fitness landscapes in sequence space.

    PubMed

    Kondrashov, Dmitry A; Kondrashov, Fyodor A

    2015-01-01

    The factors that determine the tempo and mode of protein evolution continue to be a central question in molecular evolution. Traditionally, studies of protein evolution focused on the rates of amino acid substitutions. More recently, with the availability of sequence data and advanced experimental techniques, the focus of attention has shifted toward the study of evolutionary trajectories and the overall layout of protein fitness landscapes. In this review we describe the effect of epistasis on the topology of evolutionary pathways that are likely to be found in fitness landscapes and develop a simple theory to connect the number of maladapted genotypes to the topology of fitness landscapes with epistatic interactions. Finally, we review recent studies that have probed the extent of epistatic interactions and have begun to chart the fitness landscapes in protein sequence space.

  3. Towards Semantically Sensitive Text Clustering: A Feature Space Modeling Technology Based on Dimension Extension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:25794172

  4. Towards semantically sensitive text clustering: a feature space modeling technology based on dimension extension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Forensic audio watermark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  6. Hot spot detection based on feature space representation of visual search.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Peng; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new framework for capturing intrinsic visual search behavior of different observers in image understanding by analysing saccadic eye movements in feature space. The method is based on the information theory for identifying salient image features based on which visual search is performed. We demonstrate how to obtain feature space fixation density functions that are normalized to the image content along the scan paths. This allows a reliable identification of salient image features that can be mapped back to spatial space for highlighting regions of interest and attention selection. A two-color conjunction search experiment has been implemented to illustrate the theoretical framework of the proposed method including feature selection, hot spot detection, and back-projection. The practical value of the method is demonstrated with computed tomography image of centrilobular emphysema, and we discuss how the proposed framework can be used as a basis for decision support in medical image understanding.

  7. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  8. Audio-Tutorial Instruction; An Expanded Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Merlyn C.

    The University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine is developing an audio-tutorial system with several unique features. A Didactor, a device which provides most of the capabilities of computer-assisted instruction but at a fraction of the cost, is the center of the system. The Didactor is combined with tape recordings and slides to present a…

  9. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  10. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks. PMID:25505796

  11. Digital Multicasting of Multiple Audio Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, Mitchell; Bullock, John

    2007-01-01

    at the MCC. In the other access-control provision, the program verifies that the user is authorized to have access to the audio streams. Once both access-control checks are completed, the audio software presents a graphical display that includes audiostream-selection buttons and volume-control sliders. The user can select all or any subset of the available audio streams and can adjust the volume of each stream independently of that of the other streams. The audio-player program spawns a "read" process for the selected stream(s). The spawned process sends, to the router(s), a "multicast-join" request for the selected streams. The router(s) responds to the request by sending the encrypted multicast packets to the spawned process. The spawned process receives the encrypted multicast packets and sends a decryption packet to audio-driver software. As the volume or muting features are changed by the user, interrupts are sent to the spawned process to change the corresponding attributes sent to the audio-driver software. The total latency of this system - that is, the total time from the origination of the audio signals to generation of sound at a listener s computer - lies between four and six seconds.

  12. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  13. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  14. [A leukocyte pattern recognition based on feature fusion in multi-color space].

    PubMed

    Hao, Liangwang; Hong, Wenxue

    2013-10-01

    To solve the ineffective problem of leukocytes classification based on multi-feature fusion in a single color space, we proposed an automatic leukocyte pattern recognition by means of feature fusion with color histogram and texture granular in multi-color space. The interactive performance of three color spaces (RGB, HSV and Lab), two features (color histogram and texture granular) and four similarity measured distance metrics (normalized intersection, Euclidean distance, chi2-metric distance and Mahalanobis distance) were discussed. The optimized classification modes of high precision, extensive universality and low cost to different leukocyte types were obtained respectively, and then the recognition system of tree-integration of the optimized modes was established. The experimental results proved that the performance of the fusion classification was improved by 12.3% at least.

  15. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  16. High-Resolution Infrared Space Observatory Spectroscopy of the Unidentified 21 Micron Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Hrivnak, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory SWS06 mode observations of the 21 micron feature in eight sources, including a first "detection of the feature in IRAS Z02229+6208. The observed feature peak-to-continuum ratios range from 0.13 in IRAS Z02229+6208 to 1.30 in IRAS 07134+1005. The normalized spectra, obtained by the removal of the underlying continua and by scaling the features to the same peak flux value. show that all features have the same intrinsic profile and peak wavelength. There is no evidence for any discrete substructure due to molecular bands in the observed spectra, suggesting that the 21 micron feature is due to either a solid substance or a mixture of many similarly structured large molecules.

  17. A scale space feature based registration technique for fusion of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Srini; Cromp, Robert F.; Campbell, William C.

    1997-01-01

    Feature based registration is one of the most reliable methods to register multi-sensor images (both active and passive imagery) since features are often more reliable than intensity or radiometric values. The only situation where a feature based approach will fail is when the scene is completely homogenous or densely textural in which case a combination of feature and intensity based methods may yield better results. In this paper, we present some preliminary results of testing our scale space feature based registration technique, a modified version of feature based method developed earlier for classification of multi-sensor imagery. The proposed approach removes the sensitivity in parameter selection experienced in the earlier version as explained later.

  18. The formation method of the feature space for the identification of fatigued bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongshik; Oshiro, Ayumu; Ozawa, Kenji; Mitsui, Ikugo

    2014-10-01

    Fatigued bills make a trouble such as the paper jam in a bill handling machine. In the discrimination of fatigued bills using an acoustic signal, the variation of an observed bill sound is considered to be one of causes in misclassification. Therefore a technique has demanded in order to make the classification of fatigued bills more efficient. In this paper, we proposed the algorithm that extracted feature quantity of bill sound from acoustic signal using the frequency difference, and carried out discrimination experiment of fatigued bill money by Support Vector Machine(SVM). The feature quantity of frequency difference can represent the frequency components of an acoustic signal is varied by the fatigued degree of bill money. The generalization performance of SVM does not depend on the size of dimensions of the feature space, even in a high dimensional feature space such as bill-acoustic signals. Furthermore, SVM can induce an optimal classifier which considers the combination of features by the virtue of polynomial kernel functions.

  19. Perception of facial features and face-to-face communications in space.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines how human face-to-face communications may be compromised by exposure to the microgravity environment of space. Although efficient face-to-face communications are acknowledged to be essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, the space environment causes facial edema, and allows speakers and listeners to confront one another in multiple orientations that can potentially interfere with many important non-linguistic communication cues. In addition, high background noises in space shuttles and stations can mask auditory messages. Currently, the effects of spaceflight on the ability to identify facial features, to read lips, to integrate visual and auditory sensory information, and to interpret spoken messages in noisy environments while the speakers are at various orientations with respect to the listeners, are virtually unknown. Ground-based experiments conducted in our laboratory with computer-displayed facial images presented at various orientations have suggested how non-linguistic cues may be degraded by changes in the retinal orientations of facial images. The results of our ground-based studies illustrating impaired recognition of facial features in non-erect images are described, their implications for effective face-to-face communications among astronauts in space are discussed, and two experiments that can quantify the effects of microgravity on face-to-face communications in space are outlined.

  20. Medical X-ray Image Hierarchical Classification Using a Merging and Splitting Scheme in Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Fesharaki, Nooshin Jafari; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Due to the daily mass production and the widespread variation of medical X-ray images, it is necessary to classify these for searching and retrieving proposes, especially for content-based medical image retrieval systems. In this paper, a medical X-ray image hierarchical classification structure based on a novel merging and splitting scheme and using shape and texture features is proposed. In the first level of the proposed structure, to improve the classification performance, similar classes with regard to shape contents are grouped based on merging measures and shape features into the general overlapped classes. In the next levels of this structure, the overlapped classes split in smaller classes based on the classification performance of combination of shape and texture features or texture features only. Ultimately, in the last levels, this procedure is also continued forming all the classes, separately. Moreover, to optimize the feature vector in the proposed structure, we use orthogonal forward selection algorithm according to Mahalanobis class separability measure as a feature selection and reduction algorithm. In other words, according to the complexity and inter-class distance of each class, a sub-space of the feature space is selected in each level and then a supervised merging and splitting scheme is applied to form the hierarchical classification. The proposed structure is evaluated on a database consisting of 2158 medical X-ray images of 18 classes (IMAGECLEF 2005 database) and accuracy rate of 93.6% in the last level of the hierarchical structure for an 18-class classification problem is obtained.

  1. Data Reduction of Traffic Information Forecast Model Performed by Multi-link Shared Feature Space Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Masatoshi; Fushiki, Takumi; Kimita, Kazuya; Yokota, Takayoshi

    This paper discusses an extended method of “Feature Space Forecast Method" which we proposed before. When we forecast traffic information, we have to consider various factors such as days, seasons, holidays, and so on. Furthermore, for nation-wide forecast services, the number of road links handled by a forecast model reaches more than 0.1 million. Therefore, in order to provide accurate nation-wide services, a forecast method that can efficiently deal with a large amount of traffic data is required. The proposed method achieves an efficient forecast process with a small forecast model that is one-tenth as large as that of traditional methods, by performing forecasting calculation in the feature space shared by multiple road links.

  2. Study on identifying deciduous forest by the method of feature space transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuexia; Wu, Pengfei

    2009-10-01

    The thematic remotely sensed information extraction is always one of puzzling nuts which the remote sensing science faces, so many remote sensing scientists devotes diligently to this domain research. The methods of thematic information extraction include two kinds of the visual interpretation and the computer interpretation, the developing direction of which is intellectualization and comprehensive modularization. The paper tries to develop the intelligent extraction method of feature space transformation for the deciduous forest thematic information extraction in Changping district of Beijing city. The whole Chinese-Brazil resources satellite images received in 2005 are used to extract the deciduous forest coverage area by feature space transformation method and linear spectral decomposing method, and the result from remote sensing is similar to woodland resource census data by Chinese forestry bureau in 2004.

  3. Oil spill detection using synthetic aperture radar images and feature selection in shape space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yue; Zhang, Heng Zhen

    2014-08-01

    The major goal of the present study is to describe a method by which synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of oil spills can be discriminated from other phenomena of similar appearance. The optimal features of these dark formations are here identified. Because different materials have different physical properties, they form different shapes. In this case, oil films and lookalike materials have different fluid properties. In this paper, 9 shape features with a total of 95 eigenvalues were selected. Using differential evolution feature selection (DEFS), similar eigenvalues were extracted from total space of oil spills and lookalike phenomena. This process assumes that these similar eigenvalues impair classification. These similar eigenvalues are removed from the total space, and the important eigenvalues (IEs), those useful to the discrimination of the targets, are identified. At least 30 eigenvalues were found to be inappropriate for classification of our shape spaces. The proposed method was found to be capable of facilitating the selection of the top 50 IEs. This allows more accurate classification. Here, accuracy reached 94%. The results of the experiment show that this novel method performs well. It could also be made available to teams across the world very easily.

  4. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  5. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  6. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  7. The Lowdown on Audio Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

  8. Nanoscale Analysis of Space-Weathering Features in Soils from Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Zega, T. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering alters the spectral properties of airless body surface materials by redden-ing and darkening their spectra and attenuating characteristic absorption bands, making it challenging to characterize them remotely [1,2]. It also causes a discrepency between laboratory analysis of meteorites and remotely sensed spectra from asteroids, making it difficult to associate meteorites with their parent bodies. The mechanisms driving space weathering include mi-crometeorite impacts and the interaction of surface materials with solar energetic ions, particularly the solar wind. These processes continuously alter the microchemical and structural characteristics of exposed grains on airless bodies. The change of these properties is caused predominantly by the vapor deposition of reduced Fe and FeS nanoparticles (npFe(sup 0) and npFeS respectively) onto the rims of surface grains [3]. Sample-based analysis of space weathering has tra-ditionally been limited to lunar soils and select asteroidal and lunar regolith breccias [3-5]. With the return of samples from the Hayabusa mission to asteroid Itoka-wa [6], for the first time we are able to compare space-weathering features on returned surface soils from a known asteroidal body. Analysis of these samples will contribute to a more comprehensive model for how space weathering varies across the inner solar system. Here we report detailed microchemical and microstructal analysis of surface grains from Itokawa.

  9. Assessing efficiency of spatial sampling using combined coverage analysis in geographical and feature spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengl, Tomislav

    2015-04-01

    Efficiency of spatial sampling largely determines success of model building. This is especially important for geostatistical mapping where an initial sampling plan should provide a good representation or coverage of both geographical (defined by the study area mask map) and feature space (defined by the multi-dimensional covariates). Otherwise the model will need to extrapolate and, hence, the overall uncertainty of the predictions will be high. In many cases, geostatisticians use point data sets which are produced using unknown or inconsistent sampling algorithms. Many point data sets in environmental sciences suffer from spatial clustering and systematic omission of feature space. But how to quantify these 'representation' problems and how to incorporate this knowledge into model building? The author has developed a generic function called 'spsample.prob' (Global Soil Information Facilities package for R) and which simultaneously determines (effective) inclusion probabilities as an average between the kernel density estimation (geographical spreading of points; analysed using the spatstat package in R) and MaxEnt analysis (feature space spreading of points; analysed using the MaxEnt software used primarily for species distribution modelling). The output 'iprob' map indicates whether the sampling plan has systematically missed some important locations and/or features, and can also be used as an input for geostatistical modelling e.g. as a weight map for geostatistical model fitting. The spsample.prob function can also be used in combination with the accessibility analysis (cost of field survey are usually function of distance from the road network, slope and land cover) to allow for simultaneous maximization of average inclusion probabilities and minimization of total survey costs. The author postulates that, by estimating effective inclusion probabilities using combined geographical and feature space analysis, and by comparing survey costs to representation

  10. Metrological digital audio reconstruction

    DOEpatents

    Fadeyev; Vitaliy , Haber; Carl

    2004-02-19

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

  11. Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

    1991-06-01

    Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

  12. Robust Audio Watermarking Based on Log-Polar Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Kang, Xiangui; Huang, Jiwu

    In this paper, we analyze the audio signal distortions introduced by pitch-scaling, random cropping and DA/AD conversion, and find a robust feature, average Fourier magnitude over the log-polar frequency index(AFM), which can resist these attacks. Theoretical analysis and extensive experiments demonstrate that AFM is an appropriate embedding region for robust audio watermarking. This is the first work on applying log-polar mapping to audio watermark. The usage of log-polar mapping in our work is basically different from the existing works in image watermarking. The log-polar mapping is only applied to the frequency index, not to the transform coefficients, which avoids the reconstruction distortion of inverse log-polar transform and reduces the computation cost. Comparison with the existing methods, the proposed AFM-based watermarking scheme has the outstanding performance on resisting pitch-scaling and random cropping, as well as very approving robustness to DA/AD conversion and TSM (Time-Scale Modification). The watermarked audio achieves high auditory quality. Experimental results show that the scheme is very robust to common audio signal processing and distortions introduced in Stirmark for Audio.

  13. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  14. Audio in Courseware: Design Knowledge Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarntzen, Diana

    1993-01-01

    Considers issues that need to be addressed when incorporating audio in courseware design. Topics discussed include functions of audio in courseware; the relationship between auditive and visual information; learner characteristics in relation to audio; events of instruction; and audio characteristics, including interactivity and speech technology.…

  15. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  16. New Features of Electron Phase Space Holes Observed by the THEMIS Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.; Eriksson, S.; Johansson, T.; Ergun, R. E.; Tao, J.; Roux, A.; LeContel, O.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J.; McFadden, J. P.; Larson, D. E.; Cully, C. M.; Newman, D. N.; Goldman, M. V.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Baumjohann, W.

    2009-06-05

    Observations of electron phase-space holes (EHs) in Earth's plasma sheet by the THEMIS satellites include the first detection of a magnetic perturbation ({delta}B{sub ||}) parallel to the ambient magnetic field (B{sub 0}). EHs with a detectable {delta}B{sub ||} have several distinguishing features including large electric field amplitudes, a magnetic perturbation perpendicular to B{sub 0}, high speeds ({approx}0.3c) along B{sub 0}, and sizes along B{sub 0} of tens of Debye lengths. These EHs have a significant center potential ({phi}{approx}k{sub B}T{sub e}/e), suggesting strongly nonlinear behavior nearby such as double layers or magnetic reconnection.

  17. Joint spatial-spectral feature space clustering for speech activity detection from ECoG signals.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Vasileios G; Mporas, Iosif; Benz, Heather L; Sgarbas, Kyriakos N; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-04-01

    Brain-machine interfaces for speech restoration have been extensively studied for more than two decades. The success of such a system will depend in part on selecting the best brain recording sites and signal features corresponding to speech production. The purpose of this study was to detect speech activity automatically from electrocorticographic signals based on joint spatial-frequency clustering of the ECoG feature space. For this study, the ECoG signals were recorded while a subject performed two different syllable repetition tasks. We found that the optimal frequency resolution to detect speech activity from ECoG signals was 8 Hz, achieving 98.8% accuracy by employing support vector machines as a classifier. We also defined the cortical areas that held the most information about the discrimination of speech and nonspeech time intervals. Additionally, the results shed light on the distinct cortical areas associated with the two syllables repetition tasks and may contribute to the development of portable ECoG-based communication.

  18. Interactive Feature Space Explorer© for Multi–Modal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Türkbey, Barış; Choyke, Peter L.; Akin, Oguz; Aras, Ömer; Mun, Seong K.

    2015-01-01

    Wider information content of multi–modal biomedical imaging is advantageous for detection, diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, the necessity to evaluate a large number images might hinder these advantages and reduce the efficiency. Herein, a new computer aided approach based on the utilization of feature space (FS) with reduced reliance on multiple image evaluations is proposed for research and routine clinical use. The method introduces the physician experience into the discovery process of FS biomarkers for addressing biological complexity, e.g., disease heterogeneity. This, in turn, elucidates relevant biophysical information which would not be available when automated algorithms are utilized. Accordingly, the prototype platform was designed and built for interactively investigating the features and their corresponding anatomic loci in order to identify pathologic FS regions. While the platform might be potentially beneficial in decision support generally and specifically for evaluating outlier cases, it is also potentially suitable for accurate ground truth determination in FS for algorithm development. Initial assessments conducted on two different pathologies from two different institutions provided valuable biophysical perspective. Investigations of the prostate magnetic resonance imaging data resulted in locating a potential aggressiveness biomarker in prostate cancer. Preliminary findings on renal cell carcinoma imaging data demonstrated potential for characterization of disease subtypes in the FS. PMID:25868623

  19. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  20. Note-accurate audio segmentation based on MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-12-01

    Segmenting audio data into the smallest musical components is the basis for many further meta data extraction algorithms. For example, an automatic music transcription system needs to know where the exact boundaries of each tone are. In this paper a note accurate audio segmentation algorithm based on MPEG-7 low level descriptors is introduced. For a reliable detection of different notes, both features in the time and the frequency domain are used. Because of this, polyphonic instrument mixes and even melodies characterized by human voices can be examined with this alogrithm. For testing and verification of the note accurate segmentation, a simple music transcription system was implemented. The dominant frequency within each segment is used to build a MIDI file representing the processed audio data.

  1. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  2. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  3. QRDA: Quantum Representation of Digital Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. It includes two main medias: image and audio. However, by contrast with the rapid development of quantum image processing, quantum audio almost never been studied. In order to change this status, a quantum representation of digital audio (QRDA) is proposed in this paper to present quantum audio. QRDA uses two entangled qubit sequences to store the audio amplitude and time information. The two qubit sequences are both in basis state: |0> and |1>. The QRDA audio preparation from initial state |0> is given to store an audio in quantum computers. Then some exemplary quantum audio processing operations are performed to indicate QRDA's usability.

  4. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-05-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  5. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  6. Subject-to-subject transfer for CSP based BCIs: feature space transformation and decision-level fusion.

