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Sample records for audio feature space

  1. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  2. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbiter audio subsystem. [to communication and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    The selection of the audio multiplex control configuration for the Space Shuttle Orbiter audio subsystem is discussed and special attention is given to the evaluation criteria of cost, weight and complexity. The specifications and design of the subsystem are described and detail is given to configurations of the audio terminal and audio central control unit (ATU, ACCU). The audio input from the ACCU, at a signal level of -12.2 to 14.8 dBV, nominal range, at 1 kHz, was found to have balanced source impedance and a balanced local impedance of 6000 + or - 600 ohms at 1 kHz, dc isolated. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) electroacoustic test laboratory, an audio engineering facility consisting of a collection of acoustic test chambers, analyzed problems of speaker and headset performance, multiplexed control data coupled with audio channels, and the Orbiter cabin acoustic effects on the operational performance of voice communications. This system allows technical management and project engineering to address key constraining issues, such as identifying design deficiencies of the headset interface unit and the assessment of the Orbiter cabin performance of voice communications, which affect the subsystem development.

  4. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space.

  5. Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Biggers, W. P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thomas, W. G.; Thagard, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eighth shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal.

  6. Audio-visual interaction and perceptual assessment of water features used over road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Galbrun, Laurent; Calarco, Francesca M A

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the audio-visual interaction and perception of water features used over road traffic noise, including their semantic aural properties, as well as their categorization and evocation properties. The research focused on a wide range of small to medium sized water features that can be used in gardens and parks to promote peacefulness and relaxation. Paired comparisons highlighted the inter-dependence between uni-modal (audio-only or visual-only) and bi-modal (audio-visual) perception, indicating that equal attention should be given to the design of both stimuli. In general, natural looking features tended to increase preference scores (compared to audio-only paired comparison scores), while manmade looking features decreased them. Semantic descriptors showed significant correlations with preferences and were found to be more reliable design criteria than physical parameters. A principal component analysis identified three components within the nine semantic attributes tested: "emotional assessment," "sound quality," and "envelopment and temporal variation." The first two showed significant correlations with audio-only preferences, "emotional assessment" being the most important predictor of preferences, and its attributes naturalness, relaxation, and freshness also being significantly correlated with preferences. Categorization results indicated that natural stream sounds are easily identifiable (unlike waterfalls and fountains), while evocation results showed no unique relationship with preferences.

  7. Audio-Visual Space Reorganization Study. RDU-75-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Martha

    Space layout and work flow patterns in the Audiovisual Center at Purdue University were studied with respect to effective space utilization and the need for planning space requirements in relationship to the activities being performed. Space and work areas were reorganized to facilitate the flow of work and materials between areas, and equipment…

  8. Reconsidering the Role of Recorded Audio as a Rich, Flexible and Engaging Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Audio needs to be recognised as an integral medium capable of extending education's formal and informal, virtual and physical learning spaces. This paper reconsiders the value of educational podcasting through a review of literature and a module case study. It argues that a pedagogical understanding is needed and challenges technology-centred or…

  9. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214... Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio.... The term “frequency assignment” refers to the authorization given by the Commission for a...

  10. Feature space analysis of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.; Peck, Donald J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents development and performance evaluation of an MRI feature space method. The method is useful for: identification of tissue types; segmentation of tissues; and quantitative measurements on tissues, to obtain information that can be used in decision making (diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment). The steps of the work accomplished are as follows: (1) Four T2-weighted and two T1-weighted images (before and after injection of Gadolinium) were acquired for ten tumor patients. (2) Images were analyed by two image analysts according to the following algorithm. The intracranial brain tissues were segmented from the scalp and background. The additive noise was suppressed using a multi-dimensional non-linear edge- preserving filter which preserves partial volume information on average. Image nonuniformities were corrected using a modified lowpass filtering approach. The resulting images were used to generate and visualize an optimal feature space. Cluster centers were identified on the feature space. Then images were segmented into normal tissues and different zones of the tumor. (3) Biopsy samples were extracted from each patient and were subsequently analyzed by the pathology laboratory. (4) Image analysis results were compared to each other and to the biopsy results. Pre- and post-surgery feature spaces were also compared. The proposed algorithm made it possible to visualize the MRI feature space and to segment the image. In all cases, the operators were able to find clusters for normal and abnormal tissues. Also, clusters for different zones of the tumor were found. Based on the clusters marked for each zone, the method successfully segmented the image into normal tissues (white matter, gray matter, and CSF) and different zones of the lesion (tumor, cyst, edema, radiation necrosis, necrotic core, and infiltrated tumor). The results agreed with those obtained from the biopsy samples. Comparison of pre- to post-surgery and radiation

  11. Feature Selection in the Tensor Product Feature Space

    PubMed Central

    Smalter, Aaron; Huan, Jun; Lushington, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Classifying objects that are sampled jointly from two or more domains has many applications. The tensor product feature space is useful for modeling interactions between feature sets in different domains but feature selection in the tensor product feature space is challenging. Conventional feature selection methods ignore the structure of the feature space and may not provide the optimal results. In this paper we propose methods for selecting features in the original feature spaces of different domains. We obtained sparsity through two approaches, one using integer quadratic programming and another using L1-norm regularization. Experimental studies on biological data sets validate our approach. PMID:24632658

  12. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in... Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio... the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services under...

  13. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in... Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio... licensee is potentially affected if it is authorized to operate a base station in the 2305-2315 MHz or...

  14. Unique features of space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Feature integration across space, time, and orientation

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas U.; Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    The perception of a visual target can be strongly influenced by flanking stimuli. In static displays, performance on the target improves when the distance to the flanking elements increases- proposedly because feature pooling and integration vanishes with distance. Here, we studied feature integration with dynamic stimuli. We show that features of single elements presented within a continuous motion stream are integrated largely independent of spatial distance (and orientation). Hence, space based models of feature integration cannot be extended to dynamic stimuli. We suggest that feature integration is guided by perceptual grouping operations that maintain the identity of perceptual objects over space and time. PMID:19968428

  16. Audio 2008: Audio Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio…

  17. Audio Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  18. Real World Audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crystal River Engineering was originally featured in Spinoff 1992 with the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. The Convolvotron was developed for Ames' research on virtual acoustic displays. Crystal River is a now a subsidiary of Aureal Semiconductor, Inc. and they together develop and market the technology, which is a 3-D (three dimensional) audio technology known commercially today as Aureal 3D (A-3D). The technology has been incorporated into video games, surround sound systems, and sound cards.

  19. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  20. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  1. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  2. Multiclass Bayes error estimation by a feature space sampling technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    A general Gaussian M-class N-feature classification problem is defined. An algorithm is developed that requires the class statistics as its only input and computes the minimum probability of error through use of a combined analytical and numerical integration over a sequence simplifying transformations of the feature space. The results are compared with those obtained by conventional techniques applied to a 2-class 4-feature discrimination problem with results previously reported and 4-class 4-feature multispectral scanner Landsat data classified by training and testing of the available data.

  3. Space Station services and design features for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.

    1987-01-01

    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  4. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Daniel D; Pyles, John A; Tarr, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm(3) brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features

  5. Re-Identification in the Function Space of Feature Warps.

    PubMed

    Martinel, Niki; Das, Abir; Micheloni, Christian; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2015-08-01

    Person re-identification in a non-overlapping multicamera scenario is an open challenge in computer vision because of the large changes in appearances caused by variations in viewing angle, lighting, background clutter, and occlusion over multiple cameras. As a result of these variations, features describing the same person get transformed between cameras. To model the transformation of features, the feature space is nonlinearly warped to get the "warp functions". The warp functions between two instances of the same target form the set of feasible warp functions while those between instances of different targets form the set of infeasible warp functions. In this work, we build upon the observation that feature transformations between cameras lie in a nonlinear function space of all possible feature transformations. The space consisting of all the feasible and infeasible warp functions is the warp function space (WFS). We propose to learn a discriminating surface separating these two sets of warp functions in the WFS and to re-identify persons by classifying a test warp function as feasible or infeasible. Towards this objective, a Random Forest (RF) classifier is employed which effectively chooses the warp function components according to their importance in separating the feasible and the infeasible warp functions in the WFS. Extensive experiments on five datasets are carried out to show the superior performance of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art person re-identification methods. We show that our approach outperforms all other methods when large illumination variations are considered. At the same time it has been shown that our method reaches the best average performance over multiple combinations of the datasets, thus, showing that our method is not designed only to address a specific challenge posed by a particular dataset.

  6. A face feature space in the macaque temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Tsao, Doris Y; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2009-09-01

    The ability of primates to effortlessly recognize faces has been attributed to the existence of specialized face areas. One such area, the macaque middle face patch, consists almost entirely of cells that are selective for faces, but the principles by which these cells analyze faces are unknown. We found that middle face patch neurons detect and differentiate faces using a strategy that is both part based and holistic. Cells detected distinct constellations of face parts. Furthermore, cells were tuned to the geometry of facial features. Tuning was most often ramp-shaped, with a one-to-one mapping of feature magnitude to firing rate. Tuning amplitude depended on the presence of a whole, upright face and features were interpreted according to their position in a whole, upright face. Thus, cells in the middle face patch encode axes of a face space specialized for whole, upright faces.

  7. Feature extraction on local jet space for texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Marcos William da Silva; da Silva, Núbia Rosa; Manzanera, Antoine; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2015-12-01

    The proposal of this study is to analyze the texture pattern recognition over the local jet space looking forward to improve the texture characterization. Local jets decompose the image based on partial derivatives allowing the texture feature extraction be exploited in different levels of geometrical structures. Each local jet component evidences a different local pattern, such as, flat regions, directional variations and concavity or convexity. Subsequently, a texture descriptor is used to extract features from 0th, 1st and 2nd-derivative components. Four well-known databases (Brodatz, Vistex, Usptex and Outex) and four texture descriptors (Fourier descriptors, Gabor filters, Local Binary Pattern and Local Binary Pattern Variance) were used to validate the idea, showing in most cases an increase of the success rates.

  8. Feature tracking with temporal-scale space modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafiropoulos, Pany; Schenk, Toni F.

    1998-12-01

    This study investigates the extension of scale space techniques for manipulating image sequences for extracting and classifying useful information for further vision processes toward image understanding and sequentially facilitating the acquisition phase of Geographic Information Systems. More precisely, the basic concepts, axioms and the implementational issues of multi-resolution approaches will be discussed for treating continuous monotonic scale changes in images taken in a dynamic environment as in the case when a mobile mapping system captures images at constant time intervals. Moreover, discussion will be devoted to the scale variations and resolution issues, in a stereo-pair and within a sequence, and consequently to the use of an operator with adaptable size for tracking and interpreting spatial scale changes with respect to the registered object space. The analysis of a set of images representing the same object space and by using scale space tracing techniques supported with scale changes in temporal basis results to the characterization of features in which their precise localization is extracted by applying a multiple image matching framework, satisfying a set of criteria and taking into account the geometric and radiometric dissimilarities for accommodating the scale differences. Finally, the above framework can be applied to the localization and to the archiving of traffic signs, reaching high levels of automation in real time in a controlled environment, to the registration of the road centerline and to the post-processing of sequences for producing DEMs and Orthoimagery.

  9. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  10. Automated Solar Feature Detection for Space Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Suárez, David; Higgins, Paul A.; Bloomfield, D. Shaun; McAteer, R. T. James; Krista, Larisza D.; Byrne, Jason P.; Gallagher, Peter. T.

    2011-03-01

    The solar surface and atmosphere are highly dynamic plasma environments, which evolve over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Large-scale eruptions, such as coronal mass ejections, can be accelerated to millions of kilometres per hour in a matter of minutes, making their automated detection and characterisation challenging. Additionally, there are numerous faint solar features, such as coronal holes and coronal dimmings, which are important for space weather monitoring and forecasting, but their low intensity and sometimes transient nature makes them problematic to detect using traditional image processing techniques. These difficulties are compounded by advances in ground- and space- based instrumentation, which have increased the volume of data that solar physicists are confronted with on a minute-by-minute basis; NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory for example is returning many thousands of images per hour (~1.5 TB/day). This chapter reviews recent advances in the application of images processing techniques to the automated detection of active regions, coronal holes, filaments, CMEs, and coronal dimmings for the purposes of space weather monitoring and prediction.

  11. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  12. Audio and Electroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mark

    This chapter surveys devices and systems associated with audio and electroacoustics: the acquisition, transmission, storage, and reproduction of audio. The chapter provides an historical overview of the field since before the days of Edison and Bell to the present day, and analyzes performance of audio transducers, components and systems from basic psychoacoustic principles, to arrive at an assessment of the perceptual performance of such elements and an indication of possible directions for future progress.

  13. Audio and Electroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mark F.

    This chapter surveys devices and systems associated with audio and electroacoustics: The acquisition, transmission, storage, and reproduction of audio. The chapter provides an historical overview of the field since before the days of Edison and Bell to the present day, and analyzes performance of audio transducers, components and systems from basic psychoacoustic principles, to arrive at an assessment of the perceptual performance of such elements and an indication of possible directions for future progress.

  14. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  15. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of videos accessible to ...

  16. Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Forrest F.

    1993-01-01

    A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

  17. Forensic audio watermark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  18. Steganalysis for Audio Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-31

    evaluation system which provides the user the functionality of different watermarking algorithms (embedding and detecting) with a large database of audio...with a large database of audio signals (test material). The system also provides both single and profile attacks which can be used to evaluate the...in this case, music/ hiphop and sounds/computergen) the attack suite used performs very well compared to the overall set. In these cases the

  19. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.

  20. Interactions between space-based and feature-based attention

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Carly J.; Balestreri, Angela; Luck, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Although early research suggested that attention to nonspatial features (i.e., red) was confined to stimuli appearing at an attended spatial location, more recent research has emphasized the global nature of feature-based attention. For example, a distractor sharing a target feature may capture attention even if it occurs at a task-irrelevant location. Such findings have been used to argue that feature-based attention operates independently of spatial attention. However, feature-based attention may nonetheless interact with spatial attention, yielding larger feature-based effects at attended locations than at unattended locations. The present study tested this possibility. In two experiments, participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and identified a target letter defined by its color. Target-colored distractors were presented at various task-irrelevant locations during the RSVP stream. We found that feature-driven attentional capture effects were largest when the target-colored distractor was closer to the attended location. These results demonstrate that spatial attention modulates the strength of feature-based attention capture, calling into question the prior evidence that feature-based attention operates in a global manner that is independent of spatial attention. PMID:25285472

  1. Audio Design: Creating Multi-sensory Images for the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Explores the concept of "theater of the mind" and discusses design factors in creating audio works that effectively stimulate mental pictures, including: narrative format in audio scripting; qualities of voice; use of concrete language; music; noise versus silence; and the creation of the illusion of space using monaural, stereophonic,…

  2. Detecting Image Splicing Using Merged Features in Chroma Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangjie; Dai, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Image splicing is an image editing method to copy a part of an image and paste it onto another image, and it is commonly followed by postprocessing such as local/global blurring, compression, and resizing. To detect this kind of forgery, the image rich models, a feature set successfully used in the steganalysis is evaluated on the splicing image dataset at first, and the dominant submodel is selected as the first kind of feature. The selected feature and the DCT Markov features are used together to detect splicing forgery in the chroma channel, which is convinced effective in splicing detection. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can detect splicing forgeries with lower error rate compared to the previous literature. PMID:24574877

  3. Detecting image splicing using merged features in chroma space.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Liu, Guangjie; Dai, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Image splicing is an image editing method to copy a part of an image and paste it onto another image, and it is commonly followed by postprocessing such as local/global blurring, compression, and resizing. To detect this kind of forgery, the image rich models, a feature set successfully used in the steganalysis is evaluated on the splicing image dataset at first, and the dominant submodel is selected as the first kind of feature. The selected feature and the DCT Markov features are used together to detect splicing forgery in the chroma channel, which is convinced effective in splicing detection. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can detect splicing forgeries with lower error rate compared to the previous literature.

  4. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    DOE PAGES

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally,more » these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.« less

  5. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  6. Limitations in 4-Year-Old Children's Sensitivity to the Spacing among Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…

  7. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  8. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks. PMID:25505796

  9. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  10. Digital Multicasting of Multiple Audio Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, Mitchell; Bullock, John

    2007-01-01

    at the MCC. In the other access-control provision, the program verifies that the user is authorized to have access to the audio streams. Once both access-control checks are completed, the audio software presents a graphical display that includes audiostream-selection buttons and volume-control sliders. The user can select all or any subset of the available audio streams and can adjust the volume of each stream independently of that of the other streams. The audio-player program spawns a "read" process for the selected stream(s). The spawned process sends, to the router(s), a "multicast-join" request for the selected streams. The router(s) responds to the request by sending the encrypted multicast packets to the spawned process. The spawned process receives the encrypted multicast packets and sends a decryption packet to audio-driver software. As the volume or muting features are changed by the user, interrupts are sent to the spawned process to change the corresponding attributes sent to the audio-driver software. The total latency of this system - that is, the total time from the origination of the audio signals to generation of sound at a listener s computer - lies between four and six seconds.

  11. Investigating repeatable ionospheric features during large space storms and superstorms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar-13 – Jan-14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigating repeatable ionospheric features during large... Ionosphere -Plasmasphere Electrodynamics). The 6 April 2000 superstorm (Dst = -314 nT) was complex as the prompt penetration electric field developed and...event because of its unusual pattern producing unusual ionospheric storms. Our results reveal some strong longitudinal differences caused by the

  12. Reverse engineering the face space: Discovering the critical features for face identification.

    PubMed

    Abudarham, Naphtali; Yovel, Galit

    2016-01-01

    How do we identify people? What are the critical facial features that define an identity and determine whether two faces belong to the same person or different people? To answer these questions, we applied the face space framework, according to which faces are represented as points in a multidimensional feature space, such that face space distances are correlated with perceptual similarities between faces. In particular, we developed a novel method that allowed us to reveal the critical dimensions (i.e., critical features) of the face space. To that end, we constructed a concrete face space, which included 20 facial features of natural face images, and asked human observers to evaluate feature values (e.g., how thick are the lips). Next, we systematically and quantitatively changed facial features, and measured the perceptual effects of these manipulations. We found that critical features were those for which participants have high perceptual sensitivity (PS) for detecting differences across identities (e.g., which of two faces has thicker lips). Furthermore, these high PS features vary minimally across different views of the same identity, suggesting high PS features support face recognition across different images of the same face. The methods described here set an infrastructure for discovering the critical features of other face categories not studied here (e.g., Asians, familiar) as well as other aspects of face processing, such as attractiveness or trait inferences.

  13. COMINT Audio Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    application in the military linguist’s work environment . Demonstrations conducted under this effort concluded that 3D audio localization techniques on their...own have not been developed to the point where they achieve the fidelity necessary for the military work environment . Recommended areas for additional

  14. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of May 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=audio_dvd.pr_crit_audio_dvd

  16. Towards Semantically Sensitive Text Clustering: A Feature Space Modeling Technology Based on Dimension Extension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:25794172

  17. Towards semantically sensitive text clustering: a feature space modeling technology based on dimension extension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. An analysis of possible advanced space strategies featuring the role of space resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordell, Bruce; Steinbronn, Otto

    A major weakness of space planning in the U.S.A. has been the lack of clearly defined, major space goals within a coherent, politically palatable, long-range national space strategy. Unresolved issues include the Space Station's role, the most profitable space exploration strategies, and space resource use. We present an analysis of these factors with special emphasis on space resource utilization. Our performance modeling reveals that lunar oxygen is useful on or near the Moon and—if lunar hydrogen is available—lunar oxygen is also economical in LEO. Use of volatile materials from Phobos/Deimos is preferred or attractive in LEO, low lunar orbit, and—if lunar hydrogen is unavailable—on the Moon. Thus it appears that resource synergisms between operations in the Mars system and in Earth-Moon space could become commercially important.

  19. Neurophysiological Correlates of Featural and Spacing Processing for Face and Non-face Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Marcello; Brkić, Diandra; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Premoli, Isabella; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The peculiar ability of humans to recognize hundreds of faces at a glance has been attributed to face-specific perceptual mechanisms known as holistic processing. Holistic processing includes the ability to discriminate individual facial features (i.e., featural processing) and their spatial relationships (i.e., spacing processing). Here, we aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of featural- and spacing-processing of faces and objects. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed a newly created perceptual discrimination task for faces and objects (i.e., the “University of East London Face Task”) while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density (128 electrodes) electroencephalogram. Our results showed that early event related potentials at around 100 ms post-stimulus onset (i.e., P100) are sensitive to both facial features and spacing between the features. Spacing and features discriminability for objects occurred at circa 200 ms post-stimulus onset (P200). These findings indicate the existence of neurophysiological correlates of spacing vs. features processing in both face and objects, and demonstrate faster brain processing for faces. PMID:28348535

  20. Representing the Meanings of Object and Action Words: The Featural and Unitary Semantic Space Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Lewis, William; Garrett, Merrill F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the Featural and Unitary Semantic Space (FUSS) hypothesis of the meanings of object and action words. The hypothesis, implemented in a statistical model, is based on the following assumptions: First, it is assumed that the meanings of words are grounded in conceptual featural representations, some of which are organized…

  1. Logistic Localized Modeling of the Sample Space for Feature Selection and Classification.

    PubMed

    Armanfard, Narges; Reilly, James P; Komeili, Majid

    2017-03-21

    Conventional feature selection algorithms assign a single common feature set to all regions of the sample space. In contrast, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for localized feature selection for which each region of the sample space is characterized by its individual distinct feature subset that may vary in size and membership. This approach can therefore select an optimal feature subset that adapts to local variations of the sample space, and hence offer the potential for improved performance. Feature subsets are computed by choosing an optimal coordinate space so that, within a localized region, within-class distances and between-class distances are, respectively, minimized and maximized. Distances are measured using a logistic function metric within the corresponding region. This enables the optimization process to focus on a localized region within the sample space. A local classification approach is utilized for measuring the similarity of a new input data point to each class. The proposed logistic localized feature selection (lLFS) algorithm is invariant to the underlying probability distribution of the data; hence, it is appropriate when the data are distributed on a nonlinear or disjoint manifold. lLFS is efficiently formulated as a joint convex/increasing quasi-convex optimization problem with a unique global optimum point. The method is most applicable when the number of available training samples is small. The performance of the proposed localized method is successfully demonstrated on a large variety of data sets. We demonstrate that the number of features selected by the lLFS method saturates at the number of available discriminative features. In addition, we have shown that the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension of the localized classifier is finite. Both these factors suggest that the lLFS method is insensitive to the overfitting issue, relative to other methods.

  2. Effect of Microgravity on Interface Structural Features in Space Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wan-chun; W, Chen C.; Mai, Zhen-hong; Z, Mai H.; K, Kato

    1998-08-01

    The distribution of Ca2+ at boundary layer of α-LiIO3 crystal grown both in space and on earth was studied by the synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microanalysis. It was found that: (1) the Ca2+ concentration in the space-crystal is higher than that in the earth-crystal, (2) a sharp discontinuity of Ca2+ concentration is found at boundary layers of space-crystals alone. This finding provides an evidence of microgravity effect on interface structural features in space crystal growth.

  3. Structuring feature space: a non-parametric method for volumetric transfer function generation.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Ross; Woo, Insoo; Chen, Wei; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional transfer functions for direct volume rendering has been shown to be an effective means of extracting materials and their boundaries for both scalar and multivariate data. The most common multi-dimensional transfer function consists of a two-dimensional (2D) histogram with axes representing a subset of the feature space (e.g., value vs. value gradient magnitude), with each entry in the 2D histogram being the number of voxels at a given feature space pair. Users then assign color and opacity to the voxel distributions within the given feature space through the use of interactive widgets (e.g., box, circular, triangular selection). Unfortunately, such tools lead users through a trial-and-error approach as they assess which data values within the feature space map to a given area of interest within the volumetric space. In this work, we propose the addition of non-parametric clustering within the transfer function feature space in order to extract patterns and guide transfer function generation. We apply a non-parametric kernel density estimation to group voxels of similar features within the 2D histogram. These groups are then binned and colored based on their estimated density, and the user may interactively grow and shrink the binned regions to explore feature boundaries and extract regions of interest. We also extend this scheme to temporal volumetric data in which time steps of 2D histograms are composited into a histogram volume. A three-dimensional (3D) density estimation is then applied, and users can explore regions within the feature space across time without adjusting the transfer function at each time step. Our work enables users to effectively explore the structures found within a feature space of the volume and provide a context in which the user can understand how these structures relate to their volumetric data. We provide tools for enhanced exploration and manipulation of the transfer function, and we show that the initial

  4. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  5. [A leukocyte pattern recognition based on feature fusion in multi-color space].

    PubMed

    Hao, Liangwang; Hong, Wenxue

    2013-10-01

    To solve the ineffective problem of leukocytes classification based on multi-feature fusion in a single color space, we proposed an automatic leukocyte pattern recognition by means of feature fusion with color histogram and texture granular in multi-color space. The interactive performance of three color spaces (RGB, HSV and Lab), two features (color histogram and texture granular) and four similarity measured distance metrics (normalized intersection, Euclidean distance, chi2-metric distance and Mahalanobis distance) were discussed. The optimized classification modes of high precision, extensive universality and low cost to different leukocyte types were obtained respectively, and then the recognition system of tree-integration of the optimized modes was established. The experimental results proved that the performance of the fusion classification was improved by 12.3% at least.

  6. A scale space feature based registration technique for fusion of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Srini; Cromp, Robert F.; Campbell, William C.

    1997-01-01

    Feature based registration is one of the most reliable methods to register multi-sensor images (both active and passive imagery) since features are often more reliable than intensity or radiometric values. The only situation where a feature based approach will fail is when the scene is completely homogenous or densely textural in which case a combination of feature and intensity based methods may yield better results. In this paper, we present some preliminary results of testing our scale space feature based registration technique, a modified version of feature based method developed earlier for classification of multi-sensor imagery. The proposed approach removes the sensitivity in parameter selection experienced in the earlier version as explained later.

