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Sample records for audio machine text-to-speech

  1. A text-to-speech converter for radiology journal articles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael L

    2010-12-01

    Radiology articles are primarily designed to be read on paper or a screen. Audio versions let users hear this material during activities when reading is not practical. Currently, there are relatively few radiology materials in audio format. However, inexpensive text-to-speech software can easily produce spoken-word versions of digital text. This paper describes a free Web-based program that converts radiology articles to audio format using text-to-speech software. PMID:20863720

  2. Evaluating Text-to-Speech Synthesizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Walcir; Smith, George; Fuentes, Cesar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesizers have piqued the interest of researchers for their potential to enhance the L2 acquisition of writing (Kirstein, 2006), vocabulary and reading (Proctor, Dalton, & Grisham, 2007) and pronunciation (Cardoso, Collins, & White, 2012; Soler-Urzua, 2011). Despite their proven effectiveness, there is a need for…

  3. Improving health literacy: a Web application for evaluating text-to-speech engines.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Seth; Berry, Donna L; Kurth, Ann; Lober, William B

    2010-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used as a medium for gathering and exchanging health information exchange. Healthcare professionals and organizations need to consider barriers that may exist within their patient-oriented Web applications. One approach to making the Web more accessible for those with lower health literacy may be to supplement textual content with audio annotation using text-to-speech engines, allowing for the creation of a virtual surrogate reader. One challenge is that with numerous text-to-speech engines on the market, objective measures of quality are difficult to obtain. To facilitate comparisons of text-to-speech engines, we developed an open-source Web application that measures user reaction times, subjective quality ratings, and accuracy in completing tasks across different audio files created by text-to-speech engines. Our research endeavor was successful in building and piloting this Web application; significant differences were found for subjective ratings of quality across three text-to-speech engines priced at different levels. However, no significant differences were found with reaction times or accuracy between these text-to-speech engines. Future avenues of research include exploring more complex tasks, usability issues related to implementing text-to-speech features, and applied health promotion and education opportunities among vulnerable populations. PMID:20571370

  4. Building a Prototype Text to Speech for Sanskrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahananda, Baiju; Raju, C. M. S.; Patil, Ramalinga Reddy; Jha, Narayana; Varakhedi, Shrinivasa; Kishore, Prahallad

    This paper describes about the work done in building a prototype text to speech system for Sanskrit. A basic prototype text-to-speech is built using a simplified Sanskrit phone set, and employing a unit selection technique, where prerecorded sub-word units are concatenated to synthesize a sentence. We also discuss the issues involved in building a full-fledged text-to-speech for Sanskrit.

  5. Choosing and Using Text-to-Speech Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom; Bell, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a computer-based technology for generating speech called text-to-speech (TTS). This software is ready for widespread use by libraries, other organizations, and individual users. It offers the affordable ability to turn just about any electronic text that is not image-based into an artificially spoken communication. The…

  6. The Study and Implementation of Text-to-Speech System for Agricultural Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huoguo; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong

    The Broadcast and Television coverage has increased to more than 98% in china. Information services by radio have wide coverage, low cost, easy-to-grass-roots farmers to accept etc. characteristics. In order to play the better role of broadcast information service, as well as aim at the problem of lack of information resource in rural, we R & D the text-to-speech system. The system includes two parts, software and hardware device, both of them can translate text into audio file. The software subsystem was implemented basic on third-part middleware, and the hardware subsystem was realized with microelectronics technology. Results indicate that the hardware is better than software. The system has been applied in huailai city hebei province, which has conversed more than 8000 audio files as programming materials for the local radio station.

  7. Review of text-to-speech conversion for English.

    PubMed

    Klatt, D H

    1987-09-01

    The automatic conversion of English text to synthetic speech is presently being performed, remarkably well, by a number of laboratory systems and commercial devices. Progress in this area has been made possible by advances in linguistic theory, acoustic-phonetic characterization of English sound patterns, perceptual psychology, mathematical modeling of speech production, structured programming, and computer hardware design. This review traces the early work on the development of speech synthesizers, discovery of minimal acoustic cues for phonetic contrasts, evolution of phonemic rule programs, incorporation of prosodic rules, and formulation of techniques for text analysis. Examples of rules are used liberally to illustrate the state of the art. Many of the examples are taken from Klattalk, a text-to-speech system developed by the author. A number of scientific problems are identified that prevent current systems from achieving the goal of completely human-sounding speech. While the emphasis is on rule programs that drive a format synthesizer, alternatives such as articulatory synthesis and waveform concatenation are also reviewed. An extensive bibliography has been assembled to show both the breadth of synthesis activity and the wealth of phenomena covered by rules in the best of these programs. A recording of selected examples of the historical development of synthetic speech, enclosed as a 33 1/3-rpm record, is described in the Appendix. PMID:2958525

  8. "Look What I Did!": Student Conferences with Text-to-Speech Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Stover, Katie

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a strategy that empowers students to edit and revise their own writing. Students input their writing in to text-to-speech software that rereads the text aloud. While listening, students make necessary revisions and edits.

  9. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  10. Integrating Text-to-Speech Software into Pedagogically Sound Teaching and Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.; Santally, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of delivery of classes--an instructional technique which will no doubt revolutionize the teaching and learning, whether for on-campus, blended or online modules. This is based on the simple task of instructionally incorporating text-to-speech software embedded in the lecture slides that will simulate exactly the…

  11. Text-to-Speech, Text, and Hypertext: Reading and Spelling with the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1992-01-01

    Introduces this special issue. Discusses the analysis-by-synthesis principle of text-to-speech conversion; some classroom and research issues in designing "usable" computer texts; and the criteria of hypertext. Emphasizes the importance of the contextual aspects of text and hypertext and situated learning. (RS)

  12. Orthographic Learning and the Role of Text-to-Speech Software in Dutch Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating…

  13. The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech on the Writing Process of Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of word prediction and text-to-speech software on the writing process of translating. Participants for this study included 10 elementary and middle school students who had a diagnosis of disorder of written expression. A modified multiple case series was used to collect data…

  14. Using pitch accenting to improve Japanese text-to-speech understanding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenwei; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Kakazu, Yukinori; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an assistive technology that can increase computer accessibility for visually impaired people, we investigated the effect of pitch accenting on Japanese text-to-speech understanding. The effect was confirmed when a training procedure was introduced. Besides, we proposed an individual-adaptive pitching accenting method to explore the optimal pitch accents for individual users. The exploration process of one subject in a verification experiment was analyzed. PMID:17271320

  15. Orthographic learning and the role of text-to-speech software in Dutch disabled readers.

    PubMed

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's self-teaching paradigm. A total of 65 disabled Dutch readers were asked to read eight stories containing embedded homophonic pseudoword targets (e.g., Blot/Blod), with or without the support of text-to-speech software. The amount of orthographic learning was assessed 3 or 7 days later by three measures of orthographic learning. First, the results supported the presence of orthographic learning during independent silent reading by demonstrating that target spellings were correctly identified more often, named more quickly, and spelled more accurately than their homophone foils. Our results support the hypothesis that all readers, even poor readers of transparent orthographies, are capable of developing word-specific knowledge. Second, a negative effect of text-to-speech software on orthographic learning was demonstrated in this study. This negative effect was interpreted as the consequence of passively listening to the auditory presentation of the text. We clarify how these results can be interpreted within current theoretical accounts of orthographic learning and briefly discuss implications for remedial interventions. PMID:23686998

  16. A multi-language, portable text-to-speech system for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R; Galyas, K; Granstrom, B; Hunnicutt, S; Larsson, B; Neovius, L

    1981-10-01

    Previous experience with speech output aids for blind and non-vocal persons has shown great promise. The need for individual adjustments and the relatively small market, makes flexible, programmable aids necessary. A modular microprocessor text-to-speech system has been developed that is portable and battery-operated. This prototype has been adjusted to several different users. Programs for different languages have been developed. Connection of text sources is simplified by standardized interfaces. One special attachment is a 500 symbol Blissymbol board and a related Bliss-to-speech program that transforms the symbol string to well formed sentences. PMID:6458742

  17. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  18. Clinical applications of and experiences with a portable, unlimited text-to-speech synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Rahko, K T; Karjalainen, M; Laine, U; Toivonen, R; Karma, P

    1981-01-01

    An unlimited, portable, text-to-speech synthesizer, Synte 2, is introduced. Since 1977, it has been applied and tested to the rehabilitation of the deaf and others unable to speak as well as to the rehabilitation of the blind. It has been shown to be beneficial to those people. With this system, it seems possible to markedly increase the concept capacity of the deaf. In audiology, it provides a new way to produce objective, everlasting, and ever-repeatable ordinary and sensitized speech tests. Further, the apparatus has innumerable applications in audiological and speech pathological research. This kind of speech synthesizer has come to stay in clinical use. General principles of the use of the synthesizer and experiences over 3 years in rehabilitation and medical research are discussed. PMID:6459259

  19. Advancements in text-to-speech technology and implications for AAC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrdal, Ann K.