    PubMed

    Heger, Dominic; Putze, Felix; Herff, Christian; Schultz, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Modern Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) usually require a calibration session to train a machine learning system before each usage. In general, such trained systems are highly specialized to the subject's characteristic activation patterns and cannot be used for other sessions or subjects. This paper presents a feature space transformation that transforms features generated using subject-specific spatial filters into a subject-independent feature space. The transformation can be estimated from little adaptation data of the subject. Furthermore, we combine three different Common Spatial Pattern based feature extraction approaches using decision-level fusion, which enables BCI use when little calibration data is available, but also outperformed the subject-dependent reference approaches for larger amounts of training data. PMID:24111010

  7. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  8. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  9. [Audio-visual aids and tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a list of the audio-visual productions about Tropical Medicine, as well as of their main characteristics. He thinks that the audio-visual educational productions are often dissociated from their promotion; therefore, he invites the future creator to forward his work to the Audio-Visual Health Committee.

  10. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  11. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  12. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  13. Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: Low Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treblay, Remy; Fyvie, Barb; Koritko, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    A comparison was conducted of "Voxwire MeetingRoom" and "iVocalize" v4.1.0.3, both Web-conferencing products using voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) to provide unlimited, inexpensive, international audio communication, and high-quality Web-conferencing fostering collaborative learning. The study used the evaluation criteria used in earlier…

  14. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping.

  15. Techniques in audio and acoustic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    Measurement of acoustic devices and spaces is commonly performed with time-delay spectrometry (TDS) or maximum length sequence (MLS) analysis. Both techniques allow an impulse response to be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that can be traded off against the measurement time. However, TDS suffers from long measurement times because of its linear sweep, while MLS suffers from the corruption of the impulse response by distortion. Recently a logarithmic sweep-based method has been devised which offers high SNR, short measurement times, and the ability to separate the linear impulse response from the impulse responses of distortion products. The applicability of these methods to audio and acoustic measurement will be compared.

  16. NFL Films audio, video, and film production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    The new NFL Films 200,000 sq. ft. headquarters is home for the critically acclaimed film production that preserves the NFL's visual legacy week-to-week during the football season, and is also the technical plant that processes and archives football footage from the earliest recorded media to the current network broadcasts. No other company in the country shoots more film than NFL Films, and the inclusion of cutting-edge video and audio formats demands that their technical spaces continually integrate the latest in the ever-changing world of technology. This facility houses a staggering array of acoustically sensitive spaces where music and sound are equal partners with the visual medium. Over 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space is comprised of an array of sound stages, music scoring stages, audio control rooms, music writing rooms, recording studios, mixing theaters, video production control rooms, editing suites, and a screening theater. Every production control space in the building is designed to monitor and produce multi channel surround sound audio. An overview of the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered for each sophisticated listening, recording, viewing, editing, and sound critical environment will be discussed.

  17. SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2008-08-01

    Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise.

  18. Audio frequency analysis in mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía Aguilar, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is given about the relationship between voice bandwidth and voice quality.

  19. PSOFuzzySVM-TMH: identification of transmembrane helix segments using ensemble feature space by incorporated fuzzy support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Maqsood; Tahir, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Membrane protein is a central component of the cell that manages intra and extracellular processes. Membrane proteins execute a diversity of functions that are vital for the survival of organisms. The topology of transmembrane proteins describes the number of transmembrane (TM) helix segments and its orientation. However, owing to the lack of its recognized structures, the identification of TM helix and its topology through experimental methods is laborious with low throughput. In order to identify TM helix segments reliably, accurately, and effectively from topogenic sequences, we propose the PSOFuzzySVM-TMH model. In this model, evolutionary based information position specific scoring matrix and discrete based information 6-letter exchange group are used to formulate transmembrane protein sequences. The noisy and extraneous attributes are eradicated using an optimization selection technique, particle swarm optimization, from both feature spaces. Finally, the selected feature spaces are combined in order to form ensemble feature space. Fuzzy-support vector Machine is utilized as a classification algorithm. Two benchmark datasets, including low and high resolution datasets, are used. At various levels, the performance of the PSOFuzzySVM-TMH model is assessed through 10-fold cross validation test. The empirical results reveal that the proposed framework PSOFuzzySVM-TMH outperforms in terms of classification performance in the examined datasets. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be a useful and high throughput tool for academia and research community for further structure and functional studies on transmembrane proteins. PMID:26054033

  20. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  1. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  2. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  3. Neuromagnetic evidence for a featural distinction of English consonants: Sensor- and source-space data

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Mathias; Merickel, Jennifer; Riley, Joshua; Idsardi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds can be classified on the basis of their underlying articulators or on the basis of the acoustic characteristics resulting from particular articulatory positions. Research in speech perception suggests that distinctive features are based on both articulatory and acoustic information. In recent years, neuroelectric and neuromagnetic investigations provided evidence for the brain’s early sensitivity to distinctive feature and their acoustic consequences, particularly for place of articulation distinctions. Here, we compare English consonants in a Mismatch Field design across two broad and distinct places of articulation - LABIAL and CORONAL - and provide further evidence that early evoked auditory responses are sensitive to these features. We further add to the findings of asymmetric consonant processing, although we do not find support for coronal underspecification. Labial glides (Experiment 1) and fricatives (Experiment 2) elicited larger Mismatch responses than their coronal counterparts. Interestingly, their M100 dipoles differed along the anterior/posterior dimension in the auditory cortex that has previously been found to spatially reflect place of articulation differences. Our results are discussed with respect to acoustic and articulatory bases of featural speech sound classifications and with respect to a model that maps distinctive phonetic features onto long-term representations of speech sounds. PMID:21185073

  4. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  5. Geometry and dimensionality reduction of feature spaces in primary visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Some geometric properties of the wavelet analysis performed by visual neurons are discussed and compared with experimental data. In particular, several relationships between the cortical morphologies and the parametric dependencies of extracted features are formalized and considered from a harmonic analysis point of view.

  6. Neuromagnetic Evidence for a Featural Distinction of English Consonants: Sensor- and Source-Space Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharinger, Mathias; Merickel, Jennifer; Riley, Joshua; Idsardi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds can be classified on the basis of their underlying articulators or on the basis of the acoustic characteristics resulting from particular articulatory positions. Research in speech perception suggests that distinctive features are based on both articulatory and acoustic information. In recent years, neuroelectric and neuromagnetic…

  7. Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space. The Impacts of Physical Features and Personal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blobaum, Anke; Hunecke, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    What are the most relevant factors influencing perceived danger in urban public space? To answer this question, a field experiment of students(N = 122) was carried out on a German university campus within which perceived danger was analyzed under systematic variation of lighting, prospect, and opportunities of escape. Two standardized…

  8. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  9. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  10. Robust low dimensional kernel correlation feature spaces that generalize to unseen datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiantun, Ramzi; Savvides, Marios; Vijayakumar, B. V. K.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the subspace generalization power of the kernel correlation feature analysis (KCFA) method for extracting a low dimensional subspace that has the ability to represent new unseen datasets. Examining the portability of this algorithm across different datasets is an important practical aspect of real-world face recognition applications where the technology cannot be dataset-dependant. In most face recognition literature, algorithms are demonstrated on datasets by training on one portion of the dataset and testing on the remainder. Generally, the testing subjects' dataset partially or totally overlap the training subjects' dataset however with disjoint images captured from different sessions. Thus, some of the expected facial variations and the people's faces are modeled in the training set. In this paper we describe how we efficiently build a compact feature subspace using kernel correlation filter analysis on the generic training set of the FRGC dataset and use that basis for recognition on a different dataset. The KCFA feature subspace has a total dimension that corresponds to the number of training subjects; we chose to vary this number to include up to all of 222 available in the FRGC generic dataset. We test the built subspace produced by KCFA by projecting other well-known face datasets upon it. We show that this feature subspace has good representation and discrimination to unseen datasets and produces good verification and identification rates compared to other subspace and dimensionality reduction methods such as PCA (when trained on the same FRGC generic dataset). Its efficiency, lower dimensionality and discriminative power make it more practical and powerful than PCA as a robust lower dimensionality reduction method for modeling faces and facial variations.

  11. Ophthalmic Features of Outpatient Children Diagnosed with Intracranial Space-Occupying Lesions by Ophthalmologists

    PubMed Central

    Alswaina, Nayef; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Shammari, Mansour A.; Khan, Arif O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Brain tumors in children often involve the visual system, but most retrospective series are by neurologists or oncologists. In this study we highlight the ophthalmic findings of outpatient children with visual complaints and/or strabismus who, based on ophthalmic examination, were suspected to and confirmed to harbor intracranial space-occupying lesions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Retrospective case series of children (less than 18 years) who for visual complaints and/or strabismus underwent cranial MRI at a referral eye hospital (2005–2012), which revealed intracranial space-occupying lesions. Exclusion criteria were known preexisting orbital or ocular trauma, ocular tumor, or neurological disease. Results: For 26 patients (3 months-17 years; mean 7 years; median 9 years; and 14 boys), the most common clinical presentation was decreased vision with disc pallor (10) or swelling (three). Other presentations were strabismus with disc pallor or swelling (four; two of which were left sixth nerve palsies), acquired esotropia with diplopia (three; one bilateral and two left sixth nerve palsies), acquired exotropia (four; two of which were bilateral third nerve palsies, one of which was left partial third nerve palsy, and one of which was associated with headache), nystagmus (one), and disc swelling with headache (one). Most lesions were in the sellar/suprasellar space (10), posterior fossa (six), or optic nerve/chasm (four). Conclusions: The majority of outpatient children diagnosed by ophthalmologists with intracranial space-occupying lesions presented with disc swelling or pallor in the context of decreased vision or strabismus. Two strabismus profiles that did not include disc swelling or pallor were acquired sixth nerve palsy and acquired exotropia (with ptosis (third nerve palsy), nystagmus, or headache). PMID:26180471

  12. Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

  13. Content-based audio authentication using a hierarchical patchwork watermark embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, Michael; Müller, Erika

    2010-05-01

    Content-based audio authentication watermarking techniques extract perceptual relevant audio features, which are robustly embedded into the audio file to protect. Manipulations of the audio file are detected on the basis of changes between the original embedded feature information and the anew extracted features during verification. The main challenges of content-based watermarking are on the one hand the identification of a suitable audio feature to distinguish between content preserving and malicious manipulations. On the other hand the development of a watermark, which is robust against content preserving modifications and able to carry the whole authentication information. The payload requirements are significantly higher compared to transaction watermarking or copyright protection. Finally, the watermark embedding should not influence the feature extraction to avoid false alarms. Current systems still lack a sufficient alignment of watermarking algorithm and feature extraction. In previous work we developed a content-based audio authentication watermarking approach. The feature is based on changes in DCT domain over time. A patchwork algorithm based watermark was used to embed multiple one bit watermarks. The embedding process uses the feature domain without inflicting distortions to the feature. The watermark payload is limited by the feature extraction, more precisely the critical bands. The payload is inverse proportional to segment duration of the audio file segmentation. Transparency behavior was analyzed in dependence of segment size and thus the watermark payload. At a segment duration of about 20 ms the transparency shows an optimum (measured in units of Objective Difference Grade). Transparency and/or robustness are fast decreased for working points beyond this area. Therefore, these working points are unsuitable to gain further payload, needed for the embedding of the whole authentication information. In this paper we present a hierarchical extension

  14. Features of Destruction of the Monolithic and Spaced Barriers from Anisotropic Materials at Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Andrey; Radchenko, Pavel

    2011-06-01

    Creation of materials with the specified properties is an actual problem. Modern technologies of reception of materials allow to optimize strength parameters of a design for work in concrete conditions of external influences. Such optimization can be made or thanks to the imparting to a structure of a material of orderliness, or thanks to material reinforcing by strengthening elements. After such arrangement the material, as a rule, gets high rate of anisotropy. Besides optimization of properties of a material also the various approaches connected with constructive decisions are used. The spaced targets to protection of designs from high-velocity objects are especially effective. In the given work the comparative analysis of development of destructions in the monolithic and spaced targets at high-velocity interaction is carried out. A material of targets is orthotropic organoplastic with high rate of anisotropy of elastic and strength properties. Destruction, efficiency of the monolithic and spaced targets depending on orientation of properties of an anisotropic material in a range of velocities of impact from 750 to 3000m/s is investigated.

  15. The features of radiation dose variations onboard ISS and Mir space station: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tverskaya, L V; Panasyuk, M I; Reizman, S Ya; Sosnovets, E N; Teltsov, M V; Tsetlin, V V

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the ISS-measured radiation dose variations since August 2000 is studied. Use is made of the data obtained with the R-16 instrument, which consists of two ionization chambers behind different shielding thicknesses. The doses recorded during solar energetic particle (SEP) events are compared with the data obtained also by R-16 on Mir space station. The SEP events in the solar maximum of the current cycle make a much smaller contribution to the radiation dose compared with the October 1989 event recorded on Mir space station. In the latter event, the proton intensity was peaking during a strong magnetic storm. The storm-time effect of solar proton geomagnetic cutoff decreases on dose variations is estimated. The dose variations on Mir space stations due to formation of a new radiation belt of high-energy protons and electrons during a sudden commencement of March 24, 1991 storm are also studied. It was for the first time throughout the ISS and Mir dose measurement period that the counting rates recorded by both R-16 channels on ISS in 2001-2002 were nearly the same during some time intervals. This effect may arise from the decreases of relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt.

  16. Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Broadcast Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    An experiment assessed the potential effectiveness of "dual audio television instruction" (DATI) as a mass education medium. The DATI consisted of a radio program heard by children while they watched television shows. The audio instructor did not talk when the television characters spoke, but used the "quiet" times to help with reading, define…

  17. 36 CFR 1002.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or machinery such as an electric generating plant, motor vehicle, motorized toy, or an audio device... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE...

  18. Issues of audio quality for video conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qi; Zhou, Jingli; Yu, Shengsheng

    1999-01-01

    When choosing a video conferencing system ,it is natural for the potential buyer to look very closely at the quality of the audio. In order to assure a high-quality video conferencing, it is important to have a good picture, but it is vital to have high quality audio. The reason for this is that most of the information transferred in a video conference is actually in the audio channel. Not only is good audio mandatory to the effective exchange of information exchange of information, it has also been found that it can effect the perceived video quality. In this ape several key issues on audio quality are discussed. Since audio delay is among the most vexing problem, each video conferencing system has to make efforts to shorten it. What causes audio delay, how to measure actual delay and how to shorten it is provided in detail. Finally several strategies about system design are presented in order to improve audio quality. All the above are based on the video conferencing systems developed according to H.324 and suitable to video conferencing system implemented all using software.

  19. Internet Audio Products (3/3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Linda; de Schutter, Adrienne; Fahrni, Patricia; Rudolph, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: "iVocalize", a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and "Skype", a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The "iVocalize" review emphasizes the…

  20. Audio-Visual Aids in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jackie

    1970-01-01

    A report on the proceedings and ideas expressed at a one day seminar on "Audio-Visual Equipment--Its Uses and Applications for Teaching and Research in Universities." The seminar was organized by England's National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education in conjunction with the British Universities Film Council. (LS)

  1. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  2. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  3. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  4. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  5. Digital Advances in Contemporary Audio Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Steven O.

    Noting that a revolution in sonic high fidelity occurred during the 1980s as digital-based audio production methods began to replace traditional analog modes, this paper offers both an overview of digital audio theory and descriptions of some of the related digital production technologies that have begun to emerge from the mating of the computer…

  6. Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael J.

    Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

  7. Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

  8. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study. PMID:24637036

  9. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study.

  10. STS-44 onboard (in-space) crew portrait features 'Trash Man' Hennen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for a second onboard (in-space) portrait on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. This portrait was intended to focus on Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen, holding extended duration orbiter (EDO) trash compactor handles, who earned the nickname, 'Trash Man' during the flight. It was Hennen who 'starred' in a brief onboard video production about the disposal of trash and waste. Others in the picture are (front row) Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) James S. Voss and (back row left to right) MS Mario Runco, Jr, MS F. Story Musgrave, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks.

  11. The HDTV digital audio matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, A. J.

    Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented.

  12. Special Features of the Structure of Secular Resonances in the Dynamics of Near-Earth Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Tomilova, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    The special features of the structure of secular resonances in the near-earth orbital space bounded by the following range of orbital parameters: semimajor axis from 8000 to 55 000 km, inclination from 0 to 90°, and eccentricity equal to 0.01, 0.6, and 0.8 are analyzed. The influence of stable and unstable secular resonances on the long-term orbital evolution of near-earth space objects is also considered. It is demonstrated that the joint effect of the stable secular resonances of different spectral classes does not violate the regularity of motion. The chaoticity arises when stable secular resonances of one spectral class are imposed.

  13. Our Understanding of Space Weather features responsible for geostationary satellite anamolies (P39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, G.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    girija60@yahoo.com The topic of space weather effects on operational anomalies on spacecraft is one of considerable research investigation, with both pure and applied aspects. This is because of the very high costs involved in fabricating and operating spacecraft, and in insuring them against the harmful effects of space weather. This is more true for geostationary satellites than of low-orbiting spacecraft, as the former operate in the high-risk environment of the Earth’s outer radiation belts, with its large vagaries in spatial and time variations of high- energy electron and proton distributions (BAKER 2003). Without doubt, plasma and magnetic field emissions from active regions on the Sun are the root cause for spacecraft anomalies. Our study for 2005 shows that over 95% of anomalies can be related to some definite activity on the Sun, ranging from high-speed solar wind streams with their 27-day recurrence patterns/coronal holes/coronal mass ejections preceded by X or M type of flares/and magnetic cloud events. The most energetic solar activity events are generally accompanied by a large rise in solar MeV proton densities at geo-stationary orbit (WILKINSON 1994), and they account for definite anomalies classified as SEU (Single Event Upsets which most often are reversible through resetting commands). Any particles in the low energy ranges (eV and keV, and these could be of magnetospheric or ionospheric origin), are believed to cause external charging effects in exposed parts of the spacecraft such as solar power arrays and power cables. These mainly result in power losses which are debilitating over a period of time. The most dangerous and often irrecoverable damage is due to electronics in the 1-5 MeV range which cause deep dielectric discharge of arc type in semi-conductors comprising spacecraft instruments. Following major solar activity, the populations of these rise to more than (5x103) particles/cm2.ster.sec, with large spatial and time variations (LOVE

  14. [Features of development of fetal bone organ culture in space flight].

    PubMed

    Berezovskaia, O P

    2002-01-01

    Fetal mouse metatarsals cultured for 4 days onboard international space laboratory IML-1 (STS-42) were investigated using light microscopy and electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Bones cultured in microgravity were equal in length to both ground and inflight (1 g) controls. Three zones: epiphyseal, proliferative, and hypertrophic chondrocytes were distinguished and measured in metatarsals isolated from 16-day-old fetuses. In bone cultures exposed to microgravity, hypertrophic zone tended to decrease and epiphyseal area was increased compared to controls. Proliferative zone has equal length both in bones cultured under microgravity and in controls. The same tendency was observed in bone cultures from 17-day-old fetuses. Metatarsals cultured in microgravity have less spreading calcification zone of diaphysis in comparison with both controls. The results suggest that maturation of chondrocytes and calcification of cartilage, but not cell proliferation, are microgravity sensitive processes in developing bones isolated from the organism.

  15. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  16. High-energy electromagnetic cascades in extragalactic space: Physics and features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, V.; Kalashev, O.