  7. High-Resolution Infrared Space Observatory Spectroscopy of the Unidentified 21 Micron Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Hrivnak, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory SWS06 mode observations of the 21 micron feature in eight sources, including a first "detection of the feature in IRAS Z02229+6208. The observed feature peak-to-continuum ratios range from 0.13 in IRAS Z02229+6208 to 1.30 in IRAS 07134+1005. The normalized spectra, obtained by the removal of the underlying continua and by scaling the features to the same peak flux value. show that all features have the same intrinsic profile and peak wavelength. There is no evidence for any discrete substructure due to molecular bands in the observed spectra, suggesting that the 21 micron feature is due to either a solid substance or a mixture of many similarly structured large molecules.

  8. The Lowdown on Audio Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

  9. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J. . E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

  10. Discriminative genre-independent audio-visual scene change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kevin W.; Divakaran, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for genre-independent scene-change detection using audio and video features in a discriminative support vector machine (SVM) framework. This work builds on our previous work by adding a video feature based on the MPEG-7 "scalable color" descriptor. Adding this feature improves our detection rate over all genres by 5% to 15% for a fixed false positive rate of 10%. We also find that the genres that benefit the most are those with which the previous audio-only was least effective.

  11. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  12. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  13. Metrological digital audio reconstruction

    DOEpatents

    Fadeyev; Vitaliy , Haber; Carl

    2004-02-19

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

  14. Multidetector CT and histological features of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, CA; Desai, RS; Kambadakone, A; Shetty, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is a soft tissue neoplasm composed of an admixture of two or more benign mesenchymal components in addition to fibrous tissue. A rare case of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space in a 14-year-old boy is presented. In this case report we discuss the salient imaging and histopathological features of this rare entity. PMID:22282510

  15. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  16. The Audio-Tutorial System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postlethwait, S. N.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the audio-tutorial program in Botany at Purdue University. Advantages include adaptability to individual stduent needs, integration of laboratory activities and information giving, aid flexibility in use of media and means of presentation. (EB)

  17. Perception of facial features and face-to-face communications in space.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines how human face-to-face communications may be compromised by exposure to the microgravity environment of space. Although efficient face-to-face communications are acknowledged to be essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, the space environment causes facial edema, and allows speakers and listeners to confront one another in multiple orientations that can potentially interfere with many important non-linguistic communication cues. In addition, high background noises in space shuttles and stations can mask auditory messages. Currently, the effects of spaceflight on the ability to identify facial features, to read lips, to integrate visual and auditory sensory information, and to interpret spoken messages in noisy environments while the speakers are at various orientations with respect to the listeners, are virtually unknown. Ground-based experiments conducted in our laboratory with computer-displayed facial images presented at various orientations have suggested how non-linguistic cues may be degraded by changes in the retinal orientations of facial images. The results of our ground-based studies illustrating impaired recognition of facial features in non-erect images are described, their implications for effective face-to-face communications among astronauts in space are discussed, and two experiments that can quantify the effects of microgravity on face-to-face communications in space are outlined.

  18. Medical X-ray Image Hierarchical Classification Using a Merging and Splitting Scheme in Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Fesharaki, Nooshin Jafari; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Due to the daily mass production and the widespread variation of medical X-ray images, it is necessary to classify these for searching and retrieving proposes, especially for content-based medical image retrieval systems. In this paper, a medical X-ray image hierarchical classification structure based on a novel merging and splitting scheme and using shape and texture features is proposed. In the first level of the proposed structure, to improve the classification performance, similar classes with regard to shape contents are grouped based on merging measures and shape features into the general overlapped classes. In the next levels of this structure, the overlapped classes split in smaller classes based on the classification performance of combination of shape and texture features or texture features only. Ultimately, in the last levels, this procedure is also continued forming all the classes, separately. Moreover, to optimize the feature vector in the proposed structure, we use orthogonal forward selection algorithm according to Mahalanobis class separability measure as a feature selection and reduction algorithm. In other words, according to the complexity and inter-class distance of each class, a sub-space of the feature space is selected in each level and then a supervised merging and splitting scheme is applied to form the hierarchical classification. The proposed structure is evaluated on a database consisting of 2158 medical X-ray images of 18 classes (IMAGECLEF 2005 database) and accuracy rate of 93.6% in the last level of the hierarchical structure for an 18-class classification problem is obtained.

  19. Study on identifying deciduous forest by the method of feature space transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuexia; Wu, Pengfei

    2009-10-01

    The thematic remotely sensed information extraction is always one of puzzling nuts which the remote sensing science faces, so many remote sensing scientists devotes diligently to this domain research. The methods of thematic information extraction include two kinds of the visual interpretation and the computer interpretation, the developing direction of which is intellectualization and comprehensive modularization. The paper tries to develop the intelligent extraction method of feature space transformation for the deciduous forest thematic information extraction in Changping district of Beijing city. The whole Chinese-Brazil resources satellite images received in 2005 are used to extract the deciduous forest coverage area by feature space transformation method and linear spectral decomposing method, and the result from remote sensing is similar to woodland resource census data by Chinese forestry bureau in 2004.

  20. System requirements and design features of Space Station Remote Manipulator System mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Hayes, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a long robotic arm for handling large objects/payloads on the International Space Station Freedom. The mechanical components of the SSRMS include seven joints, two latching end effectors (LEEs), and two boom assemblies. The joints and LEEs are complex aerospace mechanisms. The system requirements and design features of these mechanisms are presented. All seven joints of the SSRMS have identical functional performance. The two LEES are identical. This feature allows either end of the SSRMS to be used as tip or base. As compared to the end effector of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, the LEE has a latch and umbilical mechanism in addition to the snare and rigidize mechanisms. The latches increase the interface preload and allow large payloads (up to 116,000 Kg) to be handled. The umbilical connectors provide power, data, and video signal transfer capability to/from the SSRMS.

  1. Non-RF wireless helmet-mounted display and two-way audio connectivity using covert free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M.; Volfson, L.

    2011-06-01

    Providing the warfighter with Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) while in tracked vehicles provides a means to visually maintain access to systems information while in a high vibration environment. The high vibration and unique environment of military tracked and turreted vehicles impact the ability to distinctly see certain information on an HMD, especially small font size or graphics and information that requires long fixation (staring), rather than a brief or peripheral glance. The military and commercial use of HMDs was compiled from market research, market trends, and user feedback. Lessons learned from previous military and commercial use of HMD products were derived to determine the feasibility of HMDs use in the high vibration and the unique environments of tracked vehicles. The results are summarized into factors that determine HMD features which must be specified for successful implementation.

  2. Intrapartum fetal heart rate classification from trajectory in Sparse SVM feature space.

    PubMed

    Spilka, J; Frecon, J; Leonarduzzi, R; Pustelnik, N; Abry, P; Doret, M

    2015-01-01

    Intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) constitutes a prominent source of information for the assessment of fetal reactions to stress events during delivery. Yet, early detection of fetal acidosis remains a challenging signal processing task. The originality of the present contribution are three-fold: multiscale representations and wavelet leader based multifractal analysis are used to quantify FHR variability ; Supervised classification is achieved by means of Sparse-SVM that aim jointly to achieve optimal detection performance and to select relevant features in a multivariate setting ; Trajectories in the feature space accounting for the evolution along time of features while labor progresses are involved in the construction of indices quantifying fetal health. The classification performance permitted by this combination of tools are quantified on a intrapartum FHR large database (≃ 1250 subjects) collected at a French academic public hospital.

  3. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  4. The nature and origin of periodically spaced tectonic features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    The final report on the nature and origin of periodically spaced tectonic features on Mars is presented. The focus of this investigation was to characterize and model the periodically spaced wrinkle ridges observed in ridged plains material on Mars. The investigation centered on the wrinkle ridges in ridged plains material on the Tharsis Plateau. Wrinkle ridges are interpreted to be structural in origin, resulting from buckling followed by reverse or thrust faulting of the ridged plains material. The study extended beyond Tharsis to other ridged plains units, particularly those in Hesperia Planum. As a corollary, an analysis of the spacing of the anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt of the Columbia Plateau in the NW United States was undertaken.

  5. Nanoscale Analysis of Space-Weathering Features in Soils from Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Zega, T. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering alters the spectral properties of airless body surface materials by redden-ing and darkening their spectra and attenuating characteristic absorption bands, making it challenging to characterize them remotely [1,2]. It also causes a discrepency between laboratory analysis of meteorites and remotely sensed spectra from asteroids, making it difficult to associate meteorites with their parent bodies. The mechanisms driving space weathering include mi-crometeorite impacts and the interaction of surface materials with solar energetic ions, particularly the solar wind. These processes continuously alter the microchemical and structural characteristics of exposed grains on airless bodies. The change of these properties is caused predominantly by the vapor deposition of reduced Fe and FeS nanoparticles (npFe(sup 0) and npFeS respectively) onto the rims of surface grains [3]. Sample-based analysis of space weathering has tra-ditionally been limited to lunar soils and select asteroidal and lunar regolith breccias [3-5]. With the return of samples from the Hayabusa mission to asteroid Itoka-wa [6], for the first time we are able to compare space-weathering features on returned surface soils from a known asteroidal body. Analysis of these samples will contribute to a more comprehensive model for how space weathering varies across the inner solar system. Here we report detailed microchemical and microstructal analysis of surface grains from Itokawa.

  6. Prediction of protein structure classes using hybrid space of multi-profile Bayes and bi-gram probability feature spaces.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Maqsood; Tahir, Muhammad; Khan, Sher Afzal

    2014-04-07

    Proteins are the executants of biological functions in living organisms. Comprehension of protein structure is a challenging problem in the era of proteomics, computational biology, and bioinformatics because of its pivotal role in protein folding patterns. Owing to the large exploration of protein sequences in protein databanks and intricacy of protein structures, experimental and theoretical methods are insufficient for prediction of protein structure classes. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an accurate, reliable, and high throughput computational model to predict protein structure classes correctly from polygenetic sequences. In this regard, we propose a promising model employing hybrid descriptor space in conjunction with optimized evidence-theoretic K-nearest neighbor algorithm. Hybrid space is the composition of two descriptor spaces including Multi-profile Bayes and bi-gram probability. In order to enhance the generalization power of the classifier, we have selected high discriminative descriptors from the hybrid space using particle swarm optimization, a well-known evolutionary feature selection technique. Performance evaluation of the proposed model is performed using the jackknife test on three low similarity benchmark datasets including 25PDB, 1189, and 640. The success rates of the proposed model are 87.0%, 86.6%, and 88.4%, respectively on the three benchmark datasets. The comparative analysis exhibits that our proposed model has yielded promising results compared to the existing methods in the literature. In addition, our proposed prediction system might be helpful in future research particularly in cases where the major focus of research is on low similarity datasets.

  7. Audio-Visual Training in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of audio-visual training in the discrimination of the phonetic feature of voicing on the recognition of written words by young children deemed to at risk of dyslexia (experiment 1) as well as on dyslexic children's phonological skills (experiment 2). In addition, the third experiment studied the effectiveness of…

  8. EEMD Independent Extraction for Mixing Features of Rotating Machinery Reconstructed in Phase Space

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zaichao; Wen, Guangrui; Jiang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), due to its adaptive decomposition property for the non-linear and non-stationary signals, has been widely used in vibration analyses for rotating machinery. However, EMD suffers from mode mixing, which is difficult to extract features independently. Although the improved EMD, well known as the ensemble EMD (EEMD), has been proposed, mode mixing is alleviated only to a certain degree. Moreover, EEMD needs to determine the amplitude of added noise. In this paper, we propose Phase Space Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (PSEEMD) integrating Phase Space Reconstruction (PSR) and Manifold Learning (ML) for modifying EEMD. We also provide the principle and detailed procedure of PSEEMD, and the analyses on a simulation signal and an actual vibration signal derived from a rubbing rotor are performed. The results show that PSEEMD is more efficient and convenient than EEMD in extracting the mixing features from the investigated signal and in optimizing the amplitude of the necessary added noise. Additionally PSEEMD can extract the weak features interfered with a certain amount of noise. PMID:25871723

  9. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  10. Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using Space Shuttle and aerial polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Holly, Mark H.; Whitehead, Victor S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes to relationship of polarimetric observations from orbital and aerial platforms and the determination optimum sun-target-sensor geometry. Polarimetric observations were evaluated for feature discrimination. The Space Shuttle experiment was performed using two boresighted Hasselblad 70 mm cameras with identical settings with linear polarizing filters aligned orthogonally about the optic axis. The aerial experiment was performed using a single 35 mm Nikon FE2 and rotating the linear polarizing filter 90 deg to acquire both minimum and maximum photographs. Characteristic curves were created by covertype and waveband for both aerial and Space Shuttle imagery. Though significant differences existed between the two datasets, the observed polarimetric signatures were unique and separable.

  11. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  12. [Feature extraction of motor imagery electroencephalography based on time-frequency-space domains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueru; Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Shao, Chengcheng; Ying, Lijuan; Wu, Shuicai

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of using brain-computer interface (BCI) is to build a bridge between brain and computer for the disable persons, in order to help them to communicate with the outside world. Electroencephalography (EEG) has low signal to noise ratio (SNR), and there exist some problems in the traditional methods for the feature extraction of EEG, such as low classification accuracy, lack of spatial information and huge amounts of features. To solve these problems, we proposed a new method based on time domain, frequency domain and space domain. In this study, independent component analysis (ICA) and wavelet transform were used to extract the temporal, spectral and spatial features from the original EEG signals, and then the extracted features were classified with the method combined support vector machine (SVM) with genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method displayed a better classification performance, and made the mean accuracy of the Graz datasets in the BCI Competitions of 2003 reach 96%. The classification results showed that the proposed method with the three domains could effectively overcome the drawbacks of the traditional methods based solely on time-frequency domain when the EEG signals were used to describe the characteristics of the brain electrical signals.

  13. Specific features of space-time variations of ozone during the development of intensive tropical disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerushev, Alexander F.; Vasiliev, Victor I.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of specific features of space-time variations of ozone in the tropical areas which has been performed on the basis of processing of the results of special expedition studies in the Atlantic and Pacific in 1987-1990 and the data of observations at the stations of the world ozonometric network over the 25-year period. The existence of a cause-and-effect relation has been revealed between the processes determining tropical cyclone (TC) development, and specific features of variations of the total content of ozone (TCO) and the vertical distribution of ozone (VDO) in the regions of TC action. Characteristic features of day-to-day and daily variations of TCO during TC development have been found. On the periphery of a developing TC, 1-4 days before it reaches the stage of storm, TCO increases, on average, by 5-8 percent, and a substantial increase in the concentration of ozone occurs in the middle and upper troposphere. The most probable physical mechanisms relating the observed specific features of ozone variations to TC evolution have been suggested. A hypothesis of the possibility of using ozone as an indicator for early prediction of TC development has been substantiated.

  14. Features of the solar array drive mechanism for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostenkamp, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array drive mechanism for the Space Telescope embodies several features not customarily found on solar array drives. Power and signal transfer is achieved by means of a flexible wire harness for which the chosen solution, consisting of 168 standard wires, is described. The torque performance data of the harness over its temperature range are presented. The off load system which protects the bearings from the launch loads is released by a trigger made from Nitinol, the memory alloy. The benefits of memory alloy and the caveats for the design are briefly discussed. The design of the off load system is described and test experience is reported.

  15. New features of electron phase space holes observed by the THEMIS mission.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Ergun, R E; Tao, J; Roux, A; Lecontel, O; Angelopoulos, V; Bonnell, J; McFadden, J P; Larson, D E; Eriksson, S; Johansson, T; Cully, C M; Newman, D L; Newman, D N; Goldman, M V; Glassmeier, K-H; Baumjohann, W

    2009-06-05

    Observations of electron phase-space holes (EHs) in Earth's plasma sheet by the THEMIS satellites include the first detection of a magnetic perturbation (deltaB_{ parallel}) parallel to the ambient magnetic field (B0). EHs with a detectable deltaB_{ parallel} have several distinguishing features including large electric field amplitudes, a magnetic perturbation perpendicular to B0, high speeds ( approximately 0.3c) along B0, and sizes along B0 of tens of Debye lengths. These EHs have a significant center potential (Phi approximately k_{B}T_{e}/e), suggesting strongly nonlinear behavior nearby such as double layers or magnetic reconnection.

  16. Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

  17. Digital Audio Application to Short Wave Broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    1997-01-01

    Digital audio is becoming prevalent not only in consumer electornics, but also in different broadcasting media. Terrestrial analog audio broadcasting in the AM and FM bands will be eventually be replaced by digital systems.

  18. Toward the development of a feature-space representation for a complex natural category domain.

    PubMed

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Meagher, Brian J; Douglas, Bruce J

    2017-04-07

    This article reports data sets aimed at the development of a detailed feature-space representation for a complex natural category domain, namely 30 common subtypes of the categories of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. We conducted web searches to develop a library of 12 tokens each of the 30 subtypes, for a total of 360 rock pictures. In one study, subjects provided ratings along a set of 18 hypothesized primary dimensions involving visual characteristics of the rocks. In other studies, subjects provided similarity judgments among pairs of the rock tokens. Analyses are reported to validate the regularity and information value of the dimension ratings. In addition, analyses are reported that derive psychological scaling solutions from the similarity-ratings data and that interrelate the derived dimensions of the scaling solutions with the directly rated dimensions of the rocks. The stimulus set and various forms of ratings data, as well as the psychological scaling solutions, are made available on an online website (https://osf.io/w64fv/) associated with the article. The study provides a fundamental data set that should be of value for a wide variety of research purposes, including: (1) probing the statistical and psychological structure of a complex natural category domain, (2) testing models of similarity judgment, and (3) developing a feature-space representation that can be used in combination with formal models of category learning to predict classification performance in this complex natural category domain.

  19. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  20. The Audio-Visual Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Pierre, Ed.

    A series of twelve essays discuss the use of audiovisuals in religious education. The essays are divided into three sections: one which draws on the ideas of Marshall McLuhan and other educators to explore the newest ideas about audiovisual language and faith, one that describes how to learn and use the new language of audio and visual images, and…

  1. Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: Low Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treblay, Remy; Fyvie, Barb; Koritko, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    A comparison was conducted of "Voxwire MeetingRoom" and "iVocalize" v4.1.0.3, both Web-conferencing products using voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) to provide unlimited, inexpensive, international audio communication, and high-quality Web-conferencing fostering collaborative learning. The study used the evaluation criteria used in earlier…

  2. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  3. Development of Sensitivity to Spacing Versus Feature Changes in Pictures of Houses: Evidence for Slow Development of a General Spacing Detection Mechanism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel A.; Shergill, Yaadwinder; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Adults are expert at recognizing faces, in part because of exquisite sensitivity to the spacing of facial features. Children are poorer than adults at recognizing facial identity and less sensitive to spacing differences. Here we examined the specificity of the immaturity by comparing the ability of 8-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and adults to…

  4. Diffraction of SH-waves by topographic features in a layered transversely isotropic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Zhenning; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Yanju

    2017-01-01

    The scattering of plane SH-waves by topographic features in a layered transversely isotropic (TI) half-space is investigated by using an indirect boundary element method (IBEM). Firstly, the anti-plane dynamic stiffness matrix of the layered TI half-space is established and the free fields are solved by using the direct stiffness method. Then, Green's functions are derived for uniformly distributed loads acting on an inclined line in a layered TI half-space and the scattered fields are constructed with the deduced Green's functions. Finally, the free fields are added to the scattered ones to obtain the global dynamic responses. The method is verified by comparing results with the published isotropic ones. Both the steady-state and transient dynamic responses are evaluated and discussed. Numerical results in the frequency domain show that surface motions for the TI media can be significantly different from those for the isotropic case, which are strongly dependent on the anisotropy property, incident angle and incident frequency. Results in the time domain show that the material anisotropy has important effects on the maximum duration and maximum amplitudes of the time histories.

  5. Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Philip C.; Rogers, Susan M.; Turner, Charles F.; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:22081744

  6. Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Philip C; Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Al-Tayyib, Alia A; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  7. Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Song, Eugenie; Arnold, Jessica A.; Lemelin, Myriam; Hanna, Kerri Donaldson; Bowles, Neil E.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral infrared measurements by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Renaissance Orbiter enable the characterization of the position of the Christiansen Feature, a thermal infrared spectral feature that laboratory work has shown is proportional to the bulk silica content of lunar surface materials. Diviner measurements show that the position of this feature is also influenced by the changes in optical and physical properties of the lunar surface with exposure to space, the process known as space weathering. Large rayed craters and lunar swirls show corresponding Christiansen Feature anomalies. The space weathering effect is likely due to differences in thermal gradients in the optical surface imposed by the space weathering control of albedo. However, inspected at high resolution, locations with extreme compositions and Christiansen Feature wavelength positions - silica-rich and olivine-rich areas - do not have extreme albedos, and fall off the albedo- Christiansen Feature wavelength position trend occupied by most of the Moon. These areas demonstrate that the Christiansen Feature wavelength position contains compositional information and is not solely dictated by albedo. An optical maturity parameter derived from near-IR measurements is used to partly correct Diviner data for space weathering influences.

  8. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping.

  9. Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2004-06-01

    Since digital music is often stored in a compressed file, it is desirable that an audio watermarking method in a content management system handles compressed files. Using an audio watermarking method that directly manipulates compressed files makes it unnecessary to decompress the files before embedding or detection, so more files can be processed per unit time. However, it is difficult to detect a watermark in a compressed file that has been compressed after the file was watermarked. This paper proposes an MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) bitstream watermarking method using a two-dimensional pseudo-random array. Detection is done by correlating the absolute values of the recovered MDCT coefficients and the pseudo-random array. Since the embedding algorithm uses the same pseudo-random values for two adjacent overlapping frames and the detection algorithm selects the better frame in the two by comparing detected watermark strengths, it is possible to detect a watermark from a compressed file that was compressed after the watermark was embedded in the original uncompressed file. Though the watermark is not detected as clearly in this case, the watermark can still be detected even when the watermark was embedded in a compressed file and the file was then decompressed, trimmed, and compressed again.

  10. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  11. How actions shape perception: learning action-outcome relations and predicting sensory outcomes promote audio-visual temporal binding

    PubMed Central

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    To maintain a temporally-unified representation of audio and visual features of objects in our environment, the brain recalibrates audio-visual simultaneity. This process allows adjustment for both differences in time of transmission and time for processing of audio and visual signals. In four experiments, we show that the cognitive processes for controlling instrumental actions also have strong influence on audio-visual recalibration. Participants learned that right and left hand button-presses each produced a specific audio-visual stimulus. Following one action the audio preceded the visual stimulus, while for the other action audio lagged vision. In a subsequent test phase, left and right button-press generated either the same audio-visual stimulus as learned initially, or the pair associated with the other action. We observed recalibration of simultaneity only for previously-learned audio-visual outcomes. Thus, learning an action-outcome relation promotes temporal grouping of the audio and visual events within the outcome pair, contributing to the creation of a temporally unified multisensory object. This suggests that learning action-outcome relations and the prediction of perceptual outcomes can provide an integrative temporal structure for our experiences of external events. PMID:27982063

  12. NFL Films audio, video, and film production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    The new NFL Films 200,000 sq. ft. headquarters is home for the critically acclaimed film production that preserves the NFL's visual legacy week-to-week during the football season, and is also the technical plant that processes and archives football footage from the earliest recorded media to the current network broadcasts. No other company in the country shoots more film than NFL Films, and the inclusion of cutting-edge video and audio formats demands that their technical spaces continually integrate the latest in the ever-changing world of technology. This facility houses a staggering array of acoustically sensitive spaces where music and sound are equal partners with the visual medium. Over 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space is comprised of an array of sound stages, music scoring stages, audio control rooms, music writing rooms, recording studios, mixing theaters, video production control rooms, editing suites, and a screening theater. Every production control space in the building is designed to monitor and produce multi channel surround sound audio. An overview of the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered for each sophisticated listening, recording, viewing, editing, and sound critical environment will be discussed.

  13. SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2008-08-01

    Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise.

  14. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  15. Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay

    2003-12-01

    Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

  16. Mining potential biomarkers associated with space flight in Caenorhabditis elegans experienced Shenzhou-8 mission with multiple feature selection techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Gao, Ying; Mi, Dong; Sun, Yeqing

    To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm. Gene Ontology annotation and functional enrichment analyses showed that these genes were mainly associated with metabolism process. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed that 17 genes among these are positive, including 9 for space synthetic environment and 8 for space radiation environment only. These genes could be used as the biomarkers to reflect the space environment stresses. In addition, we also found that microgravity is the main stress factor to change the expression patterns of biomarkers for the short-duration spaceflight.

  17. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  18. [The new method monitoring agricultural drought based on SWIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    PubMed

    Feng, Hai-Xia; Qin, Qi-Ming; Li, Bin-Yong; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dong, Heng; Wang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ming-Chao; Zhang, Ning

    2011-11-01

    Drought was a chronic, natural disaster, and Remote sensing drought monitoring had become a potential research field. In the present, short-wave infrared and red bands which sensitive to moisture variation were selected to monitor farmland drought conditions by analyzing the spectral characteristics of vegetation and soil. The goal of this paper was to provide a new method of drought monitoring--normalized drought monitoring index (NPDI), based on new constructed spectrum feature space by the difference of SWIR and Red and the sum of SWIR and Red. Field surveyed soil moisture verified NPDI model, and the result showed that NDPI and MPDI model could effectively monitor agricultural drought, and that had high correlation with soil moisture. The R2 was 0.583 and 0.438 with soil water of 10 cm. The monitoring effect of NPDI model was better than the MPDL. This model was further improvement to PDI and MPDI, and it could monitor the drought condition of different vegetation coverage and whole growing season. It has high application potential and popularization value.