    2003-10-01

    Intelligibility was the initial focus in text-to-speech (TTS) research, since it is clearly a necessary condition for the application of the technology. Sufficiently high intelligibility (approximating human speech) has been achieved in the last decade by the better formant-based and concatenative TTS systems. This led to commercially available TTS systems for highly motivated users, particularly the blind and vocally impaired. Some unnatural qualities of TTS were exploited by these users, such as very fast speaking rates and altered pitch ranges for flagging relevant information. Recently, the focus in TTS research has turned to improving naturalness, so that synthetic speech sounds more human and less robotic. Unit selection approaches to concatenative synthesis have dramatically improved TTS quality, although at the cost of larger and more complex systems. This advancement in naturalness has made TTS technology more acceptable to the general public. The vocally impaired appreciate a more natural voice with which to represent themselves when communicating with others. Unit selection TTS does not achieve such high speaking rates as the earlier TTS systems, however, which is a disadvantage to some AAC device users. An important new research emphasis is to improve and increase the range of emotional expressiveness of TTS.

  20. Segmental intelligibility of four currently used text-to-speech synthesis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S.

    2003-04-01

    The study investigated the segmental intelligibility of four currently available text-to-speech (TTS) products under 0-dB and 5-dB signal-to-noise ratios. The products were IBM ViaVoice™ version 5.1, which uses formant coding, Festival version 1.4.2, a diphone-based LPC TTS product, AT&T Next-Gen™, a half-phone-based TTS product that uses harmonic-plus-noise method for synthesis, and FlexVoice™2, a hybrid TTS product that combines concatenative and formant coding techniques. Overall, concatenative techniques were more intelligible than formant or hybrid techniques, with formant coding slightly better at modeling vowels and concatenative techniques marginally better at synthesizing consonants. No TTS product was better at resisting noise interference than others, although all were more intelligible at 5 dB than at 0-dB SNR. The better TTS products in this study were, on the average, 22% less intelligible and had about 3 times more phoneme errors than human voice under comparable listening conditions. The hybrid TTS technology of FlexVoice had the lowest intelligibility and highest error rates. There were discernible patterns of errors for stops, fricatives, and nasals. Unrestricted TTS output-e-mail messages, news reports, and so on-under high noise conditions prevalent in automobiles, airports, etc. will likely challenge the listeners.

  1. A Variable Break Prediction Method Using CART in a Japanese Text-to-Speech System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Deok-Su; Bae, Myung-Jin

    Break prediction is an important step in text-to-speech systems as break indices (BIs) have a great influence on how to correctly represent prosodic phrase boundaries. However, an accurate prediction is difficult since BIs are often chosen according to the meaning of a sentence or the reading style of the speaker. In Japanese, the prediction of an accentual phrase boundary (APB) and major phrase boundary (MPB) is particularly difficult. Thus, this paper presents a method to complement the prediction errors of an APB and MPB. First, we define a subtle BI in which it is difficult to decide between an APB and MPB clearly as a variable break (VB), and an explicit BI as a fixed break (FB). The VB is chosen using the classification and regression tree, and multiple prosodic targets in relation to the pith and duration are then generated. Finally, unit-selection is conducted using multiple prosodic targets. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the naturalness of synthesized speech.

  2. Text-to-speech from concatenation of articulatory units derived from natural speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinder, Daniel J.; Sondhi, M. Mohan

    2003-04-01

    It has been conjectured that articulatory synthesis possesses the greatest potential for generating high quality synthetic speech. However, for text-to-speech (TTS), waveform concatenation techniques have proven more practical due in part to the challenge of generating appropriate trajectories of articulatory parameters. A waveform generation method for TTS that combines the practical success of concatenative methods with the quality potential of articulatory synthesis is under development. The system concatenates articulatory units derived from natural speech using an articulatory voice mimic. The mimic estimates articulatory parameters by minimizing a cost function that includes a spectral distance between natural and synthetic speech and a geometric distance that penalizes rapid or discontinuous changes in articulator positions. A database of articulatory trajectories representing phonetic units is constructed from the estimated parameters. For TTS, phonetic units generated by text analysis are used to select the corresponding articulatory units from the database. Duration modification, concatenation, and smoothing across units are performed in the articulatory domain resulting in a single articulatory trajectory for the complete utterance. Speech is synthesized from the trajectory using a two mass model for voicing, achieving a high degree of acoustic continuity across unit boundaries while also allowing for source-tract interaction.

  3. Segmental intelligibility of four currently used text-to-speech synthesis methods.

    PubMed

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S

    2003-04-01

    The study investigated the segmental intelligibility of four currently available text-to-speech (TTS) products under 0-dB and 5-dB signal-to-noise ratios. The products were IBM ViaVoice version 5.1, which uses formant coding, Festival version 1.4.2, a diphone-based LPC TTS product, AT&T Next-Gen, a half-phone-based TTS product that uses harmonic-plus-noise method for synthesis, and FlexVoice2, a hybrid TTS product that combines concatenative and formant coding techniques. Overall, concatenative techniques were more intelligible than formant or hybrid techniques, with formant coding slightly better at modeling vowels and concatenative techniques marginally better at synthesizing consonants. No TTS product was better at resisting noise interference than others, although all were more intelligible at 5 dB than at 0-dB SNR. The better TTS products in this study were, on the average, 22% less intelligible and had about 3 times more phoneme errors than human voice under comparable listening conditions. The hybrid TTS technology of FlexVoice had the lowest intelligibility and highest error rates. There were discernible patterns of errors for stops, fricatives, and nasals. Unrestricted TTS output--e-mail messages, news reports, and so on--under high noise conditions prevalent in automobiles, airports, etc. will likely challenge the listeners. PMID:12703720

  4. Segmental intelligibility of four currently used text-to-speech synthesis methods.

    PubMed

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S

    2003-04-01

    The study investigated the segmental intelligibility of four currently available text-to-speech (TTS) products under 0-dB and 5-dB signal-to-noise ratios. The products were IBM ViaVoice version 5.1, which uses formant coding, Festival version 1.4.2, a diphone-based LPC TTS product, AT&T Next-Gen, a half-phone-based TTS product that uses harmonic-plus-noise method for synthesis, and FlexVoice2, a hybrid TTS product that combines concatenative and formant coding techniques. Overall, concatenative techniques were more intelligible than formant or hybrid techniques, with formant coding slightly better at modeling vowels and concatenative techniques marginally better at synthesizing consonants. No TTS product was better at resisting noise interference than others, although all were more intelligible at 5 dB than at 0-dB SNR. The better TTS products in this study were, on the average, 22% less intelligible and had about 3 times more phoneme errors than human voice under comparable listening conditions. The hybrid TTS technology of FlexVoice had the lowest intelligibility and highest error rates. There were discernible patterns of errors for stops, fricatives, and nasals. Unrestricted TTS output--e-mail messages, news reports, and so on--under high noise conditions prevalent in automobiles, airports, etc. will likely challenge the listeners.

  5. Hand-held text-to-speech device for the non-vocal disabled.

    PubMed

    Damper, R I; Burnett, J W; Gray, P W; Straus, L P; Symes, R A

    1987-10-01

    A hand-held, battery-powered synthetic speech aid for the non-vocally disabled has been constructed. The device accepts as its input, largely unrestricted text keyed by the user. This is converted by text-to-speech software, based on 349 letter-to-sound rules and some simple rules of continuity, intonation and stress, to appropriate control signals which drive a single-chip (series formant) speech synthesizer. A number of implementation constraints are imposed by portability; the system has, as far as possible, been designed using CMOS components. To extend the time for which the system will operate between battery charges, power saving facilities are incorporated. Hand-held use implies the need for a one-handed keyboard: a unique integral keyboard is used, designed to minimize the visual search time to locate a letter key. Considerable attention has been paid to rule-search strategies, the handling of 'exceptions' which violate the letter-to-sound principle and the resolution of conflicts when more than one rule might apply. The quality and intelligibility of speech from a rule-based system is typically poor, and every effort has been made to improve it. Limits on possible improvement are, however, set by the use of a proprietary single chip synthesizer and by the minimal nature of a portable system. To facilitate the task of composing messages, a two-line liquid crystal display is provided together with a range of editing functions. The display can also be shown to the message receiver should he/she be deaf, or used for silent communication as an analogue to 'whispering'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2960853

  6. Emerging Realities of Text-to-Speech Software for Nonnative-English-Speaking Community College Students in the Freshman Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the expectations and early and subsequent realities of text-to-speech software for 24 nonnative-English-speaking college students who were experiencing reading difficulties in their freshman year of college. The study took place over two semesters in one academic year (from September to June) at a community college on the…