    2016-07-01

    Using the analytic modeling of the electromagnetic cascades compared with more precise numerical simulations, we describe the physical properties of electromagnetic cascades developing in the universe on cosmic microwave background and extragalactic background light radiations. A cascade is initiated by very-high-energy photon or electron, and the remnant photons at large distance have two-component energy spectrum, ∝E-2 (∝E-1.9 in numerical simulations) produced at the cascade multiplication stage and ∝E-3 /2 from Inverse Compton electron cooling at low energies. The most noticeable property of the cascade spectrum in analytic modeling is "strong universality," which includes the standard energy spectrum and the energy density of the cascade ωcas as its only numerical parameter. Using numerical simulations of the cascade spectrum and comparing it with recent Fermi LAT spectrum, we obtained the upper limit on ωcas stronger than in previous works. The new feature of the analysis is the "Emax rule." We investigate the dependence of ωcas on the distribution of sources, distinguishing two cases of universality: the strong and weak ones.

  17. Cloud Fragmentation and Proplyd-like Features in H II Regions Imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, Orsola; O'Dell, C. R.; Gelfond, Pamela; Rubin, R. H.; Glover, S. C. O.

    2006-05-01

    We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFPC2 new and archival images of eight H II regions to look for new protoplanetary disks (proplyds) similar to those found in the Orion Nebula. We find a wealth of features similar in size (although many are larger) to the bright cusps around the Orion Nebula proplyds. None of them, however, contains a definitive central star. From this, we deduce that the new cusps may not be proplyds but instead fragments of molecular cloud material. Out of all the features found in the eight H II regions examined, only one, an apparent edge-on silhouette in M17, may have a central star. This feature might join the small number of bona fide proplyds found outside the Orion Nebula, in M8, M20, and possibly M16. In line with the results found recently by Smith et al., the paucity of proplyds outside the Orion Nebula can be explained by their transient nature, as well as by the specific environmental conditions under which they can be observed. Several fragments are seen as dark silhouettes against a bright background. We have reanalyzed those found in IC 2944 by Reipurth et al. and found new, similar ones in M16. None of these fragments contains a central star, and we exclude the possibility that they are disks. Reipurth et al. concluded that the IC 2944 silhouettes are not star forming. We argue here that their assumption of a constant optical depth for these fragments is not physical and that it is more likely that these fragments are star forming, a condition that is supported, although not proved, by their shapes and distributions. The process of cloud fragmentation and photoevaporation produces a large number of small fragments, while the size hierarchy expected in a photoevaporative environment would not favor small fragments. The size distributions observed will constrain any future theories of cloud fragmentation. One bright microjet candidate is found in M17, protruding from a large, limb-brightened fragment. A second, larger

  18. Features of space-charge-limited emission in foil-less diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Yuan, Keliang; Liu, Guozhi; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-15

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) current can always be obtained from the blade surface of annular cathodes in foil-less diodes which are widely used in O-type relativistic high power microwave generators. However, there is little theoretical analysis regarding it due to the mathematical complexity, and almost all formulas about the SCL current in foil-less diodes are based on numerical simulation results. This paper performs an initial trial in calculation of the SCL current from annular cathodes theoretically under the ultra-relativistic assumption and the condition of infinitely large guiding magnetic field. The numerical calculation based on the theoretical research is coherent with the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation result to some extent under a diode voltage of 850 kV. Despite that the theoretical research gives a much larger current than the PIC simulation (41.3 kA for the former and 9.7 kA for the latter), which is induced by the ultra-relativistic assumption in the theoretical research, they both show the basic characteristic of emission from annular cathodes in foil-less diodes, i.e., the emission enhancement at the cathode blade edges, especially at the outer edge. This characteristic is confirmed to some extent in our experimental research of cathode plasma photographing under the same diode voltage and a guiding magnetic field of 4 T.

  19. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF) nitrogen gas discharge (10 - 100 kHz) is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm) and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ˜ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 - 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  20. Estimating Species Distributions Across Space Through Time and with Features of the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelling, S.; Fink, D.; Hochachka, W.; Rosenberg, K.; Cook, R.; Damoulas, C.; Silva, C.; Michener, W.

    2013-01-01

    Complete guidance for mastering the tools and techniques of the digital revolution With the digital revolution opening up tremendous opportunities in many fields, there is a growing need for skilled professionals who can develop data-intensive systems and extract information and knowledge from them. This book frames for the first time a new systematic approach for tackling the challenges of data-intensive computing, providing decision makers and technical experts alike with practical tools for dealing with our exploding data collections. Emphasizing data-intensive thinking and interdisciplinary collaboration, The Data Bonanza: Improving Knowledge Discovery in Science, Engineering, and Business examines the essential components of knowledge discovery, surveys many of the current research efforts worldwide, and points to new areas for innovation. Complete with a wealth of examples and DISPEL-based methods demonstrating how to gain more from data in real-world systems, the book: Outlines the concepts and rationale for implementing data-intensive computing in organizations Covers from the ground up problem-solving strategies for data analysis in a data-rich world Introduces techniques for data-intensive engineering using the Data-Intensive Systems Process Engineering Language DISPEL Features in-depth case studies in customer relations, environmental hazards, seismology, and more Showcases successful applications in areas ranging from astronomy and the humanities to transport engineering Includes sample program snippets throughout the text as well as additional materials on a companion website The Data Bonanza is a must-have guide for information strategists, data analysts, and engineers in business, research, and government, and for anyone wishing to be on the cutting edge of data mining, machine learning, databases, distributed systems, or large-scale computing.

  1. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  2. Self-synchronization for spread spectrum audio watermarks after time scale modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Andrew; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-02-01

    De-synchronizing operations such as insertion, deletion, and warping pose significant challenges for watermarking. Because these operations are not typical for classical communications, watermarking techniques such as spread spectrum can perform poorly. Conversely, specialized synchronization solutions can be challenging to analyze/ optimize. This paper addresses desynchronization for blind spread spectrum watermarks, detected without reference to any unmodified signal, using the robustness properties of short blocks. Synchronization relies on dynamic time warping to search over block alignments to find a sequence with maximum correlation to the watermark. This differs from synchronization schemes that must first locate invariant features of the original signal, or estimate and reverse desynchronization before detection. Without these extra synchronization steps, analysis for the proposed scheme builds on classical SS concepts and allows characterizes the relationship between the size of search space (number of detection alignment tests) and intrinsic robustness (continuous search space region covered by each individual detection test). The critical metrics that determine the search space, robustness, and performance are: time-frequency resolution of the watermarking transform, and blocklength resolution of the alignment. Simultaneous robustness to (a) MP3 compression, (b) insertion/deletion, and (c) time-scale modification is also demonstrated for a practical audio watermarking scheme developed in the proposed framework.

  3. The Audio Description as a Physics Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozendey, Sabrina; Costa, Maria da Piedade

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the use of audio description in teaching physics concepts, aiming to determine the variables that influence the understanding of the concept. One education resource was audio described. For make the audio description the screen was freezing. The video with and without audio description should be presented to students, so that…

  4. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  5. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchtaris, Athanasios; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Kyriakakis, Chris

    2003-12-01

    Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized "virtual" microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  6. A Study of Audio Tape: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reen, Noel K.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate reel audio tape, tests were performed to identify: signal-to-noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, dynamic response, frequency response, biased and virgin tape noise, dropout susceptibility and oxide coating uniformity. (SCC)

  7. Post-Production: "Sweeting" the Final Audio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Augie

    1995-01-01

    Knowing how to use audio mixers in the postproduction of student videos is necessary for high-quality sound. Equipment and techniques are described, and the use of background sound, sound effects, and music is described. (AEF)

  8. Audio watermarking for live performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2003-06-01

    Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay of the HS, and (2) possible interruption of the broadcast. To solve these problems, we propose a watermark generation algorithm that outputs only a WS, and a system composition method in which a mixer outside the computer mixes the WS generated by the algorithm and the HS. In addition, we propose a new composition method "sonic watermarking." In this composition method, the sound of the HS and the sound of the WS are played separately by two speakers, and the sounds are mixed in the air. Using this composition method, it would be possible to generate a watermarking sound in a concerto hall so that the watermark could be detected from content recorded by audience members who have recording devices at their seats. We report on the results of experiments and discuss the merits and flaws of various real-time watermarking composition methods.

  9. Extrastriate Visual Areas Integrate Form Features over Space and Time to Construct Representations of Stationary and Rigidly Rotating Objects.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Kohler, Peter J; Tse, Peter U; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2015-11-01

    When an object moves behind a bush, for example, its visible fragments are revealed at different times and locations across the visual field. Nonetheless, a whole moving object is perceived. Unlike traditional modal and amodal completion mechanisms known to support spatial form integration when all parts of a stimulus are simultaneously visible, relatively little is known about the neural substrates of the spatiotemporal form integration (STFI) processes involved in generating coherent object representations from a succession visible fragments. We used fMRI to identify brain regions involved in two mechanisms supporting the representation of stationary and rigidly rotating objects whose form features are shown in succession: STFI and position updating. STFI allows past and present form cues to be integrated over space and time into a coherent object even when the object is not visible in any given frame. STFI can occur whether or not the object is moving. Position updating allows us to perceive a moving object, whether rigidly rotating or translating, even when its form features are revealed at different times and locations in space. Our results suggest that STFI is mediated by visual regions beyond V1 and V2. Moreover, although widespread cortical activation has been observed for other motion percepts derived solely from form-based analyses [Tse, P. U. Neural correlates of transformational apparent motion. Neuroimage, 31, 766-773, 2006; Krekelberg, B., Vatakis, A., & Kourtzi, Z. Implied motion from form in the human visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94, 4373-4386, 2005], increased responses for the position updating that lead to rigidly rotating object representations were only observed in visual areas KO and possibly hMT+, indicating that this is a distinct and highly specialized type of processing.

  10. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    PubMed Central

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  11. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  12. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  13. Spatial domain entertainment audio decompression/compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. K.; Tam, Ka Him K.

    2014-02-01

    The ARM7 NEON processor with 128bit SIMD hardware accelerator requires a peak performance of 13.99 Mega Cycles per Second for MP3 stereo entertainment quality decoding. For similar compression bit rate, OGG and AAC is preferred over MP3. The Patent Cooperation Treaty Application dated 28/August/2012 describes an audio decompression scheme producing a sequence of interleaving "min to Max" and "Max to min" rising and falling segments. The number of interior audio samples bound by "min to Max" or "Max to min" can be {0|1|…|N} audio samples. The magnitudes of samples, including the bounding min and Max, are distributed as normalized constants within the 0 and 1 of the bounding magnitudes. The decompressed audio is then a "sequence of static segments" on a frame by frame basis. Some of these frames needed to be post processed to elevate high frequency. The post processing is compression efficiency neutral and the additional decoding complexity is only a small fraction of the overall decoding complexity without the need of extra hardware. Compression efficiency can be speculated as very high as source audio had been decimated and converted to a set of data with only "segment length and corresponding segment magnitude" attributes. The PCT describes how these two attributes are efficiently coded by the PCT innovative coding scheme. The PCT decoding efficiency is obviously very high and decoding latency is basically zero. Both hardware requirement and run time is at least an order of magnitude better than MP3 variants. The side benefit is ultra low power consumption on mobile device. The acid test on how such a simplistic waveform representation can indeed reproduce authentic decompressed quality is benchmarked versus OGG(aoTuv Beta 6.03) by three pair of stereo audio frames and one broadcast like voice audio frame with each frame consisting 2,028 samples at 44,100KHz sampling frequency.

  14. Transitioning from Analog to Digital Audio Recording in Childhood Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Mcsweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing…

  15. An Audio-Visual Tutorial Laboratory Program for Introductory Geology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Walter C.; Bates, Robert L.

    Described is an audio-visual tutorial laboratory program designed to provide a uniform, regularly reinforced, programmatic introduction to a limited set of geologic concepts and features; to provide a sequence of problem-solving exercises on which the student can work as an individual and in which he is required repeatedly to use all elements of…

  16. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  17. Segmentation of perivascular spaces in 7T MR image using auto-context model with orientation-normalized features.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyun; Zong, Xiaopeng; Gao, Yaozong; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative study of perivascular spaces (PVSs) in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images is important for understanding the brain lymphatic system and its relationship with neurological diseases. One of the major challenges is the accurate extraction of PVSs that have very thin tubular structures with various directions in three-dimensional (3D) MR images. In this paper, we propose a learning-based PVS segmentation method to address this challenge. Specifically, we first determine a region of interest (ROI) by using the anatomical brain structure and the vesselness information derived from eigenvalues of image derivatives. Then, in the ROI, we extract a number of randomized Haar features which are normalized with respect to the principal directions of the underlying image derivatives. The classifier is trained by the random forest model that can effectively learn both discriminative features and classifier parameters to maximize the information gain. Finally, a sequential learning strategy is used to further enforce various contextual patterns around the thin tubular structures into the classifier. For evaluation, we apply our proposed method to the 7T brain MR images scanned from 17 healthy subjects aged from 25 to 37. The performance is measured by voxel-wise segmentation accuracy, cluster-wise classification accuracy, and similarity of geometric properties, such as volume, length, and diameter distributions between the predicted and the true PVSs. Moreover, the accuracies are also evaluated on the simulation images with motion artifacts and lacunes to demonstrate the potential of our method in segmenting PVSs from elderly and patient populations. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms all existing PVS segmentation methods. PMID:27046107

  18. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-11-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist ({approx}90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO{sub 2} hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO{sub 2} (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles {>=}85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3{sigma}, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs{>=}60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  19. DWT-Based High Capacity Audio Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This letter suggests a novel high capacity robust audio watermarking algorithm by using the high frequency band of the wavelet decomposition, for which the human auditory system (HAS) is not very sensitive to alteration. The main idea is to divide the high frequency band into frames and then, for embedding, the wavelet samples are changed based on the average of the relevant frame. The experimental results show that the method has very high capacity (about 5.5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG in [-1, 0] and SNR about 33dB) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering, echo and MPEG compression (MP3).

  20. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  1. Music information retrieval in compressed audio files: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampoglou, Markos; Malamos, Athanasios G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present an organized survey of the existing literature on music information retrieval systems in which descriptor features are extracted directly from the compressed audio files, without prior decompression to pulse-code modulation format. Avoiding the decompression step and utilizing the readily available compressed-domain information can significantly lighten the computational cost of a music information retrieval system, allowing application to large-scale music databases. We identify a number of systems relying on compressed-domain information and form a systematic classification of the features they extract, the retrieval tasks they tackle and the degree in which they achieve an actual increase in the overall speed-as well as any resulting loss in accuracy. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the field, and the potential research directions they open toward ultra-fast, scalable systems.

  2. Cross-modal retrieval of scripted speech audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Charles B.; Makedon, Fillia

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an approach to the problem of searching speech-based digital audio using cross-modal information retrieval. Audio containing speech (speech-based audio) is difficult to search. Open vocabulary speech recognition is advancing rapidly, but cannot yield high accuracy in either search or transcription modalities. However, text can be searched quickly and efficiently with high accuracy. Script- light digital audio is audio that has an available transcription. This is a surprisingly large class of content including legal testimony, broadcasting, dramatic productions and political meetings and speeches. An automatic mechanism for deriving the synchronization between the transcription and the audio allows for very accurate retrieval of segments of that audio. The mechanism described in this paper is based on building a transcription graph from the text and computing biphone probabilities for the audio. A modified beam search algorithm is presented to compute the alignment.

  3. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  4. To Make a Long Story Short: Abridged Audio at 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annichiarico, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of abridged audio publishing 10 years after the formation of the Audio Publishers Association. Topics include abridged versus unabridged versions for bookstores and libraries; vendors and publishers; future possibilities for CDs and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc); and audio leasing for libraries. (LRW)

  5. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  6. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  7. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  8. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  9. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  10. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  11. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  12. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  13. Improving Audio Quality in Distance Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Craig H.

    This paper discusses common causes of problems encountered with audio systems in distance learning networks and offers practical suggestions for correcting the problems. Problems and discussions are divided into nine categories: (1) acoustics, including reverberant classrooms leading to distorted or garbled voices, as well as one-dimensional audio…

  14. Sound for Film: Audio Education for Filmmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Wanda

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the specific, unique, and important elements of audio education required by film professionals. Presents a model unit to be included in a film studies program, either as a separate course or as part of a film production or introduction to film course. Offers a model syllabus for such a course or unit on sound in film. (SR)

  15. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  16. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  17. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  18. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

  19. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  20. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  1. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  2. Relevant Research on Audio-Tutorial Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews two aspects of research related to audio-tutorial instructional methods. First, the learning theory of David P. Ausebel is summarized and applied to instructional procedures. Secondly, learning time for attainment of concept and knowledge levels is discussed. Concludes that studies are needed on designs based on Ausebel's theory,…

  3. Providing Students with Formative Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brearley, Francis Q.; Cullen, W. Rod

    2012-01-01

    The provision of timely and constructive feedback is increasingly challenging for busy academics. Ensuring effective student engagement with feedback is equally difficult. Increasingly, studies have explored provision of audio recorded feedback to enhance effectiveness and engagement with feedback. Few, if any, of these focus on purely formative…

  4. Anthropomorphic Coding of Speech and Audio: A Model Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbauer, Christian; Kubin, Gernot; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan

    2005-12-01

    Auditory modeling is a well-established methodology that provides insight into human perception and that facilitates the extraction of signal features that are most relevant to the listener. The aim of this paper is to provide a tutorial on perceptual speech and audio coding using an invertible auditory model. In this approach, the audio signal is converted into an auditory representation using an invertible auditory model. The auditory representation is quantized and coded. Upon decoding, it is then transformed back into the acoustic domain. This transformation converts a complex distortion criterion into a simple one, thus facilitating quantization with low complexity. We briefly review past work on auditory models and describe in more detail the components of our invertible model and its inversion procedure, that is, the method to reconstruct the signal from the output of the auditory model. We summarize attempts to use the auditory representation for low-bit-rate coding. Our approach also allows the exploitation of the inherent redundancy of the human auditory system for the purpose of multiple description (joint source-channel) coding.

  5. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual “bisensory” stimuli. Three metrics were measured—onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets. PMID:26778952

  6. Comparing Audio and Video Data for Rating Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with ICC (2,1) for audio = .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care. PMID:23579475

  7. Features of motivation of the crewmembers in an enclosed space at atmospheric pressure changes during breathing inert gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarevcev, Sergey

    Since the 1960s, our psychologists are working on experimenting with small groups in isolation .It was associated with the beginning of spaceflight and necessity to study of human behaviors in ways different from the natural habitat of man .Those, who study human behavior especially in isolation, know- that the behavior in isolation markedly different from that in the natural situаtions. It associated with the development of new, more adaptive behaviors (1) What are the differences ? First of all , isolation is achieved by the fact ,that the group is in a closed space. How experiments show - the crew members have changed the basic personality traits, such as motivation Statement of the problem and methods. In our experimentation we were interested in changing the features of human motivation (strength, stability and direction of motivation) in terms of a closed group in the modified atmosphere pressure and breathing inert gases. Also, we were interested in particular external and internal motivation of the individual in the circumstances. To conduct experimentation , we used an experimental barocomplex GVK -250 , which placed a group of six mаns. A task was to spend fifteen days in isolation on barokomplex when breathing oxigen - xenon mixture of fifteen days in isolation on the same complex when breathing oxygen- helium mixture and fifteen days of isolation on the same complex when breathing normal air All this time, the subjects were isolated under conditions of atmospheric pressure changes , closer to what you normally deal divers. We assumed that breathing inert mixtures can change the strength and stability , and with it , the direction and stability of motivation. To check our results, we planned on using the battery of psychological techniques : 1. Schwartz technique that measures personal values and behavior in society, DORS procedure ( measurement of fatigue , monotony , satiety and stress ) and riffs that give the test once a week. Our assumption is

  8. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  9. Availability of feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy for remote-controlled measurements on board a space laboratory or planet exploration Rover.