  19. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  20. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  1. Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Aschwanden, M. J. 2005, Physics of the Solar Corona . An Introduction with Problems and Solutions (2nd edition), ed. Aschwanden, M. J. Balasubramaniam, K...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0020 Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity...Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-09

  2. Using virtual 3D audio in multispeech channel and multimedia environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Michael D.; Karplus, Walter J.; Balakrishnan, Jerry D.

    2000-08-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using virtual 3-D audio in mission-critical, multimedia display interfaces were evaluated. The 3D audio platform seems to be an especially promising candidate for aircraft cockpits, flight control rooms, and other command and control environments in which operators must make mission-critical decisions while handling demanding and routine tasks. Virtual audio signal processing creates the illusion for a listener wearing conventional earphones that each of a multiplicity of simultaneous speech or audio channels is originating from a different, program- specified location in virtual space. To explore the possible uses of this new, readily available technology, a test bed simulating some of the conditions experienced by the chief flight test coordinator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center was designed and implemented. Thirty test subjects simultaneously performed routine tasks requiring constant hand-eye coordination, while monitoring four speech channels, each generating continuous speech signals, for the occurrence of pre-specified keywords. Performance measures included accuracy in identifying the keywords, accuracy in identifying the speaker of the keyword, and response time. We found substantial improvements on all of these measures when comparing virtual audio with conventional, monaural transmissions. We also explored the effect on operator performance of different spatial configurations of the audio sources in 3-D space, simulated movement (dither) in the source locations, and of providing graphical redundancy. Some of these manipulations were less effective and may even decrease performance efficiency, even though they improve some aspects of the virtual space simulation.

  3. Digital Audio Radio Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the beginning of phase two of Digital Audio Radio testing conducted by the Consumer Electronic Manufacturers Association (a sector of the Electronic Industries Association and the National Radio Systems Committee) and cosponsored by the Electronic Industries Association and the National Association of Broadcasters. The bulk of the field testing of the four systems should be complete by the end of October 1996, with results available soon thereafter. Lewis hosted phase one of the testing process, which included laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes (see the following table). Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes, thus making a total of nine systems for testing. These nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent channel (IBAC), and new bands - the L-band (1452 to 1492 MHz) and the S-band (2310 to 2360 MHz).

  4. Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

  5. Independent component analysis for audio signal separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellhausen, Jens; Gnann, Volker

    2005-10-01

    In this paper an audio separation algorithm is presented, which is based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Audio separation could be the basis for many applications for example in the field of telecommunications, quality enhancement of audio recordings or audio classification tasks. Well known ICA algorithms are not usable for real-world recordings at the time, because they are designed for signal mixtures based on linear and over time constant mixing matrices. To adapt a standard ICA algorithm for real-world two-channel auditory scenes with two audio sources, the input audio streams are segmented in the time domain and a constant mixing matrix within a segment is assumed. The next steps are a time-delay estimation for each audio source in the mixture and a determination of the number of existing sources. In the following processing steps, for each source the input signals are time shifted and a standard ICA for linear mixtures is performed. After that, the remaining tasks are an evaluation of the ICA results and the construction of the resulting audio streams containing the separated sources.

  6. Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Broadcast Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    An experiment assessed the potential effectiveness of "dual audio television instruction" (DATI) as a mass education medium. The DATI consisted of a radio program heard by children while they watched television shows. The audio instructor did not talk when the television characters spoke, but used the "quiet" times to help with…

  7. The Concept of Audio-Tutorial Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, D. D.; Postlethwait, S. N.

    Audio-tutorial teaching, originated at Purdue University, employs an audio tape as a vehicle for guiding the student through a series of learning experiences. The student may be directed to use his textbook for an explanation of a diagram, to refer to his laboratory manual, or to observe the specimens and experimental materials prepared for his…

  8. Digital Advances in Contemporary Audio Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Steven O.

    Noting that a revolution in sonic high fidelity occurred during the 1980s as digital-based audio production methods began to replace traditional analog modes, this paper offers both an overview of digital audio theory and descriptions of some of the related digital production technologies that have begun to emerge from the mating of the computer…

  9. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  10. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study.

  11. Audio-visual simultaneity judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Guest, Steve; Shore, David I; Spence, Charles

    2005-04-01

    The relative spatiotemporal correspondence between sensory events affects multisensory integration across a variety of species; integration is maximal when stimuli in different sensory modalities are presented from approximately the same position at about the same time. In the present study, we investigated the influence of spatial and temporal factors on audio-visual simultaneity perception in humans. Participants made unspeeded simultaneous versus successive discrimination responses to pairs of auditory and visual stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies from either the same or different spatial positions using either the method of constant stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) or psychophysical staircases (Experiment 3). The participants in all three experiments were more likely to report the stimuli as being simultaneous when they originated from the same spatial position than when they came from different positions, demonstrating that the apparent perception of multisensory simultaneity is dependent on the relative spatial position from which stimuli are presented.

  12. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  13. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  14. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Philip C; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

  15. The Effects of Audio-Visual Recorded and Audio Recorded Listening Tasks on the Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drood, Pooya; Asl, Hanieh Davatgari

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which task in classrooms has developed and proceeded have receive great attention in the field of language teaching and learning in the sense that they draw attention of learners to the competing features such as accuracy, fluency, and complexity. English audiovisual and audio recorded materials have been widely used by teachers and…

  16. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

  17. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF) nitrogen gas discharge (10 - 100 kHz) is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm) and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ˜ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 - 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  18. Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-06

    Ephemeral Brightening,” 2nd ATST – East Workshop In Solar Physics: Magnetic Fields From The Photosphere To The Corona , Washington D.C., Mar 2012. [6...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2012-0133 TR-2012-0133 AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF SOLAR FEATURES FOR DEVELOPING DATA DRIVEN PREDICTION MODELS OF... SOLAR ACTIVITY AND SPACE WEATHER Jason Jackiewicz New Mexico State University Department of Astronomy PO Box 30001, MSC 4500 Las

  19. The Audio Description as a Physics Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozendey, Sabrina; Costa, Maria da Piedade

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the use of audio description in teaching physics concepts, aiming to determine the variables that influence the understanding of the concept. One education resource was audio described. For make the audio description the screen was freezing. The video with and without audio description should be presented to students, so that…

  20. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  1. A Study of Audio Tape: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reen, Noel K.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate reel audio tape, tests were performed to identify: signal-to-noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, dynamic response, frequency response, biased and virgin tape noise, dropout susceptibility and oxide coating uniformity. (SCC)

  2. The Effect Of 3D Audio And Other Audio Techniques On Virtual Reality Experience.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hoekstra, Allart R D; van Egmond, René

    2015-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of audio on people's experience in a virtual world. The first study showed that people could distinguish between mono, stereo, Dolby surround and 3D audio of a wasp. The second study found significant effects for audio techniques on people's self-reported anxiety, presence, and spatial perception. The third study found that adding sound to a visual virtual world had a significant effect on people's experience (including heart rate), while it found no difference in experience between stereo and 3D audio.

  3. Feature selection for multimodal emotion recognition in the arousal-valence space.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian A; Orozco, Álvaro A; Álvarez, Mauricio A

    2013-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a challenging research problem with a significant scientific interest. Most of the emotion assessment studies have focused on the analysis of facial expressions. Recently, it has been shown that the simultaneous use of several biosignals taken from the patient may improve the classification accuracy. An open problem in this area is to identify which biosignals are more relevant for emotion recognition. In this paper, we perform Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) to select a subset of features that allows emotion classification. Experiments are carried out over a multimodal database with arousal and valence annotations, and a diverse range of features extracted from physiological, neurophysiological, and video signals. Results show that several features can be eliminated while still preserving classification accuracy in setups of 2 and 3 classes. Using a small subset of the features, it is possible to reach 70% accuracy for arousal and 60% accuracy for valence in some experiments. Experimentally, it is shown that the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is relevant for arousal classification, while the electroencephalogram (EEG) is relevant for valence.

  4. Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    enable searching of multilingual video news sources by a monolingual speaker. In addition to full search capabilities, the system also enables real... Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting David D. Palmer, Patrick Bray, Marc Reichman, Katherine Rhodes, Noah White Virage Advanced...DATE 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting 5a

  5. Universal features of four-dimensional superconformal field theory on conic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Following the set up in arXiv:1408.3393, we study 4 d superconformal field theories on conic spaces. We show that the universal part of supersymmetric Rényi entropy S q across a spherical entangling surface in the limit q → 0 is proportional to a linear combination of central charges, 3 c - 2 a. This is equivalent to a similar statement about the free energy of SCFTs on conic space or hyperbolic space in the corresponding limit. We first derive the asymptotic formula by the free field computation in the presence of a U (1) R-symmetry background and then provide an independent derivation by studying theories on with a particular scaling , which thus confirms the validity of the formula for general interacting SCFTs. Finally we revisit the supersymmetric Rényi entropy of generel SCFTs and find a simple formula for it in terms of central charges a and c.

  6. Study on the construction of multi-dimensional Remote Sensing feature space for hydrological drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Daxiang; Tan, Debao; Cui, Yuanlai; Wen, Xiongfei; Shen, Shaohong; Li, Zhe

    2014-03-01

    Hydrological drought refers to an abnormal water shortage caused by precipitation and surface water shortages or a groundwater imbalance. Hydrological drought is reflected in a drop of surface water, decrease of vegetation productivity, increase of temperature difference between day and night and so on. Remote sensing permits the observation of surface water, vegetation, temperature and other information from a macro perspective. This paper analyzes the correlation relationship and differentiation of both remote sensing and surface measured indicators, after the selection and extraction a series of representative remote sensing characteristic parameters according to the spectral characterization of surface features in remote sensing imagery, such as vegetation index, surface temperature and surface water from HJ-1A/B CCD/IRS data. Finally, multi-dimensional remote sensing features such as hydrological drought are built on a intelligent collaborative model. Further, for the Dong-ting lake area, two drought events are analyzed for verification of multi-dimensional features using remote sensing data with different phases and field observation data. The experiments results proved that multi-dimensional features are a good method for hydrological drought.

  7. Geometry and dimensionality reduction of feature spaces in primary visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Some geometric properties of the wavelet analysis performed by visual neurons are discussed and compared with experimental data. In particular, several relationships between the cortical morphologies and the parametric dependencies of extracted features are formalized and considered from a harmonic analysis point of view.

  8. Neuromagnetic Evidence for a Featural Distinction of English Consonants: Sensor- and Source-Space Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharinger, Mathias; Merickel, Jennifer; Riley, Joshua; Idsardi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds can be classified on the basis of their underlying articulators or on the basis of the acoustic characteristics resulting from particular articulatory positions. Research in speech perception suggests that distinctive features are based on both articulatory and acoustic information. In recent years, neuroelectric and neuromagnetic…

  9. Regional shape-based feature space for segmenting biomedical images using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaramoorthy, Gopal; Hoford, John D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    In biomedical images, structure of interest, particularly the soft tissue structures, such as the heart, airways, bronchial and arterial trees often have grey-scale and textural characteristics similar to other structures in the image, making it difficult to segment them using only gray- scale and texture information. However, these objects can be visually recognized by their unique shapes and sizes. In this paper we discuss, what we believe to be, a novel, simple scheme for extracting features based on regional shapes. To test the effectiveness of these features for image segmentation (classification), we use an artificial neural network and a statistical cluster analysis technique. The proposed shape-based feature extraction algorithm computes regional shape vectors (RSVs) for all pixels that meet a certain threshold criteria. The distance from each such pixel to a boundary is computed in 8 directions (or in 26 directions for a 3-D image). Together, these 8 (or 26) values represent the pixel's (or voxel's) RSV. All RSVs from an image are used to train a multi-layered perceptron neural network which uses these features to 'learn' a suitable classification strategy. To clearly distinguish the desired object from other objects within an image, several examples from inside and outside the desired object are used for training. Several examples are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our algorithm. Both synthetic and actual biomedical images are considered. Future extensions to this algorithm are also discussed.

  10. Developmental features of the neonatal brain: MR imaging. Part II. Ventricular size and extracerebral space.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C B; Richardson, C J; Nicholas, D A; Mirfakhraee, M; Hayden, C K; Amparo, E G

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a 0.6-T magnet was performed on 51 neonates, aged 29-42 weeks postconception. In 45 neonates, the ventricular/brain ratio (V/B) at the level of the frontal horns and midbody of the lateral ventricles ranged from 0.26 to 0.34. In six other infants a V/B of 0.36 or greater was associated with either cerebral atrophy or obstructive hydrocephalus. The width of the extracerebral space measured along specified points varied little in the neonatal period and ranged from 0 to 4 mm in 48 infants. Extracerebral space widths of 5-6 mm were seen in three other infants with severe asphyxia. Prominence of the subarachnoid space overlying the posterior parietal lobes is normal in neonates and should not be confused with cerebral atrophy. The authors conclude that V/B ratios of 0.26-0.34 and extracerebral space widths of 0-4 mm represent the normal range, and that neonates whose measurements exceed these values should be followed up.

  11. Far-space neglect in conjunction but not feature search following transcranial magnetic stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mahayana, Indra T; Liu, Chia-Lun; Chang, Chi Fu; Hung, Daisy L; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

    2014-02-01

    Near- and far-space coding in the human brain is a dynamic process. Areas in dorsal, as well as ventral visual association cortex, including right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), right frontal eye field (rFEF), and right ventral occipital cortex (rVO), have been shown to be important in visuospatial processing, but the involvement of these areas when the information is in near or far space remains unclear. There is a need for investigations of these representations to help explain the pathophysiology of hemispatial neglect, and the role of near and far space is crucial to this. We used a conjunction visual search task using an elliptical array to investigate the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered over rFEF, rPPC, and rVO on the processing of targets in near and far space and at a range of horizontal eccentricities. As in previous studies, we found that rVO was involved in far-space search, and rFEF was involved regardless of the distance to the array. It was found that rPPC was involved in search only in far space, with a neglect-like effect when the target was located in the most eccentric locations. No effects were seen for any site for a feature search task. As the search arrays had higher predictability with respect to target location than is often the case, these data may form a basis for clarifying both the role of PPC in visual search and its contribution to neglect, as well as the importance of near and far space in these.

  12. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  13. Filling the void-enriching the feature space of successful stopping.

    PubMed

    Huster, René J; Schneider, Signe; Lavallee, Christina F; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2017-03-01

    The ability to inhibit behavior is crucial for adaptation in a fast changing environment and is commonly studied with the stop signal task. Current EEG research mainly focuses on the N200 and P300 ERPs and corresponding activity in the theta and delta frequency range, thereby leaving us with a limited understanding of the mechanisms of response inhibition. Here, 15 functional networks were estimated from time-frequency transformed EEG recorded during processing of a visual stop signal task. Cortical sources underlying these functional networks were reconstructed, and a total of 45 features, each representing spectrally and temporally coherent activity, were extracted to train a classifier to differentiate between go and stop trials. A classification accuracy of 85.55% for go and 83.85% for stop trials was achieved. Features capturing fronto-central delta- and theta activity, parieto-occipital alpha, fronto-central as well as right frontal beta activity were highly discriminating between trial-types. However, only a single network, comprising a feature defined by oscillatory activity below 12 Hz, was associated with a generator in the opercular region of the right inferior frontal cortex and showed the expected associations with behavioral inhibition performance. This study pioneers by providing a detailed ranking of neural features regarding their information content for stop and go differentiation at the single-trial level, and may further be the first to identify a scalp EEG marker of the inhibitory control network. This analysis allows for the characterization of the temporal dynamics of response inhibition by matching electrophysiological phenomena to cortical generators and behavioral inhibition performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1333-1346, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  15. STS-44 onboard (in-space) crew portrait features 'Trash Man' Hennen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for a second onboard (in-space) portrait on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. This portrait was intended to focus on Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen, holding extended duration orbiter (EDO) trash compactor handles, who earned the nickname, 'Trash Man' during the flight. It was Hennen who 'starred' in a brief onboard video production about the disposal of trash and waste. Others in the picture are (front row) Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) James S. Voss and (back row left to right) MS Mario Runco, Jr, MS F. Story Musgrave, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks.

  16. Competing descriptions of diffusion profiles with two features: Surface space-charge layer versus fast grain-boundary diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraknepper, H.; De Souza, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical processes, (i) fast grain-boundary diffusion (FGBD) of oxygen and (ii) hindered oxygen diffusion in a surface space-charge layer, yield oxygen isotope diffusion profiles in a similar form. Two features are observed, with the short, sharp profile close to the surface being followed by a longer, shallower profile. In this study, we develop a procedure for deciding which of the two descriptions applies to experimentally measured profiles. Specifically, we solve Fick's second law, using finite-element simulations, to obtain oxygen isotope diffusion profiles for the two cases. Each set of profiles is then analysed in terms of the competing description. In this manner, we derive falsifiable conditions that allow physical processes to be assigned unambiguously to the two features of such isotope profiles. Applying these conditions to experimental profiles for SrTiO3 single crystals published in the literature, we find that FGBD is an invalid model for describing the diffusion processes.

  17. On the scaling features of magnetic field fluctuations at non-MHD scales in turbulent space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolini, G.; Giannattasio, F.; Yordanova, E.; Vörös, Z.; Marcucci, M. F.; Echim, M.; Chang, T.

    2016-11-01

    In several different contexts space plasmas display intermittent turbulence at magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) scales, which manifests in anomalous scaling features of the structure functions of the magnetic field increments. Moving to smaller scales, i.e. below the ion-cyclotron and/or ion inertial length, these scaling features are still observed, even though its is not clear if these scaling features are still anomalous or not. Here, we investigate the nature of scaling properties of magnetic field increments at non-MHD scales for a period of fast solar wind to investigate the occurrence or not of multifractal features and collapsing of probability distribution functions (PDFs) using the novel Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA) method, which is more sensitive than the traditional structure function approach. We find a strong evidence for the occurrence of a near mono-scaling behavior, which suggests that the observed turbulent regime at non-MHD scales mainly displays a mono-fractal nature of magnetic field increments. The results are discussed in terms of a non-compact fractal structure of the dissipation field.

  18. A Visual Analytics Approach Using the Exploration of Multidimensional Feature Spaces for Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Nette, Falk; Klein, Karsten; Fulham, Michael; Kim, Jinman

    2015-09-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a search technique based on the similarity of visual features and has demonstrated potential benefits for medical diagnosis, education, and research. However, clinical adoption of CBIR is partially hindered by the difference between the computed image similarity and the user's search intent, the semantic gap, with the end result that relevant images with outlier features may not be retrieved. Furthermore, most CBIR algorithms do not provide intuitive explanations as to why the retrieved images were considered similar to the query (e.g., which subset of features were similar), hence, it is difficult for users to verify if relevant images, with a small subset of outlier features, were missed. Users, therefore, resort to examining irrelevant images and there are limited opportunities to discover these "missed" images. In this paper, we propose a new approach to medical CBIR by enabling a guided visual exploration of the search space through a tool, called visual analytics for medical image retrieval (VAMIR). The visual analytics approach facilitates interactive exploration of the entire dataset using the query image as a point-of-reference. We conducted a user study and several case studies to demonstrate the capabilities of VAMIR in the retrieval of computed tomography images and multimodality positron emission tomography and computed tomography images.

  19. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  20. Transitioning from Analog to Digital Audio Recording in Childhood Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Mcsweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing…

  1. Our Understanding of Space Weather features responsible for geostationary satellite anamolies (P39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, G.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    girija60@yahoo.com The topic of space weather effects on operational anomalies on spacecraft is one of considerable research investigation, with both pure and applied aspects. This is because of the very high costs involved in fabricating and operating spacecraft, and in insuring them against the harmful effects of space weather. This is more true for geostationary satellites than of low-orbiting spacecraft, as the former operate in the high-risk environment of the Earth’s outer radiation belts, with its large vagaries in spatial and time variations of high- energy electron and proton distributions (BAKER 2003). Without doubt, plasma and magnetic field emissions from active regions on the Sun are the root cause for spacecraft anomalies. Our study for 2005 shows that over 95% of anomalies can be related to some definite activity on the Sun, ranging from high-speed solar wind streams with their 27-day recurrence patterns/coronal holes/coronal mass ejections preceded by X or M type of flares/and magnetic cloud events. The most energetic solar activity events are generally accompanied by a large rise in solar MeV proton densities at geo-stationary orbit (WILKINSON 1994), and they account for definite anomalies classified as SEU (Single Event Upsets which most often are reversible through resetting commands). Any particles in the low energy ranges (eV and keV, and these could be of magnetospheric or ionospheric origin), are believed to cause external charging effects in exposed parts of the spacecraft such as solar power arrays and power cables. These mainly result in power losses which are debilitating over a period of time. The most dangerous and often irrecoverable damage is due to electronics in the 1-5 MeV range which cause deep dielectric discharge of arc type in semi-conductors comprising spacecraft instruments. Following major solar activity, the populations of these rise to more than (5x103) particles/cm2.ster.sec, with large spatial and time variations (LOVE

  2. [Monitoring of farmland drought based on LST-LAI spectral feature space].

    PubMed

    Sui, Xin-Xin; Qin, Qi-Ming; Dong, Heng; Wang, Jin-Liang; Meng, Qing-Ye; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Farmland drought has the characteristics of wide range and seriously affecting on agricultural production, so real-time dynamic monitored has been a challenging problem. By using MODIS land products, and constructing the spectral space of LST and LAI, the temperature LAI drought index (TLDI) was put forward and validated using ground-measured 0-10 cm averaged soil moisture of Ningxia farmland. The results show that the coefficient of determination (R2) of both them varies from 0.43 to 0.86. Compared to TVDI, the TLDI has higher accuracy for farmland moisture monitoring, and solves the saturation of NDVI during the late development phases of the crop. Furthermore, directly using MODIS land products LST and LAI and avoiding the complicated process of using the original MODIS data provide a new technical process to the regular operation of farmland drought monitoring.

  3. Audio Haptic Videogaming for Developing Wayfinding Skills in Learners Who are Blind.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; de Borba Campos, Marcia; Espinoza, Matías; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    Interactive digital technologies are currently being developed as a novel tool for education and skill development. Audiopolis is an audio and haptic based videogame designed for developing orientation and mobility (O&M) skills in people who are blind. We have evaluated the cognitive impact of videogame play on O&M skills by assessing performance on a series of behavioral tasks carried out in both indoor and outdoor virtual spaces. Our results demonstrate that the use of Audiopolis had a positive impact on the development and use of O&M skills in school-aged learners who are blind. The impact of audio and haptic information on learning is also discussed.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  5. High performance MPEG-audio decoder IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, M.; Benbassat, G.; Cyr, K.; Li, S.; Gill, M.; Kam, D.; Walker, K.; Look, P.; Eldridge, C.; Ng, P.

    1993-01-01

    The emerging digital audio and video compression technology brings both an opportunity and a new challenge to IC design. The pervasive application of compression technology to consumer electronics will require high volume, low cost IC's and fast time to market of the prototypes and production units. At the same time, the algorithms used in the compression technology result in complex VLSI IC's. The conflicting challenges of algorithm complexity, low cost, and fast time to market have an impact on device architecture and design methodology. The work presented in this paper is about the design of a dedicated, high precision, Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) audio decoder.

  6. Synchronized and noise-robust audio recordings during realtime magnetic resonance imaging scans (L)

    PubMed Central

    Bresch, Erik; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2007-01-01

    This letter describes a data acquisition setup for recording, and processing, running speech from a person in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The main focus is on ensuring synchronicity between image and audio acquisition, and in obtaining good signal to noise ratio to facilitate further speech analysis and modeling. A field-programmable gate array based hardware design for synchronizing the scanner image acquisition to other external data such as audio is described. The audio setup itself features two fiber optical microphones and a noise-canceling filter. Two noise cancellation methods are described including a novel approach using a pulse sequence specific model of the gradient noise of the MRI scanner. The setup is useful for scientific speech production studies. Sample results of speech and singing data acquired and processed using the proposed method are given. PMID:17069275

  7. Hierarchical structure for audio-video based semantic classification of sports video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, M. H.; Sengupta, S.

    2005-07-01

    A hierarchical structure for sports event classification based on audio and video content analysis is proposed in this paper. Compared to the event classifications in other games, those of cricket are very challenging and yet unexplored. We have successfully solved cricket video classification problem using a six level hierarchical structure. The first level performs event detection based on audio energy and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) of short-time audio signal. In the subsequent levels, we classify the events based on video features using a Hidden Markov Model implemented through Dynamic Programming (HMM-DP) using color or motion as a likelihood function. For some of the game-specific decisions, a rule-based classification is also performed. Our proposed hierarchical structure can easily be applied to any other sports. Our results are very promising and we have moved a step forward towards addressing semantic classification problems in general.

  8. Features of space-charge-limited emission in foil-less diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Yuan, Keliang; Liu, Guozhi; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-15

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) current can always be obtained from the blade surface of annular cathodes in foil-less diodes which are widely used in O-type relativistic high power microwave generators. However, there is little theoretical analysis regarding it due to the mathematical complexity, and almost all formulas about the SCL current in foil-less diodes are based on numerical simulation results. This paper performs an initial trial in calculation of the SCL current from annular cathodes theoretically under the ultra-relativistic assumption and the condition of infinitely large guiding magnetic field. The numerical calculation based on the theoretical research is coherent with the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation result to some extent under a diode voltage of 850 kV. Despite that the theoretical research gives a much larger current than the PIC simulation (41.3 kA for the former and 9.7 kA for the latter), which is induced by the ultra-relativistic assumption in the theoretical research, they both show the basic characteristic of emission from annular cathodes in foil-less diodes, i.e., the emission enhancement at the cathode blade edges, especially at the outer edge. This characteristic is confirmed to some extent in our experimental research of cathode plasma photographing under the same diode voltage and a guiding magnetic field of 4 T.