  7. Use of the magnitude estimation technique for assessing the performance of text-to-speech synthesis systems.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, C V; Rossi, M; Espesser, R

    1990-01-01

    As text-to-speech systems develop, it becomes necessary to compare various solutions and to evaluate whether a change in the synthesis procedure has an effect on the listener's attitude to the system. The possibility of directly scaling intelligibility, naturalness, and user's satisfaction (i.e., acceptability) with the magnitude estimation technique is investigated. A magnitude estimation protocol suitable for this purpose is described. In general, within the limits of the methodological constraints discussed in this paper, the procedure appears to be reliable and valid for quantifying the perceived attributes of synthesized speech. PMID:2137144

  8. Effects of Text-to-Speech Software on the Reading Rate and Comprehension Skills of High School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Amanda; Boon, Richard T.; Keller-Bell, Yolanda; Stagliano, Christina; Jeffs, Tara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a text-to-speech software program known as "Read Please" on the reading rate and reading comprehension accuracy of two high school students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in reading. A single-subject A-B-A-B "withdrawal" research design (Alberto & Troutman, 2009) was used to…

  9. The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech Technologies on the Narrative Writing Skills of Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silio, Monica C.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to investigate the effects of word prediction and text-to-speech alone and in combination on four narrative composition-writing skills (writing fluency, syntax, spelling accuracy, and overall organization) of six fifth-grade Hispanic boys with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Participants…

  10. Listening to Revise: What a Study about Text-to-Speech Software Taught Us about Students' Expectations for Technology Use in the Writing Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard-Salvo, Tammy; Spartz, John M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a story of a failed study. In 2007, the authors set out to demonstrate that Kurzweil 3000, an adaptive text-to-speech software program, would help any student revise with its read-aloud function and numerous writing tools. During the course of the study, the authors confronted their misconceptions about students' technology use and…

  11. Supporting Reading Comprehension of At-Risk Pre-Adolescent Readers through the Use of Text-to-Speech Technology Paired with Strategic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    This research highlighted the use of text-to-speech technology and current shifts in strategy-based reading instruction in order to address the comprehension needs of struggling pre-adolescent readers. The following questions were posed: (a) Does reading comprehension of preadolescent struggling readers improve as the direct result of using…

  12. Time and spectral analysis methods with machine learning for the authentication of digital audio recordings.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2013-07-10

    This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital audio recordings. Nowadays, the only method referred to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. This article presents the existing methods of time and spectral analysis along with their modifications as proposed by the author involving spectral analysis of residual signal enhanced by machine learning algorithms. The effectiveness of tampering detection methods described in this paper is tested on a predefined music database. The results are compared graphically using ROC-like curves. Furthermore, time-frequency plots are presented and enhanced by reassignment method in purpose of visual inspection of modified recordings. Using this solution, enables analysis of minimal changes of background sounds, which may indicate tampering. PMID:23481673

  13. Using TTS Voices to Develop Audio Materials for Listening Comprehension: A Digital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments with text-to-speech (TTS) voices. These experiments have been conducted to develop audio materials for listening comprehension as an alternative technology to traditionally used audio equipment like the compact cassette. The new generation of TTS voices based on unit selection synthesis provides…

  14. Audio 2008: Audio Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio…

  15. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2006-12-01

    Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM)) approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  16. Audio Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  17. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  18. Video salient event classification using audio features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchs, Silvia; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Fiori, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the events in video sequences that are salient with respect to the audio signal. In particular, we focus on the audio analysis of a video, with the goal of finding which are the significant features to detect audio-salient events. In our work we have extracted the audio tracks from videos of different sport events. For each video, we have manually labeled the salient audio-events using the binary markings. On each frame, features in both time and frequency domains have been considered. These features have been used to train different classifiers: Classification and Regression Trees, Support Vector Machine, and k-Nearest Neighbor. The classification performances are reported in terms of confusion matrices.

  19. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  20. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  1. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    PubMed

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  2. Robust audio hashing for audio authentication watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Current systems and protocols based on cryptographic methods for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code in the context of content fragile authentication watermarking to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information. Furthermore, it is well suited for the integration in a content-based authentication watermarking system.

  3. Audio detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, B.; Mansager, B.

    1992-08-01

    Audio information concerning targets generally includes direction, frequencies, and energy levels. One use of audio cueing is to use direction information to help determine where more sensitive visual direction and acquisition sensors should be directed. Generally, use of audio cueing will shorten times required for visual detection, although there could be circumstances where the audio information is misleading and degrades visual performance. Audio signatures can also be useful for helping classify the emanating platform, as well as to provide estimates of its velocity. The Janus combat simulation is the premier high resolution model used by the Army and other agencies to conduct research. This model has a visual detection model which essentially incorporates algorithms as described by Hartman(1985). The model in its current form does not have any sound cueing capability. This report is part of a research effort to investigate the utility of developing such a capability.

  4. Forensic audio watermark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  5. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  6. Real World Audio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crystal River Engineering was originally featured in Spinoff 1992 with the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. The Convolvotron was developed for Ames' research on virtual acoustic displays. Crystal River is a now a subsidiary of Aureal Semiconductor, Inc. and they together develop and market the technology, which is a 3-D (three dimensional) audio technology known commercially today as Aureal 3D (A-3D). The technology has been incorporated into video games, surround sound systems, and sound cards.

  7. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  8. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  9. Audio Visual Technology and the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Michael C.

    Skills in comprehending the spoken language source are becoming increasingly important due to the audio-visual orientation of our culture. It would seem natural, therefore, to adjust the learning goals and environment accordingly. The video-cassette machine is an ideal means for creating this learning environment and developing the listening…

  10. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  11. The Lowdown on Audio Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

  12. Metrological digital audio reconstruction

    DOEpatents

    Fadeyev; Vitaliy , Haber; Carl

    2004-02-19

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

  13. Audio in Courseware: Design Knowledge Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarntzen, Diana

    1993-01-01

    Considers issues that need to be addressed when incorporating audio in courseware design. Topics discussed include functions of audio in courseware; the relationship between auditive and visual information; learner characteristics in relation to audio; events of instruction; and audio characteristics, including interactivity and speech technology.…

  14. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  15. Audio characterization for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nilesh V.; Sethi, Ishwar K.

    1996-03-01

    The major problem facing video databases is that of content characterization of video clips once the cut boundaries have been determined. The current efforts in this direction are focussed exclusively on the use of pictorial information, thereby neglecting an important supplementary source of content information, i.e. the embedded audio or sound track. The current research in audio processing can be readily applied to create many different video indices for use in Video On Demand (VOD), educational video indexing, sports video characterization, etc. MPEG is an emerging video and audio compression standard with rapidly increasing popularity in multimedia industry. Compressed bit stream processing has gained good recognition among the researchers. We have also demonstrated feature extraction in MPEG compressed video which implements a majority of scene change detection schemes on compressed video. In this paper, we examine the potential of audio information for content characterization by demonstrating the extraction of widely used features in audio processing directly from compressed data stream and their application to video clip classification.

  16. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals. PMID:22087919

  17. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.

  18. Enhancing Reading Comprehension with Text-to-Speech (DECtalk) Computer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1992-01-01

    Studies the effect on reading comprehension of a computer system. Finds that the adolescent students gained in reading comprehension across both training modes, but the efficacy of DECtalk together with on-line explanations was found with only two prose passages and mainly with above average readers. Discusses results in the context of situated…

  19. Versatile Text Extraction System for Text-to-Speech Reading Assistant Camera.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Wearable camera device translating the text in the scene into speech is one of the most anticipated devices for the visually-impaired. The users would probably want to read any text using such a device. Although various scene text extraction methods have been developed so far, the target objects are most often limited to simple signboards, small memos, etc. We propose a versatile scene text extraction method that can handle a wide variety of targets including complex signboards with many text lines. Experimental results show that our system runs at a video rate and can extract densely arranged text lines even with some distortion and shading. A locally-adaptive binarization technique contributes to the better quality of extracted text images. PMID:26294503

  20. Preparation of sound base for a text-to-speech synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, Vladimir M.; Gusev, Mikhail N.

    2005-04-01

    We are giving several recommendations for the choice of parameters of the sound fragments in this report. The sound fragments are components of the sound base, used in Russian speech synthesis system by a text. It isn't the secret that quality of concatenation synthesis in many respects is defined at the stage of a speaker choice and preparation of base of speaker's voice samples. Formulated recommendations are received on the basis of the statistic analysis of big amount of various types of texts and concern both separate sound fragments and their groups. Parameters of sounds were taken with the help of the automatic linguistic processor including phonetic and prosodic transcriptors. The duration, intensity and main pitch frequency of sounds in various contexts and intonational contours were analyzed. The sound base produced according to the worked out recommendations, allows to make better intelligibility and naturalness of synthetic speech due to minimization of changes of speaker's voice samples.