    PubMed

    Lapshin, Rostislav V

    2009-06-01

    Prospects for a feature-oriented scanning (FOS) approach to investigations of sample surfaces, at the micrometer and nanometer scales, with the use of scanning probe microscopy under space laboratory or planet exploration rover conditions, are examined. The problems discussed include decreasing sensitivity of the onboard scanning probe microscope (SPM) to temperature variations, providing autonomous operation, implementing the capabilities for remote control, self-checking, self-adjustment, and self-calibration. A number of topical problems of SPM measurements in outer space or on board a planet exploration rover may be solved via the application of recently proposed FOS methods.

  10. Availability of feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy for remote-controlled measurements on board a space laboratory or planet exploration Rover.

    PubMed

    Lapshin, Rostislav V

    2009-06-01

    Prospects for a feature-oriented scanning (FOS) approach to investigations of sample surfaces, at the micrometer and nanometer scales, with the use of scanning probe microscopy under space laboratory or planet exploration rover conditions, are examined. The problems discussed include decreasing sensitivity of the onboard scanning probe microscope (SPM) to temperature variations, providing autonomous operation, implementing the capabilities for remote control, self-checking, self-adjustment, and self-calibration. A number of topical problems of SPM measurements in outer space or on board a planet exploration rover may be solved via the application of recently proposed FOS methods. PMID:19566423

  11. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively. PMID:25300451

  12. High-performance combination method of electric network frequency and phase for audio forgery detection in battery-powered devices.

    PubMed

    Savari, Maryam; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-09-01

    Audio forgery is any act of tampering, illegal copy and fake quality in the audio in a criminal way. In the last decade, there has been increasing attention to the audio forgery detection due to a significant increase in the number of forge in different type of audio. There are a number of methods for forgery detection, which electric network frequency (ENF) is one of the powerful methods in this area for forgery detection in terms of accuracy. In spite of suitable accuracy of ENF in a majority of plug-in powered devices, the weak accuracy of ENF in audio forgery detection for battery-powered devices, especially in laptop and mobile phone, can be consider as one of the main obstacles of the ENF. To solve the ENF problem in terms of accuracy in battery-powered devices, a combination method of ENF and phase feature is proposed. From experiment conducted, ENF alone give 50% and 60% accuracy for forgery detection in mobile phone and laptop respectively, while the proposed method shows 88% and 92% accuracy respectively, for forgery detection in battery-powered devices. The results lead to higher accuracy for forgery detection with the combination of ENF and phase feature.

  13. High-performance combination method of electric network frequency and phase for audio forgery detection in battery-powered devices.

    PubMed

    Savari, Maryam; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-09-01

    Audio forgery is any act of tampering, illegal copy and fake quality in the audio in a criminal way. In the last decade, there has been increasing attention to the audio forgery detection due to a significant increase in the number of forge in different type of audio. There are a number of methods for forgery detection, which electric network frequency (ENF) is one of the powerful methods in this area for forgery detection in terms of accuracy. In spite of suitable accuracy of ENF in a majority of plug-in powered devices, the weak accuracy of ENF in audio forgery detection for battery-powered devices, especially in laptop and mobile phone, can be consider as one of the main obstacles of the ENF. To solve the ENF problem in terms of accuracy in battery-powered devices, a combination method of ENF and phase feature is proposed. From experiment conducted, ENF alone give 50% and 60% accuracy for forgery detection in mobile phone and laptop respectively, while the proposed method shows 88% and 92% accuracy respectively, for forgery detection in battery-powered devices. The results lead to higher accuracy for forgery detection with the combination of ENF and phase feature. PMID:27442454

  14. Audio signal analysis in combination with noncontact bio-motion data to successfully monitor snoring.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, David; Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for automatic detection of snoring in sleep by combining non-contact bio-motion data with audio data. The audio data is captured using low end Android Smartphones in a non-clinical environment to mimic a possible user-friendly commercial product for sleep audio monitoring. However snore detection becomes a more challenging problem as the recorded signal has lower quality compared to those recorded in clinical environment. To have an accurate classification of snore/non-snore, we first compare a range of commonly used features extracted from the audio signal to find the best subject-independent features. Thereafter, bio-motion data is used to further improve the classification accuracy by identifying episodes which contain high amounts of body movements. High body movement indicates that the subject is turning, coughing or leaving the bed; during these instances snoring does not occur. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using the data recorded over 25 sessions from 7 healthy subjects who are suspected to be regular snorers. Our experimental results showed that the best subject-independent features for snore/non-snore classification are the energy of frequency band 3150-3650 Hz, zero crossing rate and 1st predictor coefficient of linear predictive coding. The proposed features yielded an average classification accuracy of 84.35%. The introduction of bio-motion data significantly improved the results by an average of 5.87% (p<;0.01). This work is the first study that successfully used bio-motion data to improve the accuracy of snore/non-snore classification. PMID:25570810

  15. Origins of features in wave number-frequency spectra of space-time images of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, William J.; Farquharson, Gordon

    2012-06-01

    Wave number-frequency spectra measured with remote sensing systems consist of energy along the ocean wave dispersion relation and additional features that lie above and below this relation. At low frequencies a feature passing through the origin as a straight line is observed while one or more high-frequency features exhibit substantial curvature. Here we utilize images obtained on the open ocean from microwave Doppler shifts, which are directly related to scatterer velocity and allow us to calculate expected wave-wave interaction effects. We show that the strongest features lying off the first-order dispersion relation are not primarily due to second-order interactions, breaking caused by wind turbulence, advection by turbulence, or shadowing. The low-frequency feature can be seen traveling in the opposite direction to swell when looking nearly crosswind. We show that the most probable cause of these features is the interference of long ocean waves, which causes breaking near local maxima of surface slope. Doppler spectra observed by the radars indicate that the maximum speed reached by water particles on the open ocean is less than 6 m/s and usually close to the speed of the low-frequency feature in the wave number-frequency spectrum. Since this is much less than the phase speeds of dominant wind waves and swell, neither of these waves can be the breaking wave. Rather, we hypothesize that the superposition of these waves steepens short gravity waves on the surface, which then break to produce water parcels traveling near their phase speed, the speed observed by the radar.

  16. The Digital Audio Editor as a Teaching and Laboratory Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latta, Gregory

    2001-10-01

    Digital audio editors such as Software Audio Workshop and Cool Edit Pro are powerful tools used in the radio and audio recording fields for editing digital audio. However, they are also powerful tools in the physics classroom and laboratory. During this presentation the author will show how a digital audio editor, combined with a library of audio .wav files produced by the author as part of sabbatical work, can be used to: 1. demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the relationship between the decibel, sound intensity, and loudness perception, 2. demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the relationship between frequency and pitch perception, 3. perform additive and subtractive sound synthesis, 4. demonstrate comb filtering, 5. demonstrate constructive and destructive interference, and 6. turn the computer into an accurate signal generator (sine wave, square wave, etc.) with a frequency resolution of 1Hz. Availability of the required software and .wav file library will also be discussed.

  17. Objective child behavior measurement with naturalistic daylong audio recording and its application to autism identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Child behavior in the natural environment is a subject that is relevant for many areas of social science and bio-behavioral research. However, its measurement is currently based mainly on subjective approaches such as parent questionnaires or clinical observation. This study demonstrates an objective and unobtrusive child vocal behavior measurement and monitoring approach using daylong audio recordings of children in the natural home environment. Our previous research has shown significant performance in childhood autism identification. However, there remains the question of why it works. In the previous study, the focus was more on the overall performance and data-driven modeling without regard to the meaning of underlying features. Even if a high risk of autism is predicted, specific information about child behavior that could contribute to the automated categorization was not further explored. This study attempts to clarify this issue by exploring the details of underlying features and uncovering additional behavioral information buried within the audio streams. It was found that much child vocal behavior can be measured automatically by applying signal processing and pattern recognition technologies to daylong audio recordings. By combining many such features, the model achieves an overall autism identification accuracy of 94% (N=226). Similar to many emerging non-invasive and telemonitoring technologies in health care, this approach is believed to have great potential in child development research, clinical practice and parenting.

  18. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.144 Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. (a)...

  19. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.144 Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. (a)...

  20. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.144 Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. (a)...

  1. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.144 Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. (a)...

  2. A content-based digital audio watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking embeds inaudible information into digital audio data for the purposes of copyright protection, ownership verification, covert communication, and/or auxiliary data carrying. In this paper, we present a novel watermarking scheme to embed a meaningful gray image into digital audio by quantizing the wavelet coefficients (using integer lifting wavelet transform) of audio samples. Our audio-dependent watermarking procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking of the human auditory system (HAS) to guarantee that the embedded watermark image is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by utilizing still image compression technique, breaking each audio clip into smaller segments, selecting the perceptually significant audio segments to wavelet transform, and quantizing the perceptually significant wavelet coefficients. The proposed watermarking algorithm can extract the watermark image without the help from the original digital audio signals. We also demonstrate the robustness of that watermarking procedure to audio degradations and distortions, e.g., those that result from noise adding, MPEG compression, low pass filtering, resampling, and requantization.

  3. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  4. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  5. Audio-Visual, Visuo-Tactile and Audio-Tactile Correspondences in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nava, Elena; Grassi, Massimo; Turati, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Interest in crossmodal correspondences has recently seen a renaissance thanks to numerous studies in human adults. Yet, still very little is known about crossmodal correspondences in children, particularly in sensory pairings other than audition and vision. In the current study, we investigated whether 4-5-year-old children match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of visual objects (audio-visual condition). In addition, we investigated whether this correspondence extends to touch, i.e., whether children also match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of touch (audio-tactile condition) and the spatial motion of visual objects to touch (visuo-tactile condition). In two experiments, two different groups of children were asked to indicate which of two stimuli fitted best with a centrally located third stimulus (Experiment 1), or to report whether two presented stimuli fitted together well (Experiment 2). We found sensitivity to the congruency of all of the sensory pairings only in Experiment 2, suggesting that only under specific circumstances can these correspondences be observed. Our results suggest that pitch-height correspondences for audio-visual and audio-tactile combinations may still be weak in preschool children, and speculate that this could be due to immature linguistic and auditory cues that are still developing at age five. PMID:27311292

  6. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  7. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  8. [Features of the lifting reflex in the white rat following prolonged space flight (effect of weightlessness and artificial gravity)].

    PubMed

    Aĭzikov, G S; Markin, A S; Mokrousova, A V

    1981-12-01

    The latent time of the lifting reflex (LTLR) was studied in weightless and centrifuged SPF-Wistar rats before and after 19-day space flights onboard Cosmos-936 and 1129. The LTLR was determined when the lifting reflex was induced in a special trainer on the basis of the mechanical component of muscle reaction (MCMR) and electromyography of the oculomotor and gastrocnemius muscles. The LTLR persisted in all the animals postflight. The LTLR of weightless rats as determined by the MCMR increased significantly, and as determined by electromyography, remained unchanged. Centrifuged rats did not show significant changes in the LPLR. It is believed that the initial stages of the lifting reaction - vestibular receptors and conductive pathways - remained unaltered in weightlessness. Changes in the LPLR observed after prolonged space flights are consequent on muscle function, representing the final stage of the lifting reflex.

  9. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: An Undergraduate Teacher Prospective Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.

  10. TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

  11. Transitioning from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing a reference database for research in childhood speech sound disorders. Two research transcribers with different levels of experience glossed, transcribed, and prosody-voice coded conversational speech samples from eight children with mild to severe speech disorders of unknown origin. The samples were recorded, stored, and played back using representative analog and digital audio systems. Effect sizes calculated for an array of analog versus digital comparisons ranged from negligible to medium, with a trend for participants’ speech competency scores to be slightly lower for samples obtained and transcribed using the digital system. We discuss the implications of these and other findings for research and clinical practise. PMID:16019779

  12. Effect of downsampling and compressive sensing on audio-based continuous cough monitoring.

    PubMed

    Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, Pablo; Lesso, Paul; McKinstry, Brian; Pinnock, Hilary; Rabinovich, Roberto; McCloughan, Lucy; Monge-Álvarez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient cough detection system based on simple decision-tree classification of spectral features from a smartphone audio signal. Preliminary evaluation on voluntary coughs shows that the system can achieve 98% sensitivity and 97.13% specificity when the audio signal is sampled at full rate. With this baseline system, we study possible efficiency optimisations by evaluating the effect of downsampling below the Nyquist rate and how the system performance at low sampling frequencies can be improved by incorporating compressive sensing reconstruction schemes. Our results show that undersampling down to 400 Hz can still keep sensitivity and specificity values above 90% despite of aliasing. Furthermore, the sparsity of cough signals in the time domain allows keeping performance figures close to 90% when sampling at 100 Hz using compressive sensing schemes. PMID:26737716

  13. Effect of downsampling and compressive sensing on audio-based continuous cough monitoring.

    PubMed

    Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, Pablo; Lesso, Paul; McKinstry, Brian; Pinnock, Hilary; Rabinovich, Roberto; McCloughan, Lucy; Monge-Álvarez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient cough detection system based on simple decision-tree classification of spectral features from a smartphone audio signal. Preliminary evaluation on voluntary coughs shows that the system can achieve 98% sensitivity and 97.13% specificity when the audio signal is sampled at full rate. With this baseline system, we study possible efficiency optimisations by evaluating the effect of downsampling below the Nyquist rate and how the system performance at low sampling frequencies can be improved by incorporating compressive sensing reconstruction schemes. Our results show that undersampling down to 400 Hz can still keep sensitivity and specificity values above 90% despite of aliasing. Furthermore, the sparsity of cough signals in the time domain allows keeping performance figures close to 90% when sampling at 100 Hz using compressive sensing schemes.

  14. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  15. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and...

  16. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and...

  17. Teaching Audio Playwriting: The Pedagogy of Drama Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshelman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests how teaching artists can develop practical coursework in audio playwriting. To prepare students to work in the reemergent audio drama medium, the author created a seminar course called Radio Theatre Writing, taught at Arkansas Tech University in the fall of 2014. The course had three sections. First, it focused on…

  18. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  19. Beyond Podcasting: Creative Approaches to Designing Educational Audio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a university-wide pilot designed to encourage academics to creatively explore learner-centred applications for digital audio. Participation in the pilot was diverse in terms of technical competence, confidence and contextual requirements and there was little prior experience of working with digital audio. Many innovative…

  20. Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Brenda

    This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

  1. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  2. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  3. Making the Most of Audio. Technology in Language Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Anthony

    Prepared for practicing language teachers, this book's aim is to help them make the most of audio, a readily accessible resource. The book shows, with the help of numerous practical examples, how a range of language skills can be developed. Most examples are in French. Chapters cover the following information: (1) making the most of audio (e.g.,…

  4. Single source noise reduction of received HF audio: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Eric C.; Alva, Carlos O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper visits the application of single-source noise reduction on received audio over a HF channel. The noise reduction algorithm is typically used in vocoder noise processing at the transmitter before encoding. This study presents the results of the algorithm effects by objectively measuring audio quality through the use of industry standard PESQ analysis.

  5. The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herickes, Sally, Ed.

    The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

  6. Some Characteristics of Audio Description and the Corresponding Moving Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This research is concerned with reusing texts produced by audio describers as a source for automatically deriving shot-level indexing for film and video products. Results reinforce the notion that audio description is not sufficient on its own as a source for generating an index to the image, but it is valuable because it describes what is going…

  7. A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

  8. Audio Utilization Conventions and Techniques for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Signal Center and School, Fort Monmouth, NJ.

    A set of guidelines has been developed for the implementation of the audio mode in computer assisted instruction (CAI). The manual contains a collection of conventions and techniques synthesized from recent publications in areas pertinent to multi-media audiovisual presentation. These areas include audio message placement, positioning, frequency,…

  9. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  10. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  11. Audio Haptic Videogaming for Developing Wayfinding Skills in Learners Who are Blind.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; de Borba Campos, Marcia; Espinoza, Matías; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    Interactive digital technologies are currently being developed as a novel tool for education and skill development. Audiopolis is an audio and haptic based videogame designed for developing orientation and mobility (O&M) skills in people who are blind. We have evaluated the cognitive impact of videogame play on O&M skills by assessing performance on a series of behavioral tasks carried out in both indoor and outdoor virtual spaces. Our results demonstrate that the use of Audiopolis had a positive impact on the development and use of O&M skills in school-aged learners who are blind. The impact of audio and haptic information on learning is also discussed. PMID:25485312

  12. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  13. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  14. Performance Characterization of Loctite (Registered Trademark) 242 and 271 Liquid Locking Compounds (LLCs) as a Secondary Locking Feature for International Space Station (ISS) Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dube, Michael J.; Gamwell, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    Several International Space Station (ISS) hardware components use Loctite (and other polymer based liquid locking compounds (LLCs)) as a means of meeting the secondary (redundant) locking feature requirement for fasteners. The primary locking method is the fastener preload, with the application of the Loctite compound which when cured is intended to resist preload reduction. The reliability of these compounds has been questioned due to a number of failures during ground testing. The ISS Program Manager requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to characterize and quantify sensitivities of Loctite being used as a secondary locking feature. The findings and recommendations provided in this investigation apply to the anaerobic LLCs Loctite 242 and 271. No other anaerobic LLCs were evaluated for this investigation. This document contains the findings and recommendations of the NESC investigation

  15. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  16. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of CT histogram based feature space for predicting recurrence-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    Advantages of CT scanners with high resolution have allowed the improved detection of lung cancers. In the recent release of positive results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the US showing that CT screening does in fact have a positive impact on the reduction of lung cancer related mortality. While this study does show the efficacy of CT based screening, physicians often face the problems of deciding appropriate management strategies for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Several key manifold-learning approaches efficiently reveal intrinsic low-dimensional structures latent in high-dimensional data spaces. This study was performed to investigate whether the dimensionality reduction can identify embedded structures from the CT histogram feature of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) space to improve the performance in predicting the likelihood of RFS for patients with NSCLC.

  17. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  18. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  19. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  20. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  1. Robust audio-visual speech recognition under noisy audio-video conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise.

  2. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-03-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  3. Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    2015-04-01

    Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.

  4. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-01-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  5. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  6. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  7. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group.

  8. Definitions of state variables and state space for brain-computer interface : Part 2. Extraction and classification of feature vectors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2007-06-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the central dynamics of the action-perception cycle has five steps: emergence from an existing macroscopic brain state of a pattern that predicts a future goal state; selection of a mesoscopic frame for action control; execution of a limb trajectory by microscopic spike activity; modification of microscopic cortical spike activity by sensory inputs; construction of mesoscopic perceptual patterns; and integration of a new macroscopic brain state. The basis is the circular causality between microscopic entities (neurons) and the mesoscopic and macroscopic entities (populations) self-organized by axosynaptic interactions. Self-organization of neural activity is bidirectional in all cortices. Upwardly the organization of mesoscopic percepts from microscopic spike input predominates in primary sensory areas. Downwardly the organization of spike outputs that direct specific limb movements is by mesoscopic fields constituting plans to achieve predicted goals. The mesoscopic fields in sensory and motor cortices emerge as frames within macroscopic activity. Part 1 describes the action-perception cycle and its derivative reflex arc qualitatively. Part 2 describes the perceptual limb of the arc from microscopic MSA to mesoscopic wave packets, and from these to macroscopic EEG and global ECoG fields that express experience-dependent knowledge in successive states. These macroscopic states are conceived to embed and control mesoscopic frames in premotor and motor cortices that are observed in local ECoG and LFP of frontoparietal areas. The fields sampled by ECoG and LFP are conceived as local patterns of neural activity in which trajectories of multiple spike activities (MSA) emerge that control limb movements. Mesoscopic frames are located by use of the analytic signal from the Hilbert transform after band pass filtering. The state variables in frames are measured to construct feature vectors by which to describe and classify frame patterns

  9. Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Meinard; Kurth, Frank

    2006-12-01

    One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.