  9. Three-dimensional audio versus head-down traffic alert and collision avoidance system displays.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Pittman, M T

    1996-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display for situational awareness was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: standard head-down Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System display and three-dimensional (3-D) audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System presentation. (The technology used for 3-D audio presentation allows a stereo headphone user to potentially localize a sound at any externalized position in 3-D auditory space). Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full-mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft that activated a 3-D aural advisory (the head-up auditory condition) or a standard, visual-audio TCAS advisory (map display with monaural audio alert). Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System condition by 500 ms.

  10. Estimating Species Distributions Across Space Through Time and with Features of the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelling, S.; Fink, D.; Hochachka, W.; Rosenberg, K.; Cook, R.; Damoulas, C.; Silva, C.; Michener, W.

    2013-01-01

    Complete guidance for mastering the tools and techniques of the digital revolution With the digital revolution opening up tremendous opportunities in many fields, there is a growing need for skilled professionals who can develop data-intensive systems and extract information and knowledge from them. This book frames for the first time a new systematic approach for tackling the challenges of data-intensive computing, providing decision makers and technical experts alike with practical tools for dealing with our exploding data collections. Emphasizing data-intensive thinking and interdisciplinary collaboration, The Data Bonanza: Improving Knowledge Discovery in Science, Engineering, and Business examines the essential components of knowledge discovery, surveys many of the current research efforts worldwide, and points to new areas for innovation. Complete with a wealth of examples and DISPEL-based methods demonstrating how to gain more from data in real-world systems, the book: Outlines the concepts and rationale for implementing data-intensive computing in organizations Covers from the ground up problem-solving strategies for data analysis in a data-rich world Introduces techniques for data-intensive engineering using the Data-Intensive Systems Process Engineering Language DISPEL Features in-depth case studies in customer relations, environmental hazards, seismology, and more Showcases successful applications in areas ranging from astronomy and the humanities to transport engineering Includes sample program snippets throughout the text as well as additional materials on a companion website The Data Bonanza is a must-have guide for information strategists, data analysts, and engineers in business, research, and government, and for anyone wishing to be on the cutting edge of data mining, machine learning, databases, distributed systems, or large-scale computing.

  11. [The features of adaptation and disadaptation of the human cardiovascular system in the space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Kotovskaia, A R; Fomina, G A

    2010-01-01

    The work was aimed at analysis and generalization of the hemodynamic data collected over 20 years from 26 cosmonauts flown 8 to 438 days aboard orbital stations Salyut 7 and Mir. The paper presents the results of ultrasonic investigations of the heart, arterial and venous peripheral vessels in different parts of human body, and measurements of leg veins capacity with the use of occlusive plethysmograpy. It was shown that in the resting condition such prime hemodynamic parameters as the pumping function of the heart and blood supply of the brain, and integral parameters, i.e. arterial pressure and heat rate, were best "protected" as they demonstrated stability throughout long exposure in microgravity. In the absence of gravitational stimulation, arterial resistance went down in essentially all vascular regions below the heart level; to put it differently, the anti-gravity distribution of the vascular tone was annulled gradually as unneeded in microgravity. Compared with the data about arteries, venous hemodynamics was found to be particularly sensitive considering the early advent and significance of changes. Venous return slowed down, resistance of the lower body vessels declined and capacity of the leg venous net increased. Functional testing with the lower body negative pressure revealed degradation of the gravity-dependent reactions that became more conspicuous as flight duration extended further. Cardiovascular deconditioning showed itself clearly on return to Earth's gravity by decreased g-tolerance during re-entry and orthostatic instability post flight. These investigations provided objective evidence for multifactorial genesis of orthostatic instability during space flight including blood redistribution, altered tone regulation of leg's venous and arterial vessels and hypovolemia.

  12. Feature to space conversion during target selection in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Mikami, Akichika

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the neuronal mechanism of the process of selection of a target from an array of stimuli, we analysed neuronal activity of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the response period of a serial probe reproduction task. During the response period of this task, monkeys were trained to select a memorized target object from an array of three objects and make a saccadic eye movement toward it. Of 611 neurons, 74 neurons showed visual response and 56 neurons showed presaccadic activity during the response period. Among visual neurons, 27 showed array- and target-selectivity. All of these array- and target-selective visual responses were recorded from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Among 56 neurons with presaccadic activity, nine showed target-selective activity, 17 showed target- and direction-selective activity, and 23 showed direction-selective activity. The target-selective, and the target- and direction-selective activities were recorded from the VLPFC, and the direction-selective activities were recorded from VLPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The starting time of the activity was earlier for the target-selective, and target- and direction-selective activities in VLPFC, intermediate for the direction-selective activities in VLPFC, and later for the direction-selective activities in DLPFC. These results suggest that VLPFC plays a role in the process of selection of a target object from an array of stimuli, VLPFC and DLPFC play a role in determining the location of the target in space, and DLPFC plays a role in selecting a direction and making a decision to generate a saccadic eye movement.

  13. Music information retrieval in compressed audio files: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampoglou, Markos; Malamos, Athanasios G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present an organized survey of the existing literature on music information retrieval systems in which descriptor features are extracted directly from the compressed audio files, without prior decompression to pulse-code modulation format. Avoiding the decompression step and utilizing the readily available compressed-domain information can significantly lighten the computational cost of a music information retrieval system, allowing application to large-scale music databases. We identify a number of systems relying on compressed-domain information and form a systematic classification of the features they extract, the retrieval tasks they tackle and the degree in which they achieve an actual increase in the overall speed-as well as any resulting loss in accuracy. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the field, and the potential research directions they open toward ultra-fast, scalable systems.

  14. Cross-modal retrieval of scripted speech audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Charles B.; Makedon, Fillia

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an approach to the problem of searching speech-based digital audio using cross-modal information retrieval. Audio containing speech (speech-based audio) is difficult to search. Open vocabulary speech recognition is advancing rapidly, but cannot yield high accuracy in either search or transcription modalities. However, text can be searched quickly and efficiently with high accuracy. Script- light digital audio is audio that has an available transcription. This is a surprisingly large class of content including legal testimony, broadcasting, dramatic productions and political meetings and speeches. An automatic mechanism for deriving the synchronization between the transcription and the audio allows for very accurate retrieval of segments of that audio. The mechanism described in this paper is based on building a transcription graph from the text and computing biphone probabilities for the audio. A modified beam search algorithm is presented to compute the alignment.

  15. Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

  16. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

  17. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Rosensweig, R E; Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S; Raj, K

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  18. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  19. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  20. Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

  1. Improving Audio Quality in Distance Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Craig H.

    This paper discusses common causes of problems encountered with audio systems in distance learning networks and offers practical suggestions for correcting the problems. Problems and discussions are divided into nine categories: (1) acoustics, including reverberant classrooms leading to distorted or garbled voices, as well as one-dimensional audio…

  2. Some Final Reflections on Dual Audio Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    The Philadelphia City Schools engaged in a four-year program to develop and test dual audio television, a way to help children learn more from the massive amount of time they spend watching commercial television. The format consisted of an instructional radio broadcast that accompanied popular television shows and attempted to clarify and amplify…

  3. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  4. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  5. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  6. To Make a Long Story Short: Abridged Audio at 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annichiarico, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of abridged audio publishing 10 years after the formation of the Audio Publishers Association. Topics include abridged versus unabridged versions for bookstores and libraries; vendors and publishers; future possibilities for CDs and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc); and audio leasing for libraries. (LRW)

  7. A Study of Alternative Delivery Systems for Audio Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Pat A.

    The Newark Audio Instruction Project determined and evaluated the cost benefits and efficiency factors in using FM main channel and subchannel, the school intercom system, and audio cassettes for delivery of instructional programming for grades K-9, and developed a master plan for integrating radio/audio instruction into the curriculum. A…

  8. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming... analog programming service currently provided to listeners. (b) Emergency information. The...

  9. Guidelines for Audio-Visual Services in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    The purpose of these guidelines, prepared by the Audio-Visual Committee of the Association of College and Research Libraries, is to supply basic assistance to those academic libraries that will assume all or a major portion of an audio-visual program. They attempt to assist librarians to recognize and develop their audio-visual responsibilities…

  10. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  11. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  12. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  13. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  14. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual “bisensory” stimuli. Three metrics were measured—onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets. PMID:26778952

  15. Extrastriate Visual Areas Integrate Form Features over Space and Time to Construct Representations of Stationary and Rigidly Rotating Objects.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Kohler, Peter J; Tse, Peter U; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2015-11-01

    When an object moves behind a bush, for example, its visible fragments are revealed at different times and locations across the visual field. Nonetheless, a whole moving object is perceived. Unlike traditional modal and amodal completion mechanisms known to support spatial form integration when all parts of a stimulus are simultaneously visible, relatively little is known about the neural substrates of the spatiotemporal form integration (STFI) processes involved in generating coherent object representations from a succession visible fragments. We used fMRI to identify brain regions involved in two mechanisms supporting the representation of stationary and rigidly rotating objects whose form features are shown in succession: STFI and position updating. STFI allows past and present form cues to be integrated over space and time into a coherent object even when the object is not visible in any given frame. STFI can occur whether or not the object is moving. Position updating allows us to perceive a moving object, whether rigidly rotating or translating, even when its form features are revealed at different times and locations in space. Our results suggest that STFI is mediated by visual regions beyond V1 and V2. Moreover, although widespread cortical activation has been observed for other motion percepts derived solely from form-based analyses [Tse, P. U. Neural correlates of transformational apparent motion. Neuroimage, 31, 766-773, 2006; Krekelberg, B., Vatakis, A., & Kourtzi, Z. Implied motion from form in the human visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94, 4373-4386, 2005], increased responses for the position updating that lead to rigidly rotating object representations were only observed in visual areas KO and possibly hMT+, indicating that this is a distinct and highly specialized type of processing.

  16. Extrastriate visual areas integrate form features over space and time to construct representations of stationary and rigidly rotating objects

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Kohler, Peter J.; Tse, Peter U.; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2016-01-01

    When an object moves behind a bush, for example, its visible fragments are revealed at different times and locations across the visual field. Nonetheless, a whole moving object is perceived. Unlike traditional modal and amodal completion mechanisms known to support spatial form integration when all parts of a stimulus are simultaneously visible, relatively little is known about the neural substrates of the spatiotemporal form integration processes involved in generating coherent object representations from a succession visible fragments. We use fMRI to identify brain regions involved in two mechanisms supporting the representation of stationary and rigidly rotating objects whose form features are shown in succession: Spatiotemporal Form Integration (STFI) and Position Updating. STFI allows past and present form cues to be integrated over space and time into a coherent object even when the object is not visible in any given frame. STFI can occur whether or not the object is moving. Position updating allows us to perceive a moving object, whether rigidly rotating or translating, even when its form features are revealed at different times and locations in space. Our results suggest that STFI is mediated by visual regions beyond V1 and V2. Moreover, while widespread cortical activation has been observed for other motion percepts derived solely from form-based analyses (Krekelberg, Vatakis, & Kourtzi, 2005; Tse, 2006), increased responses for the position updating that leads to rigidly rotating object representations were only observed in visual areas KO and possibly hMT+, indicating that this is a distinct and highly specialized type of processing. PMID:26226075

  17. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    PubMed Central

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  18. Three-dimensional audio using loudspeakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.

    1997-12-01

    3-D audio systems, which can surround a listener with sounds at arbitrary locations, are an important part of immersive interfaces. A new approach is presented for implementing 3-D audio using a pair of conventional loudspeakers. The new idea is to use the tracked position of the listener's head to optimize the acoustical presentation, and thus produce a much more realistic illusion over a larger listening area than existing loudspeaker 3-D audio systems. By using a remote head tracker, for instance based on computer vision, an immersive audio environment can be created without donning headphones or other equipment. The general approach to a 3-D audio system is to reconstruct the acoustic pressures at the listener's ears that would result from the natural listening situation to be simulated. To accomplish this using loudspeakers requires that first, the ear signals corresponding to the target scene are synthesized by appropriately encoding directional cues, a process known as 'binaural synthesis,' and second, these signals are delivered to the listener by inverting the transmission paths that exist from the speakers to the listener, a process known as 'crosstalk cancellation.' Existing crosstalk cancellation systems only function at a fixed listening location; when the listener moves away from the equalization zone, the 3-D illusion is lost. Steering the equalization zone to the tracked listener preserves the 3-D illusion over a large listening volume, thus simulating a reconstructed soundfield, and also provides dynamic localization cues by maintaining stationary external sound sources during head motion. This dissertation will discuss the theory, implementation, and testing of a head-tracked loudspeaker 3-D audio system. Crosstalk cancellers that can be steered to the location of a tracked listener will be described. The objective performance of these systems has been evaluated using simulations and acoustical measurements made at the ears of human subjects. Many

  19. Predicting the perception of performed dynamics in music audio with ensemble learning.

    PubMed

    Elowsson, Anders; Friberg, Anders

    2017-03-01

    By varying the dynamics in a musical performance, the musician can convey structure and different expressions. Spectral properties of most musical instruments change in a complex way with the performed dynamics, but dedicated audio features for modeling the parameter are lacking. In this study, feature extraction methods were developed to capture relevant attributes related to spectral characteristics and spectral fluctuations, the latter through a sectional spectral flux. Previously, ground truths ratings of performed dynamics had been collected by asking listeners to rate how soft/loud the musicians played in a set of audio files. The ratings, averaged over subjects, were used to train three different machine learning models, using the audio features developed for the study as input. The highest result was produced from an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons with an R(2) of 0.84. This result seems to be close to the upper bound, given the estimated uncertainty of the ground truth data. The result is well above that of individual human listeners of the previous listening experiment, and on par with the performance achieved from the average rating of six listeners. Features were analyzed with a factorial design, which highlighted the importance of source separation in the feature extraction.

  20. Capacity-optimized mp2 audio watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Dittmann, Jana

    2003-06-01

    Today a number of audio watermarking algorithms have been proposed, some of them at a quality making them suitable for commercial applications. The focus of most of these algorithms is copyright protection. Therefore, transparency and robustness are the most discussed and optimised parameters. But other applications for audio watermarking can also be identified stressing other parameters like complexity or payload. In our paper, we introduce a new mp2 audio watermarking algorithm optimised for high payload. Our algorithm uses the scale factors of an mp2 file for watermark embedding. They are grouped and masked based on a pseudo-random pattern generated from a secret key. In each group, we embed one bit. Depending on the bit to embed, we change the scale factors by adding 1 where necessary until it includes either more even or uneven scale factors. An uneven group has a 1 embedded, an even group a 0. The same rule is later applied to detect the watermark. The group size can be increased or decreased for transparency/payload trade-off. We embed 160 bits or more in an mp2 file per second without reducing perceived quality. As an application example, we introduce a prototypic Karaoke system displaying song lyrics embedded as a watermark.

  1. Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440 ms audio-lead to 440 ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning.

  2. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively. PMID:25300451

  3. High-performance combination method of electric network frequency and phase for audio forgery detection in battery-powered devices.

    PubMed

    Savari, Maryam; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-09-01

    Audio forgery is any act of tampering, illegal copy and fake quality in the audio in a criminal way. In the last decade, there has been increasing attention to the audio forgery detection due to a significant increase in the number of forge in different type of audio. There are a number of methods for forgery detection, which electric network frequency (ENF) is one of the powerful methods in this area for forgery detection in terms of accuracy. In spite of suitable accuracy of ENF in a majority of plug-in powered devices, the weak accuracy of ENF in audio forgery detection for battery-powered devices, especially in laptop and mobile phone, can be consider as one of the main obstacles of the ENF. To solve the ENF problem in terms of accuracy in battery-powered devices, a combination method of ENF and phase feature is proposed. From experiment conducted, ENF alone give 50% and 60% accuracy for forgery detection in mobile phone and laptop respectively, while the proposed method shows 88% and 92% accuracy respectively, for forgery detection in battery-powered devices. The results lead to higher accuracy for forgery detection with the combination of ENF and phase feature.

  4. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  5. Audio signal analysis in combination with noncontact bio-motion data to successfully monitor snoring.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, David; Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for automatic detection of snoring in sleep by combining non-contact bio-motion data with audio data. The audio data is captured using low end Android Smartphones in a non-clinical environment to mimic a possible user-friendly commercial product for sleep audio monitoring. However snore detection becomes a more challenging problem as the recorded signal has lower quality compared to those recorded in clinical environment. To have an accurate classification of snore/non-snore, we first compare a range of commonly used features extracted from the audio signal to find the best subject-independent features. Thereafter, bio-motion data is used to further improve the classification accuracy by identifying episodes which contain high amounts of body movements. High body movement indicates that the subject is turning, coughing or leaving the bed; during these instances snoring does not occur. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using the data recorded over 25 sessions from 7 healthy subjects who are suspected to be regular snorers. Our experimental results showed that the best subject-independent features for snore/non-snore classification are the energy of frequency band 3150-3650 Hz, zero crossing rate and 1st predictor coefficient of linear predictive coding. The proposed features yielded an average classification accuracy of 84.35%. The introduction of bio-motion data significantly improved the results by an average of 5.87% (p<;0.01). This work is the first study that successfully used bio-motion data to improve the accuracy of snore/non-snore classification.

  6. Quality improvement in the biomedical communications audio visual unit.

    PubMed

    Stein, D

    1994-01-01

    The audio visual unit is a highly visible and most frequently requested service provided by a biomedical communications department. To continuously improve service, delivery, and operation of an audio visual communications function is a challenge. This article presents a field-tested audit tool for describing audio visual unit strengths and limitations. The tool suggests four assessment areas: the service plan, the client communication network, training and managing staff, and standard operating policy and procedures.

  7. Audio-plexing - A method to expand satellite capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, R.; Wegener, H.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discussed the addition of audio channels through the use of subcarriers above video. The two basic types of multiplexing schemes, time-division multiplex and frequency division multiplex, are examined in detail. Attention is given to the transmission of information through a single subcarrier having multiplexed audio channels, including slow-scan video with audio and cue channels. It is noted that subcarrier additions and multiplexing are viable means of maximizing the use of the available satellite spectrum.

  8. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  9. A content-based digital audio watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking embeds inaudible information into digital audio data for the purposes of copyright protection, ownership verification, covert communication, and/or auxiliary data carrying. In this paper, we present a novel watermarking scheme to embed a meaningful gray image into digital audio by quantizing the wavelet coefficients (using integer lifting wavelet transform) of audio samples. Our audio-dependent watermarking procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking of the human auditory system (HAS) to guarantee that the embedded watermark image is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by utilizing still image compression technique, breaking each audio clip into smaller segments, selecting the perceptually significant audio segments to wavelet transform, and quantizing the perceptually significant wavelet coefficients. The proposed watermarking algorithm can extract the watermark image without the help from the original digital audio signals. We also demonstrate the robustness of that watermarking procedure to audio degradations and distortions, e.g., those that result from noise adding, MPEG compression, low pass filtering, resampling, and requantization.

  10. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    PubMed

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  11. A Novel Method Using Abstract Convex Underestimation in Ab-Initio Protein Structure Prediction for Guiding Search in Conformational Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Gen; Yu, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To address the searching problem of protein conformational space in ab-initio protein structure prediction, a novel method using abstract convex underestimation (ACUE) based on the framework of evolutionary algorithm was proposed. Computing such conformations, essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high-dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. As a consequence, the dimension of protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level. In this paper, the high-dimensionality original conformational space was converted into feature space whose dimension is considerably reduced by feature extraction technique. And, the underestimate space could be constructed according to abstract convex theory. Thus, the entropy effect caused by searching in the high-dimensionality conformational space could be avoided through such conversion. The tight lower bound estimate information was obtained to guide the searching direction, and the invalid searching area in which the global optimal solution is not located could be eliminated in advance. Moreover, instead of expensively calculating the energy of conformations in the original conformational space, the estimate value is employed to judge if the conformation is worth exploring to reduce the evaluation time, thereby making computational cost lower and the searching process more efficient. Additionally, fragment assembly and the Monte Carlo method are combined to generate a series of metastable conformations by sampling in the conformational space. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the searching problem of protein conformational space. Twenty small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins were tested, and the proposed ACUE method was compared with It Fix, HEA, Rosetta and the developed method LEDE without underestimate information. Test results show that the ACUE method can more rapidly and more

  12. Quantization and psychoacoustic model in audio coding in advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents complete optimized architecture of Advanced Audio Coder quantization with Huffman coding. After that psychoacoustic model theory is presented and few algorithms described: standard Two Loop Search, its modifications, Genetic, Just Noticeable Level Difference, Trellis-Based and its modification: Cascaded Trellis-Based Algorithm.

  13. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.144 Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. (a)...

  14. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  15. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  16. Features of motivation of the crewmembers in an enclosed space at atmospheric pressure changes during breathing inert gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarevcev, Sergey

    Since the 1960s, our psychologists are working on experimenting with small groups in isolation .It was associated with the beginning of spaceflight and necessity to study of human behaviors in ways different from the natural habitat of man .Those, who study human behavior especially in isolation, know- that the behavior in isolation markedly different from that in the natural situаtions. It associated with the development of new, more adaptive behaviors (1) What are the differences ? First of all , isolation is achieved by the fact ,that the group is in a closed space. How experiments show - the crew members have changed the basic personality traits, such as motivation Statement of the problem and methods. In our experimentation we were interested in changing the features of human motivation (strength, stability and direction of motivation) in terms of a closed group in the modified atmosphere pressure and breathing inert gases. Also, we were interested in particular external and internal motivation of the individual in the circumstances. To conduct experimentation , we used an experimental barocomplex GVK -250 , which placed a group of six mаns. A task was to spend fifteen days in isolation on barokomplex when breathing oxigen - xenon mixture of fifteen days in isolation on the same complex when breathing oxygen- helium mixture and fifteen days of isolation on the same complex when breathing normal air All this time, the subjects were isolated under conditions of atmospheric pressure changes , closer to what you normally deal divers. We assumed that breathing inert mixtures can change the strength and stability , and with it , the direction and stability of motivation. To check our results, we planned on using the battery of psychological techniques : 1. Schwartz technique that measures personal values and behavior in society, DORS procedure ( measurement of fatigue , monotony , satiety and stress ) and riffs that give the test once a week. Our assumption is

  17. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM... manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that... interval between each repetition. (b) For devices that have polyphonic capabilities, the audio...

  18. A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

  19. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  20. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  1. Making the Most of Audio. Technology in Language Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Anthony

    Prepared for practicing language teachers, this book's aim is to help them make the most of audio, a readily accessible resource. The book shows, with the help of numerous practical examples, how a range of language skills can be developed. Most examples are in French. Chapters cover the following information: (1) making the most of audio (e.g.,…

  2. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  3. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  4. Beyond Podcasting: Creative Approaches to Designing Educational Audio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a university-wide pilot designed to encourage academics to creatively explore learner-centred applications for digital audio. Participation in the pilot was diverse in terms of technical competence, confidence and contextual requirements and there was little prior experience of working with digital audio. Many innovative…

  5. Teaching Audio Playwriting: The Pedagogy of Drama Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshelman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests how teaching artists can develop practical coursework in audio playwriting. To prepare students to work in the reemergent audio drama medium, the author created a seminar course called Radio Theatre Writing, taught at Arkansas Tech University in the fall of 2014. The course had three sections. First, it focused on…

  6. TVAR modeling of EEG to detect audio distraction during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Nabaraj; (Nanda Nandagopal, D.; Cocks, Bernadine; Vijayalakshmi, Ramasamy; Dasari, Naga; Gaertner, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The objective of our current study was to look for the EEG correlates that can reveal the engaged state of the brain while undertaking cognitive tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify EEG features that could detect audio distraction during simulated driving. Approach. Time varying autoregressive (TVAR) analysis using Kalman smoother was carried out on short time epochs of EEG data collected from participants as they undertook two simulated driving tasks. TVAR coefficients were then used to construct all pole model enabling the identification of EEG features that could differentiate normal driving from audio distracted driving. Main results. Pole analysis of the TVAR model led to the visualization of event related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) patterns in the form of pole displacements in pole plots of the temporal EEG channels in the z plane enabling the differentiation of the two driving conditions. ERS in the EEG data has been demonstrated during audio distraction as an associated phenomenon. Significance. Visualizing the ERD/ERS phenomenon in terms of pole displacement is a novel approach. Although ERS/ERD has previously been demonstrated as reliable when applied to motor related tasks, it is believed to be the first time that it has been applied to investigate human cognitive phenomena such as attention and distraction. Results confirmed that distracted/non-distracted driving states can be identified using this approach supporting its applicability to cognition research.

  7. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a-4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  8. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments. PMID:23145236

  9. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  10. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  11. Availability of feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy for remote-controlled measurements on board a space laboratory or planet exploration Rover.

    PubMed

    Lapshin, Rostislav V

    2009-06-01

    Prospects for a feature-oriented scanning (FOS) approach to investigations of sample surfaces, at the micrometer and nanometer scales, with the use of scanning probe microscopy under space laboratory or planet exploration rover conditions, are examined. The problems discussed include decreasing sensitivity of the onboard scanning probe microscope (SPM) to temperature variations, providing autonomous operation, implementing the capabilities for remote control, self-checking, self-adjustment, and self-calibration. A number of topical problems of SPM measurements in outer space or on board a planet exploration rover may be solved via the application of recently proposed FOS methods.

  12. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  13. Sampling Function of Degree 2 for DVD-Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toraichi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Koji

    Authors have been studying Fluency Information Theory that generalizes Shannon’s sampling theorem and its applications. Among the practical application of the research, the Fluency DAC that is developed as the Digital-to-analog converter for CD audio could have received objective valuation including receipt Golden Sound Award in 1988. In recent, DVD-Audio that deal with maximum sampling rate of 192 kHz has appeared. Due to the introduction of DVD audio that requires four times the sampling rate of nowadays CD audio, the request for developing a new Fluency DAC for DVD audio was initiated. From such requirements, the research for developing the Fluency DAC for DVD-Audio has been started. The result of the research could revive awards in local contest in Japan audio apparatus at 2000 and 2001. As the initial report on our project in developing the Fluency DAC that is capable of dealing with a maximum sampling rate of 192kHz, in this paper we aimed to derive the sampling function that acts as the impulse response for such a D/A converter.