  1. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  2. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  3. QRDA: Quantum Representation of Digital Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. It includes two main medias: image and audio. However, by contrast with the rapid development of quantum image processing, quantum audio almost never been studied. In order to change this status, a quantum representation of digital audio (QRDA) is proposed in this paper to present quantum audio. QRDA uses two entangled qubit sequences to store the audio amplitude and time information. The two qubit sequences are both in basis state: |0> and |1>. The QRDA audio preparation from initial state |0> is given to store an audio in quantum computers. Then some exemplary quantum audio processing operations are performed to indicate QRDA's usability.

  4. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  5. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  6. [Audio-visual aids and tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a list of the audio-visual productions about Tropical Medicine, as well as of their main characteristics. He thinks that the audio-visual educational productions are often dissociated from their promotion; therefore, he invites the future creator to forward his work to the Audio-Visual Health Committee.

  7. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  8. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  9. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  10. Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: Low Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treblay, Remy; Fyvie, Barb; Koritko, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    A comparison was conducted of "Voxwire MeetingRoom" and "iVocalize" v4.1.0.3, both Web-conferencing products using voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) to provide unlimited, inexpensive, international audio communication, and high-quality Web-conferencing fostering collaborative learning. The study used the evaluation criteria used in earlier…

  11. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping.

  12. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  13. Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Forrest F.

    1993-01-01

    A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

  14. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  15. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  16. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library. PMID:26656189

  17. Digital audio authentication by robust feature embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Munir, Badar; Steinebach, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We introduce an approach for verifying the integrity of digital audio recording by means of content-based integrity watermarking. Here an audio fingerprint is extracted from the Fourier domain and embedded as a digital watermark in the same domain. The design of the feature extraction allows a fine temporal resolution of the verification of the integrity. Experimental results show a good distinction between authentic and tampered audio content.

  18. Audio frequency analysis in mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía Aguilar, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is given about the relationship between voice bandwidth and voice quality.

  19. VISUAL AND AUDIO PRESENTATION IN MACHINE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, WILLIAM H.

    THIS STUDY WAS PART OF A LARGER RESEARCH PROGRAM AIMED TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF PARADIGMS OF MESSAGE DESIGN. OBJECTIVES OF THREE PARALLEL EXPERIMENTS WERE TO EVALUATE INTERACTIONS OF PRESENTATION MODE, PROGRAM TYPE, AND CONTENT AS THEY AFFECT LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS. EACH EXPERIMENT USED 18 TREATMENTS IN A FACTORIAL DESIGN WITH RANDOMLY SELECTED…

  20. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study. PMID:24637036

  1. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    PubMed

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study.

  2. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  3. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  4. Cluster: Metals. Course: Machine Shop. Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford - Lee County Schools, NC.

    The set of 13 units is designed for use with an instructor in actual machine shop practice and is also keyed to audio visual and textual materials. Each unit contains a series of task packages which: specify prerequisites within the series (minimum is Unit 1); provide a narrative rationale for learning; list both general and specific objectives in…

  5. Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Broadcast Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borton, Terry; And Others

    An experiment assessed the potential effectiveness of "dual audio television instruction" (DATI) as a mass education medium. The DATI consisted of a radio program heard by children while they watched television shows. The audio instructor did not talk when the television characters spoke, but used the "quiet" times to help with reading, define…

  6. 36 CFR 1002.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or machinery such as an electric generating plant, motor vehicle, motorized toy, or an audio device... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE...

  7. Issues of audio quality for video conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qi; Zhou, Jingli; Yu, Shengsheng

    1999-01-01

    When choosing a video conferencing system ,it is natural for the potential buyer to look very closely at the quality of the audio. In order to assure a high-quality video conferencing, it is important to have a good picture, but it is vital to have high quality audio. The reason for this is that most of the information transferred in a video conference is actually in the audio channel. Not only is good audio mandatory to the effective exchange of information exchange of information, it has also been found that it can effect the perceived video quality. In this ape several key issues on audio quality are discussed. Since audio delay is among the most vexing problem, each video conferencing system has to make efforts to shorten it. What causes audio delay, how to measure actual delay and how to shorten it is provided in detail. Finally several strategies about system design are presented in order to improve audio quality. All the above are based on the video conferencing systems developed according to H.324 and suitable to video conferencing system implemented all using software.

  8. Internet Audio Products (3/3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Linda; de Schutter, Adrienne; Fahrni, Patricia; Rudolph, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: "iVocalize", a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and "Skype", a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The "iVocalize" review emphasizes the…

  9. Audio-Visual Aids in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jackie

    1970-01-01

    A report on the proceedings and ideas expressed at a one day seminar on "Audio-Visual Equipment--Its Uses and Applications for Teaching and Research in Universities." The seminar was organized by England's National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education in conjunction with the British Universities Film Council. (LS)

  10. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  11. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  12. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  13. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  14. Enhancing Manual Scan Registration Using Audio Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntsoko, T.; Sithole, G.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor mapping and modelling requires that acquired data be processed by editing, fusing, formatting the data, amongst other operations. Currently the manual interaction the user has with the point cloud (data) while processing it is visual. Visual interaction does have limitations, however. One way of dealing with these limitations is to augment audio in point cloud processing. Audio augmentation entails associating points of interest in the point cloud with audio objects. In coarse scan registration, reverberation, intensity and frequency audio cues were exploited to help the user estimate depth and occupancy of space of points of interest. Depth estimations were made reliably well when intensity and frequency were both used as depth cues. Coarse changes of depth could be estimated in this manner. The depth between surfaces can therefore be estimated with the aid of the audio objects. Sound reflections of an audio object provided reliable information of the object surroundings in some instances. For a point/area of interest in the point cloud, these reflections can be used to determine the unseen events around that point/area of interest. Other processing techniques could benefit from this while other information is estimated using other audio cues like binaural cues and Head Related Transfer Functions. These other cues could be used in position estimations of audio objects to aid in problems such as indoor navigation problems.

  15. Digital Advances in Contemporary Audio Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Steven O.

    Noting that a revolution in sonic high fidelity occurred during the 1980s as digital-based audio production methods began to replace traditional analog modes, this paper offers both an overview of digital audio theory and descriptions of some of the related digital production technologies that have begun to emerge from the mating of the computer…

  16. Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael J.

    Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

  17. Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

  18. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  19. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  20. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  1. The HDTV digital audio matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, A. J.

    Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented.

  2. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  3. TRAINING TYPISTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT--PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM OF SIMULTANEOUS, MULTILEVEL, MULTIPHASIC AUDIO PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADAMS, CHARLES F.

    IN 1965 TEN NEGRO AND PUERTO RICAN GIRLS BEGAN CLERICAL TRAINING IN THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS (NAM) TYPING LABORATORY I (TEELAB-I), A PILOT PROJECT TO DEVELOP A SYSTEM OF TRAINING TYPISTS WITHIN THE INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT. THE INITIAL SYSTEM, AN ADAPTATION OF GREGG AUDIO MATERIALS TO A MACHINE TECHNOLOGY, TAUGHT ACCURACY, SPEED…

  4. The Audio Description as a Physics Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozendey, Sabrina; Costa, Maria da Piedade

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the use of audio description in teaching physics concepts, aiming to determine the variables that influence the understanding of the concept. One education resource was audio described. For make the audio description the screen was freezing. The video with and without audio description should be presented to students, so that…

  5. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  6. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchtaris, Athanasios; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Kyriakakis, Chris

    2003-12-01

    Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized "virtual" microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  7. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  8. A Study of Audio Tape: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reen, Noel K.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate reel audio tape, tests were performed to identify: signal-to-noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, dynamic response, frequency response, biased and virgin tape noise, dropout susceptibility and oxide coating uniformity. (SCC)

  9. Post-Production: "Sweeting" the Final Audio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Augie

    1995-01-01

    Knowing how to use audio mixers in the postproduction of student videos is necessary for high-quality sound. Equipment and techniques are described, and the use of background sound, sound effects, and music is described. (AEF)

  10. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  11. Audio watermarking for live performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2003-06-01

    Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay of the HS, and (2) possible interruption of the broadcast. To solve these problems, we propose a watermark generation algorithm that outputs only a WS, and a system composition method in which a mixer outside the computer mixes the WS generated by the algorithm and the HS. In addition, we propose a new composition method "sonic watermarking." In this composition method, the sound of the HS and the sound of the WS are played separately by two speakers, and the sounds are mixed in the air. Using this composition method, it would be possible to generate a watermarking sound in a concerto hall so that the watermark could be detected from content recorded by audience members who have recording devices at their seats. We report on the results of experiments and discuss the merits and flaws of various real-time watermarking composition methods.