  10. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Par, Steven; Kohlrausch, Armin; Heusdens, Richard; Jensen, Jesper; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2005-12-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant) norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  11. Full-Featured Web Conferencing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Joel; Jenkins, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In order to match the customary strengths of the still dominant face-to-face instructional mode, a high-performance online learning system must employ synchronous as well as asynchronous communications; buttress graphics, animation, and text with live audio and video; and provide many of the features and processes associated with course management…

  12. An audio-magnetotelluric investigation in Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Trota, António; Soares, António; Luzio, Rafael; Lourenço, Nuno; Matos, Liliana; Almeida, Eugénio; Gaspar, João L.; Miranda, Jorge M.

    2006-08-01

    Ten audio-magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out along a profile crossing the Serra do Cume caldera in the eastern part of the Terceira Island (Azores). The main objectives of this investigation were to detect geoelectrical features related with tectonic structures and to characterize regional hydrological and hydrothermal aspects mainly those related to geothermal fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional numerical investigation showed that the data acquired at periods shorter than 1 s are not significantly affected by ocean effect. The data was analysed using the Smith's decomposition method in order to investigate possible distortions caused by superficial structures and to estimate a global regional strike. The results suggest that in general the soundings were not distorted. A regional N55°W strike was chosen for the two-dimensional data inversion. The low-resistivity zones (10-30 ohm-m) displayed in the central part of the 2-D geoelectrical model have been interpreted as caused by hydrothermal circulation. The low-resistivity anomalies at the ends of the profile might be attributed to alteration zones with interaction of seawater intrusion. High-resistivity (> 300 ohm-m) values have been related with less permeable zones in the SW of Cinco Picos and Guilherme Moniz caldera walls.

  13. Robust message authentication code algorithm for digital audio recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Current systems and protocols for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code (RMAC) to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting and robust perceptual hashing. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information.

  14. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  15. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Gianpaolo; Cavaliere, Sergio

    2001-12-01

    We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  16. The effect of reverberation on personal audio devices.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gálvez, Marcos F; Elliott, Stephen J; Cheer, Jordan

    2014-05-01

    Personal audio refers to the creation of a listening zone within which a person, or a group of people, hears a given sound program, without being annoyed by other sound programs being reproduced in the same space. Generally, these different sound zones are created by arrays of loudspeakers. Although these devices have the capacity to achieve different sound zones in an anechoic environment, they are ultimately used in normal rooms, which are reverberant environments. At high frequencies, reflections from the room surfaces create a diffuse pressure component which is uniform throughout the room volume and thus decreases the directional characteristics of the device. This paper shows how the reverberant performance of an array can be modeled, knowing the anechoic performance of the radiator and the acoustic characteristics of the room. A formulation is presented whose results are compared to practical measurements in reverberant environments. Due to reflections from the room surfaces, pressure variations are introduced in the transfer responses of the array. This aspect is assessed by means of simulations where random noise is added to create uncertainties, and by performing measurements in a real environment. These results show how the robustness of an array is increased when it is designed for use in a reverberant environment. PMID:24815249

  17. GK Per (Nova Persei 1901): HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGERY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EJECTA, AND FIRST SPECTRUM OF THE JET-LIKE FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Mizusawa, Trisha; De Marco, Orsola; Williams, Robert; Livio, Mario

    2012-06-15

    We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose 0.1 arcsec resolution reveals hundreds of cometary-like structures with long axes aligned toward GK Per. One or both ends of the structures often show a brightness enhancement relative to the structures' middle sections, but there is no simple regularity to their morphologies (in contrast with, for example, the Helix nebula). Some of structures' morphologies suggest the presence of slow-moving or stationary material with which the ejecta is colliding, while others suggest shaping from a wind emanating from GK Per itself. The most detailed expansion map of any classical nova's ejecta was created by comparing HST images taken in successive years. Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 narrowband images and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra demonstrate that the physical conditions in this nova's ejecta vary strongly on spatial scales much smaller than those of the ejecta. Directly measuring accurate densities and compositions, and hence masses of this and other nova shells, will demand data at least as resolved spatially as those presented here. The filling factor of the ejecta is 1% or less, and the nova ejecta mass must be less than 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }. A modest fraction of the emission nebulosities vary in brightness by up to a factor of two on timescales of one year. Finally, we present the deepest images yet obtained of a jet-like feature outside the main body of GK Per nebulosity, and the first spectrum of that feature. Dominated by strong, narrow emission lines of [N II], [O II], [O III], and [S II], this feature is probably a shock due to ejected material running into stationary interstellar matter, slowly moving ejecta from a previous nova episode, or circumbinary matter present before 1901. An upper limit to the mass of the jet is of order a few times 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }. If the jet mass is close to this limit then the jet might be an

  18. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  19. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  20. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... § 201.27 Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This... and distribute, any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the...

  1. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  2. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  3. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  4. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  5. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  6. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  7. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  8. Why 8-Year-Olds Cannot Tell the Difference between Steve Martin and Paul Newman: Factors Contributing to the Slow Development of Sensitivity to the Spacing of Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Dobson, Kate S.; Parsons, Julie; Maurer, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Children are nearly as sensitive as adults to some cues to facial identity (e.g., differences in the shape of internal features and the external contour), but children are much less sensitive to small differences in the spacing of facial features. To identify factors that contribute to this pattern, we compared 8-year-olds' sensitivity to spacing…

  9. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.; Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J.

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  10. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  11. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  12. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  13. Getting Started with CD Audio in HyperCard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the use of the Voyager Compact Disk (CD) AudioStack to provide HyperCard stacks designed to promote language learning with the ability to play on common precisely specified portions of off-the-shelf audio compact disks in a CD-ROM drive. Four German and Russian HyperCard stacks are described and their construction outlined.…

  14. The power of digital audio in interactive instruction: An unexploited medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.; Trainor, M.

    1989-01-01

    Widespread use of audio in computer-based training (CBT) occurred with the advent of the interactive videodisc technology. This paper discusses the alternative of digital audio, which, unlike videodisc audio, enables one to rapidly revise the audio used in the CBT and which may be used in nonvideo CBT applications as well. We also discuss techniques used in audio script writing, editing, and production. Results from evaluations indicate a high degree of user satisfaction. 4 refs.

  15. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions. PMID:25324075

  16. Video and audio data integration for conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Hinds, Raynard O.

    1995-04-01

    In videoconferencing applications the perceived quality of the video signal is affected by the presence of an audio signal (speech). To achieve high compression rates, video coders must compromise image quality in terms of spatial resolution, grayscale resolution, and frame rate, and may introduce various kinds of artifact.s We consider tradeoffs in grayscale resolution and frame rate, and use subjective evaluations to assess the perceived quality of the video signal in the presence of speech. In particular we explore the importance of lip synchronization. In our experiment we used an original grayscale sequence at QCIF resolution, 30 frames/second, and 256 gray levels. We compared the 256-level sequence at different frame rates with a two-level version of the sequence at 30 frames/sec. The viewing distance was 20 image heights, or roughly two feet from an SGI workstation. We used uncoded speech. To obtain the two-level sequence we used an adaptive clustering algorithm for segmentation of video sequences. The binary sketches it creates move smoothly and preserve the main characteristics of the face, so that it is easily recognizable. More importantly, the rendering of lip and eye movements is very accurate. The test results indicate that when the frame rate of the full grayscale sequence is low (less than 5 frames/sec), most observers prefer the two-level sequence.

  17. Quality Enhancement of Packet Audio with Time-Scale Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-12-01

    In traditional packet voice or the emerging 2.5G and 3G wireless data services, smooth and timely delivery of audio is an essential requirement in Quality of Service (QoS) provision. It has been shown in our previous work that, by adapting time-scale modification to audio signals, an adaptive play-out algorithm can be designed to minimize packet dropping at the receiver end. By stretching the audio frame duration up and down, the proposed algorithm could adapt quickly to accommodate fluctuating delays including delay spikes. In this paper, we will address the packet audio QoS with emphasis on end-to-end delay, packet loss, and delay jitter. The characteristics of delay and loss will be discussed. Adaptive playback will enhance the audio quality by adapting to the transmission delay jitter and delay spike. Coupled with Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes, the proposed delay and loss concealment algorithm achieves less overall application loss rate without sacrificing on the average end-to-end delay. The optimal solution of such algorithms will be discussed. We also investigate the stretching-ratio transition effect on perceived audio quality by measuring the objective Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) Mean Opinion Score (MOS).

  18. Audio-video synchronization management in embedded multimedia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hamood-Ur; Kim, Taehyun; Avadhanam, Niranjan; Subramanian, Sridharan

    2008-02-01

    Multimedia systems are required to provide proper synchronization of various components for intelligible presentation. However, it is challenging to accommodate the heterogeneity of different media characteristics. Audio-video synchronization is, for instance, required for presenting video chunks with audio frames where video chunk size is generally large and variable, but audio frame size is small and fixed. Such audio-video synchronization problem has been widely studied in the literature. The problem involves proper definition and preservation of temporal relationship between audio and video. Moreover, it is also important to take into account the processing complexity, since the computational resources and processing power on embedded platforms, such as cell phones and other handheld devices, are very limited. In this paper, we present the implementation of three audio-video synchronization methods on an embedded system. We discuss the performance as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques. Based on our evaluation, we reason why one of the presented techniques is superior to the other two.

  19. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  20. Retinotopic effects during spatial audio-visual integration.

    PubMed

    Meienbrock, A; Naumer, M J; Doehrmann, O; Singer, W; Muckli, L

    2007-02-01

    The successful integration of visual and auditory stimuli requires information about whether visual and auditory signals originate from corresponding places in the external world. Here we report crossmodal effects of spatially congruent and incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented from one of four horizontal locations in external space. Seven healthy human subjects had to assess the spatial fit of a visual stimulus (i.e. a gray-scaled picture of a cartoon dog) and a simultaneously presented auditory stimulus (i.e. a barking sound). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed two distinct networks of cortical regions that processed preferentially either spatially congruent or spatially incongruent AV stimuli. Whereas earlier visual areas responded preferentially to incongruent AV stimulation, higher visual areas of the temporal and parietal cortex (left inferior temporal gyrus [ITG], right posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus [pSTG/STS], left intra-parietal sulcus [IPS]) and frontal regions (left pre-central gyrus [PreCG], left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex [DLPFC]) responded preferentially to congruent AV stimulation. A position-resolved analysis revealed three robust cortical representations for each of the four visual stimulus locations in retinotopic visual regions corresponding to the representation of the horizontal meridian in area V1 and at the dorsal and ventral borders between areas V2 and V3. While these regions of interest (ROIs) did not show any significant effect of spatial congruency, we found subregions within ROIs in the right hemisphere that showed an incongruency effect (i.e. an increased fMRI signal during spatially incongruent compared to congruent AV stimulation). We interpret this finding as a correlate of spatially distributed recurrent feedback during mismatch processing: whenever a spatial mismatch is detected in multisensory regions (such as the IPS), processing resources are re

  1. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  2. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  3. Joint application of audio spectral envelope and tonality index in an e-asthma monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Zieliński, Tomasz P

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents in detail a recently introduced highly efficient method for automatic detection of asthmatic wheezing in breathing sounds. The fluctuation in the audio spectral envelope (ASE) from the MPEG-7 standard and the value of the tonality index (TI) from the MPEG-2 Audio specification are jointly used as discriminative features for wheezy sounds, while the support vector machine (SVM) with a polynomial kernel serves as a classifier. The advantages of the proposed approach are described in the paper (e.g., detecting weak wheezes, very good ROC characteristics, independence from noise color). Since the method is not computationally complex, it is suitable for remote asthma monitoring using mobile devices (personal medical assistants). The main contribution of this paper consists of presenting all the implementation details concerning the proposed approach for the first time, i.e., the pseudocode of the method and adjusting the values of the ASE and TI parameters after which only one (not two) FFT is required for analysis of a next overlapping signal fragment. The efficiency of the method has also been additionally confirmed by the AdaBoost classifier with a built-in mechanism to feature ranking, as well as a previously performed minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance test. PMID:25167561

  4. The Application of Acoustic Measurements and Audio Recordings for Diagnosis of In-Flight Hardware Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, David; Denham, Samuel; Allen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, an initial symptom of hardware malfunction is unusual or unexpected acoustic noise. Many industries such as automotive, heating and air conditioning, and petro-chemical processing use noise and vibration data along with rotating machinery analysis techniques to identify noise sources and correct hardware defects. The NASA/Johnson Space Center Acoustics Office monitors the acoustic environment of the International Space Station (ISS) through periodic sound level measurement surveys. Trending of the sound level measurement survey results can identify in-flight hardware anomalies. The crew of the ISS also serves as a "detection tool" in identifying unusual hardware noises; in these cases the spectral analysis of audio recordings made on orbit can be used to identify hardware defects that are related to rotating components such as fans, pumps, and compressors. In this paper, three examples of the use of sound level measurements and audio recordings for the diagnosis of in-flight hardware anomalies are discussed: identification of blocked inter-module ventilation (IMV) ducts, diagnosis of abnormal ISS Crew Quarters rack exhaust fan noise, and the identification and replacement of a defective flywheel assembly in the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation (TVIS) hardware. In each of these examples, crew time was saved by identifying the off nominal component or condition that existed and in directing in-flight maintenance activities to address and correct each of these problems.

  5. Choosing efficient feature sets for video classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of choosing appropriate features to describe the content of still pictures or video sequences, including audio. As the computational analysis of these features is often time- consuming, it is useful to identify a minimal set allowing for an automatic classification of some class or genre. Further, it can be shown that deleting the coherence of the features characterizing some class, is not suitable to guarantee an optimal classification result. The central question of the paper is thus, which features should be selected, and how they should be weighted to optimize a classification problem.

  6. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley Audio Slideshow

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  7. Music identification system using MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors.

    PubMed

    You, Shingchern D; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  8. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  9. Multi-channel spatialization systems for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogrammable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed, and fed to a pair of headphones.

  10. Multi-channel spatialization system for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogramable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed and fed to a pair of headphones.

  11. Objective quality measurement for audio time-scale modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    The recent ITU-T Recommendation P.862, known as the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) is an objective end-to-end speech quality assessment method for telephone networks and speech codecs through the measurement of received audio quality. To ensure that certain network distortions will not affect the estimated subjective measurement determined by PESQ, the algorithm takes into account packet loss, short-term and long-term time warping resulted from delay variation. However, PESQ does not work well for time-scale audio modification or temporal clipping. We investigated the factors that impact the perceived quality when time-scale modification is involved. An objective measurement of time-scale modification is proposed in this research, where the cross-correlation values obtained from time-scale modification synchronization are used to evaluate the quality of a time-scaled audio sequence. This proposed objective measure has been verified by a subjective test.

  12. Say What? The Role of Audio in Multimedia Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Audio, including interviews, ambient sounds, and music, is a critical-yet often overlooked-part of an effective multimedia video. In February 2010, Linder joined scientists working on the Global Rivers Observatory Project for two weeks of intensive fieldwork in the Congo River watershed. The team's goal was to learn more about how climate change and deforestation are impacting the river system and coastal ocean. Using stills and video shot with a lightweight digital SLR outfit and audio recorded with a pocket-sized sound recorder, Linder documented the trials and triumphs of working in the heart of Africa. Using excerpts from the six-minute Congo multimedia video, this presentation will illustrate how to record and edit an engaging audio track. Topics include interview technique, collecting ambient sounds, choosing and using music, and editing it all together to educate and entertain the viewer.

  13. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  14. Audio podcasting in a tablet PC-enhanced biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals of this approach are described, and data from student attitudinal and informational surveys are presented. The survey data suggest that the students have a positive attitude toward the combination of tablet-based instruction and audio podcasting. In addition, three students provide testimonials on how these technological tools allowed them to utilize their preferred learning styles to succeed in the course. Possible negative consequences of this approach, in terms of class attendance and note taking, are also analyzed and discussed.

  15. Cover signal specific steganalysis: the impact of training on the example of two selected audio steganalysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2008-02-01

    The main goals of this paper are to show the impact of the basic assumptions for the cover channel characteristics as well as the impact of different training/testing set generation strategies on the statistical detectability of exemplary chosen audio hiding approaches known from steganography and watermarking. Here we have selected exemplary five steganography algorithms and four watermarking algorithms. The channel characteristics for two different chosen audio cover channels (an application specific exemplary scenario of VoIP steganography and universal audio steganography) are formalised and their impact on decisions in the steganalysis process, especially on the strategies applied for training/ testing set generation, are shown. Following the assumptions on the cover channel characteristics either cover dependent or cover independent training and testing can be performed, using either correlated or non-correlated training and test sets. In comparison to previous work, additional frequency domain features are introduced for steganalysis and the performance (in terms of classification accuracy) of Bayesian classifiers and multinomial logistic regression models is compared with the results of SVM classification. We show that the newly implemented frequency domain features increase the classification accuracy achieved in SVM classification. Furthermore it is shown on the example of VoIP steganalysis that channel character specific evaluation performs better than tests without focus on a specific channel (i.e. universal steganalysis). A comparison of test results for cover dependent and independent training and testing shows that the latter performs better for all nine algorithms evaluated here and the used SVM based classifier.

  16. Three dimensional audio versus head down TCAS displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Pittman, Marc T.

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of a head up auditory display was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: Standard head down traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) display, and three-dimensional (3-D) audio TCAS presentation. Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft which activated a 3-D aural advisory or a TCAS advisory. Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio TCAS condition by 500 ms.

  17. Evaluation of robustness and transparency of multiple audio watermark embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha

    2008-02-01

    As digital watermarking becomes an accepted and widely applied technology, a number of concerns regarding its reliability in typical application scenarios come up. One important and often discussed question is the robustness of digital watermarks against multiple embedding. This means that one cover is marked several times by various users with by same watermarking algorithm but with different keys and different watermark messages. In our paper we discuss the behavior of our PCM audio watermarking algorithm when applying multiple watermark embedding. This includes evaluation of robustness and transparency. Test results for multiple hours of audio content ranging from spoken words to music are provided.

  18. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  19. Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  20. Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Micron: Infrared Space Observatory Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum, and Mid-Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao; Helou, George; Werner, Michael W.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Beichman, Charles A.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2003-05-01

    We present ISOPHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9 μm and 5.8-11.6 μm for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the US Infrared Space Observatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The galaxies were selected to span the range in global properties of normal, star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe. The spectra can be decomposed into three spectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres, which dominates the near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.9 μm) spectral region; (2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of ~103 K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the total far-infrared (FIR) dust luminosity LFIR and most likely arises from the interstellar medium (ISM); and (3) the well-known broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm, which are generally attributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features in emission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (MIR; 5.8-11.6 μm) part of the spectrum and resemble the so-called type A spectra observed in many nonstellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The few notable exceptions include NGC 4418, where a dust continuum replaces the AFEs in MIR, and NGC 1569, where the AFEs are weak and the strongest emission feature is [S IV] 10.51 μm. The relative strengths of the AFEs vary by 15%-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation is seen between these variations and either IRAS 60 μm/100 μm flux density ratio R(60/100) or the FIR/blue luminosity ratio LFIR/LB, two widely used indicators of the current star formation activity, suggesting that the observed variations are not a consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. We demonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission are correlated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms and similar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current star formation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and the NIR excess continuum drop

  1. The Use of Asynchronous Audio Feedback with Online RN-BSN Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of audio technology by online nursing educators is a recent phenomenon. Research has been conducted in the area of audio technology in different domains and populations, but very few researchers have focused on nursing. Preliminary results have indicated that using audio in place of text can increase student cognition and socialization.…

  2. Hearing You Loud and Clear: Student Perspectives of Audio Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jill; Day, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The use of audio feedback for students in a full-time community nursing degree course is appraised. The aim of this mixed methods study was to examine student views on audio feedback for written assignments. Questionnaires and a focus group were used to capture student opinion of this pilot project. The majority of students valued audio feedback…

  3. Audio Use in E-Learning: What, Why, When, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandra, Brendan; Barron, Ann E.; Thompson-Sellers, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Decisions related to the implementation of audio in e-learning are perplexing for many instructional designers, and deciphering theory and principles related to audio use can be difficult for practitioners. Yet, as bandwidth on the Internet increases, digital audio is becoming more common in online courses. This article provides a review of…

  4. Audio CBTs: An Initial Framework for the Use of Sound in Computerized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Cynthia G.; Balizet, Sha

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the potential benefits of using sound in computerized assessments. Describes some current computer uses of the audio channel of communication and outlines a proposed audio computer-based testing framework. Provides some examples of operational and experimental audio tests and reviews some research cautions and recommendations. (SLD)

  5. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  6. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  7. DAB: Multiplex and system support features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. L.