  14. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: An Undergraduate Teacher Prospective Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.

  15. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  16. Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Meinard; Kurth, Frank

    2006-12-01

    One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.

  17. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  18. Enabling Low-Power, Multi-Modal Neural Interfaces Through a Common, Low-Bandwidth Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Zachary T; Thompson, David E; Schroeder, Karen E; Tat, Derek M; Hassani, Ali; Bullard, Autumn J; Woo, Shoshana L; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Sachs, Adam J; Cederna, Paul S; Stacey, William C; Patil, Parag G; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2016-05-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) have shown great potential for generating prosthetic control signals. Translating BMIs into the clinic requires fully implantable, wireless systems; however, current solutions have high power requirements which limit their usability. Lowering this power consumption typically limits the system to a single neural modality, or signal type, and thus to a relatively small clinical market. Here, we address both of these issues by investigating the use of signal power in a single narrow frequency band as a decoding feature for extracting information from electrocorticographic (ECoG), electromyographic (EMG), and intracortical neural data. We have designed and tested the Multi-modal Implantable Neural Interface (MINI), a wireless recording system which extracts and transmits signal power in a single, configurable frequency band. In prerecorded datasets, we used the MINI to explore low frequency signal features and any resulting tradeoff between power savings and decoding performance losses. When processing intracortical data, the MINI achieved a power consumption 89.7% less than a more typical system designed to extract action potential waveforms. When processing ECoG and EMG data, the MINI achieved similar power reductions of 62.7% and 78.8%. At the same time, using the single signal feature extracted by the MINI, we were able to decode all three modalities with less than a 9% drop in accuracy relative to using high-bandwidth, modality-specific signal features. We believe this system architecture can be used to produce a viable, cost-effective, clinical BMI.

  19. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  20. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  1. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  2. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  3. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... § 201.27 Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This... and distribute, any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the...

  4. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  5. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  6. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  7. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  8. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  9. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  10. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  11. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions.

  12. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  13. Getting Started with CD Audio in HyperCard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the use of the Voyager Compact Disk (CD) AudioStack to provide HyperCard stacks designed to promote language learning with the ability to play on common precisely specified portions of off-the-shelf audio compact disks in a CD-ROM drive. Four German and Russian HyperCard stacks are described and their construction outlined.…

  14. The spacing of the interstellar 6.2 and 7.7 micron emission features as an indicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    A database of astrophysically relevant, infrared spectral measurements on a wide variety of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging in size from C10H8 through C48H20, is now available to extend the interstellar PAH model. Beyond simply indicating general characteristics of the carriers, this collection of data now makes it possible to conduct a more thorough interpretation of the details of the interstellar spectra and thereby derive deeper insights into the nature of the emitting material and conditions in the emission zones. This Letter is the first such implementation of this spectral database. The infrared spectra of PAH cations, the main PAH form in the most energetic emission zones, are usually dominated by a few strong features in the 1650-1100 cm-1 (6.1-9.1 microns) region that tend to cluster the vicinity of the interstellar emission bands at 1610 and 1320 cm-1 (6.2 and 7.6 microns), but with spacings typically somewhat less than that observed in the canonical interstellar spectrum. However, the spectra in the database show that this spacing increases steadily with molecular size. Extrapolation of this trend indicates that PAHs in the 50-80 carbon atom size range are entirely consistent with the observed interstellar spacing. Furthermore, the profile of the 1610 cm-1 (6.2 microns) interstellar band indicates that PAHs containing as few as 20 carbon atoms contribute to this feature.

  15. The Spacing of the Interstellar 6.2 Microns and 7.7 Microns Emission Features as an Indicator of PAH Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A database of astrophysically relevant, infrared spectral measurements on a wide variety of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from C10H8 through C48H20 is now available to extend the interstellar PAH model. Beyond simply indicating general characteristics of the carriers, this collection of data now makes it possible to conduct a more thorough interpretation of the details of the interstellar spectra and thereby derive deeper insights into the nature of the emitting material and conditions in the emission zones. This paper is the first such implementation of this spectral database. The infrared spectra of PAH cations, the main PAH form in the most energetic emission zones, are usually dominated by a few strong features in the 1650 - 1100 per centimeter (6.1 - 9.1 microns) region which tend to cluster in the vicinity of the interstellar emission bands at 1610 per centimeter and 1320 per centimeter (6.2 and 7.6 microns) but with spacings typically somewhat less than that observed in the canonical interstellar spectrum. However, the spectra in the database show that this spacing increases steadily with molecular size. Extrapolation of this trend indicates that PAHS in the 50 to 80 carbon atom size range are entirely consistent with the observed interstellar spacing. Furthermore, the profile of the 1610 per centimeter (6.2 microns) interstellar band indicates that PAHS containing as few as 20 carbon atoms contribute to this feature.

  16. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  17. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term “concept” refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature. PMID:26730398

  18. Performance Characterization of Loctite (Registered Trademark) 242 and 271 Liquid Locking Compounds (LLCs) as a Secondary Locking Feature for International Space Station (ISS) Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dube, Michael J.; Gamwell, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    Several International Space Station (ISS) hardware components use Loctite (and other polymer based liquid locking compounds (LLCs)) as a means of meeting the secondary (redundant) locking feature requirement for fasteners. The primary locking method is the fastener preload, with the application of the Loctite compound which when cured is intended to resist preload reduction. The reliability of these compounds has been questioned due to a number of failures during ground testing. The ISS Program Manager requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to characterize and quantify sensitivities of Loctite being used as a secondary locking feature. The findings and recommendations provided in this investigation apply to the anaerobic LLCs Loctite 242 and 271. No other anaerobic LLCs were evaluated for this investigation. This document contains the findings and recommendations of the NESC investigation

  19. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of CT histogram based feature space for predicting recurrence-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    Advantages of CT scanners with high resolution have allowed the improved detection of lung cancers. In the recent release of positive results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the US showing that CT screening does in fact have a positive impact on the reduction of lung cancer related mortality. While this study does show the efficacy of CT based screening, physicians often face the problems of deciding appropriate management strategies for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Several key manifold-learning approaches efficiently reveal intrinsic low-dimensional structures latent in high-dimensional data spaces. This study was performed to investigate whether the dimensionality reduction can identify embedded structures from the CT histogram feature of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) space to improve the performance in predicting the likelihood of RFS for patients with NSCLC.

  20. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  1. Full-Featured Web Conferencing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Joel; Jenkins, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In order to match the customary strengths of the still dominant face-to-face instructional mode, a high-performance online learning system must employ synchronous as well as asynchronous communications; buttress graphics, animation, and text with live audio and video; and provide many of the features and processes associated with course management…

  2. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  3. Galileo Galilei (gg) Space Test of the Weak Equivalence Principle to 10-17: the Key Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Galileo Galilei (GG) is a small satellite to fly in a low altitude, near circular, Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth with the goal of testing in its field the weak equivalence principle to 10-17. It would improve the best tests with slowly rotating torsion balances by four orders of magnitude. The sensor is a differential accelerometer with two concentric coaxial test cylinders of different composition rotating together with the whole satellite around the symmetry axis, and weakly coupled in the plane perpendicular to it as a 2D mechanical oscillator. One axis rotation at 1 Hz, to be provided once and for all at launch, stabilizes the satellite and up-converts the signal from the low orbital frequency of ≃1.7 · 10-4 Hz to the much higher 1 Hz rotation frequency, needing neither motor nor bearings (passive rotation). For test masses suspended in orbit the major gain is a signal from Earth almost 500 times stronger than for the same masses suspended on ground. In GG both the sensor and the spacecraft are designed to fully exploit the properties of space in order to push the test four orders of magnitude better than slowly rotating torsion balances on ground.

  4. Audio-visual integration through the parallel visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Kaposvári, Péter; Csete, Gergő; Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Vécsei, László; Sáry, Gyula; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2015-10-22

    Audio-visual integration has been shown to be present in a wide range of different conditions, some of which are processed through the dorsal, and others through the ventral visual pathway. Whereas neuroimaging studies have revealed integration-related activity in the brain, there has been no imaging study of the possible role of segregated visual streams in audio-visual integration. We set out to determine how the different visual pathways participate in this communication. We investigated how audio-visual integration can be supported through the dorsal and ventral visual pathways during the double flash illusion. Low-contrast and chromatic isoluminant stimuli were used to drive preferably the dorsal and ventral pathways, respectively. In order to identify the anatomical substrates of the audio-visual interaction in the two conditions, the psychophysical results were correlated with the white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging.The psychophysiological data revealed a robust double flash illusion in both conditions. A correlation between the psychophysical results and local fractional anisotropy was found in the occipito-parietal white matter in the low-contrast condition, while a similar correlation was found in the infero-temporal white matter in the chromatic isoluminant condition. Our results indicate that both of the parallel visual pathways may play a role in the audio-visual interaction.

  5. Audio Visual Integration with Competing Sources in the Framework of Audio Visual Speech Scene Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Attigodu Chandrashekara; Berthommier, Frédéric; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    We introduce "Audio-Visual Speech Scene Analysis" (AVSSA) as an extension of the two-stage Auditory Scene Analysis model towards audiovisual scenes made of mixtures of speakers. AVSSA assumes that a coherence index between the auditory and the visual input is computed prior to audiovisual fusion, enabling to determine whether the sensory inputs should be bound together. Previous experiments on the modulation of the McGurk effect by audiovisual coherent vs. incoherent contexts presented before the McGurk target have provided experimental evidence supporting AVSSA. Indeed, incoherent contexts appear to decrease the McGurk effect, suggesting that they produce lower audiovisual coherence hence less audiovisual fusion. The present experiments extend the AVSSA paradigm by creating contexts made of competing audiovisual sources and measuring their effect on McGurk targets. The competing audiovisual sources have respectively a high and a low audiovisual coherence (that is, large vs. small audiovisual comodulations in time). The first experiment involves contexts made of two auditory sources and one video source associated to either the first or the second audio source. It appears that the McGurk effect is smaller after the context made of the visual source associated to the auditory source with less audiovisual coherence. In the second experiment with the same stimuli, the participants are asked to attend to either one or the other source. The data show that the modulation of fusion depends on the attentional focus. Altogether, these two experiments shed light on audiovisual binding, the AVSSA process and the role of attention.

  6. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley Audio Slideshow

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  7. The Application of Acoustic Measurements and Audio Recordings for Diagnosis of In-Flight Hardware Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, David; Denham, Samuel; Allen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, an initial symptom of hardware malfunction is unusual or unexpected acoustic noise. Many industries such as automotive, heating and air conditioning, and petro-chemical processing use noise and vibration data along with rotating machinery analysis techniques to identify noise sources and correct hardware defects. The NASA/Johnson Space Center Acoustics Office monitors the acoustic environment of the International Space Station (ISS) through periodic sound level measurement surveys. Trending of the sound level measurement survey results can identify in-flight hardware anomalies. The crew of the ISS also serves as a "detection tool" in identifying unusual hardware noises; in these cases the spectral analysis of audio recordings made on orbit can be used to identify hardware defects that are related to rotating components such as fans, pumps, and compressors. In this paper, three examples of the use of sound level measurements and audio recordings for the diagnosis of in-flight hardware anomalies are discussed: identification of blocked inter-module ventilation (IMV) ducts, diagnosis of abnormal ISS Crew Quarters rack exhaust fan noise, and the identification and replacement of a defective flywheel assembly in the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation (TVIS) hardware. In each of these examples, crew time was saved by identifying the off nominal component or condition that existed and in directing in-flight maintenance activities to address and correct each of these problems.

  8. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  9. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  10. Designing optical disk systems into audio/video products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiandong

    2008-12-01

    Optical disk systems are still widely used in players in consumer electronics and automotive applications, although more and more audio and video contents are played from other medias such as flash memory and hard disk drive based devices. There are various architectures with the integrations of audio and video (A/V) decoders and optical disk servo components to reduced product BOM cost. Some issues are addressed for designing optical disk playing modules into an audio or video products. Servo implementation including tracking, seeking and rotating control needs to consider the characteristics of low cost mechanisms and non-ideal disks. When optical disk systems are used in portable or moving environments, the approaches from servo control side and electronic can be helpful for anti-shock. Special handlings to defect disks are important to playability.

  11. Say What? The Role of Audio in Multimedia Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Audio, including interviews, ambient sounds, and music, is a critical-yet often overlooked-part of an effective multimedia video. In February 2010, Linder joined scientists working on the Global Rivers Observatory Project for two weeks of intensive fieldwork in the Congo River watershed. The team's goal was to learn more about how climate change and deforestation are impacting the river system and coastal ocean. Using stills and video shot with a lightweight digital SLR outfit and audio recorded with a pocket-sized sound recorder, Linder documented the trials and triumphs of working in the heart of Africa. Using excerpts from the six-minute Congo multimedia video, this presentation will illustrate how to record and edit an engaging audio track. Topics include interview technique, collecting ambient sounds, choosing and using music, and editing it all together to educate and entertain the viewer.

  12. Multi-channel spatialization system for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogramable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed and fed to a pair of headphones.

  13. Multi-channel spatialization systems for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogrammable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed, and fed to a pair of headphones.

  14. GK Per (Nova Persei 1901): HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGERY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EJECTA, AND FIRST SPECTRUM OF THE JET-LIKE FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Mizusawa, Trisha; De Marco, Orsola; Williams, Robert; Livio, Mario

    2012-06-15

    We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose 0.1 arcsec resolution reveals hundreds of cometary-like structures with long axes aligned toward GK Per. One or both ends of the structures often show a brightness enhancement relative to the structures' middle sections, but there is no simple regularity to their morphologies (in contrast with, for example, the Helix nebula). Some of structures' morphologies suggest the presence of slow-moving or stationary material with which the ejecta is colliding, while others suggest shaping from a wind emanating from GK Per itself. The most detailed expansion map of any classical nova's ejecta was created by comparing HST images taken in successive years. Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 narrowband images and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra demonstrate that the physical conditions in this nova's ejecta vary strongly on spatial scales much smaller than those of the ejecta. Directly measuring accurate densities and compositions, and hence masses of this and other nova shells, will demand data at least as resolved spatially as those presented here. The filling factor of the ejecta is 1% or less, and the nova ejecta mass must be less than 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }. A modest fraction of the emission nebulosities vary in brightness by up to a factor of two on timescales of one year. Finally, we present the deepest images yet obtained of a jet-like feature outside the main body of GK Per nebulosity, and the first spectrum of that feature. Dominated by strong, narrow emission lines of [N II], [O II], [O III], and [S II], this feature is probably a shock due to ejected material running into stationary interstellar matter, slowly moving ejecta from a previous nova episode, or circumbinary matter present before 1901. An upper limit to the mass of the jet is of order a few times 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }. If the jet mass is close to this limit then the jet might be an

  15. Three dimensional audio versus head down TCAS displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Pittman, Marc T.

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of a head up auditory display was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: Standard head down traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) display, and three-dimensional (3-D) audio TCAS presentation. Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft which activated a 3-D aural advisory or a TCAS advisory. Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio TCAS condition by 500 ms.

  16. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.; Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J.

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  17. Cover signal specific steganalysis: the impact of training on the example of two selected audio steganalysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2008-02-01

    The main goals of this paper are to show the impact of the basic assumptions for the cover channel characteristics as well as the impact of different training/testing set generation strategies on the statistical detectability of exemplary chosen audio hiding approaches known from steganography and watermarking. Here we have selected exemplary five steganography algorithms and four watermarking algorithms. The channel characteristics for two different chosen audio cover channels (an application specific exemplary scenario of VoIP steganography and universal audio steganography) are formalised and their impact on decisions in the steganalysis process, especially on the strategies applied for training/ testing set generation, are shown. Following the assumptions on the cover channel characteristics either cover dependent or cover independent training and testing can be performed, using either correlated or non-correlated training and test sets. In comparison to previous work, additional frequency domain features are introduced for steganalysis and the performance (in terms of classification accuracy) of Bayesian classifiers and multinomial logistic regression models is compared with the results of SVM classification. We show that the newly implemented frequency domain features increase the classification accuracy achieved in SVM classification. Furthermore it is shown on the example of VoIP steganalysis that channel character specific evaluation performs better than tests without focus on a specific channel (i.e. universal steganalysis). A comparison of test results for cover dependent and independent training and testing shows that the latter performs better for all nine algorithms evaluated here and the used SVM based classifier.

  18. Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  19. Fiber-channel audio video standard for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jack E.

    2002-08-01

    Fibre channel is an emerging high-speed digital network technology that combines to make inroads into the avionics arena. The suitability of fibre channel for such applications is largely due to its flexibility in these key areas: Network topologies can be configured in point-to-point, arbitrated loop or switched fabric connections. The physical layer supports either copper or fiber optic implementations with a Bit Error Rate of less than 10-12. Multiple Classes of Service are available. Multiple Upper Level Protocols are supported. Multiple high speed data rates offer open ended growth paths providing speed negotiation within a single network. Current speeds supported by commercially available hardware are 1 and 2 Gbps providing effective data rates of 100 and 200 MBps respectively. Such networks lend themselves well to the transport of digital video and audio data. This paper summarizes an ANSI standard currently in the final approval cycle of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standardization (INCITS). This standard defines a flexible mechanism whereby digital video, audio and ancillary data are systematically packaged for transport over a fibre channel network. The basic mechanism, called a container, houses audio and video content functionally grouped as elements of the container called objects. Featured in this paper is a specific container mapping called Simple Parametric Digital Video (SPDV) developed particularly to address digital video in avionics systems. SPDV provides pixel-based video with associated ancillary data typically sourced by various sensors to be processed and/or distributed in the cockpit for presentation via high-resolution displays. Also highlighted in this paper is a streamlined Upper Level Protocol (ULP) called Frame Header Control Procedure (FHCP) targeted for avionics systems where the functionality of a more complex ULP is not required.

  20. Audio Signal Processing Using Time-Frequency Approaches: Coding, Classification, Fingerprinting, and Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umapathy, K.; Ghoraani, B.; Krishnan, S.

    2010-12-01

    Audio signals are information rich nonstationary signals that play an important role in our day-to-day communication, perception of environment, and entertainment. Due to its non-stationary nature, time- or frequency-only approaches are inadequate in analyzing these signals. A joint time-frequency (TF) approach would be a better choice to efficiently process these signals. In this digital era, compression, intelligent indexing for content-based retrieval, classification, and protection of digital audio content are few of the areas that encapsulate a majority of the audio signal processing applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive array of TF methodologies that successfully address applications in all of the above mentioned areas. A TF-based audio coding scheme with novel psychoacoustics model, music classification, audio classification of environmental sounds, audio fingerprinting, and audio watermarking will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of using time-frequency approaches in analyzing and extracting information from audio signals.

  1. Speech Music Discrimination Using Class-Specific Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Speech Music Discrimination Using Class-Specific Features Thomas Beierholm...between speech and music . Feature extraction is class-specific and can therefore be tailored to each class meaning that segment size, model orders...interest. Some of the applications of audio signal classification are speech/ music classification [1], acoustical environmental classification [2][3

  2. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  3. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  4. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.

  5. 47 CFR 87.483 - Audio visual warning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... audio visual warning system (AVWS) is a radar-based obstacle avoidance system. AVWS activates... exist. The continuously operating radar calculates the location, direction and groundspeed of nearby... obstacle. (a) Radiodetermination (radar) frequencies. Frequencies authorized under § 87.475(b)(8) of...

  6. Reading's SLiCK with New Audio Texts and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Elizabeth A.; Washburn, Shari Gallin; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Connelly, Vincent J.; Brinckerhoff, Loring C.; Banerjee, Manju

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses challenges for secondary students with disabilities and alternative instructional methods that teachers of students with poor reading skills can use to convey content information effectively and efficiently. The use of audio textbooks on CD-ROMs is emphasized and the SLiCK strategy is explained as a support for the CD-ROM.…

  7. Integrated Spacesuit Audio System Enhances Speech Quality and Reduces Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yiteng Arden; Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Shaoyan Sharyl

    2009-01-01

    A new approach has been proposed for increasing astronaut comfort and speech capture. Currently, the special design of a spacesuit forms an extreme acoustic environment making it difficult to capture clear speech without compromising comfort. The proposed Integrated Spacesuit Audio (ISA) system is to incorporate the microphones into the helmet and use software to extract voice signals from background noise.

  8. Audio-visual enhancement of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Girin, L; Schwartz, J L; Feng, G

    2001-06-01

    A key problem for telecommunication or human-machine communication systems concerns speech enhancement in noise. In this domain, a certain number of techniques exist, all of them based on an acoustic-only approach--that is, the processing of the audio corrupted signal using audio information (from the corrupted signal only or additive audio information). In this paper, an audio-visual approach to the problem is considered, since it has been demonstrated in several studies that viewing the speaker's face improves message intelligibility, especially in noisy environments. A speech enhancement prototype system that takes advantage of visual inputs is developed. A filtering process approach is proposed that uses enhancement filters estimated with the help of lip shape information. The estimation process is based on linear regression or simple neural networks using a training corpus. A set of experiments assessed by Gaussian classification and perceptual tests demonstrates that it is indeed possible to enhance simple stimuli (vowel-plosive-vowel sequences) embedded in white Gaussian noise.

  9. Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.

    PubMed

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-05-28

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  10. The Audio-Visual Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Tom

    This how-to booklet offers specific advice on producing video or slide/tape programs for marketing independent schools. Five chapters present guidelines for various stages in the process: (1) Audio-Visual Marketing in Context (aesthetics and economics of audiovisual marketing); (2) A Question of Identity (identifying the audience and deciding on…

  11. Design and Development of a Computerized Audio-Video Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Ralph R.; Derry, James O.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the components, functions, and applications of a computer-based audio/video learning laboratory at Texas Christian University that permits on-line communication between student learners and instructional staff. The laboratory gives instructors feedback from student learners during and after instruction and enables students to evaluate…

  12. Auteur Description: From the Director's Creative Vision to Audio Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author follows the suggestion that a film director's creative vision should be incorporated into Audio description (AD), a major technique for making films, theater performances, operas, and other events accessible to people who are blind or have low vision. The author presents a new type of AD for auteur and artistic films:…

  13. Digital Audio Broadcasting in the Short Wave Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1998-01-01

    For many decades the Short Wae broadcasting service has used high power, double-sideband AM signals to reach audiences far and wide. While audio quality was usually not very high, inexpensive receivers could be used to tune into broadcasts fro distant countries.

  14. Use of NdBFe magnets in audio deck sliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonen, S. A. E.; Basak, A.

    1992-07-01

    Rotary motors and strings are usually employed for the movement of sliders on audio decks in studios to control the volume of sound in various channels. These sliding mechanisms can be made more reliable and compact by using dc stepping linear motors built with high energy product NdBFe magnets.

  15. The Role of Audio Media in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Lindlof, Thomas R.

    Mass communication researchers have largely ignored the role of audio media and popular music in the lives of children, yet the available evidence shows that children do listen. Extant studies yield a consistent developmental portrait of childrens' listening frequency, but there is a notable lack of programatic research over the past decade, one…

  16. Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Mass Broadcast Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    Intended as a method of increasing children's learning from commercial television by providing supplementary educational commentary on a simultaneous radio broadcast, this study was designed to explore the potential of dual audio instruction as a mass educational system by determining the medium's practicality, the rate of voluntary usage, the…

  17. Improved Techniques for Automatic Chord Recognition from Music Audio Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taemin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of techniques that facilitate the effective implementation of capable automatic chord transcription from music audio signals. Since chord transcriptions can capture many important aspects of music, they are useful for a wide variety of music applications and also useful for people who learn and perform…

  18. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  19. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  20. The relationship between basic audio quality and overall listening experience.

    PubMed

    Schoeffler, Michael; Herre, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Basic audio quality (BAQ) is a well-known perceptual attribute, which is rated in various listening test methods to measure the performance of audio systems. Unfortunately, when it comes to purchasing audio systems, BAQ might not have a significant influence on the customers' buying decisions since other factors, like brand loyalty, might be more important. In contrast to BAQ, overall listening experience (OLE) is an affective attribute which incorporates all aspects that are important to an individual assessor, including his or her preference for music genre and audio quality. In this work, the relationship between BAQ and OLE is investigated in more detail. To this end, an experiment was carried out, in which participants rated the BAQ and the OLE of music excerpts with different timbral and spatial degradations. In a between-group-design procedure, participants were assigned into two groups, in each of which a different set of stimuli was rated. The results indicate that rating of both attributes, BAQ and OLE, leads to similar rankings, even if a different set of stimuli is rated. In contrast to the BAQ ratings, which were more influenced by timbral than spatial degradations, the OLE ratings were almost equally influenced by timbral and spatial degradations.

  1. Current Events and Technology: Video and Audio on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laposata, Matthew M.; Howick, Tom; Dias, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the effectiveness of visual aids compared to written materials in teaching and recommends using television segments for teaching purposes. Introduces digitized clips provided by major television news organizations through the Internet and describes the technology requirements for successful viewing of streaming videos and audios. (YDS)

  2. The Air Operations Simulation Centre Audio System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    The Enable Retrigger feature enables the user to specify whether the selected sound is to be treated as a one-shot edge- triggered sound which plays...to completion once triggered , or a level-sensitive sound which restarts and plays only while its control variable is non-zero. See Appendix B...mock-up are well advanced. Aircraft noises are modelled and include engine turbine whine, afterburner roar, air- conditioning and wind noises

  3. 77 FR 37732 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio...

  4. Hearing You Loud and Clear: Student Perspectives of Audio Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jill; Day, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The use of audio feedback for students in a full-time community nursing degree course is appraised. The aim of this mixed methods study was to examine student views on audio feedback for written assignments. Questionnaires and a focus group were used to capture student opinion of this pilot project. The majority of students valued audio feedback…

  5. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  6. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  7. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  8. [Ventriloquism and audio-visual integration of voice and face].