  12. Digital Multicasting of Multiple Audio Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, Mitchell; Bullock, John

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Control Center Voice Over Internet Protocol (MCC VOIP) system (see figure) comprises hardware and software that effect simultaneous, nearly real-time transmission of as many as 14 different audio streams to authorized listeners via the MCC intranet and/or the Internet. The original version of the MCC VOIP system was conceived to enable flight-support personnel located in offices outside a spacecraft mission control center to monitor audio loops within the mission control center. Different versions of the MCC VOIP system could be used for a variety of public and commercial purposes - for example, to enable members of the general public to monitor one or more NASA audio streams through their home computers, to enable air-traffic supervisors to monitor communication between airline pilots and air-traffic controllers in training, and to monitor conferences among brokers in a stock exchange. At the transmitting end, the audio-distribution process begins with feeding the audio signals to analog-to-digital converters. The resulting digital streams are sent through the MCC intranet, using a user datagram protocol (UDP), to a server that converts them to encrypted data packets. The encrypted data packets are then routed to the personal computers of authorized users by use of multicasting techniques. The total data-processing load on the portion of the system upstream of and including the encryption server is the total load imposed by all of the audio streams being encoded, regardless of the number of the listeners or the number of streams being monitored concurrently by the listeners. The personal computer of a user authorized to listen is equipped with special- purpose MCC audio-player software. When the user launches the program, the user is prompted to provide identification and a password. In one of two access- control provisions, the program is hard-coded to validate the user s identity and password against a list maintained on a domain-controller computer

  13. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  14. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  15. Spatial domain entertainment audio decompression/compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. K.; Tam, Ka Him K.

    2014-02-01

    The ARM7 NEON processor with 128bit SIMD hardware accelerator requires a peak performance of 13.99 Mega Cycles per Second for MP3 stereo entertainment quality decoding. For similar compression bit rate, OGG and AAC is preferred over MP3. The Patent Cooperation Treaty Application dated 28/August/2012 describes an audio decompression scheme producing a sequence of interleaving "min to Max" and "Max to min" rising and falling segments. The number of interior audio samples bound by "min to Max" or "Max to min" can be {0|1|…|N} audio samples. The magnitudes of samples, including the bounding min and Max, are distributed as normalized constants within the 0 and 1 of the bounding magnitudes. The decompressed audio is then a "sequence of static segments" on a frame by frame basis. Some of these frames needed to be post processed to elevate high frequency. The post processing is compression efficiency neutral and the additional decoding complexity is only a small fraction of the overall decoding complexity without the need of extra hardware. Compression efficiency can be speculated as very high as source audio had been decimated and converted to a set of data with only "segment length and corresponding segment magnitude" attributes. The PCT describes how these two attributes are efficiently coded by the PCT innovative coding scheme. The PCT decoding efficiency is obviously very high and decoding latency is basically zero. Both hardware requirement and run time is at least an order of magnitude better than MP3 variants. The side benefit is ultra low power consumption on mobile device. The acid test on how such a simplistic waveform representation can indeed reproduce authentic decompressed quality is benchmarked versus OGG(aoTuv Beta 6.03) by three pair of stereo audio frames and one broadcast like voice audio frame with each frame consisting 2,028 samples at 44,100KHz sampling frequency.

  16. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  17. AudioGene: predicting hearing loss genotypes from phenotypes to guide genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Deluca, Adam P; Shearer, A Eliot; Hildebrand, Michael S; Black-Ziegelbein, E Ann; Anand, V Nikhil; Sloan, Christina M; Eppsteiner, Robert W; Scheetz, Todd E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Smith, Richard J H; Braun, Terry A; Casavant, Thomas L

    2013-04-01

    Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is a common and often progressive sensory deficit. ADNSHL displays a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and varying rates of progression. Accurate, comprehensive, and cost-effective genetic testing facilitates genetic counseling and provides valuable prognostic information to affected individuals. In this article, we describe the algorithm underlying AudioGene, a software system employing machine-learning techniques that utilizes phenotypic information derived from audiograms to predict the genetic cause of hearing loss in persons segregating ADNSHL. Our data show that AudioGene has an accuracy of 68% in predicting the causative gene within its top three predictions, as compared with 44% for a majority classifier. We also show that AudioGene remains effective for audiograms with high levels of clinical measurement noise. We identify audiometric outliers for each genetic locus and hypothesize that outliers may reflect modifying genetic effects. As personalized genomic medicine becomes more common, AudioGene will be increasingly useful as a phenotypic filter to assess pathogenicity of variants identified by massively parallel sequencing. PMID:23280582

  18. DWT-Based High Capacity Audio Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This letter suggests a novel high capacity robust audio watermarking algorithm by using the high frequency band of the wavelet decomposition, for which the human auditory system (HAS) is not very sensitive to alteration. The main idea is to divide the high frequency band into frames and then, for embedding, the wavelet samples are changed based on the average of the relevant frame. The experimental results show that the method has very high capacity (about 5.5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG in [-1, 0] and SNR about 33dB) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering, echo and MPEG compression (MP3).

  19. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks. PMID:25505796

  20. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  1. Cross-modal retrieval of scripted speech audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Charles B.; Makedon, Fillia

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an approach to the problem of searching speech-based digital audio using cross-modal information retrieval. Audio containing speech (speech-based audio) is difficult to search. Open vocabulary speech recognition is advancing rapidly, but cannot yield high accuracy in either search or transcription modalities. However, text can be searched quickly and efficiently with high accuracy. Script- light digital audio is audio that has an available transcription. This is a surprisingly large class of content including legal testimony, broadcasting, dramatic productions and political meetings and speeches. An automatic mechanism for deriving the synchronization between the transcription and the audio allows for very accurate retrieval of segments of that audio. The mechanism described in this paper is based on building a transcription graph from the text and computing biphone probabilities for the audio. A modified beam search algorithm is presented to compute the alignment.

  2. Text-to-Speech and Reading While Listening: Reading Support for Individuals with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have reading challenges. They maintain or reestablish basic decoding and word recognition skills following injury, but problems with reading comprehension often persist. Practitioners have the potential to accommodate struggling readers by changing the presentational mode of text in a…

  3. Supported eText: Effects of Text-to-Speech on Access and Achievement for High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, Margo Vreeburg; Yurick, Amanda; McArrell, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities often lack the skills required to access the general education curriculum and achieve success in school and postschool environments. Evidence suggests that using assistive technologies such as digital texts and translational supports enhances outcomes for these students (Anderson-Inman & Horney, 2007). The purpose of the…

  4. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Online Text-to-Speech Tools in Improving EFL Teacher Trainees' Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eksi, Gonca Yangin; Yesilçinar, Sabahattin

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited time for instruction in the classroom, pronunciation often ends up as the most neglected aspect of language teaching. However, in cases when the learner's pronunciation is expected to be good or native-like, as is expected of language teacher trainees, out-of-class self-study options become prominent. This study aimed to…

  5. To Make a Long Story Short: Abridged Audio at 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annichiarico, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of abridged audio publishing 10 years after the formation of the Audio Publishers Association. Topics include abridged versus unabridged versions for bookstores and libraries; vendors and publishers; future possibilities for CDs and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc); and audio leasing for libraries. (LRW)

  6. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  7. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  8. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  9. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  10. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming stream at no direct charge to listeners. In addition, a broadcast radio station must simulcast its analog audio programming on one of its digital audio programming streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to...

  11. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  12. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  13. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. (a) Broadcast radio stations using IBOC must transmit at least one over-the-air digital...

  14. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  15. The Effect of Audio and Visual Aids on Task Performance in Distributed Collaborative Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sehat; Richard, Paul; Otman, Samir; Mallem, Malik

    2009-03-01

    Collaborative virtual environments (CVE) has recently gained the attention of many researchers due to its numerous potential application domains. Cooperative virtual environments, where users simultaneously manipulate objects, is one of the subfields of CVEs. In this paper we present a framework that enables two users to cooperatively manipulate objects in virtual environment, while setting on two separate machines connected through local network. In addition the article presents the use of sensory feedback (audio and visual) and investigates their effects on the cooperation and user's performance. Six volunteers subject had to cooperatively perform a peg-in-hole task. Results revealed that visual and auditory aid increase users' performance. However majority of the users preferred visual feedback to audio. We hope this framework will greatly help in the development of CAD systems that allow the designers to collaboratively design while being distant. Similarly other application domains may be cooperative assembly, surgical training and rehabilitation systems.

  16. Improving Audio Quality in Distance Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Craig H.

    This paper discusses common causes of problems encountered with audio systems in distance learning networks and offers practical suggestions for correcting the problems. Problems and discussions are divided into nine categories: (1) acoustics, including reverberant classrooms leading to distorted or garbled voices, as well as one-dimensional audio…

  17. Sound for Film: Audio Education for Filmmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Wanda

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the specific, unique, and important elements of audio education required by film professionals. Presents a model unit to be included in a film studies program, either as a separate course or as part of a film production or introduction to film course. Offers a model syllabus for such a course or unit on sound in film. (SR)

  18. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  19. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light...