    This Report describes the multiplex and system support features of the Eureka 147/DAB digital audio system. It sets out the requirements of all users along the broadcast chain from service providers and broadcaster through to the listener. The contents of the transmission frame are examined drawing the distinction between the main service multiplex and the provision of control information in a separate fast data channel. The concept of the DAB service structure is introduced and the inherent system flexibility for altering the service arrangement is explained. A wide range of service information features builds on those provided in earlier systems, such as RDS (Radio Data System) and is intended to make it easier for a listener to find any required service and to add a further dimension to audio broadcasting. The choices available to users in all of these areas are examined.

  8. Integrated Spacesuit Audio System Enhances Speech Quality and Reduces Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yiteng Arden; Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Shaoyan Sharyl

    2009-01-01

    A new approach has been proposed for increasing astronaut comfort and speech capture. Currently, the special design of a spacesuit forms an extreme acoustic environment making it difficult to capture clear speech without compromising comfort. The proposed Integrated Spacesuit Audio (ISA) system is to incorporate the microphones into the helmet and use software to extract voice signals from background noise.

  9. Sounds in CD-ROM--Integrating Audio in Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebush, Judson

    1992-01-01

    Describes how audio technology is being integrated into CD-ROMs to create multimedia products. Computer hardware and software are discussed, including the use of HyperCard to combine still pictures, moving video pictures, and sound; and specific new multimedia products produced by the Voyager Company are described. (LRW)

  10. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals. PMID:22087919

  11. Multi-pose lipreading and audio-visual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we study the adaptation of visual and audio-visual speech recognition systems to non-ideal visual conditions. We focus on overcoming the effects of a changing pose of the speaker, a problem encountered in natural situations where the speaker moves freely and does not keep a frontal pose with relation to the camera. To handle these situations, we introduce a pose normalization block in a standard system and generate virtual frontal views from non-frontal images. The proposed method is inspired by pose-invariant face recognition and relies on linear regression to find an approximate mapping between images from different poses. We integrate the proposed pose normalization block at different stages of the speech recognition system and quantify the loss of performance related to pose changes and pose normalization techniques. In audio-visual experiments we also analyze the integration of the audio and visual streams. We show that an audio-visual system should account for non-frontal poses and normalization techniques in terms of the weight assigned to the visual stream in the classifier.

  12. Audio and Video Reflections to Promote Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how 15 graduate students enrolled in a US school leadership preparation program understand issues of social justice and equity through a reflective process utilizing audio and/or video software. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on the tradition of grounded theory. The researcher…

  13. Improved Techniques for Automatic Chord Recognition from Music Audio Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taemin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of techniques that facilitate the effective implementation of capable automatic chord transcription from music audio signals. Since chord transcriptions can capture many important aspects of music, they are useful for a wide variety of music applications and also useful for people who learn and perform…

  14. Geography Via the Audio-Visual-Tutorial Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.

    Geography teachers have available to them a wide variety of audiovisual aids. But the methods by which these materials should be used to produce the greatest impact upon learning deserve careful consideration. The Audio-Visual-Tutorial (ATV) laboratory at Carroll College purposes to improve the content of the freshman-sophomore course in physical…

  15. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  16. Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.

    PubMed

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  17. Sounds Good: Using Digital Audio for Evaluation Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Feedback on student work is problematic for faculty and students in British higher education. Evaluation feedback takes faculty much time to produce and students are often dissatisfied with its quantity, timing, and clarity. The Sounds Good project has been experimenting with the use of digital audio for feedback, aiming to save faculty time and…

  18. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  19. Ultrahigh and audio frequencies in a laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Casabella, P.A.; Gonsiorowski, T.; Leitner, A.

    1980-05-01

    The helium--neon lasers readily available in teaching laboratories usually operate in several photon modes simultaneously. The first-difference and second-difference beats lie in the uhf- and audio-frequency ranges, respectively, and can be detected as sinusoidal signals with photodiodes. These are instructive experiments which raise thought provoking questions about cavity resonance and negative dispersion.

  20. Audio Visual Technology and the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Michael C.

    Skills in comprehending the spoken language source are becoming increasingly important due to the audio-visual orientation of our culture. It would seem natural, therefore, to adjust the learning goals and environment accordingly. The video-cassette machine is an ideal means for creating this learning environment and developing the listening…

  1. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.

  2. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  3. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  4. Unsupervised Decoding of Long-Term, Naturalistic Human Neural Recordings with Automated Video and Audio Annotations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nancy X R; Olson, Jared D; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N; Brunton, Bingni W

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings. PMID:27148018

  5. Unsupervised Decoding of Long-Term, Naturalistic Human Neural Recordings with Automated Video and Audio Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nancy X. R.; Olson, Jared D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Brunton, Bingni W.

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings. PMID:27148018

  6. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  7. Transcript of Audio Narrative Portion of: Scandinavian Heritage. A Set of Five Audio-Visual Film Strip/Cassette Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gerald D.; Olson, David B.

    The document presents the transcript of the audio narrative portion of approximately 100 interviews with first and second generation Scandinavian immigrants to the United States. The document is intended for use by secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs related to the Scandinavian heritage in…

  8. Subjective audio quality evaluation of embedded-optimization-based distortion precompensation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Defraene, Bruno; van Waterschoot, Toon; Diehl, Moritz; Moonen, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Subjective audio quality evaluation experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithms for mitigating perceptible linear and nonlinear distortion in audio signals. It is concluded with statistical significance that the perceived audio quality is improved by applying an embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithm, both in case (i) nonlinear distortion and (ii) a combination of linear and nonlinear distortion is present. Moreover, a significant positive correlation is reported between the collected subjective and objective PEAQ audio quality scores, supporting the validity of using PEAQ to predict the impact of linear and nonlinear distortion on the perceived audio quality. PMID:27475197

  9. Subjective audio quality evaluation of embedded-optimization-based distortion precompensation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Defraene, Bruno; van Waterschoot, Toon; Diehl, Moritz; Moonen, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Subjective audio quality evaluation experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithms for mitigating perceptible linear and nonlinear distortion in audio signals. It is concluded with statistical significance that the perceived audio quality is improved by applying an embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithm, both in case (i) nonlinear distortion and (ii) a combination of linear and nonlinear distortion is present. Moreover, a significant positive correlation is reported between the collected subjective and objective PEAQ audio quality scores, supporting the validity of using PEAQ to predict the impact of linear and nonlinear distortion on the perceived audio quality.

  10. Maintaining high-quality IP audio services in lossy IP network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Chodura, Hartmut

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we present our research activities in the area of digital audio processing and transmission. Today's available teleconference audio solutions are lacking in flexibility, robustness and fidelity. There was a need for enhancing the quality of audio for IP-based applications to guarantee optimal services under varying conditions. Multiple tests and user evaluations have shown that a reliable audio communication toolkit is essential for any teleconference application. This paper summarizes our research activities and gives an overview of developed applications. In a first step the parameters, which influence the audio quality, were evaluated. All of these parameters have to be optimized in order to result into the best achievable quality. Therefore it was necessary to enhance existing schemes or develop new methods. Applications were developed for Internet-Telephony, broadcast of live music and spatial audio for Virtual Reality environments. This paper describes these applications and issues of delivering high quality digital audio services over lossy IP networks.

  11. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  12. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

    2010-02-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual character of a product. We argue that this can be accomplished successfully only on basis of a thorough understanding of the impact of audio-visual interactions on product sounds. Two experimental studies are reviewed to show audio-visual interactions on both perceptual and cognitive levels influencing the way people encode, recall, and attribute meaning to product sounds. Implications for sound design are discussed defying the natural tendency of product designers to analyze the "sound problem" in isolation from the other product properties.

  13. Dynamic range control of audio signals by digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    It is often necessary to reduce the dynamic range of musical programs, particularly those comprising orchestral and choral music, for them to be received satisfactorily by listeners to conventional FM and AM broadcasts. With the arrival of DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) a much wider dynamic range will become available for radio broadcasting, although some listeners may prefer to have a signal with a reduced dynamic range. This report describes a digital processor developed by the BBC to control the dynamic range of musical programs in a manner similar to that of a trained Studio Manager. It may be used prior to transmission in conventional broadcasting, replacing limiters or other compression equipment. In DAB, it offers the possibility of providing a dynamic range control signal to be sent to the receiver via an ancillary data channel, simultaneously with the uncompressed audio, giving the listener the option of the full dynamic range or a reduced dynamic range.

  14. Audio-visual communication and its use in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Nessa; Khojainova, Natalia; Francavilla, John M; Gonzales, Gilbert R

    2002-02-01

    The technology of telemedicine has been used for over 20 years, involving different areas of medicine, providing medical care for the geographically isolated patients, and uniting geographically isolated clinicians. Today audio-visual technology may be useful in palliative care for the patients lacking access to medical services due to the medical condition rather than geographic isolation. We report results of a three-month trial of using audio-visual communications as a complementary tool in care for a complex palliative care patient. Benefits of this system to the patient included 1) a daily limited physical examination, 2) screening for a need for a clinical visit or admission, 3) lip reading by the deaf patient, 4) satisfaction by the patient and the caregivers with this form of communication as a complement to telephone communication. A brief overview of the historical prospective on telemedicine and a listing of applied telemedicine programs are provided.

  15. Evaluation of embedded audio feedback on writing assignments.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janet K; Goodman, Joely T; Hercinger, Maribeth; Minnich, Margo; Murcek, Christina M; Parks, Jane M; Shirley, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare embedded audio feedback (EAF), which faculty provided using the iPad(®) application iAnnotate(®) PDF to insert audio comments and written feedback (WF), inserted electronically on student papers in a series of writing assignments. Goals included determining whether EAF provides more useful guidance to students than WF and whether EAF promotes connectedness among students and faculty. An additional goal was to ascertain the efficiency and acceptance of EAF as a grading tool by nursing faculty. The pilot study was a quasi-experimental, cross-over, posttest-only design. The project was completed in an Informatics in Health Care course. Faculty alternated the two feedback methods on four papers written by each student. Results of surveys and focus groups revealed that students and faculty had mixed feelings about this technology. Student preferences were equally divided between EAF and WF, with 35% for each, and 28% were undecided.

  16. Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

  17. A calculable, transportable audio-frequency AC reference standard

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, N.M.; Hetrick, P.S. ); Zeng, X. )

    1989-04-01

    A transportable ac voltage source is described, in which sinusoidal signals are synthesized digitally in the audio-frequency range. The rms value of the output waveform may be calculated by measuring the dc level of the individual steps used to generate the waveform. The uncertainty of this calculation at the 7-V level is typically less than +-5 ppm from 60 Hz to 2 kHz and less than +-10 ppm from 30 Hz to 15 kHz.

  18. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  19. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhaoxin; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  20. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability. PMID:25097883

  1. Efficient Query-by-Content Audio Retrieval by Locality Sensitive Hashing and Partial Sequence Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Joe, Kazuki; Downie, J. Stephen

    This paper investigates suitable indexing techniques to enable efficient content-based audio retrieval in large acoustic databases. To make an index-based retrieval mechanism applicable to audio content, we investigate the design of Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) and the partial sequence comparison. We propose a fast and efficient audio retrieval framework of query-by-content and develop an audio retrieval system. Based on this framework, four different audio retrieval schemes, LSH-Dynamic Programming (DP), LSH-Sparse DP (SDP), Exact Euclidian LSH (E2LSH)-DP, E2LSH-SDP, are introduced and evaluated in order to better understand the performance of audio retrieval algorithms. The experimental results indicate that compared with the traditional DP and the other three compititive schemes, E2LSH-SDP exhibits the best tradeoff in terms of the response time, retrieval accuracy and computation cost.

  2. Clinical and Audio Vestibular Profile of Meniere's Disease in a Tertiary Care Centre in India.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Paul; Balraj, Achamma; Kurien, Regi; Krishnan, Thenmozhi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of patients presenting with Meniere's Disease(MD) in an Indian setting, using the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO) diagnostic criteria, and to describe the clinical and audio vestibular profiles of these patients. The study was based on prospective case series design in the settings of a tertiary referral hospital. The study included all consecutive patients aged between 5 and 75 years presenting with the history of hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus and or aural fullness as participants, satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria for MD (AAO 1995) recruited over a 12 month period. Main outcome measures comprised the evaluation of epidemiological profile, clinical features, and results of audio vestibular investigations like Pure Tone Audiometry with and without glycerol, Impedance Audiometry, Electrocochleography (ECohG), Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission and Electronystagmography (ENG). The results of the study are as follows: The frequency of MD was 15.6%, being commoner in males than females (2.6:1) and occurring more in the age group 40-49  years among males and 30-39 years among females. High frequency tinnitus was commoner than low frequency tinnitus. Extra tympanic ECohG had a positive predictive value of 76% for endolymphatic hydrops. ENG was useful for demonstrating canal paresis pattern of nystagmus in 61%. Indian patients with MD commonly present to tertiary care at the functional level scale of 3. The results of this study revealed that the frequency of MD is not as low in the Indian ENT setting as earlier believed. There is a high chance of missing cases in the routine ENT outpatient clinic setting unless a structured proforma incorporating the AAO 1995 diagnostic criteria is used. PMID:24294577

  3. Paper-Based Textbooks with Audio Support for Print-Disabled Students.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akio; Ohsawa, Akiko; Takaira, Takuya; Tani, Yoshiaki; Fujiyoshi, Mamoru; Ota, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing invisible 2-dimensional codes and digital audio players with a 2-dimensional code scanner, we developed paper-based textbooks with audio support for students with print disabilities, called "multimodal textbooks." Multimodal textbooks can be read with the combination of the two modes: "reading printed text" and "listening to the speech of the text from a digital audio player with a 2-dimensional code scanner." Since multimodal textbooks look the same as regular textbooks and the price of a digital audio player is reasonable (about 30 euro), we think multimodal textbooks are suitable for students with print disabilities in ordinary classrooms. PMID:26294447

  4. A Virtual Audio Guidance and Alert System for Commercial Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Shrum, Richard; Miller, Joel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Our work in virtual reality systems at NASA Ames Research Center includes the area of aurally-guided visual search, using specially-designed audio cues and spatial audio processing (also known as virtual or "3-D audio") techniques (Begault, 1994). Previous studies at Ames had revealed that use of 3-D audio for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) advisories significantly reduced head-down time, compared to a head-down map display (0.5 sec advantage) or no display at all (2.2 sec advantage) (Begault, 1993, 1995; Begault & Pittman, 1994; see Wenzel, 1994, for an audio demo). Since the crew must keep their head up and looking out the window as much as possible when taxiing under low-visibility conditions, and the potential for "blunder" is increased under such conditions, it was sensible to evaluate the audio spatial cueing for a prototype audio ground collision avoidance warning (GCAW) system, and a 3-D audio guidance system. Results were favorable for GCAW, but not for the audio guidance system.

  5. ASTP video tape recorder ground support equipment (audio/CTE splitter/interleaver). Operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive handbook for the audio/CTE splitter/interleaver (RCA part No. 8673734-502) was presented. This unit is designed to perform two major functions: extract audio and time data from an interleaved video/audio signal (splitter section), and provide a test interleaved video/audio/CTE signal for the system (interleaver section). It is a rack mounting unit 7 inches high, 19 inches wide, 20 inches deep, mounted on slides for retracting from the rack, and weighs approximately 40 pounds. The following information is provided: installation, operation, principles of operation, maintenance, schematics and parts lists.

  6. Realization of guitar audio effects using methods of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buś, Szymon; Jedrzejewski, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    The paper is devoted to studies on possibilities of realization of guitar audio effects by means of methods of digital signal processing. As a result of research, some selected audio effects corresponding to the specifics of guitar sound were realized as the real-time system called Digital Guitar Multi-effect. Before implementation in the system, the selected effects were investigated using the dedicated application with a graphical user interface created in Matlab environment. In the second stage, the real-time system based on a microcontroller and an audio codec was designed and realized. The system is designed to perform audio effects on the output signal of an electric guitar.

  7. How To Divide and Conquer Auditorium Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Management, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Seven examples of school auditorium innovation are presented with accompanying floor plans. The concept of the divisible auditorium is illustrated through facilities combining auditorium, classroom, theater, and audio-visual center usages. Featured within the descriptions are--(1) a theater-in-the-round with individually controllable segments, (2)…

  8. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  9. Music and audio - oh how they can stress your network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, R.

    Nearly ten years ago a paper written by the Audio Engineering Society (AES)[1] made a number of interesting statements: 1. 2. The current Internet is inadequate for transmitting music and professional audio. Performance and collaboration across a distance stress beyond acceptable bounds the quality of service Audio and music provide test cases in which the bounds of the network are quickly reached and through which the defects in a network are readily perceived. Given these key points, where are we now? Have we started to solve any of the problems from the musician's point of view? What is it that musician would like to do that can cause the network so many problems? To understand this we need to appreciate that a trained musician's ears are extremely sensitive to very subtle shifts in temporal materials and localisation information. A shift of a few milliseconds can cause difficulties. So, can modern networks provide the temporal accuracy demanded at this level? The sample and bit rates needed to represent music in the digital domain is still contentious, but a general consensus in the professional world is for 96 KHz and IEEE 64-bit floating point. If this was to be run between two points on the network across 24 channels in near real time to allow for collaborative composition/production/performance, with QOS settings to allow as near to zero latency and jitter, it can be seen that the network indeed has to perform very well. Lighting the Blue Touchpaper for UK e-Science - Closing Conference of ESLEA Project The George Hotel, Edinburgh, UK 26-28 March, 200

  10. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  11. Adaptive filter for reconstruction of stereo audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisowski, Krzysztof

    2004-05-01

    The paper presents a new approach to reconstruction of impulsively disturbed stereo audio signals. The problems of restoration of large blocks of missing samples are outlined. Present methods of removing of covariance defect are discussed. Model of stereophonic signal is defined and Kalman filter appropriate for this model is introduced. Modifications of the filter directing to the new method of reconstruction of block of missing samples are discussed. Projection based algorithm allows to recover samples of left (or right) stereo channel using additional information included in undistorted samples from the other channel.

  12. Debate: a strategy for increasing interaction in audio teleconferencing.

    PubMed

    Wuest, J

    1989-10-01

    Increased demand for audio teleconferenced undergraduate nursing courses for registered nurses in New Brunswick, Canada, has resulted in nurse educators being challenged to meet the needs of adult learners within the constraints of this technology. In this paper the problem of limited interaction among adult nursing students in a teleconferenced course is examined in light of the theoretical frameworks of adult education and distance education. The effects of implementing debate as a learning strategy to increase participation are discussed. The debate process increased site to site interaction and encouraged nurses to consider pragmatic issues from new perspectives.

  13. TV audio and video on the same channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmitting technique adds audio to video signal during vertical blanking interval. SIVI (signal in the vertical interval) is used by TV networks and stations to transmit cuing and automatic-switching tone signals to augment automatic and manual operations. It can also be used to transmit one-way instructional information, such as bulletin alerts, program changes, and commercial-cutaway aural cues from the networks to affiliates. Additonally, it can be used as extra sound channel for second-language transmission to biligual stations.