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Kanaya, Shoko

    2012-07-01

    Presenting synchronous auditory and visual stimuli in separate locations creates the illusion that the sound originates from the direction of the visual stimulus. Participants' auditory localization bias, called the ventriloquism effect, has revealed factors affecting the perceptual integration of audio-visual stimuli. However, many studies on audio-visual processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. These results cannot necessarily explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes, where various signals exist within a single sensory modality. In the present study we report the contributions of a cognitive factor, that is, the audio-visual congruency of speech, although this factor has often been underestimated in previous ventriloquism research. Thus, we investigated the contribution of speech congruency on the ventriloquism effect using a spoken utterance and two videos of a talking face. The salience of facial movements was also manipulated. As a result, when bilateral visual stimuli are presented in synchrony with a single voice, cross-modal speech congruency was found to have a significant impact on the ventriloquism effect. This result also indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. The congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than did incongruent pairing, whereas previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference to auditory localization. This suggests that a greater flexibility in responding to multi-sensory environments exists than has been previously considered.

  9. Unsupervised Decoding of Long-Term, Naturalistic Human Neural Recordings with Automated Video and Audio Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nancy X. R.; Olson, Jared D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Brunton, Bingni W.

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings. PMID:27148018

  10. Transcript of Audio Narrative Portion of: Scandinavian Heritage. A Set of Five Audio-Visual Film Strip/Cassette Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gerald D.; Olson, David B.

    The document presents the transcript of the audio narrative portion of approximately 100 interviews with first and second generation Scandinavian immigrants to the United States. The document is intended for use by secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs related to the Scandinavian heritage in…

  11. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  12. Choosing efficient feature sets for video classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of choosing appropriate features to describe the content of still pictures or video sequences, including audio. As the computational analysis of these features is often time- consuming, it is useful to identify a minimal set allowing for an automatic classification of some class or genre. Further, it can be shown that deleting the coherence of the features characterizing some class, is not suitable to guarantee an optimal classification result. The central question of the paper is thus, which features should be selected, and how they should be weighted to optimize a classification problem.

  13. Automatic audio signing. Volume 2: Review, analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    Automati Audio Signing, also referred to as an 'automatic highway advisory radio system' (AHAR) provides appropriately equipped motor vehicles one way non commerical communications pertaining to traffic, road and weather conditions, travel advisories, directions, tourist information and other matters of interest to the traveling public. The automatic audio signing project reduces accidents by providing advance warning of hazardous traffic, weather and road conditions; saves the motorists' time and fuel, and reduces motorist irritation by improving traffic control and provides route diversion information when justified by traffic congestion or road blockage; and provides directions, locations of tourist facilities, descriptions of points of interest, and other messages intended to enhance the convenience and enjoyment of the traveling public.

  14. Noise Adaptive Stream Weighting in Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Martin; Berthommier, Frédéric; Kroschel, Kristian

    2002-12-01

    It has been shown that integration of acoustic and visual information especially in noisy conditions yields improved speech recognition results. This raises the question of how to weight the two modalities in different noise conditions. Throughout this paper we develop a weighting process adaptive to various background noise situations. In the presented recognition system, audio and video data are combined following a Separate Integration (SI) architecture. A hybrid Artificial Neural Network/Hidden Markov Model (ANN/HMM) system is used for the experiments. The neural networks were in all cases trained on clean data. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of different weighting schemes in a manually controlled recognition task with different types of noise. Next, we compare different criteria to estimate the reliability of the audio stream. Based on this, a mapping between the measurements and the free parameter of the fusion process is derived and its applicability is demonstrated. Finally, the possibilities and limitations of adaptive weighting are compared and discussed.

  15. Characterization of HF Propagation for Digital Audio Broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give a brief overview of some propagation measurements in the Short Wave (3-30 MHz) bands, made in support of a digital audio transmission system design for the Voice of America. This task is a follow on to the Digital Broadcast Satellite Radio task, during which several mitigation techniques would be applicable to digital audio in the Short Wave bands as well, in spite of the differences in propagation impairments in these two bands. Two series of propagation measurements were made to quantify the range of impairments that could be expected. An assessment of the performance of a prototype version of the receiver was also made.

  16. Evaluation of embedded audio feedback on writing assignments.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janet K; Goodman, Joely T; Hercinger, Maribeth; Minnich, Margo; Murcek, Christina M; Parks, Jane M; Shirley, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare embedded audio feedback (EAF), which faculty provided using the iPad(®) application iAnnotate(®) PDF to insert audio comments and written feedback (WF), inserted electronically on student papers in a series of writing assignments. Goals included determining whether EAF provides more useful guidance to students than WF and whether EAF promotes connectedness among students and faculty. An additional goal was to ascertain the efficiency and acceptance of EAF as a grading tool by nursing faculty. The pilot study was a quasi-experimental, cross-over, posttest-only design. The project was completed in an Informatics in Health Care course. Faculty alternated the two feedback methods on four papers written by each student. Results of surveys and focus groups revealed that students and faculty had mixed feelings about this technology. Student preferences were equally divided between EAF and WF, with 35% for each, and 28% were undecided.

  17. Social Catalysts for Creating Sociable Media Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    Mediated communication between public spaces is a relatively new concept. One current example of this interaction is video conferencing among people within the same organization. Large-scale video conferencing walls have begun to appear in public or semipublic areas, such as workplace lobbies and kitchens. These connections provide a link via audio and/or video to another public space within the organization.

  18. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  19. Three-Dimensional Audio in the Vetronics Technology Testbed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fleet 29-31 May 2001 Steve Euerle Advanced Simulation Technology, inc. www.asti-usa.com email: stevee@ asti -usa.com Report Documentation Page Report Date...Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 14 Background - Who is ASTi ? • Started in 1989 • Founders from Hughes/Sperry/CAE • Flight Simulation background...does ASTi do? • Networked Digital Audio Communications Systems for the Simulation Industry, including: – DIS & HLA compatible simulated radios and

  20. Initial Experimentation on Audio Annotation Using a Distributed Virtual Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    environment around them and indirectly through various maps , visual displays, communication channels, etc. It is important to design display systems that...information available in the 3D Audio PJ Display condition was expected to enhance situation awareness and speed responding. Figure 3. Mean Number...allowed realtime interaction (auditory and visual ), between two users working in facilities at different institutions, and between the users and

  1. Effects of Tactile and Audio Cues on Reducing Vestibular Illusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    3-D audio, tactile belt) to overcome a vestibular illusion in a rotating Barany Chair was investigated. Seated subjects were rotated about their...Conclusions 14 6.0 Recommendations 15 7.0 References 17 List of Figures 1. Neuro Kinetics Inc Barany (Rotary) Chair System 5 2. Schematic of chair...vestibular illusion in a rotating Barany Chair was investigated. Seated subjects were rotated about their spinal axis (Z axis) from a standing stop to a

  2. Robust video and audio-based synchronization of multimedia files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichel, Benjamin A.; Bajcsy, Peter

    2010-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of robust and automated synchronization of multiple audio and video signals. The input signals are from a set of independent multimedia recordings coming from several camcorders and microphones. While the camcorders are static, the microphones are mobile as they are attached to people. The motivation for synchronization of all signals is to support studies and understanding of human interaction in a decision support environment that have been limited so far due to the difficulties in automated processing of any observations during the decision making sessions. The application of our work is to environments supporting decisions. The data sets for this work have been acquired during training exercises of response teams, rescue workers, and fire fighters at multiple locations. The developed synchronization methodology for a set of independent multimedia recordings is based on introducing aural and visual landmarks with a bell and room light switches. Our approach to synchronization is based on detecting the landmarks in audio and video signals per camcorder and per microphone, and then fusing the results to increase robustness and accuracy of the synchronization. We report synchronization results that demonstrate accuracy of synchronization based on video and audio.

  3. On the Acoustics of Emotion in Audio: What Speech, Music, and Sound have in Common

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Felix; Eyben, Florian; Schuller, Björn W.; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt, there is emotional information in almost any kind of sound received by humans every day: be it the affective state of a person transmitted by means of speech; the emotion intended by a composer while writing a musical piece, or conveyed by a musician while performing it; or the affective state connected to an acoustic event occurring in the environment, in the soundtrack of a movie, or in a radio play. In the field of affective computing, there is currently some loosely connected research concerning either of these phenomena, but a holistic computational model of affect in sound is still lacking. In turn, for tomorrow’s pervasive technical systems, including affective companions and robots, it is expected to be highly beneficial to understand the affective dimensions of “the sound that something makes,” in order to evaluate the system’s auditory environment and its own audio output. This article aims at a first step toward a holistic computational model: starting from standard acoustic feature extraction schemes in the domains of speech, music, and sound analysis, we interpret the worth of individual features across these three domains, considering four audio databases with observer annotations in the arousal and valence dimensions. In the results, we find that by selection of appropriate descriptors, cross-domain arousal, and valence regression is feasible achieving significant correlations with the observer annotations of up to 0.78 for arousal (training on sound and testing on enacted speech) and 0.60 for valence (training on enacted speech and testing on music). The high degree of cross-domain consistency in encoding the two main dimensions of affect may be attributable to the co-evolution of speech and music from multimodal affect bursts, including the integration of nature sounds for expressive effects. PMID:23750144

  4. A Virtual Audio Guidance and Alert System for Commercial Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Shrum, Richard; Miller, Joel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Our work in virtual reality systems at NASA Ames Research Center includes the area of aurally-guided visual search, using specially-designed audio cues and spatial audio processing (also known as virtual or "3-D audio") techniques (Begault, 1994). Previous studies at Ames had revealed that use of 3-D audio for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) advisories significantly reduced head-down time, compared to a head-down map display (0.5 sec advantage) or no display at all (2.2 sec advantage) (Begault, 1993, 1995; Begault & Pittman, 1994; see Wenzel, 1994, for an audio demo). Since the crew must keep their head up and looking out the window as much as possible when taxiing under low-visibility conditions, and the potential for "blunder" is increased under such conditions, it was sensible to evaluate the audio spatial cueing for a prototype audio ground collision avoidance warning (GCAW) system, and a 3-D audio guidance system. Results were favorable for GCAW, but not for the audio guidance system.

  5. Realization of guitar audio effects using methods of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buś, Szymon; Jedrzejewski, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    The paper is devoted to studies on possibilities of realization of guitar audio effects by means of methods of digital signal processing. As a result of research, some selected audio effects corresponding to the specifics of guitar sound were realized as the real-time system called Digital Guitar Multi-effect. Before implementation in the system, the selected effects were investigated using the dedicated application with a graphical user interface created in Matlab environment. In the second stage, the real-time system based on a microcontroller and an audio codec was designed and realized. The system is designed to perform audio effects on the output signal of an electric guitar.

  6. ASTP video tape recorder ground support equipment (audio/CTE splitter/interleaver). Operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive handbook for the audio/CTE splitter/interleaver (RCA part No. 8673734-502) was presented. This unit is designed to perform two major functions: extract audio and time data from an interleaved video/audio signal (splitter section), and provide a test interleaved video/audio/CTE signal for the system (interleaver section). It is a rack mounting unit 7 inches high, 19 inches wide, 20 inches deep, mounted on slides for retracting from the rack, and weighs approximately 40 pounds. The following information is provided: installation, operation, principles of operation, maintenance, schematics and parts lists.

  7. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  8. The Carina spiral feature: Strömgren-β photometry approach. II. Distances and space distribution of the O and B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltcheva, N.; Scorcio, M.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: In recent years a significant development has become evident in the study of the stellar structure of the Galactic disk. This is especially true for the 3rd Galactic quadrant, where the stellar population was extensively investigated beyond 10 kpc, revealing details about the warped geometry of the thin and thick disks and outer arm. The 4th Galactic quadrant offers even better opportunity to follow the distribution of the young stellar populace to a large distance, since the line of sight is parallel to the largest single segment of a spiral arm seen from our position in the Galaxy: the Carina spiral feature. This paper further contributes to the study of the structure of the Galactic disk in the direction of Carina field utilizing homogeneous photometric distances of a sample of about 600 bright early-type stars seen in this direction up to 6 kpc. Methods: The derived stellar distances are based on uvbyβ photometry. All O and B type stars with uvbyβ data presently available are included in the study. Results: The photometry-derived parameters allow us to study the structure and characteristics of this segment of the Carina arm. We find that the stellar distribution is consistent with a location of the apparent edge of the arm at l = 287°. Toward the edge of the arm the warp of the Galactic plane can be traced up to 6 kpc where it reaches negative 200 pc. The field toward the edge seems to be much more complex than harboring just one OB association, and it is likely that some of the apparent concentrations in this field represent parts of long segments of the edge. In the 284° longitude range an interarm space about 1 kpc wide is found beyond 850 pc from the Sun. The giant molecular clouds and open clusters do not follow the edge of the arm as defined by the OB stars and indicate a possible presence of an age gradient in a direction perpendicular to the formal Galactic plane. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to

  9. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  10. Incorporating Auditory Models in Speech/Audio Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthi, Harish

    2011-12-01

    Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to

  11. Inexpensive Audio Activities: Earbud-based Sound Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Joshua; Boucher, Alex; Meggison, Dean; Hruby, Kate; Vesenka, James

    2016-11-01

    Inexpensive alternatives to a number of classic introductory physics sound laboratories are presented including interference phenomena, resonance conditions, and frequency shifts. These can be created using earbuds, economical supplies such as Giant Pixie Stix® wrappers, and free software available for PCs and mobile devices. We describe two interference laboratories (beat frequency and two-speaker interference) and two resonance laboratories (quarter- and half-wavelength). Lastly, a Doppler laboratory using rotating earbuds is explained. The audio signal captured by all experiments is analyzed on free spectral analysis software and many of the experiments incorporate the unifying theme of measuring the speed of sound in air.

  12. Fast Huffman encoding algorithms in MPEG-4 advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the optimisation problem of Huffman encoding in MPEG-4 Advanced Audio Coding stan- dard. At first, the Huffman encoding problem and the need of encoding two side info parameters scale factor and Huffman codebook are presented. Next, Two Loop Search, Maximum Noise Mask Ratio and Trellis Based algorithms of bit allocation are briefly described. Further, Huffman encoding optimisation are shown. New methods try to check and change scale factor bands as little as possible to estimate bitrate cost or its change. Finally, the complexity of old and new methods is calculated, compared and measured time of encoding is given.

  13. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue.

  14. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application.

  15. A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Kurttio, Anttu A.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo E.

    2010-06-01

    A compact (96×128×32 mm3, 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 μVrms at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW® and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

  16. A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Antti K O; Kurttio, Anttu A; Leminen, Miika M; Sepponen, Raimo E

    2010-06-01

    A compact (96 x 128 x 32 mm(3), 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 microV(rms) at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

  17. Audio watermarking method robust against time- and frequency-fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki; Shimizu, Shuichi; Nakamura, Taiga; Kobayashi, Seiji

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, we describe an audio watermarking algorithm that can embed a multiple-bit message which is robust against wow-and-flutter, cropping, noise-addition, pitch-shift, and audio compressions such as MP3. The algorithm calculates and manipulates the magnitudes of segmented areas in the time-frequency plane of the content using short-term DFTs. The detection algorithm correlates the magnitudes with a pseudo-random array that maps to a two-dimensional area in the time-frequency plane. The two-dimensional array makes the watermark robust because, even when some portions of the content are heavily degraded, other portions of the content can match the pseudo-random array and contribute to watermark detection. Another key idea is manipulation of magnitudes. Because magnitudes are less influenced than phases by fluctuations of the analysis windows caused by random cropping, the watermark resists degradation. When signal transformation causes pitch fluctuations in the content, the frequencies of the pseudo-random array embedded in the content shift, and that causes a decrease in the volume of the watermark signal that still correctly overlaps with the corresponding pseudo-random array. To keep the overlapping area wide enough for successful watermark detection, the widths of the frequency subbands used for the detection segments should increase logarithmically as frequency increases. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the robustness of proposed algorithm against a variety of signal degradations.

  18. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  19. Characteristics of the audio sound generated by ultrasound imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners use high-energy pulses to probe the human body. The radiation force resulting from the impact of such pulses on an object can vibrate the object, producing a localized high-intensity sound in the audible range. Here, a theoretical model for the audio sound generated by ultrasound scanners is presented. This model describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound. It has been shown that the sound has rich frequency components at the pulse repetition frequency and its harmonics. Experiments have been conducted in a water tank to measure the sound generated by a clinical ultrasound scanner in various operational modes. Results are in general agreement with the theory. It is shown that a typical ultrasound scanner with a typical spatial-peak pulse-average intensity value at 2 MHz may generate a localized sound-pressure level close to 100 dB relative to 20 μPa in the audible (<20 kHz) range under laboratory conditions. These findings suggest that fetuses may become exposed to a high-intensity audio sound during maternal ultrasound examinations. Therefore, contrary to common beliefs, ultrasound may not be considered a passive tool in fetal imaging..

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Feedback Support System with Audio and Playback Strokes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kai; Akahori, Kanji

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a handwritten correction support system with audio and playback strokes used to teach Japanese writing. The study examined whether audio and playback strokes have a positive effect on students using honorific expressions in Japanese writing. The results showed that error feedback with audio…

  1. Interpreting a Museum Exhibit: The Message Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Audio Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Susan K.

    In this Masters Thesis, the message effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of costs and monetary benefits) of two interpretive audio messages were evaluated. Ninety-nine randomly selected visitors to a Central Ohio interpretive museum were exposed to one of two audio tape recorded messages. One message used interpretive technique; the…

  2. When I Stopped Writing on Their Papers: Accommodating the Needs of Student Writers with Audio Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The author finds using software to make audio comments on students' writing improves students' understanding of her responses and increases their willingness to take her suggestions for revision more seriously. In the process of recording audio comments, she came to a new understanding of her students' writing needs and her responsibilities as…

  3. An Analysis of Certain Elements of an Audio-Tape Approach to Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronald Ernest

    This study was designed to determine the association between selected variables and an audio-tape approach to instruction. Fifty sophomore students enrolled in a physical anthropology course at Shoreline Community College (Washington) participated in an experimental instructional program that consisted of thirty-two audio-tapes and three optional…

  4. Seeing to hear better: evidence for early audio-visual interactions in speech identification.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frédéric; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-09-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances sensitivity to acoustic information, decreasing the auditory detection threshold of speech embedded in noise [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109 (2001) 2272; J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108 (2000) 1197]. However, detection is different from comprehension, and it remains to be seen whether improved sensitivity also results in an intelligibility gain in audio-visual speech perception. In this work, we use an original paradigm to show that seeing the speaker's lips enables the listener to hear better and hence to understand better. The audio-visual stimuli used here could not be differentiated by lip reading per se since they contained exactly the same lip gesture matched with different compatible speech sounds. Nevertheless, the noise-masked stimuli were more intelligible in the audio-visual condition than in the audio-only condition due to the contribution of visual information to the extraction of acoustic cues. Replacing the lip gesture by a non-speech visual input with exactly the same time course, providing the same temporal cues for extraction, removed the intelligibility benefit. This early contribution to audio-visual speech identification is discussed in relationships with recent neurophysiological data on audio-visual perception.

  5. "Listen to This!" Utilizing Audio Recordings to Improve Instructor Feedback on Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Providing audio files in lieu of written remarks on graded assignments is arguably a more effective means of feedback, allowing students to better process and understand the critique and improve their future work. With emerging technologies and software, this audio feedback alternative to the traditional paradigm of providing written comments…

  6. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  7. 47 CFR 73.9005 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Audio. 73.9005 Section 73.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73... unscreened content or of marked content in digital form except in compressed audio format (such as AC3) or...

  8. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  9. Report to the Legislature: Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. Line Item 7061-0012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Final Report on the Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. The Department and Recording For the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D) have collaborated to provide audio-digital read-aloud editions of the Grade 10 English Language Arts and Mathematics MCAS tests for a small number of students with disabilities such as dyslexia and/or…

  10. Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

  11. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information,…

  12. Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

  13. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  14. Active Learning in the Online Environment: The Integration of Student-Generated Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Armier, David Des, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators have integrated instructor-produced audio files in a variety of settings and environments for purposes such as content presentation, lecture reviews, student feedback, and so forth. Few instructors, however, require students to produce audio files and share them with peers. The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical data on…

  15. Students' Attitudes to and Usage of Academic Feedback Provided via Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Stephen; Orsmond, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study explores students' attitudes to the provision of formative feedback on academic work using audio files together with the ways in which students implement such feedback within their learning. Fifteen students received audio file feedback on written work and were subsequently interviewed regarding their utilisation of that feedback within…

  16. Attention to and Memory for Audio and Video Information in Television Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.

    A study investigated whether selective attention to a particular television modality resulted in different levels of attention to and memory for each modality. Two independent variables manipulated selective attention. These were the semantic channel (audio or video) and viewers' instructed focus (audio or video). These variables were fully…

  17. 78 FR 38093 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment ] DATES: The meeting will be held July 15-19, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  18. Guidelines for the Production of Audio Materials for Print Handicapped Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    Procedural guidelines developed by the Audio Standards Committee of the National Library of Australia to help improve the overall quality of production of audio materials for visually handicapped readers are presented. This report covers the following areas: selection of narrators and the narration itself; copyright; recording of books, magazines,…

  19. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  20. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  1. Audio Feedback: Richer Language but No Measurable Impact on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Charlotte; MacCallum, Janis; Mowat, Elaine; Fulton, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Audio feedback has been shown to be popular and well received by students. However, there is little published work to indicate how effective audio feedback is in improving student performance. Sixty students from a first year science degree agreed to take part in the study; thirty were randomly assigned to receive written feedback on coursework,…

  2. Rethinking the Red Ink: Audio-Feedback in the ESL Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes audio-feedback as a teaching method for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing classes. Using this method, writing instructors respond to students' compositions by recording their comments onto an audiocassette, then returning the paper and cassette to the students. The first section describes audio-feedback and explains…

  3. Professional Development and Audio-Assisted Independent Study in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geib, Peter; McMeen, George R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a continuing education program which incorporates effective staff development techniques and utilization of instructional resources. Considers use of audio tapes in audio-assisted independent study as an appropriate delivery system, emphasizing staff growth and improvement as a community service function jointly planned with other…

  4. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  5. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  6. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  7. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  8. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  9. [Introduction of a simple audio recording system to the operating room--experience at a small local hospital].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ayano; Nakamura, Eriko; Yaegashi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    We developed a simple audio recording system using a small personal computer and free audio recording software that makes voice recordings for use in emergencies, particularly for emergency caesarean sections. The system makes a continuous audio recording while the patient receives medical treatment. The recording provides an accurate record of the anesthesia used during treatment. This audio recording system is useful as an auxiliary means of record keeping during medical emergencies.

  10. 78 FR 44029 - Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Digital Audio Radio Satellite Service in the 2310...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Digital Audio Radio Satellite Service... for Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS) terrestrial repeaters adopted in an Order on... GHz Band; Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Digital Audio Radio Satellite Service in...

  11. 76 FR 57923 - Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service in the 2310...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service... requirements contained in the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS) Second Report and Order. The... document to announce the effective date of these rule sections. See Satellite Digital Audio Radio...

  12. Transana Qualitative Video and Audio Analysis Software as a Tool for Teaching Intellectual Assessment Skills to Graduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the author's experience using qualitative video and audio analysis, most notably through use of the Transana qualitative video and audio analysis software program, as an alternative method for teaching IQ administration skills to students in a graduate psychology program. Qualitative video and audio analysis may be useful for…

  13. Comparing the Effects of Classroom Audio-Recording and Video-Recording on Preservice Teachers' Reflection of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of audio and video self-recording on preservice teachers' written reflections. Participants (n = 201) came from a secondary teaching methods course and its school-based (clinical) fieldwork. The audio group (n[subscript A] = 106) used audio recorders to monitor their teaching in fieldwork placements; the video group…

  14. 77 FR 42764 - Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology... the digital audio recording technology royalty fees in the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Musical Works... royalties on digital audio recording devices and media that are distributed in the United States. 17...

  15. Brain oscillations in switching vs. focusing audio-visual attention.

    PubMed

    Rapela, Joaquin; Gramann, Klaus; Westerfield, Marissa; Townsend, Jeanne; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention contributes to perceptual efficiency by modulating cortical activity according to task demands. The majority of attentional research has focused on the effects of attention to a single modality, and little is known about the role of attention in multimodal sensory processing. Here we employ a novel experimental design to examine the electrophysiological basis of audio-visual attention shifting. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to study differences in brain dynamics between quickly shifting attention between modalities and focusing attention on a single modality for extended periods of time. We also address interactions between attentional effects generated by the attention-shifting cue and those generated by subsequent stimuli. The conclusions from these examinations address key issues in attentional research, including the supramodal theory of attention, or the role of attention in foveal vision. The experimental design and analysis methods used here may suggest new directions in the study of the physiological basis of attention.

  16. Audio-visual speech in noise perception in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Laarhoven, Thijs; Keetels, Mirjam; Schakel, Lemmy; Vroomen, Jean

    2016-12-18

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) may experience, besides reading problems, other speech-related processing deficits. Here, we examined the influence of visual articulatory information (lip-read speech) at various levels of background noise on auditory word recognition in children and adults with DD. We found that children with a documented history of DD have deficits in their ability to gain benefit from lip-read information that disambiguates noise-masked speech. We show with another group of adult individuals with DD that these deficits persist into adulthood. These deficits could not be attributed to impairments in unisensory auditory word recognition. Rather, the results indicate a specific deficit in audio-visual speech processing and suggest that impaired multisensory integration might be an important aspect of DD.

  17. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  18. Development of an audio-based virtual gaming environment to assist with navigation skills in the blind.