  20. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  1. Audio-Tutorial Instruction; An Expanded Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Merlyn C.

    The University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine is developing an audio-tutorial system with several unique features. A Didactor, a device which provides most of the capabilities of computer-assisted instruction but at a fraction of the cost, is the center of the system. The Didactor is combined with tape recordings and slides to present a…

  2. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

  3. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  4. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  5. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  6. Solar Energy Audio-Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This directory presents an annotated bibliography of non-print information resources dealing with solar energy. The document is divided by type of audio-visual medium, including: (1) Films, (2) Slides and Filmstrips, and (3) Videotapes. A fourth section provides addresses and telephone numbers of audiovisual aids sources, and lists the page…

  7. Relevant Research on Audio-Tutorial Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews two aspects of research related to audio-tutorial instructional methods. First, the learning theory of David P. Ausebel is summarized and applied to instructional procedures. Secondly, learning time for attainment of concept and knowledge levels is discussed. Concludes that studies are needed on designs based on Ausebel's theory,…

  8. Providing Students with Formative Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brearley, Francis Q.; Cullen, W. Rod

    2012-01-01

    The provision of timely and constructive feedback is increasingly challenging for busy academics. Ensuring effective student engagement with feedback is equally difficult. Increasingly, studies have explored provision of audio recorded feedback to enhance effectiveness and engagement with feedback. Few, if any, of these focus on purely formative…

  9. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements. PMID:17436871

  10. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  11. Comparing Audio and Video Data for Rating Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with ICC (2,1) for audio = .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care. PMID:23579475

  12. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  13. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  14. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  15. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  16. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  17. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  18. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  19. A haptic-inspired audio approach for structural health monitoring decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael; Mascareñas, David

    2015-03-01

    Haptics is the field at the interface of human touch (tactile sensation) and classification, whereby tactile feedback is used to train and inform a decision-making process. In structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, haptic devices have been introduced and applied in a simplified laboratory scale scenario, in which nonlinearity, representing the presence of damage, was encoded into a vibratory manual interface. In this paper, the "spirit" of haptics is adopted, but here ultrasonic guided wave scattering information is transformed into audio (rather than tactile) range signals. After sufficient training, the structural damage condition, including occurrence and location, can be identified through the encoded audio waveforms. Different algorithms are employed in this paper to generate the transformed audio signals and the performance of each encoding algorithms is compared, and also compared with standard machine learning classifiers. In the long run, the haptic decision-making is aiming to detect and classify structural damages in a more rigorous environment, and approaching a baseline-free fashion with embedded temperature compensation.

  20. Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Centroid and Statistical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yin, Xiong

    Experimental testing shows that the relative relation in the number of samples among the neighboring bins and the audio frequency centroid are two robust features to the Time Scale Modification (TSM) attacks. Accordingly, an audio watermark algorithm based on frequency centroid and histogram is proposed by modifying the frequency coefficients. The audio histogram with equal-sized bins is extracted from a selected frequency coefficient range referred to the audio centroid. The watermarked audio signal is perceptibly similar to the original one. The experimental results show that the algorithm is very robust to resample TSM and a variety of common attacks. Subjective quality evaluation of the algorithm shows that embedded watermark introduces low, inaudible distortion of host audio signal.

  1. The Digital Audio Editor as a Teaching and Laboratory Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latta, Gregory

    2001-10-01

    Digital audio editors such as Software Audio Workshop and Cool Edit Pro are powerful tools used in the radio and audio recording fields for editing digital audio. However, they are also powerful tools in the physics classroom and laboratory. During this presentation the author will show how a digital audio editor, combined with a library of audio .wav files produced by the author as part of sabbatical work, can be used to: 1. demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the relationship between the decibel, sound intensity, and loudness perception, 2. demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the relationship between frequency and pitch perception, 3. perform additive and subtractive sound synthesis, 4. demonstrate comb filtering, 5. demonstrate constructive and destructive interference, and 6. turn the computer into an accurate signal generator (sine wave, square wave, etc.) with a frequency resolution of 1Hz. Availability of the required software and .wav file library will also be discussed.

  2. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  3. A content-based digital audio watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking embeds inaudible information into digital audio data for the purposes of copyright protection, ownership verification, covert communication, and/or auxiliary data carrying. In this paper, we present a novel watermarking scheme to embed a meaningful gray image into digital audio by quantizing the wavelet coefficients (using integer lifting wavelet transform) of audio samples. Our audio-dependent watermarking procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking of the human auditory system (HAS) to guarantee that the embedded watermark image is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by utilizing still image compression technique, breaking each audio clip into smaller segments, selecting the perceptually significant audio segments to wavelet transform, and quantizing the perceptually significant wavelet coefficients. The proposed watermarking algorithm can extract the watermark image without the help from the original digital audio signals. We also demonstrate the robustness of that watermarking procedure to audio degradations and distortions, e.g., those that result from noise adding, MPEG compression, low pass filtering, resampling, and requantization.

  4. Audio-Visual, Visuo-Tactile and Audio-Tactile Correspondences in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nava, Elena; Grassi, Massimo; Turati, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Interest in crossmodal correspondences has recently seen a renaissance thanks to numerous studies in human adults. Yet, still very little is known about crossmodal correspondences in children, particularly in sensory pairings other than audition and vision. In the current study, we investigated whether 4-5-year-old children match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of visual objects (audio-visual condition). In addition, we investigated whether this correspondence extends to touch, i.e., whether children also match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of touch (audio-tactile condition) and the spatial motion of visual objects to touch (visuo-tactile condition). In two experiments, two different groups of children were asked to indicate which of two stimuli fitted best with a centrally located third stimulus (Experiment 1), or to report whether two presented stimuli fitted together well (Experiment 2). We found sensitivity to the congruency of all of the sensory pairings only in Experiment 2, suggesting that only under specific circumstances can these correspondences be observed. Our results suggest that pitch-height correspondences for audio-visual and audio-tactile combinations may still be weak in preschool children, and speculate that this could be due to immature linguistic and auditory cues that are still developing at age five. PMID:27311292

  5. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  6. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  7. One-Class SVMs Challenges in Audio Detection and Classification Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaoui, Asma; Kadri, Hachem; Lachiri, Zied; Ellouze, Noureddine

    2008-12-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) have gained great attention and have been used extensively and successfully in the field of sounds (events) recognition. However, the extension of SVMs to real-world signal processing applications is still an ongoing research topic. Our work consists of illustrating the potential of SVMs on recognizing impulsive audio signals belonging to a complex real-world dataset. We propose to apply optimized one-class support vector machines (1-SVMs) to tackle both sound detection and classification tasks in the sound recognition process. First, we propose an efficient and accurate approach for detecting events in a continuous audio stream. The proposed unsupervised sound detection method which does not require any pretrained models is based on the use of the exponential family model and 1-SVMs to approximate the generalized likelihood ratio. Then, we apply novel discriminative algorithms based on 1-SVMs with new dissimilarity measure in order to address a supervised sound-classification task. We compare the novel sound detection and classification methods with other popular approaches. The remarkable sound recognition results achieved in our experiments illustrate the potential of these methods and indicate that 1-SVMs are well suited for event-recognition tasks.

  8. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  9. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  10. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  11. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and...

  12. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and...

  13. Teaching Audio Playwriting: The Pedagogy of Drama Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshelman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests how teaching artists can develop practical coursework in audio playwriting. To prepare students to work in the reemergent audio drama medium, the author created a seminar course called Radio Theatre Writing, taught at Arkansas Tech University in the fall of 2014. The course had three sections. First, it focused on…

  14. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  15. Beyond Podcasting: Creative Approaches to Designing Educational Audio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a university-wide pilot designed to encourage academics to creatively explore learner-centred applications for digital audio. Participation in the pilot was diverse in terms of technical competence, confidence and contextual requirements and there was little prior experience of working with digital audio. Many innovative…

  16. Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Brenda

    This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

  17. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  18. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  19. Making the Most of Audio. Technology in Language Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Anthony

    Prepared for practicing language teachers, this book's aim is to help them make the most of audio, a readily accessible resource. The book shows, with the help of numerous practical examples, how a range of language skills can be developed. Most examples are in French. Chapters cover the following information: (1) making the most of audio (e.g.,…

  20. Single source noise reduction of received HF audio: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Eric C.; Alva, Carlos O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper visits the application of single-source noise reduction on received audio over a HF channel. The noise reduction algorithm is typically used in vocoder noise processing at the transmitter before encoding. This study presents the results of the algorithm effects by objectively measuring audio quality through the use of industry standard PESQ analysis.