  14. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  15. Incorporating Auditory Models in Speech/Audio Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthi, Harish

    2011-12-01

    Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to

  16. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue. PMID:26170050

  17. Incorporating Data Link Features into a Multi-Function Display to Support Self-Separation and Spacing Tasks for General Aviation Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Consiglio, Maria C.; WIlliams, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated Airport Management Module (AMM) and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. Implementation of this concept required the development of a research Multi-Function Display (MFD) to support the interactive communications between pilots and the AMM. The interface also had to accommodate traffic awareness, self-separation, and spacing tasks through dynamic messaging and symbology for flight path conformance and conflict detection and alerting (CDA). The display served as the mechanism to support the examination of the viability of executing instrument operations designed for SATS designated airports. Results of simulation and flight experiments conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center indicate that the concept, as facilitated by the research MFD, did not increase pilots subjective workload levels or reduce their situation awareness (SA). Post-test usability assessments revealed that pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved SA over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  18. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  19. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  20. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  1. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  2. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, M.

    2008-07-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  3. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  4. Characteristics of the audio sound generated by ultrasound imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners use high-energy pulses to probe the human body. The radiation force resulting from the impact of such pulses on an object can vibrate the object, producing a localized high-intensity sound in the audible range. Here, a theoretical model for the audio sound generated by ultrasound scanners is presented. This model describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound. It has been shown that the sound has rich frequency components at the pulse repetition frequency and its harmonics. Experiments have been conducted in a water tank to measure the sound generated by a clinical ultrasound scanner in various operational modes. Results are in general agreement with the theory. It is shown that a typical ultrasound scanner with a typical spatial-peak pulse-average intensity value at 2 MHz may generate a localized sound-pressure level close to 100 dB relative to 20 μPa in the audible (<20 kHz) range under laboratory conditions. These findings suggest that fetuses may become exposed to a high-intensity audio sound during maternal ultrasound examinations. Therefore, contrary to common beliefs, ultrasound may not be considered a passive tool in fetal imaging..

  5. A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Kurttio, Anttu A.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo E.

    2010-06-01

    A compact (96×128×32 mm3, 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 μVrms at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW® and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

  6. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training. PMID:24465675

  7. Using listener-based perceptual features as intermediate representations in music information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Anders; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Hedblad, Anton; Fabiani, Marco; Elowsson, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.

  8. Description of Audio-Visual Recording Equipment and Method of Installation for Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, James A.

    The Audio-Video Recorder System was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of in-flight audio/video recording as a pilot training technique for the U.S. Air Force Pilot Training Program. It will be used to gather background and performance data for an experimental program. A detailed description of the system is presented and construction and…

  9. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  10. 47 CFR 73.9005 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Audio. 73.9005 Section 73.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73... unscreened content or of marked content in digital form except in compressed audio format (such as AC3) or...

  11. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial filming, still photography, and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... schedule for still photography conducted under a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 applies to audio... of 43 CFR part 5, subpart A. Failure to comply with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of... photography, and audio recording. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  12. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of this section. (d) The location fee schedule for still photography conducted according to a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 will apply to audio... national wildlife refuges under the provisions of 43 CFR part 5. (b) Audio recording does not require...

  13. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of this section. (d) The location fee schedule for still photography conducted according to a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 will apply to audio... national wildlife refuges under the provisions of 43 CFR part 5. (b) Audio recording does not require...

  14. Attention to and Memory for Audio and Video Information in Television Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.

    A study investigated whether selective attention to a particular television modality resulted in different levels of attention to and memory for each modality. Two independent variables manipulated selective attention. These were the semantic channel (audio or video) and viewers' instructed focus (audio or video). These variables were fully…

  15. 78 FR 38093 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment ] DATES: The meeting will be held July 15-19, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  16. Rethinking the Red Ink: Audio-Feedback in the ESL Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes audio-feedback as a teaching method for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing classes. Using this method, writing instructors respond to students' compositions by recording their comments onto an audiocassette, then returning the paper and cassette to the students. The first section describes audio-feedback and explains…

  17. Students' Attitudes to and Usage of Academic Feedback Provided via Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Stephen; Orsmond, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study explores students' attitudes to the provision of formative feedback on academic work using audio files together with the ways in which students implement such feedback within their learning. Fifteen students received audio file feedback on written work and were subsequently interviewed regarding their utilisation of that feedback within…

  18. Active Learning in the Online Environment: The Integration of Student-Generated Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Armier, David Des, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators have integrated instructor-produced audio files in a variety of settings and environments for purposes such as content presentation, lecture reviews, student feedback, and so forth. Few instructors, however, require students to produce audio files and share them with peers. The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical data on…

  19. Immediate Audio and Visual Confirmation; "Breakthrough" for the Low-Aptitude Language Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Theodore H.

    Students with low language aptitude have been found to have poor powers of auditory discrimination. To date, programed language instruction has relied on audio confirmation of oral response. A study was conducted to determine the value of adding visual confirmation to the audio model. A total of 170 experimental and 140 control students in second…

  20. Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

  1. Report to the Legislature: Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. Line Item 7061-0012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Final Report on the Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. The Department and Recording For the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D) have collaborated to provide audio-digital read-aloud editions of the Grade 10 English Language Arts and Mathematics MCAS tests for a small number of students with disabilities such as dyslexia and/or vision…

  2. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  3. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  4. A Management Review and Analysis of Purdue University Libraries and Audio-Visual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaske, Jan; And Others

    A management review and analysis was conducted by the staff of the libraries and audio-visual center of Purdue University. Not only were the study team and the eight task forces drawn from all levels of the libraries and audio-visual center staff, but a systematic effort was sustained through inquiries, draft reports and open meetings to involve…

  5. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  6. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information, decreasing the…

  7. "Listen to This!" Utilizing Audio Recordings to Improve Instructor Feedback on Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Providing audio files in lieu of written remarks on graded assignments is arguably a more effective means of feedback, allowing students to better process and understand the critique and improve their future work. With emerging technologies and software, this audio feedback alternative to the traditional paradigm of providing written comments…

  8. Guidelines for the Production of Audio Materials for Print Handicapped Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    Procedural guidelines developed by the Audio Standards Committee of the National Library of Australia to help improve the overall quality of production of audio materials for visually handicapped readers are presented. This report covers the following areas: selection of narrators and the narration itself; copyright; recording of books, magazines,…

  9. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  10. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  11. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  12. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  13. Facilitating Discourse and Enhancing Teaching Presence: Using Mini Audio Presentations in Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.; Snyder, Martha M.; Terrell, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if instructors' use of mini audio presentations (MAPs) in online discussions serves as an effective facilitation method, particularly when the content contains specific facilitation markers including reinforcement, recognition, and reward (three Rs). Instructors posted MAPs as audio file attachments…

  14. Using TTS Voices to Develop Audio Materials for Listening Comprehension: A Digital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments with text-to-speech (TTS) voices. These experiments have been conducted to develop audio materials for listening comprehension as an alternative technology to traditionally used audio equipment like the compact cassette. The new generation of TTS voices based on unit selection synthesis provides…

  15. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  18. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  19. A Multi-Purpose Instructional Approach: An Audio-Tutorial Short Course in International Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duly, Leslie C.; Wadlow, Joan K.

    This paper describes the audio-tutorial short course as a method for introducing high quality instruction about new problems in international studies (IS) at the college level. The basic equipment to the audio-tutorial approach to learning is a booth with a tape recorder, a study guide, and a notebook with extra readings. Students listen to the…

  20. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  1. Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

  2. Broadcast News Story Segmentation Using Conditional Random Fields and Multimodal Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lei; Lu, Mimi; Ma, Bin; Chng, Eng Siong; Li, Haizhou

    In this paper, we propose integration of multimodal features using conditional random fields (CRFs) for the segmentation of broadcast news stories. We study story boundary cues from lexical, audio and video modalities, where lexical features consist of lexical similarity, chain strength and overall cohesiveness; acoustic features involve pause duration, pitch, speaker change and audio event type; and visual features contain shot boundaries, anchor faces and news title captions. These features are extracted in a sequence of boundary candidate positions in the broadcast news. A linear-chain CRF is used to detect each candidate as boundary/non-boundary tags based on the multimodal features. Important interlabel relations and contextual feature information are effectively captured by the sequential learning framework of CRFs. Story segmentation experiments show that the CRF approach outperforms other popular classifiers, including decision trees (DTs), Bayesian networks (BNs), naive Bayesian classifiers (NBs), multilayer perception (MLP), support vector machines (SVMs) and maximum entropy (ME) classifiers.

  3. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  4. Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

  5. Testing of a Methane Cryogenic Heat Pipe with a Liquid Trap Turn-Off Feature for use on Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Krylo, Robert; Fisher, Melanie; Bugby, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Camera cooling for SIM presents three thermal control challenges; stable operation at 163K (110 C), decontamination heating to +20 C, and a long span from the cameras to the radiator. A novel cryogenic cooling system based on a methane heat pipe meets these challenges. The SIM thermal team, with the help of heat pipe vendor ATK, designed and tested a complete, low temperature, cooling system. The system accommodates the two SIM cameras with a double-ended conduction bar, a single methane heat pipe, independent turn-off devices, and a flight-like radiator. The turn ]off devices consist of a liquid trap, for removing the methane from the pipe, and an electrical heater to raise the methane temperature above the critical point thus preventing two-phase operation. This is the first time a cryogenic heat pipe has been tested at JPL and is also the first heat pipe to incorporate the turn-off features. Operation at 163K with a methane heat pipe is an important new thermal control capability for the lab. In addition, the two turn-off technologies enhance the "bag of tricks" available to the JPL thermal community. The successful test program brings this heat pipe to a high level of technology readiness.

  6. Sounds of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  7. Computerized Audio-Visual Instructional Sequences (CAVIS): A Versatile System for Listening Comprehension in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman-Centeno, Josefina R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development and evaluation of CAVIS, which consists of an Apple microcomputer used with audiovisual dialogs. Includes research on the effects of three conditions: (1) computer with audio and visual, (2) computer with audio alone and (3) audio alone in short-term and long-term recall. (EKN)

  8. Comparing the Effects of Classroom Audio-Recording and Video-Recording on Preservice Teachers' Reflection of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of audio and video self-recording on preservice teachers' written reflections. Participants (n = 201) came from a secondary teaching methods course and its school-based (clinical) fieldwork. The audio group (n[subscript A] = 106) used audio recorders to monitor their teaching in fieldwork placements; the video group…

  9. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  10. Four-chamber heart modeling and automatic segmentation for 3-D cardiac CT volumes using marginal space learning and steerable features.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yefeng; Barbu, Adrian; Georgescu, Bogdan; Scheuering, Michael; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2008-11-01

    We propose an automatic four-chamber heart segmentation system for the quantitative functional analysis of the heart from cardiac computed tomography (CT) volumes. Two topics are discussed: heart modeling and automatic model fitting to an unseen volume. Heart modeling is a nontrivial task since the heart is a complex nonrigid organ. The model must be anatomically accurate, allow manual editing, and provide sufficient information to guide automatic detection and segmentation. Unlike previous work, we explicitly represent important landmarks (such as the valves and the ventricular septum cusps) among the control points of the model. The control points can be detected reliably to guide the automatic model fitting process. Using this model, we develop an efficient and robust approach for automatic heart chamber segmentation in 3-D CT volumes. We formulate the segmentation as a two-step learning problem: anatomical structure localization and boundary delineation. In both steps, we exploit the recent advances in learning discriminative models. A novel algorithm, marginal space learning (MSL), is introduced to solve the 9-D similarity transformation search problem for localizing the heart chambers. After determining the pose of the heart chambers, we estimate the 3-D shape through learning-based boundary delineation. The proposed method has been extensively tested on the largest dataset (with 323 volumes from 137 patients) ever reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, our system is the fastest with a speed of 4.0 s per volume (on a dual-core 3.2-GHz processor) for the automatic segmentation of all four chambers.

  11. Detection of vibrations in the audio range using photorefractive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansurova, S.; Espinosa, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Gather, M.; Meerholz, K.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the use of a photorefractive polymer composite as the active material for a planar photo- EMF detector suitable for the adaptive detection of optical phase modulated signals in the audio range (10Hz-10KHz). The composite is based on a conjugated triphenyldiamine- phenylenevinylene polymer (TPD-PPV) and is sensitized with a highly soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM). We demonstrate experimentally that the responsitivity of such polymer based detectors can be remarkably enhanced if the polymer sample is biased by an external dc field. This effect is theoretically explained by the strong dependence of the charge carrier generation rate on the external dc field, which is an inherent property of organic photoconductors.

  12. Audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis for multisource separation in a room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanfeng; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Chambers, Jonathon A.

    2012-12-01

    Fast fixed-point independent vector analysis (FastIVA) is an improved independent vector analysis (IVA) method, which can achieve faster and better separation performance than original IVA. As an example IVA method, it is designed to solve the permutation problem in frequency domain independent component analysis by retaining the higher order statistical dependency between frequencies during learning. However, the performance of all IVA methods is limited due to the dimensionality of the parameter space commonly encountered in practical frequency-domain source separation problems and the spherical symmetry assumed with the source model. In this article, a particular permutation problem encountered in using the FastIVA algorithm is highlighted, namely the block permutation problem. Therefore a new audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm is proposed, which uses video information to provide a smart initialization for the optimization problem. The method cannot only avoid the ill convergence resulting from the block permutation problem but also improve the separation performance even in noisy and high reverberant environments. Different multisource datasets including the real audio video corpus AV16.3 are used to verify the proposed method. For the evaluation of the separation performance on real room recordings, a new pitch based evaluation criterion is also proposed.

  13. Development of an audio-based virtual gaming environment to assist with navigation skills in the blind.

    PubMed

    Connors, Erin C; Yazzolino, Lindsay A; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-01-01

    Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind. Using only audio based cues and set within the context of a video game metaphor, users gather relevant spatial information regarding a building's layout. This allows the user to develop an accurate spatial cognitive map of a large-scale three-dimensional space that can be manipulated for the purposes of a real indoor navigation task. After game play, participants are then assessed on their ability to navigate within the target physical building represented in the game. Preliminary results suggest that early blind users were able to acquire relevant information regarding the spatial layout of a previously unfamiliar building as indexed by their performance on a series of navigation tasks. These tasks included path finding through the virtual and physical building, as well as a series of drop off tasks. We find that the immersive and highly interactive nature of the AbES software appears to greatly engage the blind user to actively explore the virtual environment. Applications of this approach may extend to larger populations of visually impaired individuals. PMID:23568182

  14. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Knowland, Victoria C P; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael S C

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  15. The audio-visual revolution: do we really need it?

    PubMed

    Townsend, I

    1979-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, The audio-visual revolution has steadily gained converts in the nursing profession. Nurse tutor courses now contain information on the techniques of educational technology and schools of nursing increasingly own (or wish to own) many of the sophisticated electronic aids to teaching that abound. This is taking place at a time of hitherto inexperienced crisis and change. Funds have been or are being made available to buy audio-visual equipment. But its purchase and use relies on satisfying personal whim, prejudice or educational fashion, not on considerations of educational efficiency. In the rush of enthusiasm, the overwhelmed teacher (everywhere; the phenomenon is not confined to nursing) forgets to ask the searching, critical questions: 'Why should we use this aid?','How effective is it?','And, at what?'. Influential writers in this profession have repeatedly called for a more responsible attitude towards published research work of other fields. In an attempt to discover what is known about the answers to this group of questions, an eclectic look at media research is taken and the widespread dissatisfaction existing amongst international educational technologists is noted. The paper isolates out of the literature several causative factors responsible for the present state of affairs. Findings from the field of educational television are cited as representative of an aid which has had a considerable amount of time and research directed at it. The concluding part of the paper shows the decisions to be taken in using or not using educational media as being more complicated than might at first appear.

  16. Comparative study of audio spatializers for dual-loudspeaker mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Shih, Geng-Yu; Lee, Chih-Chung

    2007-01-01

    MPEG-1, layer 3 handsets equipped with dual loudspeakers and three-dimensional audio modules have received much attention in the market of consumer electronics. To create spatial impression during audio reproduction, the head-related transfer function (HRTF) and the crosstalk cancellation system (CCS) are key elements in many audio spatializers. However, there are many factors that one should take into account during the design and implementation stages of an audio spatializer in the handset application. In the paper, a comprehensive study was undertaken to compare various audio spatializers for use with dual-loudspeaker handsets, in the context of inverse filtering strategies. Two deconvolution approaches, the frequency-domain method and the time-domain method, are employed to design the required inverse filters. Different approaches to design audio spatializers with the HRTF, CCS, and their combination are compared. In particular, two modified CCS approaches are suggested. Issues in the implementation phase such as regularization, complex smoothing, and structures of inverse filters are also addressed in the paper. Comprehensive objective and subjective tests were conducted to investigate the aforementioned aspects of audio spatializers. The data obtained from the subjective tests are processed by using the multianalysis of variance to justify statistical significance of the results.

  17. TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1-50 mM), flow rate (2-120 µL min-1) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ~10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems.

  18. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  19. Audio representations of multi-channel EEG: a new tool for diagnosis of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, François B; Dauwels, Justin; Musha, Toshimitsu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to develop audio representations of electroencephalographic (EEG) multichannel signals, useful for medical practitioners and neuroscientists. The fundamental question explored in this paper is whether clinically valuable information contained in the EEG, not available from the conventional graphical EEG representation, might become apparent through audio representations. Methods and Materials: Music scores are generated from sparse time-frequency maps of EEG signals. Specifically, EEG signals of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (healthy) control subjects are considered. Statistical differences in the audio representations of MCI patients and control subjects are assessed through mathematical complexity indexes as well as a perception test; in the latter, participants try to distinguish between audio sequences from MCI patients and control subjects. Results: Several characteristics of the audio sequences, including sample entropy, number of notes, and synchrony, are significantly different in MCI patients and control subjects (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Moreover, the participants of the perception test were able to accurately classify the audio sequences (89% correctly classified). Conclusions: The proposed audio representation of multi-channel EEG signals helps to understand the complex structure of EEG. Promising results were obtained on a clinical EEG data set. PMID:23383399

  20. Lassen Known Geothermal Resource Area, California: audio-magnetotelluric, telluric profiling, and self-potential studies

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, K.R.; Hoover, D.B.; Lewis, V.; Radtke, B.; Senterfit, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    During the summer of 1979, geophysical work was done in the Lassen KGRA in northeastern California to assess the geothermal potential of the area. As part of the study, 68 audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) soundings were made and 2 telluric and self-potential (SP) profiles were done. The AMT station locations are shown. The scalar resistivities were contoured for 7.5 and 27 hertz data at north-south and east-west E-line orientations. The contour maps are complex, reflecting both lateral changes in geology and geothermal activity. The locations of the telluric and self-potential traverses are given. The profiles for traverse 1 show varied SP and telluric responses. The variations are probably geologically related with the drop in SP voltage and telluric resistivity on the east end of the traverse caused by a lateral lithology change. The profiles for traverse 2 show a sharp drop in SP voltage combined with a sharp increase in telluric resistivity near station 6. This could be associated with large-scale intrusive features (a ring dike) which trend to the northwest.

  1. Chaos based authentication watermarking scheme for combined video and audio data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yueyun

    2007-11-01

    Multimedia authentication techniques are used to prove the originality of received multimedia content and to detect malicious tampering. In this paper, we extend the Lin's theorem and utilize Fridrich's Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps to propose a new video/audio verify scheme. Different from most previous works, the single watermarking is used for authenticating two kinds combined multimedia in the new scheme. This method accepts appropriate MPEG compression while detecting malicious content tampering. Because the watermark has just only been added into video or audio signal, there is no distortion in audio block or video frame. So this method can be also used for some special purpose, such as military or medical.

  2. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  3. Method for reading sensors and controlling actuators using audio interfaces of mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Rafael V; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F; Gonçalves, Luiz M G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks.