    PubMed

    Connors, Erin C; Yazzolino, Lindsay A; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-03-27

    Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind. Using only audio based cues and set within the context of a video game metaphor, users gather relevant spatial information regarding a building's layout. This allows the user to develop an accurate spatial cognitive map of a large-scale three-dimensional space that can be manipulated for the purposes of a real indoor navigation task. After game play, participants are then assessed on their ability to navigate within the target physical building represented in the game. Preliminary results suggest that early blind users were able to acquire relevant information regarding the spatial layout of a previously unfamiliar building as indexed by their performance on a series of navigation tasks. These tasks included path finding through the virtual and physical building, as well as a series of drop off tasks. We find that the immersive and highly interactive nature of the AbES software appears to greatly engage the blind user to actively explore the virtual environment. Applications of this approach may extend to larger populations of visually impaired individuals.

  19. Audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis for multisource separation in a room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanfeng; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Chambers, Jonathon A.

    2012-12-01

    Fast fixed-point independent vector analysis (FastIVA) is an improved independent vector analysis (IVA) method, which can achieve faster and better separation performance than original IVA. As an example IVA method, it is designed to solve the permutation problem in frequency domain independent component analysis by retaining the higher order statistical dependency between frequencies during learning. However, the performance of all IVA methods is limited due to the dimensionality of the parameter space commonly encountered in practical frequency-domain source separation problems and the spherical symmetry assumed with the source model. In this article, a particular permutation problem encountered in using the FastIVA algorithm is highlighted, namely the block permutation problem. Therefore a new audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm is proposed, which uses video information to provide a smart initialization for the optimization problem. The method cannot only avoid the ill convergence resulting from the block permutation problem but also improve the separation performance even in noisy and high reverberant environments. Different multisource datasets including the real audio video corpus AV16.3 are used to verify the proposed method. For the evaluation of the separation performance on real room recordings, a new pitch based evaluation criterion is also proposed.

  20. Effects of virtual speaker density and room reverberation on spatiotemporal thresholds of audio-visual motion coherence.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Narayan; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of spatial sound-source density and reverberation on the spatiotemporal window for audio-visual motion coherence. Three different acoustic stimuli were generated in Virtual Auditory Space: two acoustically "dry" stimuli via the measurement of anechoic head-related impulse responses recorded at either 1° or 5° spatial intervals (Experiment 1), and a reverberant stimulus rendered from binaural room impulse responses recorded at 5° intervals in situ in order to capture reverberant acoustics in addition to head-related cues (Experiment 2). A moving visual stimulus with invariant localization cues was generated by sequentially activating LED's along the same radial path as the virtual auditory motion. Stimuli were presented at 25°/s, 50°/s and 100°/s with a random spatial offset between audition and vision. In a 2AFC task, subjects made a judgment of the leading modality (auditory or visual). No significant differences were observed in the spatial threshold based on the point of subjective equivalence (PSE) or the slope of psychometric functions (β) across all three acoustic conditions. Additionally, both the PSE and β did not significantly differ across velocity, suggesting a fixed spatial window of audio-visual separation. Findings suggest that there was no loss in spatial information accompanying the reduction in spatial cues and reverberation levels tested, and establish a perceptual measure for assessing the veracity of motion generated from discrete locations and in echoic environments.

  1. Comparative study of audio spatializers for dual-loudspeaker mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Shih, Geng-Yu; Lee, Chih-Chung

    2007-01-01

    MPEG-1, layer 3 handsets equipped with dual loudspeakers and three-dimensional audio modules have received much attention in the market of consumer electronics. To create spatial impression during audio reproduction, the head-related transfer function (HRTF) and the crosstalk cancellation system (CCS) are key elements in many audio spatializers. However, there are many factors that one should take into account during the design and implementation stages of an audio spatializer in the handset application. In the paper, a comprehensive study was undertaken to compare various audio spatializers for use with dual-loudspeaker handsets, in the context of inverse filtering strategies. Two deconvolution approaches, the frequency-domain method and the time-domain method, are employed to design the required inverse filters. Different approaches to design audio spatializers with the HRTF, CCS, and their combination are compared. In particular, two modified CCS approaches are suggested. Issues in the implementation phase such as regularization, complex smoothing, and structures of inverse filters are also addressed in the paper. Comprehensive objective and subjective tests were conducted to investigate the aforementioned aspects of audio spatializers. The data obtained from the subjective tests are processed by using the multianalysis of variance to justify statistical significance of the results.

  2. TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1-50 mM), flow rate (2-120 µL min-1) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ~10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems.

  3. Audio representations of multi-channel EEG: a new tool for diagnosis of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, François B; Dauwels, Justin; Musha, Toshimitsu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to develop audio representations of electroencephalographic (EEG) multichannel signals, useful for medical practitioners and neuroscientists. The fundamental question explored in this paper is whether clinically valuable information contained in the EEG, not available from the conventional graphical EEG representation, might become apparent through audio representations. Methods and Materials: Music scores are generated from sparse time-frequency maps of EEG signals. Specifically, EEG signals of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (healthy) control subjects are considered. Statistical differences in the audio representations of MCI patients and control subjects are assessed through mathematical complexity indexes as well as a perception test; in the latter, participants try to distinguish between audio sequences from MCI patients and control subjects. Results: Several characteristics of the audio sequences, including sample entropy, number of notes, and synchrony, are significantly different in MCI patients and control subjects (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Moreover, the participants of the perception test were able to accurately classify the audio sequences (89% correctly classified). Conclusions: The proposed audio representation of multi-channel EEG signals helps to understand the complex structure of EEG. Promising results were obtained on a clinical EEG data set. PMID:23383399

  4. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  5. Interactive MPEG-4 low-bit-rate speech/audio transmission over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kim, JongWon; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-11-01

    The recently developed MPEG-4 technology enables the coding and transmission of natural and synthetic audio-visual data in the form of objects. In an effort to extend the object-based functionality of MPEG-4 to real-time Internet applications, architectural prototypes of multiplex layer and transport layer tailored for transmission of MPEG-4 data over IP are under debate among Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and MPEG-4 systems Ad Hoc group. In this paper, we present an architecture for interactive MPEG-4 speech/audio transmission system over the Internet. It utilities a framework of Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) over Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) to provide controlled, on-demand delivery of real time speech/audio data. Based on a client-server model, a couple of low bit-rate bit streams (real-time speech/audio, pre- encoded speech/audio) are multiplexed and transmitted via a single RTP channel to the receiver. The MPEG-4 Scene Description (SD) and Object Descriptor (OD) bit streams are securely sent through the RTSP control channel. Upon receiving, an initial MPEG-4 audio- visual scene is constructed after de-multiplexing, decoding of bit streams, and scene composition. A receiver is allowed to manipulate the initial audio-visual scene presentation locally, or interactively arrange scene changes by sending requests to the server. A server may also choose to update the client with new streams and list of contents for user selection.

  6. Using listener-based perceptual features as intermediate representations in music information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Anders; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Hedblad, Anton; Fabiani, Marco; Elowsson, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.

  7. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed.

  8. The temporal window of audio-tactile integration in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Gick, Bryan; Ikegami, Yoko; Derrick, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Asynchronous cross-modal information is integrated asymmetrically in audio-visual perception. To test whether this asymmetry generalizes across modalities, auditory (aspirated “pa” and unaspirated “ba” stops) and tactile (slight, inaudible, cutaneous air puffs) signals were presented synchronously and asynchronously. Results were similar to previous AV studies: the temporal window of integration for the enhancement effect (but not the interference effect) was asymmetrical, allowing up to 200 ms of asynchrony when the puff followed the audio signal, but only up to 50 ms when the puff preceded the audio signal. These findings suggest that perceivers accommodate differences in physical transmission speed of different multimodal signals. PMID:21110549

  9. Method for reading sensors and controlling actuators using audio interfaces of mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Rafael V; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F; Gonçalves, Luiz M G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks.

  10. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  11. The impact of information fusion in steganalysis on the example of audio steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Information fusion tries to determine the best set of experts in a given problem domain and devise an appropriate function that can optimally combine the decisions of the individual experts. Only few systematic approaches to information fusion exist so far in the signal processing field of steganalysis. Under the basic assumption that steganalysis can be seen as a statistical pattern recognition process like biometrics, a state of the art five level information fusion model known from biometrics is transferred to steganalysis as well as statistical detectability evaluations for watermarking algorithms and its applicability is evaluated in practical testing. The primary test goal for these evaluations is to measure the impact of fusion on the classification accuracy. Therefore a match and decision level fusion are performed here for three selected data hiding algorithms (one steganography and two watermarking), two feature extractors and five different classifiers. For the test heterogeneous audio test sets are used for content independent training and testing. The secondary test goal of this work is to consider the impact of the key selection assumption on the accuracy of the classification in steganalysis. The results show for the test cases an increase of the classification accuracy for two of the three tested algorithms by match level fusions, no gain by decision level fusion and a considerably small impact of the key selection assumption on the statistical detectability.

  12. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  13. Incorporating Data Link Features into a Multi-Function Display to Support Self-Separation and Spacing Tasks for General Aviation Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Consiglio, Maria C.; WIlliams, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated Airport Management Module (AMM) and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. Implementation of this concept required the development of a research Multi-Function Display (MFD) to support the interactive communications between pilots and the AMM. The interface also had to accommodate traffic awareness, self-separation, and spacing tasks through dynamic messaging and symbology for flight path conformance and conflict detection and alerting (CDA). The display served as the mechanism to support the examination of the viability of executing instrument operations designed for SATS designated airports. Results of simulation and flight experiments conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center indicate that the concept, as facilitated by the research MFD, did not increase pilots subjective workload levels or reduce their situation awareness (SA). Post-test usability assessments revealed that pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved SA over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  14. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Dion D.

    1993-01-01

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  15. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  16. Bridging the Gap: Integrating Video and Audio Cassettes into Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Kay Beth; Avery, Charles W.; Pace, Debra Partin

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 practical activities that use video and audio cassettes to build bridges to printed texts, and thus ease students into analyzing complex ideas and into complex examinations of themes, symbols, and literary technique. (SR)

  17. Research on free-space optical communication based on time-division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhou, Wenchao; Li, Zhen; Chen, Zhenqiang; Yin, Hao; Zhu, Siqi; Li, Anming

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at designing and demonstrating a video and audio signals synchronous wireless transmission of free-space optical communication (FSO) system. Video and audio signals were modulated by the acousto-optical modulator (AOM). With the help of a designed circuit and programmable microcontroller, the system based on time division multiplexing (TDM) achieves the functions of signal de-multiplexing and wireless transmitting. Proved by experiments, the system meets the actual requirements with advantages of flexibility, practicality and low cost. And it provides an efficient scheme of synchronous wireless transmission of video and audio signals for monitoring system and TV access network.

  18. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  19. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group

  20. Sounds of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  1. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-06

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016.

  2. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  3. Differentiated audio-tactile correspondences in sighted and blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Fasiello, Irène; Hayward, Vincent; Auvray, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the crossmodal correspondence robustly documented between auditory pitch and visual elevation has analogues in the audio-tactile domain. Across 4 experiments, the compatibility effects between intuitively congruent pairs of stimuli (i.e., outward tactile movement, going from the inside of the finger toward the fingertip and increasing pitch, or inward tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent pairs stimuli (i.e., the reverse associations) were measured. Two methods were compared to assess the behavioral effects of such a correspondence: One where participants have to respond to either the auditory or tactile stimulus presented simultaneously, while ignoring the other (speeded classification task), and the other where the auditory and tactile stimuli are presented sequentially and associated to different response buttons (implicit association test). No significant compatibility effect was observed under the speeded classification task. The implicit association test revealed a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the finger was placed vertically and horizontally. However, this implicit association between pitch and tactile movements was not observed in blind participants. These results have methodological implications for the explanation and testing of crossmodal correspondences, and the origin of the widely discussed association between pitch and vertical elevation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Human performance measures for interactive haptic-audio-visual interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dawei; Bhatti, Asim; Nahavandi, Saeid; Horan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems.

  5. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  6. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  7. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  8. Sensorimotor synchronization with audio-visual stimuli: limited multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Issartel, Johann

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how we synchronize our actions with stimuli from different sensory modalities plays a central role in helping to establish how we interact with our multisensory environment. Recent research has shown better performance with multisensory over unisensory stimuli; however, the type of stimuli used has mainly been auditory and tactile. The aim of this article was to expand our understanding of sensorimotor synchronization with multisensory audio-visual stimuli and compare these findings to their individual unisensory counterparts. This research also aims to assess the role of spatio-temporal structure for each sensory modality. The visual and/or auditory stimuli had either temporal or spatio-temporal information available and were presented to the participants in unimodal and bimodal conditions. Globally, the performance was significantly better for the bimodal compared to the unimodal conditions; however, this benefit was limited to only one of the bimodal conditions. In terms of the unimodal conditions, the level of synchronization with visual stimuli was better than auditory, and while there was an observed benefit with the spatio-temporal compared to temporal visual stimulus, this was not replicated with the auditory stimulus.

  9. Using the ENF Criterion for Determining the Time of Recording of Short Digital Audio Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijbregtse, Maarten; Geradts, Zeno

    The Electric Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion is a recently developed forensic technique for determining the time of recording of digital audio recordings, by matching the ENF pattern from a questioned recording with an ENF pattern database. In this paper we discuss its inherent limitations in the case of short - i.e., less than 10 minutes in duration - digital audio recordings. We also present a matching procedure based on the correlation coefficient, as a more robust alternative to squared error matching.

  10. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  11. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    and High-Middle-Low ratings. In custom mode, user-defined HPD parameters were imported into the program. Once a UAS sound file was loaded, the...high-definition camcorder. Videos of the UAV were exported to a computer and were converted to a stereo waveform audio (WAV) file format with a...preinstalled audio file converter. Nine HPDs were tested from 3 hearing protector types: preformed earplugs, hand- formed earplugs, and noise muffs. To

  12. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  13. Wideband audio compression using subband coding and entropy-constrained scalar quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinkaus, Trevor R.

    1995-04-01

    Source coding of wideband audio signals for storage applications and/or transmission over band limited channels is currently a research topic receiving considerable attention. A goal common to all systems designed for wideband audio coding is to achieve an efficient reduction in code rate, while maintaining imperceptible differences between the original and coded audio signals. In this thesis, an effective source coding scheme aimed at reducing the code rate to the entropy of the quantized audio source, while providing good subjective audio quality, is discussed. This scheme employs the technique of subband coding, where a 32-band single sideband modulated filter bank is used to perform subband analysis and synthesis operations. Encoding and decoding of the subbands is accomplished using entropy constrained uniform scalar quantization and subsequent arithmetic coding. A computationally efficient subband rate allocation procedure is used which relies on analytic models to describe the rate distortion characteristics of the subband quantizers. Signal quality is maintained by incorporating masking properties of the human ear into this rate allocation procedure. Results of simulations performed on compact disc quality audio segments are provided.

  14. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  15. Introduction of audio gating to further reduce organ motion in breathing synchronized radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kubo, H Dale; Wang, Lili

    2002-03-01

    With breathing synchronized radiotherapy (BSRT), a voltage signal derived from an organ displacement detector is usually displayed on the vertical axis whereas the elapsed time is shown on the horizontal axis. The voltage gate window is set on the breathing voltage signal. Whenever the breathing signal falls between the two gate levels, a gate pulse is produced to enable the treatment machine. In this paper a new gating mechanism, audio (or time-sequence) gating, is introduced and is integrated into the existing voltage gating system. The audio gating takes advantage of the repetitive nature of the breathing signal when repetitive audio instruction is given to the patient. The audio gating is aimed at removing the regions of sharp rises and falls in the breathing signal that cannot be removed by the voltage gating. When the breathing signal falls between voltage gate levels as well as between audio-gate levels, the voltage- and audio-gated radiotherapy (ART) system will generate an AND gate pulse. When this gate pulse is received by a linear accelerator, the linear accelerator becomes "enabled" for beam delivery and will deliver the beam when all other interlocks are removed. This paper describes a new gating mechanism and a method of recording beam-on signal, both of which are, configured into a laptop computer. The paper also presents evidence of some clinical advantages achieved with the ART system.

  16. An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Eric M.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

  17. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  18. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Gender and age have been found to affect adults' audio-visual (AV) speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-60 years) with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females' general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females' speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy toward more visually dominated responses.

  19. Testing of a Methane Cryogenic Heat Pipe with a Liquid Trap Turn-Off Feature for use on Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Krylo, Robert; Fisher, Melanie; Bugby, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Camera cooling for SIM presents three thermal control challenges; stable operation at 163K (110 C), decontamination heating to +20 C, and a long span from the cameras to the radiator. A novel cryogenic cooling system based on a methane heat pipe meets these challenges. The SIM thermal team, with the help of heat pipe vendor ATK, designed and tested a complete, low temperature, cooling system. The system accommodates the two SIM cameras with a double-ended conduction bar, a single methane heat pipe, independent turn-off devices, and a flight-like radiator. The turn ]off devices consist of a liquid trap, for removing the methane from the pipe, and an electrical heater to raise the methane temperature above the critical point thus preventing two-phase operation. This is the first time a cryogenic heat pipe has been tested at JPL and is also the first heat pipe to incorporate the turn-off features. Operation at 163K with a methane heat pipe is an important new thermal control capability for the lab. In addition, the two turn-off technologies enhance the "bag of tricks" available to the JPL thermal community. The successful test program brings this heat pipe to a high level of technology readiness.

  20. Four-chamber heart modeling and automatic segmentation for 3-D cardiac CT volumes using marginal space learning and steerable features.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yefeng; Barbu, Adrian; Georgescu, Bogdan; Scheuering, Michael; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2008-11-01

    We propose an automatic four-chamber heart segmentation system for the quantitative functional analysis of the heart from cardiac computed tomography (CT) volumes. Two topics are discussed: heart modeling and automatic model fitting to an unseen volume. Heart modeling is a nontrivial task since the heart is a complex nonrigid organ. The model must be anatomically accurate, allow manual editing, and provide sufficient information to guide automatic detection and segmentation. Unlike previous work, we explicitly represent important landmarks (such as the valves and the ventricular septum cusps) among the control points of the model. The control points can be detected reliably to guide the automatic model fitting process. Using this model, we develop an efficient and robust approach for automatic heart chamber segmentation in 3-D CT volumes. We formulate the segmentation as a two-step learning problem: anatomical structure localization and boundary delineation. In both steps, we exploit the recent advances in learning discriminative models. A novel algorithm, marginal space learning (MSL), is introduced to solve the 9-D similarity transformation search problem for localizing the heart chambers. After determining the pose of the heart chambers, we estimate the 3-D shape through learning-based boundary delineation. The proposed method has been extensively tested on the largest dataset (with 323 volumes from 137 patients) ever reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, our system is the fastest with a speed of 4.0 s per volume (on a dual-core 3.2-GHz processor) for the automatic segmentation of all four chambers.

  1. The Black Record: A Selective Discography of Afro-Americana on Audio Discs Held by the Audio/Visual Department, John M. Olin Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dain, Bernice, Comp.; Nevin, David, Comp.

    The present revised and expanded edition of this document is an inclusive cumulation. A few items have been included which are on order as new to the collection or as replacements. This discography is intended to serve primarily as a local user's guide. The call number preceding each entry is based on the Audio-Visual Department's own, unique…

  2. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory

  3. Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

  4. New Design Feature in Virginia's Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Monica McTeague

    A study of new design features for public schools was conducted to determine what specific design features were being implemented in Virginia's schools. This report summarizes the major trends in facility design that were discovered in the following areas: safety and security features; classroom space; technology areas; administrative spaces;…

  5. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R; Fazenda, Bruno M; Cox, Trevor J; Li, Francis F

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise.

  6. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R.; Fazenda, Bruno M.; Cox, Trevor J.; Li, Francis F.

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise. PMID:26473498

  7. An Audio/Video Reporting Workflow to Supplement Standardized Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Balkman, Jason D; Siegel, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    Radiology studies are inherently visual and the information contained within is best conveyed by visual methodology. Advanced reporting software allows the incorporation of annotated key images into text reports, but such features may be less effective compared with in-person consultations. The use of web technology and screen capture software to create retrievable on-demand audio/visual reports has not yet been investigated. This approach may preempt potential curbside consultations while providing referring clinicians with a more engaged imaging service. In this work, we develop and evaluate a video reporting tool that utilizes modern screen capture software and web technology. We hypothesize that referring clinicians would find that recorded on-demand video reports add value to clinical practice, education, and that such technology would be welcome in future practice. A total of 45 case videos were prepared by radiologists for 14 attending and 15 trainee physicians from emergency and internal medicine specialties. Positive survey feedback from referring clinicians about the video reporting system was statistically significant in all areas measured, including video quality, clinical helpfulness, and willingness to use such technology in the future. Trainees unanimously found educational value in video reporting. These results suggest the potential for video technology to re-establish the radiologist's role as a pivotal member of patient care and integral clinical educator. Future work is needed to streamline these methods in order to minimize work redundancy with traditional text reporting. Additionally, integration with an existing PACS and dictation system will be essential to ensuring ease of use and widespread adoption.

  8. Investigation des correlations existant entre la perception de qualite audio et les reactions physiologiques d'un auditeur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudot, Matthias

    Les tests d'ecoute subjectifs permettent d'evaluer la fiabilite de reproduction des systemes de codage audio (codecs). Le projet presente ici vise a evaluer la possibilite d'utiliser les reactions physiologiques (activite electrodermale, cardiaque, musculaire et cerebrale) a la place d'une note donnee par l'auditeur, afin de caracteriser la performance d'un codec. Ceci permettrait d'avoir une methode d'evaluation plus proche de la perception reelle de qualite audio du sujet. Des tests d'ecoute mettant en oeuvre des degradations audio bien connues en concours avec la mesure des reactions physiologiques ont ete realises pour 4 auditeurs. L'analyse des resultats montre que certaines caracteristiques physiologiques permettent d'avoir une information fiable sur la qualite audio percue, et ce de maniere repetable pour pres de 70% des signaux audio testes chez un sujet, et pres de 60% des sequences audio testees chez tous les sujets. Ceci permet de postuler sur la faisabilite d'une telle methode d'evaluation subjective des codecs audio. Mots-cles : test d'ecoute subjectif, evaluation des codecs audio, mesures physiologiques, qualite audio percue, conductance electrodermale, photoplethysmographie, electromyogramme, electroencephalogramme

  9. Three-dimensional audio-magnetotelluric sounding in monitoring coalbed methane reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Zhao, Shanshan; Hui, Jian; Qin, Qiming

    2017-03-01

    Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sounding is widely employed in rapid resistivity delineation of objective geometry in near surface exploration. According to reservoir patterns and electrical parameters obtained in Qinshui Basin, China, two-dimensional and three-dimensional synthetic ;objective anomaly; models were designed and inverted with the availability of a modular system for electromagnetic inversion (ModEM). The results revealed that 3-D full impedance inversion yielded the subsurface models closest to synthetic models. One or more conductive targets were correctly recovered. Therefore, conductive aquifers in the study area, including hydrous coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs, were suggested to be the interpretation signs for reservoir characterization. With the aim of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, the AMT surveys in continuous years (June 2013-May 2015) were carried out. 3-D inversion results demonstrated that conductive anomalies accumulated around the producing reservoirs at the corresponding depths if CBM reservoirs were in high water production rates. In contrast, smaller conductive anomalies were generally identical with rapid gas production or stopping production of reservoirs. These analyses were in accordance with actual production history of CBM wells. The dynamic traces of conductive anomalies revealed that reservoir water migrated deep or converged in axial parts and wings of folds, which contributed significantly to formations of CBM traps. Then the well spacing scenario was also evaluated based on the dynamic production analysis. Wells distributed near closed faults or flat folds, rather than open faults, had CBM production potential to ascertain stable gas production. Therefore, three-dimensional AMT sounding becomes an attractive option with the ability of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, and lays a solid foundation of quantitative evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  10. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  11. Cross-Modal Matching of Audio-Visual German and French Fluent Speech in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Claudia; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Dupierrix, Eve; Pascalis, Olivier; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Gervain, Judit; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined when and how the ability to cross-modally match audio-visual fluent speech develops in 4.5-, 6- and 12-month-old German-learning infants. In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants’ audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only. Results were discussed with regard to multisensory perceptual narrowing during the first year of life. PMID:24586651

  12. Audio-visual identification of place of articulation and voicing in white and babble noise.

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn M; Wang, Yue; Eg, Ragnhild

    2009-07-01

    Research shows that noise and phonetic attributes influence the degree to which auditory and visual modalities are used in audio-visual speech perception (AVSP). Research has, however, mainly focused on white noise and single phonetic attributes, thus neglecting the more common babble noise and possible interactions between phonetic attributes. This study explores whether white and babble noise differentially influence AVSP and whether these differences depend on phonetic attributes. White and babble noise of 0 and -12 dB signal-to-noise ratio were added to congruent and incongruent audio-visual stop consonant-vowel stimuli. The audio (A) and video (V) of incongruent stimuli differed either in place of articulation (POA) or voicing. Responses from 15 young adults show that, compared to white noise, babble resulted in more audio responses for POA stimuli, and fewer for voicing stimuli. Voiced syllables received more audio responses than voiceless syllables. Results can be attributed to discrepancies in the acoustic spectra of both the noise and speech target. Voiced consonants may be more auditorily salient than voiceless consonants which are more spectrally similar to white noise. Visual cues contribute to identification of voicing, but only if the POA is visually salient and auditorily susceptible to the noise type.

  13. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  14. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations.

  15. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  16. The roar of Yasur: Handheld audio recorder monitoring of Vanuatu volcanic vent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Howell, Robert; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe how near-field audio recording using a pocket digital sound recorder can usefully document volcanic activity, demonstrating the approach at Yasur, Vanuatu in May 2014. Prominent emissions peak at 263 Hz, interpreted as an organ-pipe mode. High-pass filtering was found to usefully discriminate volcano vent noise from wind noise, and autocorrelation of the high pass acoustic power reveals a prominent peak in exhalation intervals of 2.5, 4 and 8 s, with a number of larger explosive events at 200 s intervals. We suggest that this compact and inexpensive audio instrumentation can usefully supplement other field monitoring such as seismic or infrasound. A simple estimate of acoustic power interpreted with a dipole jet noise model yielded vent velocities too low to be compatible with pyroclast emission, suggesting difficulties with this approach at audio frequencies (perhaps due to acoustic absorption by volcanic gases).