  1. The Audio-Visual Equipment Directory. Seventeenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herickes, Sally, Ed.

    The following types of audiovisual equipment are catalogued: 8 mm. and 16 mm. motion picture projectors, filmstrip and sound filmstrip projectors, slide projectors, random access projection equipment, opaque, overhead, and micro-projectors, record players, special purpose projection equipment, audio tape recorders and players, audio tape…

  2. Some Characteristics of Audio Description and the Corresponding Moving Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This research is concerned with reusing texts produced by audio describers as a source for automatically deriving shot-level indexing for film and video products. Results reinforce the notion that audio description is not sufficient on its own as a source for generating an index to the image, but it is valuable because it describes what is going…

  3. A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

  4. Audio Utilization Conventions and Techniques for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Signal Center and School, Fort Monmouth, NJ.

    A set of guidelines has been developed for the implementation of the audio mode in computer assisted instruction (CAI). The manual contains a collection of conventions and techniques synthesized from recent publications in areas pertinent to multi-media audiovisual presentation. These areas include audio message placement, positioning, frequency,…

  5. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  6. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  7. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  8. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  9. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  10. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  11. Robust audio-visual speech recognition under noisy audio-video conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise.

  12. Techniques in audio and acoustic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    Measurement of acoustic devices and spaces is commonly performed with time-delay spectrometry (TDS) or maximum length sequence (MLS) analysis. Both techniques allow an impulse response to be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that can be traded off against the measurement time. However, TDS suffers from long measurement times because of its linear sweep, while MLS suffers from the corruption of the impulse response by distortion. Recently a logarithmic sweep-based method has been devised which offers high SNR, short measurement times, and the ability to separate the linear impulse response from the impulse responses of distortion products. The applicability of these methods to audio and acoustic measurement will be compared.

  13. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-03-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  14. Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    2015-04-01

    Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.

  15. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-01-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  16. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  17. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  18. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  19. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  20. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  1. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group. PMID:25324091

  2. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  3. Effects of aging on audio-visual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Aurélie; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of aging on audio-visual speech integration. A syllable identification task was presented in auditory-only, visual-only, and audio-visual congruent and incongruent conditions. Visual cues were either degraded or unmodified. Stimuli were embedded in stationary noise alternating with modulated noise. Fifteen young adults and 15 older adults participated in this study. Results showed that older adults had preserved lipreading abilities when the visual input was clear but not when it was degraded. The impact of aging on audio-visual integration also depended on the quality of the visual cues. In the visual clear condition, the audio-visual gain was similar in both groups and analyses in the framework of the fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed that older adults did not differ from younger adults in their audio-visual integration abilities. In the visual reduction condition, the audio-visual gain was reduced in the older group, but only when the noise was stationary, suggesting that older participants could compensate for the loss of lipreading abilities by using the auditory information available in the valleys of the noise. The fuzzy-logical model of perception confirmed the significant impact of aging on audio-visual integration by showing an increased weight of audition in the older group.

  4. Robust message authentication code algorithm for digital audio recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Current systems and protocols for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code (RMAC) to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting and robust perceptual hashing. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information.

  5. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  6. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  7. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  8. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... § 201.27 Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This... and distribute, any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the...

  9. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  10. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  11. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  12. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  13. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  14. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States....

  15. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... of Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section prescribes rules... United States any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions....

  16. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  17. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  18. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  19. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  20. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  1. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  2. Joint application of audio spectral envelope and tonality index in an e-asthma monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Zieliński, Tomasz P

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents in detail a recently introduced highly efficient method for automatic detection of asthmatic wheezing in breathing sounds. The fluctuation in the audio spectral envelope (ASE) from the MPEG-7 standard and the value of the tonality index (TI) from the MPEG-2 Audio specification are jointly used as discriminative features for wheezy sounds, while the support vector machine (SVM) with a polynomial kernel serves as a classifier. The advantages of the proposed approach are described in the paper (e.g., detecting weak wheezes, very good ROC characteristics, independence from noise color). Since the method is not computationally complex, it is suitable for remote asthma monitoring using mobile devices (personal medical assistants). The main contribution of this paper consists of presenting all the implementation details concerning the proposed approach for the first time, i.e., the pseudocode of the method and adjusting the values of the ASE and TI parameters after which only one (not two) FFT is required for analysis of a next overlapping signal fragment. The efficiency of the method has also been additionally confirmed by the AdaBoost classifier with a built-in mechanism to feature ranking, as well as a previously performed minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance test. PMID:25167561

  3. Getting Started with CD Audio in HyperCard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the use of the Voyager Compact Disk (CD) AudioStack to provide HyperCard stacks designed to promote language learning with the ability to play on common precisely specified portions of off-the-shelf audio compact disks in a CD-ROM drive. Four German and Russian HyperCard stacks are described and their construction outlined.…

  4. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  5. The power of digital audio in interactive instruction: An unexploited medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.; Trainor, M.

    1989-01-01

    Widespread use of audio in computer-based training (CBT) occurred with the advent of the interactive videodisc technology. This paper discusses the alternative of digital audio, which, unlike videodisc audio, enables one to rapidly revise the audio used in the CBT and which may be used in nonvideo CBT applications as well. We also discuss techniques used in audio script writing, editing, and production. Results from evaluations indicate a high degree of user satisfaction. 4 refs.

  6. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions. PMID:25324075

  7. Video and audio data integration for conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Hinds, Raynard O.

    1995-04-01

    In videoconferencing applications the perceived quality of the video signal is affected by the presence of an audio signal (speech). To achieve high compression rates, video coders must compromise image quality in terms of spatial resolution, grayscale resolution, and frame rate, and may introduce various kinds of artifact.s We consider tradeoffs in grayscale resolution and frame rate, and use subjective evaluations to assess the perceived quality of the video signal in the presence of speech. In particular we explore the importance of lip synchronization. In our experiment we used an original grayscale sequence at QCIF resolution, 30 frames/second, and 256 gray levels. We compared the 256-level sequence at different frame rates with a two-level version of the sequence at 30 frames/sec. The viewing distance was 20 image heights, or roughly two feet from an SGI workstation. We used uncoded speech. To obtain the two-level sequence we used an adaptive clustering algorithm for segmentation of video sequences. The binary sketches it creates move smoothly and preserve the main characteristics of the face, so that it is easily recognizable. More importantly, the rendering of lip and eye movements is very accurate. The test results indicate that when the frame rate of the full grayscale sequence is low (less than 5 frames/sec), most observers prefer the two-level sequence.

  8. Robust Audio Watermarking Based on Log-Polar Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Kang, Xiangui; Huang, Jiwu

    In this paper, we analyze the audio signal distortions introduced by pitch-scaling, random cropping and DA/AD conversion, and find a robust feature, average Fourier magnitude over the log-polar frequency index(AFM), which can resist these attacks. Theoretical analysis and extensive experiments demonstrate that AFM is an appropriate embedding region for robust audio watermarking. This is the first work on applying log-polar mapping to audio watermark. The usage of log-polar mapping in our work is basically different from the existing works in image watermarking. The log-polar mapping is only applied to the frequency index, not to the transform coefficients, which avoids the reconstruction distortion of inverse log-polar transform and reduces the computation cost. Comparison with the existing methods, the proposed AFM-based watermarking scheme has the outstanding performance on resisting pitch-scaling and random cropping, as well as very approving robustness to DA/AD conversion and TSM (Time-Scale Modification). The watermarked audio achieves high auditory quality. Experimental results show that the scheme is very robust to common audio signal processing and distortions introduced in Stirmark for Audio.

  9. Quality Enhancement of Packet Audio with Time-Scale Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-12-01

    In traditional packet voice or the emerging 2.5G and 3G wireless data services, smooth and timely delivery of audio is an essential requirement in Quality of Service (QoS) provision. It has been shown in our previous work that, by adapting time-scale modification to audio signals, an adaptive play-out algorithm can be designed to minimize packet dropping at the receiver end. By stretching the audio frame duration up and down, the proposed algorithm could adapt quickly to accommodate fluctuating delays including delay spikes. In this paper, we will address the packet audio QoS with emphasis on end-to-end delay, packet loss, and delay jitter. The characteristics of delay and loss will be discussed. Adaptive playback will enhance the audio quality by adapting to the transmission delay jitter and delay spike. Coupled with Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes, the proposed delay and loss concealment algorithm achieves less overall application loss rate without sacrificing on the average end-to-end delay. The optimal solution of such algorithms will be discussed. We also investigate the stretching-ratio transition effect on perceived audio quality by measuring the objective Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) Mean Opinion Score (MOS).