  4. Do audio-visual motion cues promote segregation of auditory streams?

    PubMed Central

    Shestopalova, Lidia; Bőhm, Tamás M.; Bendixen, Alexandra; Andreou, Andreas G.; Georgiou, Julius; Garreau, Guillaume; Hajdu, Botond; Denham, Susan L.; Winkler, István

    2014-01-01

    An audio-visual experiment using moving sound sources was designed to investigate whether the analysis of auditory scenes is modulated by synchronous presentation of visual information. Listeners were presented with an alternating sequence of two pure tones delivered by two separate sound sources. In different conditions, the two sound sources were either stationary or moving on random trajectories around the listener. Both the sounds and the movement trajectories were derived from recordings in which two humans were moving with loudspeakers attached to their heads. Visualized movement trajectories modeled by a computer animation were presented together with the sounds. In the main experiment, behavioral reports on sound organization were collected from young healthy volunteers. The proportion and stability of the different sound organizations were compared between the conditions in which the visualized trajectories matched the movement of the sound sources and when the two were independent of each other. The results corroborate earlier findings that separation of sound sources in space promotes segregation. However, no additional effect of auditory movement per se on the perceptual organization of sounds was obtained. Surprisingly, the presentation of movement-congruent visual cues did not strengthen the effects of spatial separation on segregating auditory streams. Our findings are consistent with the view that bistability in the auditory modality can occur independently from other modalities. PMID:24778604

  5. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  6. Space astronomy update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    A discussion of the images obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is featured on this video. The discussion panel consists of Dr. Jeff Hester (Arizona State Univ.), Dr. Jon Morse (Space Telescope Science Inst.), Dr. Chris Burrows (European Space Agency), Dr. Bruce Margon (Univ. of Washington), and host Don Savage (Goddard Space Flight Center). A variety of graphics and explanations are provided for the images of star formations and other astronomical features that were viewed by the HST.

  7. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  8. Dialect Features in the Language of Black Characters on American Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marlene G.; Anderson, Carolyn

    This study describes the syntactic features of Black English Vernacular (BEV) spoken by black characters in three black situation comedies on American television: "The Jeffersons,""Good Times," and "What's Happening." Using scripts and audio tapes of three episodes from each series during the 1977-78 television season, transcripts were made of…

  9. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Dion D.

    1993-01-01

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  10. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Dion D.

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  11. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  12. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group

  13. Energy balance in advanced audio coding encoder bit-distortion loop algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz; Pastuszak, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents two techniques of balancing energy in ScaleFactor bands for Advanced Audio Coding. The techniques allows the AAC encoder to get a better audio quality. The first one modifies Scale Factors assigned to each band after the quantization whereas the second finds and changes offsets in the quantization - just before rounding down. The implementations of the algorithms have been tested and results discussed. Results show that these techniques significantly improve the quality. At last hardware implementation possibilities are discussed.

  14. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  15. Audio watermarking forensics: detecting malicious re-embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Rührmair, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Digital watermarking has become a widely used security technology in the domain of digital rights management and copyright protection as well as in other applications. In this work, we show recent results regarding a particular security attack: Embedding a new message in a previously watermarked cover using the same key as the original message. This re-embedding can be the consequence of the absence of truly asymmetric watermarking solutions, especially if the watermark is to be detected in public. In public detection scenarios, every detector needs the same key the embedder used to watermark the cover. With knowledge of the embedding algorithm, everybody who is able to detect the message can also maliciously embed a new message with the same key over the old one. This scenario is relevant in the case that an attacker intends to counterfeit a copyright notice, transaction ID or to change an embedded authentication code. This work presents experimental results on mechanisms for identifying such multiple embeddings in a spreadspectrum patchwork audio watermarking approach. We demonstrate that under certain circumstances such multiple embedding can be detected by watermarking-forensics.

  16. Human performance measures for interactive haptic-audio-visual interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dawei; Bhatti, Asim; Nahavandi, Saeid; Horan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems. PMID:24808267

  17. Differentiated audio-tactile correspondences in sighted and blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Fasiello, Irène; Hayward, Vincent; Auvray, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the crossmodal correspondence robustly documented between auditory pitch and visual elevation has analogues in the audio-tactile domain. Across 4 experiments, the compatibility effects between intuitively congruent pairs of stimuli (i.e., outward tactile movement, going from the inside of the finger toward the fingertip and increasing pitch, or inward tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent pairs stimuli (i.e., the reverse associations) were measured. Two methods were compared to assess the behavioral effects of such a correspondence: One where participants have to respond to either the auditory or tactile stimulus presented simultaneously, while ignoring the other (speeded classification task), and the other where the auditory and tactile stimuli are presented sequentially and associated to different response buttons (implicit association test). No significant compatibility effect was observed under the speeded classification task. The implicit association test revealed a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the finger was placed vertically and horizontally. However, this implicit association between pitch and tactile movements was not observed in blind participants. These results have methodological implications for the explanation and testing of crossmodal correspondences, and the origin of the widely discussed association between pitch and vertical elevation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  19. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  20. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  1. Differentiated audio-tactile correspondences in sighted and blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Fasiello, Irène; Hayward, Vincent; Auvray, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the crossmodal correspondence robustly documented between auditory pitch and visual elevation has analogues in the audio-tactile domain. Across 4 experiments, the compatibility effects between intuitively congruent pairs of stimuli (i.e., outward tactile movement, going from the inside of the finger toward the fingertip and increasing pitch, or inward tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent pairs stimuli (i.e., the reverse associations) were measured. Two methods were compared to assess the behavioral effects of such a correspondence: One where participants have to respond to either the auditory or tactile stimulus presented simultaneously, while ignoring the other (speeded classification task), and the other where the auditory and tactile stimuli are presented sequentially and associated to different response buttons (implicit association test). No significant compatibility effect was observed under the speeded classification task. The implicit association test revealed a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the finger was placed vertically and horizontally. However, this implicit association between pitch and tactile movements was not observed in blind participants. These results have methodological implications for the explanation and testing of crossmodal correspondences, and the origin of the widely discussed association between pitch and vertical elevation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950385

  2. Lexicality drives audio-motor transformations in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Kotz, S A; D'Ausilio, A; Raettig, T; Begliomini, C; Craighero, L; Fabbri-Destro, M; Zingales, C; Haggard, P; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    Broca's area is classically associated with speech production. Recently, Broca's area has also been implicated in speech perception and non-linguistic information processing. With respect to the latter function, Broca's area is considered to be a central area in a network constituting the human mirror system, which maps observed or heard actions onto motor programs to execute analogous actions. These mechanisms share some similarities with Liberman's motor theory, where objects of speech perception correspond to listener's intended articulatory gestures. The aim of the current series of behavioral, TMS and fMRI studies was to test if Broca's area is indeed implicated in such audio-motor transformations. More specifically, using a classical phonological rhyme priming paradigm, we investigated whether the role of Broca's area could be purely phonological or rather, is lexical in nature. In the behavioral baseline study, we found a large priming effect in word prime/target pairs (W-W) and no effect for pseudo-words (PW-PW). Online TMS interference of Broca's area canceled the priming difference between W-W and PW-PW by enhancing the effects for PW-PW. Finally, the fMRI study showed activation of Broca's area for W-W pairs, but not for PW-PW pairs. Our data show that Broca's area plays a significant role in speech perception strongly linked to the lexicality of a stimulus. PMID:19698980

  3. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  4. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016. PMID:26625860

  5. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016.

  6. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. PMID:25948255

  7. An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Eric M.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

  8. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  9. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  10. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  11. The Black Record: A Selective Discography of Afro-Americana on Audio Discs Held by the Audio/Visual Department, John M. Olin Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dain, Bernice, Comp.; Nevin, David, Comp.

    The present revised and expanded edition of this document is an inclusive cumulation. A few items have been included which are on order as new to the collection or as replacements. This discography is intended to serve primarily as a local user's guide. The call number preceding each entry is based on the Audio-Visual Department's own, unique…

  12. No, there is no 150 ms lead of visual speech on auditory speech, but a range of audiovisual asynchronies varying from small audio lead to large audio lag.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Savariaux, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of neuroscience papers capitalize on the assumption published in this journal that visual speech would be typically 150 ms ahead of auditory speech. It happens that the estimation of audiovisual asynchrony in the reference paper is valid only in very specific cases, for isolated consonant-vowel syllables or at the beginning of a speech utterance, in what we call "preparatory gestures". However, when syllables are chained in sequences, as they are typically in most parts of a natural speech utterance, asynchrony should be defined in a different way. This is what we call "comodulatory gestures" providing auditory and visual events more or less in synchrony. We provide audiovisual data on sequences of plosive-vowel syllables (pa, ta, ka, ba, da, ga, ma, na) showing that audiovisual synchrony is actually rather precise, varying between 20 ms audio lead and 70 ms audio lag. We show how more complex speech material should result in a range typically varying between 40 ms audio lead and 200 ms audio lag, and we discuss how this natural coordination is reflected in the so-called temporal integration window for audiovisual speech perception. Finally we present a toy model of auditory and audiovisual predictive coding, showing that visual lead is actually not necessary for visual prediction.

  13. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory

  14. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory

  15. Audio-Visual Detection Benefits in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Human psychophysical studies have described multisensory perceptual benefits such as enhanced detection rates and faster reaction times in great detail. However, the neural circuits and mechanism underlying multisensory integration remain difficult to study in the primate brain. While rodents offer the advantage of a range of experimental methodologies to study the neural basis of multisensory processing, rodent studies are still limited due to the small number of available multisensory protocols. We here demonstrate the feasibility of an audio-visual stimulus detection task for rats, in which the animals detect lateralized uni- and multi-sensory stimuli in a two-response forced choice paradigm. We show that animals reliably learn and perform this task. Reaction times were significantly faster and behavioral performance levels higher in multisensory compared to unisensory conditions. This benefit was strongest for dim visual targets, in agreement with classical patterns of multisensory integration, and was specific to task-informative sounds, while uninformative sounds speeded reaction times with little costs for detection performance. Importantly, multisensory benefits for stimulus detection and reaction times appeared at different levels of task proficiency and training experience, suggesting distinct mechanisms inducing these two multisensory benefits. Our results demonstrate behavioral multisensory enhancement in rats in analogy to behavioral patterns known from other species, such as humans. In addition, our paradigm enriches the set of behavioral tasks on which future studies can rely, for example to combine behavioral measurements with imaging or pharmacological studies in the behaving animal or to study changes of integration properties in disease models. PMID:23029179

  16. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.

    2016-01-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4–11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality—they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or

  17. Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

  18. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the ... in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) ...

  19. An Audio/Video Reporting Workflow to Supplement Standardized Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Balkman, Jason D; Siegel, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    Radiology studies are inherently visual and the information contained within is best conveyed by visual methodology. Advanced reporting software allows the incorporation of annotated key images into text reports, but such features may be less effective compared with in-person consultations. The use of web technology and screen capture software to create retrievable on-demand audio/visual reports has not yet been investigated. This approach may preempt potential curbside consultations while providing referring clinicians with a more engaged imaging service. In this work, we develop and evaluate a video reporting tool that utilizes modern screen capture software and web technology. We hypothesize that referring clinicians would find that recorded on-demand video reports add value to clinical practice, education, and that such technology would be welcome in future practice. A total of 45 case videos were prepared by radiologists for 14 attending and 15 trainee physicians from emergency and internal medicine specialties. Positive survey feedback from referring clinicians about the video reporting system was statistically significant in all areas measured, including video quality, clinical helpfulness, and willingness to use such technology in the future. Trainees unanimously found educational value in video reporting. These results suggest the potential for video technology to re-establish the radiologist's role as a pivotal member of patient care and integral clinical educator. Future work is needed to streamline these methods in order to minimize work redundancy with traditional text reporting. Additionally, integration with an existing PACS and dictation system will be essential to ensuring ease of use and widespread adoption. PMID:26370670

  20. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R.; Fazenda, Bruno M.; Cox, Trevor J.; Li, Francis F.

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise. PMID:26473498

  1. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R; Fazenda, Bruno M; Cox, Trevor J; Li, Francis F

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise. PMID:26473498

  2. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  3. Cross-modal matching of audio-visual German and French fluent speech in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants' audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life.

  4. Audio networking at the Center for Art and Media Technology Karlsruhe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutilleux, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Art and Media Technology is dedicated to art and its relationship to new media. The Center supports music as well as graphic art. It also will house museums. The Center will be fully operational by the middle of 1996. The audio network will interconnect five recording studios and a large theater with three control rooms. With the additional facilities, the number of 40 interconnected rooms is reached. As to the quality and the versatility, the network can be compared, to some extent, to that of a broadcast-building. Traditional networking techniques involve many kilometers of high quality audio-cables and bulky automated patch-bays. Still, we wish even more freedom in the way the rooms are interconnected. Digital audio and computer network technology are promising. Although digital audio technology is spreading, the size of the totally digital systems is still limited. Fiber optic and large capacity optical disks offer attractive alternatives to traditional techniques (cabling, multitrack recorders, sound archives, routing). The digital audio standards are evolving from point to point communication to network communication. A 1 Gbit/s network could be the backbone of a solution.

  5. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Nishida, Shin'ya; Fujisaki, Waka; Arnold, Derek H

    2011-04-06

    Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  6. Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

    2002-03-01

    Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

  7. Space Operations Learning Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) is a tool that provides an online learning environment where students can learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through a series of training modules. SOLC is also an effective media for NASA to showcase its contributions to the general public. SOLC is a Web-based environment with a learning platform for students to understand STEM through interactive modules in various engineering topics. SOLC is unique in its approach to develop learning materials to teach schoolaged students the basic concepts of space operations. SOLC utilizes the latest Web and software technologies to present this educational content in a fun and engaging way for all grade levels. SOLC uses animations, streaming video, cartoon characters, audio narration, interactive games and more to deliver educational concepts. The Web portal organizes all of these training modules in an easily accessible way for visitors worldwide. SOLC provides multiple training modules on various topics. At the time of this reporting, seven modules have been developed: Space Communication, Flight Dynamics, Information Processing, Mission Operations, Kids Zone 1, Kids Zone 2, and Save The Forest. For the first four modules, each contains three components: Flight Training, Flight License, and Fly It! Kids Zone 1 and 2 include a number of educational videos and games designed specifically for grades K-6. Save The Forest is a space operations mission with four simulations and activities to complete, optimized for new touch screen technology. The Kids Zone 1 module has recently been ported to Facebook to attract wider audience.

  8. Audio analysis of statistically instantaneous signals with mixed Gaussian probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ganesh R.; Wang, Wenwu

    2012-10-01

    In this article, a novel method is proposed to measure the separation qualities of statistically instantaneous audio signals with mixed Gaussian probability distributions. This study evaluates the impact of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of the mixed signals on the outcomes of both sub- and super-Gaussian distributions. Different Gaussian measures are evaluated by using various spectral-distortion measures. It aims to compare the different audio mixtures from both super-Gaussian and sub-Gaussian perspectives. Extensive computer simulation confirms that the separated sources always have super-Gaussian characteristics irrespective of the PDF of the signals or mixtures. The result based on the objective measures demonstrates the effectiveness of source separation in improving the quality of the separated audio sources.

  9. Audio watermarking robust to geometrical distortions based on dyadic wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Shaoquan; Huang, Jiwu

    2007-02-01

    Geometrical transforms such as time-scale modification (TSM), random removal(RR), random duplication(RD), and cropping, are of common operations on audio signals while presents many challenges to robust audio watermarking. The existing algorithms aiming at solving the geometrical distortions have various drawbacks e.g. high false alarm probability, heavy computation load, small data hiding capacity, and low robustness performance. In this paper an audio watermarking algorithm based on dyadic wavelet transform robust to geometrical distortions is proposed. Watermark synchronization is achieved using the geometrical invariant properties of dyadic wavelet transform. A well-designed coding scheme is proposed for lowering the bit error rate of the watermark. The experimental results show that the watermark is robust to geometrical transforms and other common operations. Compared with other existing algorithms the proposed algorithm has several advantages of high robustness, large data hiding capacity and low computation load.

  10. A 65-nm low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for audio applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Lu, Liao; Hao, Luo; Xiaopeng, Liu; Xiaoxia, Han; Yan, Han

    2012-02-01

    This paper introduces a low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for digital audio analog-to-digital conversion. By adopting a low-noise large-output swing operation amplifier, not only is the flicker noise greatly inhibited, but also the power consumption is reduced. Also the area cost is relatively small. The modulator was implemented in a SMIC standard 65-nm CMOS process. Measurement results show it can achieve 96 dB peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) and 105 dB dynamic range (DR) over the 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 0.16 mm2. The power consumption of the proposed modulator is 4.9 mW from a 2.5 V power supply, which is suitable for high-performance, low-cost audio codec applications.

  11. Digital Audio Recording of Initial Patient Visits to an Ocular Oncology Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Seider, Michael I; Damato, Bertil E

    2015-05-01

    It is challenging for patients to receive a new diagnosis of a life-threatening ocular tumor when visiting an ocular oncology clinic for the first time. Audio recording of patient-physician interactions has been shown to be an effective memory aid and stress-reducing technique for patients with various types of nonophthalmic cancer. This study evaluated a protocol for digitally recording the initial conversation between the ocular oncologist and the patient. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study, and 13 patients (65%) returned the survey. All of the patients who returned the survey reported being "very satisfied" with the audio recording, indicating that patients with a newly diagnosed ocular tumor were highly satisfied with the audio recording of their conversations with the ocular oncologist. Although larger studies are needed to confirm this conclusion, the initial results are encouraging. PMID:26057768

  12. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations. PMID:24502252

  13. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  14. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  15. The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application.

    PubMed

    Carey, M; Schofield, P; Jefford, M; Krishnasamy, M; Aranda, S

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

  16. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  17. Multidimensional QoE of Multiview Video and Selectable Audio IP Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Nunome, Toshiro; Ishida, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate QoE of multiview video and selectable audio (MVV-SA), in which users can switch not only video but also audio according to a viewpoint change request, transmitted over IP networks by a subjective experiment. The evaluation is performed by the semantic differential (SD) method with 13 adjective pairs. In the subjective experiment, we ask assessors to evaluate 40 stimuli which consist of two kinds of UDP load traffic, two kinds of fixed additional delay, five kinds of playout buffering time, and selectable or unselectable audio (i.e., MVV-SA or the previous MVV-A). As a result, MVV-SA gives higher presence to the user than MVV-A and then enhances QoE. In addition, we employ factor analysis for subjective assessment results to clarify the component factors of QoE. We then find that three major factors affect QoE in MVV-SA. PMID:26106640

  18. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  19. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Van Engen, Kristin J; Maddox, W Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when both

  20. Managing exam stress using UMTS phones: the advantage of portable audio/video support.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela; Gaggioli, Andrea; Preziosa, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Test-taking anxiety or stress is very common among university students. It can be very distressing and sometimes debilitating. Exam anxiety involves physical components and emotional components that may be taken into account for managing and reducing anxiety. An approach to control exam anxiety is to learn how to regulate emotions. To help students in managing exam stress we developed a specific protocol based on mobile narratives--multimedia narratives experienced on UMTS/3G phones. 30 female university students (M=23.48; sd=1.24) who were going to perform an exam within a week were included in the trial. They were randomly divided in five groups according to the type and mobility of the medium used: (1) audio only narrative (CD at home); (2) audio only narrative (portable MP3); (3) audio and video narrative (DVD at home); (4) audio and video narrative (UMTS based); (5) control group. Audio/video narratives induced a reduction in exam anxiety in more than 80% of the sample vs 50% of the MP3 sample and 0% of the CD sample. Further, all the users who experienced mobile narratives on UMTS phones were able to relax before the exam, against 50% of DVD users and 33% of audio-only users. The trial showed a better efficacy of mobile narratives experienced on UMTS phones in reducing the level of exam stress and in helping the student to relax. These results suggest that for the specific sample considered--Italian university students--the media used for providing an anti-stress protocol has a clear impact on its efficacy. PMID:17377312