  17. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  18. Bandwidth-Scalable Stereo Audio Coding Based on a Layered Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Han; Kim, Deok Su; Kim, Hong Kook; Sung, Jongmo; Lee, Mi Suk; Bae, Hyun Joo

    In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-scalable stereo audio coding method based on a layered structure. The proposed stereo coding method encodes super-wideband (SWB) stereo signals and is able to decode either wideband (WB) stereo signals or SWB stereo signals, depending on the network congestion. The performance of the proposed stereo coding method is then compared with that of a conventional stereo coding method that separately decodes WB or SWB stereo signals, in terms of subjective quality, algorithmic delay, and computational complexity. Experimental results show that when stereo audio signals sampled at a rate of 32kHz are compressed to 64kbit/s, the proposed method provides significantly better audio quality with a 64-sample shorter algorithmic delay, and comparable computational complexity.

  19. Audio feedback for student writing in online nursing courses: exploring student and instructor reactions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kathryn A; Moskovitz, Cary; Valiga, Theresa M

    2011-09-01

    Because scientific writing is an essential skill for advanced practice nurses, it is an important component of graduate education. Faculty typically provide written feedback about student writing, but this may not be the most effective choice for the distance-learning environment. This exploratory pilot study's aim was to compare spoken, recorded feedback with written feedback in three areas: which approach do students perceive as providing more useful guidance; which approach helps students feel more connected to the course; and which approach do instructors prefer? Students enrolled in an evidence-based practice graduate-level course received asynchronous audio feedback on their written assignments instead of the written feedback they received in other courses. Results from a survey completed by 30 students at completion of the course suggest a strong preference for audio feedback. This pilot study suggests that audio feedback may be preferable to written comments for distance learning courses.

  20. Multidimensional QoE of Multiview Video and Selectable Audio IP Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Nunome, Toshiro; Ishida, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate QoE of multiview video and selectable audio (MVV-SA), in which users can switch not only video but also audio according to a viewpoint change request, transmitted over IP networks by a subjective experiment. The evaluation is performed by the semantic differential (SD) method with 13 adjective pairs. In the subjective experiment, we ask assessors to evaluate 40 stimuli which consist of two kinds of UDP load traffic, two kinds of fixed additional delay, five kinds of playout buffering time, and selectable or unselectable audio (i.e., MVV-SA or the previous MVV-A). As a result, MVV-SA gives higher presence to the user than MVV-A and then enhances QoE. In addition, we employ factor analysis for subjective assessment results to clarify the component factors of QoE. We then find that three major factors affect QoE in MVV-SA. PMID:26106640

  1. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  2. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smayda, Kirsten E.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18–35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60–90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when

  3. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  4. Head Tracking for 3D Audio Using a GPS-Aided MEMS IMU

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Aircraft, Directional Signals, GPS/INS Fusion , GPS/INS Integration, Head Tracking Systems, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), Inertial Sensors, MEMS...HEAD TRACKING FOR 3D AUDIO USING A GPS-AIDED MEMS IMU THESIS Jacque M. Joffrion, Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/05-09 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...the United States Government. AFIT/GE/ENG/05-09 HEAD TRACKING FOR 3D AUDIO USING A GPS-AIDED MEMS IMU THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Department

  5. Instructional Insights: Audio Feedback as Means of Engaging the Occupational Therapy Student.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sarah K

    2016-01-01

    Constructivist learning approaches require faculty to engage students in the reflective learning process, yet students can begin to view this process as mundane and at times not engage in the process or utilize feedback provided. This article describes the results of applying audio feedback to overcome these obstacles in a practicum integration course. Student report and assignment performance indicated increased learning and engagement. The instructor found giving audio feedback more efficient than written feedback as it overcame inflection issues associated with the written word. Recorded files also alleviated additional student appointments for clarification of the feedback.

  6. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Embedded Audio Feedback for English as a Foreign Language Students in Asynchronous Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesova, Larisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of asynchronous embedded audio feedback on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' higher-order learning and perception of the audio feedback versus text-based feedback when the students participated in asynchronous online discussions. In addition, this study examined how the impact and perceptions differed…

  7. Effects of Text, Audio and Learner Control on Text-Sound Association and Cognitive Load of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso Bernal, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and aural forms of target vocabulary words. The study also looked at the effects of learner control over an audio sequence on the association of textual and…

  8. Audio and Video Podcasts of Lectures for Campus-Based Students: Production and Evaluation of Student Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Podcasting has become a popular medium for accessing and assimilating information and podcasts are increasingly being used to deliver audio recordings of lectures to campus-based students. This paper describes a simple, cost-effective and file size-efficient method for producing video podcasts combining lecture slides and audio without a…

  9. An Introduction to Boiler Water Chemistry for the Marine Engineer: A Text of Audio-Tutorial Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    Presented is a manuscript for an introductory boiler water chemistry course for marine engineer education. The course is modular, self-paced, audio-tutorial, contract graded and combined lecture-laboratory instructed. Lectures are presented to students individually via audio-tapes and 35 mm slides. The course consists of a total of 17 modules -…

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Presentations of Rate Controlled Audio Instruction in Relation to Certain Student Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarenpa, Dennis Edward

    Experiments measured the effectiveness and efficiency of audio tape recordings using "time-compressed speech" compared to those using normal recording rates in an audio-tutorial system. The experimental tapes were compressed to 60 percent of the original rate of delivery. Results showed that the rate of speech made no difference in the students'…

  11. Use of Audio Cuing to Expand Employment Opportunities for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Howard, Monica R.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Bowen, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated audio cuing to facilitate community employment of individuals with autism and intellectual disability. The job required promoting products in retail stores by wearing an air-inflated WalkAround[R] costume of a popular commercial character. Three adolescents, ages 16-18, were initially trained with video modeling. Audio cuing was then…

  12. Do Video Clips Add More Value than Audio Clips? Presenting Industrial Research and Development Results Using Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Bruce; Collyer, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that in multimedia information applications a visual component can add value to otherwise audio-only clips. Subjects rated clips used in published CD-ROMs and how much they remembered was also tested. In one set of clips, the visual component was removed, in a second the audio was removed and a third set was unedited. The…

  13. Suppressing aliasing noise in the speech feature domain for automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiqun; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2008-07-01

    This letter points out that, although in the audio signal domain low-pass filtering has been used to prevent aliasing noise from entering the baseband of speech signals, an antialias process in the speech feature domain is still needed to prevent high modulation frequency components from entering the baseband of speech features. The existence of aliasing noise in speech features is revealed via spectral analysis of speech feature streams. A method for suppressing such aliasing noise is proposed. Experiments on large vocabulary speech recognition show that antialias processing of speech features can improve speech recognition, especially for noisy speech.

  14. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  15. Automatic Speech Acquisition and Recognition for Spacesuit Audio Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    NASA has a widely recognized but unmet need for novel human-machine interface technologies that can facilitate communication during astronaut extravehicular activities (EVAs), when loud noises and strong reverberations inside spacesuits make communication challenging. WeVoice, Inc., has developed a multichannel signal-processing method for speech acquisition in noisy and reverberant environments that enables automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology inside spacesuits. The technology reduces noise by exploiting differences between the statistical nature of signals (i.e., speech) and noise that exists in the spatial and temporal domains. As a result, ASR accuracy can be improved to the level at which crewmembers will find the speech interface useful. System components and features include beam forming/multichannel noise reduction, single-channel noise reduction, speech feature extraction, feature transformation and normalization, feature compression, and ASR decoding. Arithmetic complexity models were developed and will help designers of real-time ASR systems select proper tasks when confronted with constraints in computational resources. In Phase I of the project, WeVoice validated the technology. The company further refined the technology in Phase II and developed a prototype for testing and use by suited astronauts.

  16. School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

  17. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  18. Distinctive-feature analyses of the speech of deaf children.

    PubMed

    Mencke, E O; Ochsner, G J; Testut, E W

    1985-07-01

    22 children aged 8.5 through 15.5 yrs with HTLs greater than or equal to 90 db in the better ear spoke a carrier phrase before each of 41 monosyllables containing each an initial and a final consonant (23 consonants were represented). Each S repeated the 41-word list 10 times. Speech samples were recorded simultaneously but independently in audio-only and in audio-visual modes, and transcribed by 3 judges using each mode separately. Percent correct speaker-subjects' utterances of target consonants in initial and in final word-positions were scored for presence or absence of distinctive features according to the systems of Chomsky and Halle (1968) and of Fisher and Logemann (1971). Consistently higher correct feature usage was noted for target consonants in the initial rather than in the final word-position for both systems. Further, higher scores were obtained when transcribers could see as well as hear the speaker, but correct usage of a feature was not uniformly a function of the visibility of that feature. Finally, there was no significant increase in correct feature usage as a function of speaker age.

  19. Use of audio biofeedback to reduce tibial impact accelerations during running.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire M; Kipp, Kristof

    2014-05-07

    Visual biofeedback of tibial peak positive acceleration (PPA) during running has been used successfully as a method of gait retraining to reduce PPAs. Audio biofeedback generated from PPA may present a novel, portable alternative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using PPA-generated audio biofeedback to reduce PPAs while running. Nine runners were fitted with a wireless accelerometer on their left tibia. PPAs were recorded and a custom LabVIEW program was used to emit a single beep once the PPA reached a preset threshold. The numerical difference between this threshold and peak PPA during running was scaled to the pitch of the beep, such that a foot strike with greater PPA would result in a beep with higher pitch. Subjects were then instructed to (1) run without any beeps, and/or (2) keep the pitch of the beep as low as possible. Subjects participated in a single testing session that included a five minute warm-up and two rounds of biofeedback, which consisted of five minutes of running with biofeedback followed by five minutes of running without biofeedback. Subjects were able to significantly reduce PPAs during exposure to audio biofeedback. In addition, two rounds of biofeedback were sufficient for subjects to retain a reduction in PPAs without biofeedback. PPA-generated audio biofeedback therefore appears to be a feasible method of gait retraining to reduce PPAs in runners.

  20. Audio Feedback to Physiotherapy Students for Viva Voce: How Effective Is "The Living Voice"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Wendy; Hollingworth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and feedback remains one of the categories that students are least satisfied with within the United Kingdom National Student Survey. The Student Charter promotes the use of various formats of feedback to enhance student learning. This study evaluates the use of audio MP3 as an alternative feedback mechanism to written feedback for…

  1. Applications of ENF criterion in forensic audio, video, computer and telecommunication analysis.

    PubMed

    Grigoras, Catalin

    2007-04-11

    This article reports on the electric network frequency criterion as a means of assessing the integrity of digital audio/video evidence and forensic IT and telecommunication analysis. A brief description is given to different ENF types and phenomena that determine ENF variations. In most situations, to reach a non-authenticity opinion, the visual inspection of spectrograms and comparison with an ENF database are enough. A more detailed investigation, in the time domain, requires short time windows measurements and analyses. The stability of the ENF over geographical distances has been established by comparison of synchronized recordings made at different locations on the same network. Real cases are presented, in which the ENF criterion was used to investigate audio and video files created with secret surveillance systems, a digitized audio/video recording and a TV broadcasted reportage. By applying the ENF Criterion in forensic audio/video analysis, one can determine whether and where a digital recording has been edited, establish whether it was made at the time claimed, and identify the time and date of the registering operation.

  2. The Introduction and Refinement of the Assessment of Digitally Recorded Audio Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This case study critically evaluates benefits and challenges of a form of assessment included in a final year undergraduate Religious Studies Open University module, which combines a written essay task with a digital audio recording of a short oral presentation. Based on the analysis of student and tutor feedback and sample assignments, this study…

  3. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  4. Using Songs as Audio Materials in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The use of songs as audio materials in teaching Turkish as foreign language is an important part of language culture and has an important place in culture. Thus, the transfer of cultural aspects accelerates language learning process. In the light of this view, it becomes necessary to transfer cultural aspects into classroom environment in teaching…

  5. 47 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart N of... - Typical Audio Wave

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Typical Audio Wave 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Pt. 2, Subpt. N, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part...

  6. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Carl

    2013-09-24

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  7. Grouping and Segregation of Sensory Events by Actions in Temporal Audio-Visual Recalibration

    PubMed Central

    Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Perception in multi-sensory environments involves both grouping and segregation of events across sensory modalities. Temporal coincidence between events is considered a strong cue to resolve multisensory perception. However, differences in physical transmission and neural processing times amongst modalities complicate this picture. This is illustrated by cross-modal recalibration, whereby adaptation to audio-visual asynchrony produces shifts in perceived simultaneity. Here, we examined whether voluntary actions might serve as a temporal anchor to cross-modal recalibration in time. Participants were tested on an audio-visual simultaneity judgment task after an adaptation phase where they had to synchronize voluntary actions with audio-visual pairs presented at a fixed asynchrony (vision leading or vision lagging). Our analysis focused on the magnitude of cross-modal recalibration to the adapted audio-visual asynchrony as a function of the nature of the actions during adaptation, putatively fostering cross-modal grouping or, segregation. We found larger temporal adjustments when actions promoted grouping than segregation of sensory events. However, a control experiment suggested that additional factors, such as attention to planning/execution of actions, could have an impact on recalibration effects. Contrary to the view that cross-modal temporal organization is mainly driven by external factors related to the stimulus or environment, our findings add supporting evidence for the idea that perceptual adjustments strongly depend on the observer's inner states induced by motor and cognitive demands. PMID:28154529

  8. The Individually Focused Interview: Methodological Quality without Transcription of Audio Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I argue--with an example--that under certain conditions replacement of audio transcriptions with a combination of simultaneously taken and jointly produced notes can be done without affecting reliability, validity, and transparency. These conditions are: (1) professional or otherwise relatively "strong" interviewees…

  9. Creating Accessible Science Museums with User-Activated Environmental Audio Beacons (Ping!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Steven; Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Giusti, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, Touch Graphics Company carried out research on a new invention that promises to improve accessibility to science museums for visitors who are visually impaired. The system, nicknamed Ping!, allows users to navigate an exhibit area, listen to audio descriptions, and interact with exhibits using a cell phone-based interface. The system…

  10. Reconstruction of audio waveforms from spike trains of artificial cochlea models

    PubMed Central

    Zai, Anja T.; Bhargava, Saurabh; Mesgarani, Nima; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2015-01-01

    Spiking cochlea models describe the analog processing and spike generation process within the biological cochlea. Reconstructing the audio input from the artificial cochlea spikes is therefore useful for understanding the fidelity of the information preserved in the spikes. The reconstruction process is challenging particularly for spikes from the mixed signal (analog/digital) integrated circuit (IC) cochleas because of multiple non-linearities in the model and the additional variance caused by random transistor mismatch. This work proposes an offline method for reconstructing the audio input from spike responses of both a particular spike-based hardware model called the AEREAR2 cochlea and an equivalent software cochlea model. This method was previously used to reconstruct the auditory stimulus based on the peri-stimulus histogram of spike responses recorded in the ferret auditory cortex. The reconstructed audio from the hardware cochlea is evaluated against an analogous software model using objective measures of speech quality and intelligibility; and further tested in a word recognition task. The reconstructed audio under low signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions (SNR < –5 dB) gives a better classification performance than the original SNR input in this word recognition task. PMID:26528113

  11. Metrics for Industrial Electronics, Radio-TV Repair, Audio Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in industrial electronics, radio-tv repair, and audio equipment repair, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who…

  12. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources.

  13. Ratings of Violin and Viola Vibrato Performance in Audio-Only and Audiovisual Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Compares the ratings assigned to audio and videotaped vibrato performances of inexperienced and experienced violinists and violists. Rated the performances on five vibrato factors: width, speed, evenness, pitch stability, and overall sound. Although the experienced players were consistently rated higher, the results suggested that visual cues may…

  14. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording. 27.71 Section 27.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... agency managers data necessary to issue permits and grant administrative benefits. The obligation...

  15. Robust audio watermark method using sinusoid patterns based on pseudo-random sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Sawato, Shusaku; Inoue, Akira

    2003-06-01

    In recent years, the spread spectrum watermarking technology has become the most promising technique that not only widely used for still image and video watermarking, but also used for audio watermarking. However, some technique problems such as requiring psycho-acoustic shaping used for reducing audible noise have greatly limited the utility of spread spectrum watermarking technology in audio watermarking. In this paper, we propose a novel audio watermarking method using spread spectrum watermarking technology by which we can embed watermark audio signals inaudibly with a robust to a wide range of unintended and intended attacks. In proposed method, the watermark is represented by sinusoidal patterns consisting of sinusoids with the phase-modulated by the elements of pseudo-random sequence. We theoretically and experimentally confirmed that the sinusoidal patterns based on pseudo-random sequences keep the same correlation property of pseudo-random sequences and have the characteristics of high robustness with less noise, being easy to manipulate, and without requirement of psycho-acoustic shaping. The watermark detection is done by blind detection and the effectiveness of proposed method have been certificated by the test of STEP2001.

  16. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  17. An Annotated Guide to Audio-Visual Materials for Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Richard N.

    Audio-visual materials, found in a variety of periodicals, catalogs, and reference works, are listed in this guide to expedite the process of finding appropriate classroom materials for a study of William Shakespeare in the classroom. Separate listings of films, filmstrips, and recordings are provided, with subdivisions for "The Plays"…

  18. Use of Audio-Visual Cassette Tapes and Instructional Modules in Teaching Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Cletus R.

    This paper describes the adaptation of instructional modules and audio-visual tapes for an engineering graphics course to a course entitled "Technical Drawing for Applied Art." This is a service course taught by the engineering department for the applied art department in the College of Home Economics. A separate problem package was utilized with…

  19. Effects of phonetic context on audio-visual intelligibility of French.

    PubMed

    Benoît, C; Mohamadi, T; Kandel, S

    1994-10-01

    Bimodal perception leads to better speech understanding than auditory perception alone. We evaluated the overall benefit of lip-reading on natural utterances of French produced by a single speaker. Eighteen French subjects with good audition and vision were administered a closed set identification test of VCVCV nonsense words consisting of three vowels [i, a, y] and six consonants [b, v, z, 3, R, l]. Stimuli were presented under both auditory and audio-visual conditions with white noise added at various signal-to-noise ratios. Identification scores were higher in the bimodal condition than in the auditory-alone condition, especially in situations where acoustic information was reduced. The auditory and audio-visual intelligibility of the three vowels [i, a, y] averaged over the six consonantal contexts was evaluated as well. Two different hierarchies of intelligibility were found. Auditorily, [a] was most intelligible, followed by [i] and then by [y]; whereas visually [y] was most intelligible, followed by [a] and [i]. We also quantified the contextual effects of the three vowels on the auditory and audio-visual intelligibility of the consonants. Both the auditory and the audio-visual intelligibility of surrounding consonants was highest in the [a] context, followed by the [i] context and lastly the [y] context.

  20. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial filming, still photography, and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial filming, still photography, and audio recording. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...) where or when members of the public are generally not allowed; (2) It uses equipment that...

  1. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance.

  2. Developing Word Knowledge within Tape Assisted and/or Other Audio Recorded Reading Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Tape Assisted Reading Programmes (TARPs), and more recently, other forms of audio recorded stories, have been used in New Zealand schools to help students with reading difficulties. Many claims are made about the positive effects of such programmes on general reading ability and progress. However, this paper, informed by research, states that such…

  3. Low Latency Audio Video: Potentials for Collaborative Music Making through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Holly; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Libera, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the potential of LOw LAtency (LOLA), a low latency audio visual technology designed to allow simultaneous music performance, as a distance learning tool for musical styles in which synchronous playing is an integral aspect of the learning process (e.g., jazz, folk styles). The secondary purpose was…

  4. QoS-based real-time audio streaming in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Stefan; Scott, Andrew C.; Hutchison, David; Froitzheim, Konrad

    1998-12-01

    Live audio streaming is an important component of Internet multimedia. The currently deployed Internet offers poor support for such streams due to the lack of QoS capabilities. However, IPv6, the new Internet Protocol has now included provision for QoS. The introduction of a flow label in the protocol header is intended to enable classification of packets according to their destination and service. Reservation protocols such as RSVP can make use of this stream identifier to reserve resources for particular streams in the routers along the transport path. This paper explores the effectiveness of resource reservation in IPv6 networks for live audio streaming. An important area for investigation is whether there is an efficiency gain due to the employment of low level flow labels. The paper summarizes the result of our extensive measurements and comparisons with currently deployed technologies. Specific attention is paid to the performance characteristics of real time applications, notably the delay, jitter and bandwidth. The results are based on a specially developed audio streaming application which enables RSVP over IPv6 using flow labels. Since the integration of RSVP in IPv6 is still work-in-progress, we had to modify the currently available RSVP implementation in order to access the IPv6 flow label. For audio data transport, we use the real-time transport protocol (RTP). The real-time transport control protocol, known as the feedback channel of RTP, forms with its receiver reports the basis of our benchmark tests.

  5. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  6. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  7. Interactive Computer Graphics Enhancements to a Rural Academic Audio Conference Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Herb

    Several of the problems typically associated with efforts to extend higher education opportunities to rural communities--including small class size, lack of qualified instructors, and maintenance of quality standards--are successfully addressed by an audio conference network. Students in remote locations can participate in classes offered through…

  8. Influencing Students' Pronunciation and Willingness to Communicate through Interpersonal Audio Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepore, Cindy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a study that investigated pronunciation development in second language learners by monitoring willingness to communicate variables. Students (N = 37) in a second-semester, introductory French course participated in online interpersonal audio discussions with classmates through VoiceThread. Pronunciation development and…

  9. Imitating Podcasts by Providing Audio Content to Support and Enhance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Simon; Toland, Sean H.

    2015-01-01

    The provision of supplemental educational and instructional content in podcast form is becoming increasingly widespread in first language education. However, amongst second language students in Japan the lack of literature illustrates podcast use has been limited. Imitating podcasts, educational and instructional materials in audio form were…

  10. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  11. Effect of Making an Audio Recording of a Term Paper on Writing Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Tasia M.; Lannin, Amy A.; Selting, Bonita R.; Lamberson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing-to-learn assignments engage students with a problem while they develop writing skills. It is difficult in large classes to provide training in proofreading and editing techniques. The purpose of this project was to determine if a term paper was improved after making an audio recording of a draft of the paper. Data from 2 years of papers…

  12. Generating Language through Media: Audio-Visual Production by the ESL Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Linda New

    This paper describes some teaching techniques developed in the author's middle school and high school ESL classes. The techniques described here use audio-visual devices and student production of media as a motivational tool as well as a method of providing for spontaneous language practice and communicative competence. Some of the techniques and…

  13. Using Audio Description to Improve FLL Students' Oral Competence in MALL: Methodological Preliminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibáñez Moreno, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, audiovisual products began to be audio described in order to make them accessible to blind and visually impaired people (Benecke, 2004). This means that visual information is orally described in the gaps between dialogues. In order to meet the wishes of the so-called On Demand (OD) generation that wants…

  14. 75 FR 17874 - Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Their Impact on the Terrestrial Radio Broadcast Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... adopts changes in the digital audio broadcasting (DAB) rules to permit FM radio stations to voluntarily... regulatory impediments to FM digital radio's ability to realize its full potential and deliver its promised... of 18 broadcasters that operate over 1200 commercial and noncommercial educational (NCE) FM...

  15. Introduction to Human Services, Chapter III. Video Script Package, Text, and Audio Script Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    Video, textual, and audio components of the third module of a multi-media, introductory course on Human Services are presented. The module packages, developed at Miami-Dade Community College, deal with technology, social change, and problem dependencies. A video cassette script is first provided that explores the "traditional,""inner," and "other…

  16. Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT). A Systematized Audio-Visual Approach to Self-Paced Job Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, William J.; And Others

    Two Automated Apprenticeship Training (AAT) courses were developed for Air Force Security Police Law Enforcement and Security specialists. The AAT was a systematized audio-visual approach to self-paced job training employing an easily operated teaching device. AAT courses were job specific and based on a behavioral task analysis of the two…

  17. Further Examination of Covert Audio Coaching on Improving Employment Skills among Secondary Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulty maintaining employment, and there are few evidenced-based practices to guide professionals when developing employment skills among this population. The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on covert audio coaching (CAC) by examining its effects on high school students…

  18. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following information for each unique combination of product category, technology, series or model number... quarterly period covered by the statement. (9) Technology of a device or medium is a digital audio recording... statements or the two-month deadline for annual statements will be accepted for whatever legal effect...

  19. 76 FR 591 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital Audio Radio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital... subscription and satellite digital audio radio services for the digital performance of sound recordings and the... Transmissions Rate Adjustment''). Hereinafter, this and future proceedings will be captioned as ``PSS/...

  20. Impact of Audio-Visual Asynchrony on Lip-Reading Effects -Neuromagnetic and Psychophysical Study-

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Izumi; Kanno, Akitake; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Takata, Shiho; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Ryuta; Katori, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The effects of asynchrony between audio and visual (A/V) stimuli on the N100m responses of magnetoencephalography in the left hemisphere were compared with those on the psychophysical responses in 11 participants. The latency and amplitude of N100m were significantly shortened and reduced in the left hemisphere by the presentation of visual speech as long as the temporal asynchrony between A/V stimuli was within 100 ms, but were not significantly affected with audio lags of -500 and +500 ms. However, some small effects were still preserved on average with audio lags of 500 ms, suggesting similar asymmetry of the temporal window to that observed in psychophysical measurements, which tended to be more robust (wider) for audio lags; i.e., the pattern of visual-speech effects as a function of A/V lag observed in the N100m in the left hemisphere grossly resembled that in psychophysical measurements on average, although the individual responses were somewhat varied. The present results suggest that the basic configuration of the temporal window of visual effects on auditory-speech perception could be observed from the early auditory processing stage. PMID:28030631