  10. Audio-video synchronization management in embedded multimedia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hamood-Ur; Kim, Taehyun; Avadhanam, Niranjan; Subramanian, Sridharan

    2008-02-01

    Multimedia systems are required to provide proper synchronization of various components for intelligible presentation. However, it is challenging to accommodate the heterogeneity of different media characteristics. Audio-video synchronization is, for instance, required for presenting video chunks with audio frames where video chunk size is generally large and variable, but audio frame size is small and fixed. Such audio-video synchronization problem has been widely studied in the literature. The problem involves proper definition and preservation of temporal relationship between audio and video. Moreover, it is also important to take into account the processing complexity, since the computational resources and processing power on embedded platforms, such as cell phones and other handheld devices, are very limited. In this paper, we present the implementation of three audio-video synchronization methods on an embedded system. We discuss the performance as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques. Based on our evaluation, we reason why one of the presented techniques is superior to the other two.

  11. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  12. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  13. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  14. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  15. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary.

  16. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  17. Audio-video feature correlation: faces and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gwenael; Montacie, Claude; Caraty, Marie-Jose; Faudemay, Pascal

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlation of features automatically extracted from the audio stream and the video stream of audiovisual documents. In particular, we were interested in finding out whether speech analysis tools could be combined with face detection methods, and to what extend they should be combined. A generic audio signal partitioning algorithm as first used to detect Silence/Noise/Music/Speech segments in a full length movie. A generic object detection method was applied to the keyframes extracted from the movie in order to detect the presence or absence of faces. The correlation between the presence of a face in the keyframes and of the corresponding voice in the audio stream was studied. A third stream, which is the script of the movie, is warped on the speech channel in order to automatically label faces appearing in the keyframes with the name of the corresponding character. We naturally found that extracted audio and video features were related in many cases, and that significant benefits can be obtained from the joint use of audio and video analysis methods.

  18. Music identification system using MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors.

    PubMed

    You, Shingchern D; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  19. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  20. Multi-channel spatialization systems for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogrammable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed, and fed to a pair of headphones.

  1. Multi-channel spatialization system for audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogramable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed and fed to a pair of headphones.

  2. Objective quality measurement for audio time-scale modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    The recent ITU-T Recommendation P.862, known as the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) is an objective end-to-end speech quality assessment method for telephone networks and speech codecs through the measurement of received audio quality. To ensure that certain network distortions will not affect the estimated subjective measurement determined by PESQ, the algorithm takes into account packet loss, short-term and long-term time warping resulted from delay variation. However, PESQ does not work well for time-scale audio modification or temporal clipping. We investigated the factors that impact the perceived quality when time-scale modification is involved. An objective measurement of time-scale modification is proposed in this research, where the cross-correlation values obtained from time-scale modification synchronization are used to evaluate the quality of a time-scaled audio sequence. This proposed objective measure has been verified by a subjective test.

  3. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  4. Say What? The Role of Audio in Multimedia Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Audio, including interviews, ambient sounds, and music, is a critical-yet often overlooked-part of an effective multimedia video. In February 2010, Linder joined scientists working on the Global Rivers Observatory Project for two weeks of intensive fieldwork in the Congo River watershed. The team's goal was to learn more about how climate change and deforestation are impacting the river system and coastal ocean. Using stills and video shot with a lightweight digital SLR outfit and audio recorded with a pocket-sized sound recorder, Linder documented the trials and triumphs of working in the heart of Africa. Using excerpts from the six-minute Congo multimedia video, this presentation will illustrate how to record and edit an engaging audio track. Topics include interview technique, collecting ambient sounds, choosing and using music, and editing it all together to educate and entertain the viewer.

  5. Note-accurate audio segmentation based on MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-12-01

    Segmenting audio data into the smallest musical components is the basis for many further meta data extraction algorithms. For example, an automatic music transcription system needs to know where the exact boundaries of each tone are. In this paper a note accurate audio segmentation algorithm based on MPEG-7 low level descriptors is introduced. For a reliable detection of different notes, both features in the time and the frequency domain are used. Because of this, polyphonic instrument mixes and even melodies characterized by human voices can be examined with this alogrithm. For testing and verification of the note accurate segmentation, a simple music transcription system was implemented. The dominant frequency within each segment is used to build a MIDI file representing the processed audio data.

  6. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  7. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  8. Audio podcasting in a tablet PC-enhanced biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals of this approach are described, and data from student attitudinal and informational surveys are presented. The survey data suggest that the students have a positive attitude toward the combination of tablet-based instruction and audio podcasting. In addition, three students provide testimonials on how these technological tools allowed them to utilize their preferred learning styles to succeed in the course. Possible negative consequences of this approach, in terms of class attendance and note taking, are also analyzed and discussed.

  9. Three dimensional audio versus head down TCAS displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Pittman, Marc T.

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of a head up auditory display was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: Standard head down traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) display, and three-dimensional (3-D) audio TCAS presentation. Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft which activated a 3-D aural advisory or a TCAS advisory. Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio TCAS condition by 500 ms.

  10. Evaluation of robustness and transparency of multiple audio watermark embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha

    2008-02-01

    As digital watermarking becomes an accepted and widely applied technology, a number of concerns regarding its reliability in typical application scenarios come up. One important and often discussed question is the robustness of digital watermarks against multiple embedding. This means that one cover is marked several times by various users with by same watermarking algorithm but with different keys and different watermark messages. In our paper we discuss the behavior of our PCM audio watermarking algorithm when applying multiple watermark embedding. This includes evaluation of robustness and transparency. Test results for multiple hours of audio content ranging from spoken words to music are provided.

  11. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  12. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of videos accessible to ...

  13. The Use of Asynchronous Audio Feedback with Online RN-BSN Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of audio technology by online nursing educators is a recent phenomenon. Research has been conducted in the area of audio technology in different domains and populations, but very few researchers have focused on nursing. Preliminary results have indicated that using audio in place of text can increase student cognition and socialization.…

  14. Hearing You Loud and Clear: Student Perspectives of Audio Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jill; Day, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The use of audio feedback for students in a full-time community nursing degree course is appraised. The aim of this mixed methods study was to examine student views on audio feedback for written assignments. Questionnaires and a focus group were used to capture student opinion of this pilot project. The majority of students valued audio feedback…

  15. Audio Use in E-Learning: What, Why, When, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandra, Brendan; Barron, Ann E.; Thompson-Sellers, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Decisions related to the implementation of audio in e-learning are perplexing for many instructional designers, and deciphering theory and principles related to audio use can be difficult for practitioners. Yet, as bandwidth on the Internet increases, digital audio is becoming more common in online courses. This article provides a review of…

  16. Audio CBTs: An Initial Framework for the Use of Sound in Computerized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Cynthia G.; Balizet, Sha

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the potential benefits of using sound in computerized assessments. Describes some current computer uses of the audio channel of communication and outlines a proposed audio computer-based testing framework. Provides some examples of operational and experimental audio tests and reviews some research cautions and recommendations. (SLD)

  17. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  18. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  19. Integrated Spacesuit Audio System Enhances Speech Quality and Reduces Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yiteng Arden; Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Shaoyan Sharyl

    2009-01-01

    A new approach has been proposed for increasing astronaut comfort and speech capture. Currently, the special design of a spacesuit forms an extreme acoustic environment making it difficult to capture clear speech without compromising comfort. The proposed Integrated Spacesuit Audio (ISA) system is to incorporate the microphones into the helmet and use software to extract voice signals from background noise.

  20. Sounds in CD-ROM--Integrating Audio in Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebush, Judson

    1992-01-01

    Describes how audio technology is being integrated into CD-ROMs to create multimedia products. Computer hardware and software are discussed, including the use of HyperCard to combine still pictures, moving video pictures, and sound; and specific new multimedia products produced by the Voyager Company are described. (LRW)

  1. Multi-pose lipreading and audio-visual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we study the adaptation of visual and audio-visual speech recognition systems to non-ideal visual conditions. We focus on overcoming the effects of a changing pose of the speaker, a problem encountered in natural situations where the speaker moves freely and does not keep a frontal pose with relation to the camera. To handle these situations, we introduce a pose normalization block in a standard system and generate virtual frontal views from non-frontal images. The proposed method is inspired by pose-invariant face recognition and relies on linear regression to find an approximate mapping between images from different poses. We integrate the proposed pose normalization block at different stages of the speech recognition system and quantify the loss of performance related to pose changes and pose normalization techniques. In audio-visual experiments we also analyze the integration of the audio and visual streams. We show that an audio-visual system should account for non-frontal poses and normalization techniques in terms of the weight assigned to the visual stream in the classifier.

  2. Audio and Video Reflections to Promote Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how 15 graduate students enrolled in a US school leadership preparation program understand issues of social justice and equity through a reflective process utilizing audio and/or video software. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on the tradition of grounded theory. The researcher…

  3. Improved Techniques for Automatic Chord Recognition from Music Audio Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taemin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of techniques that facilitate the effective implementation of capable automatic chord transcription from music audio signals. Since chord transcriptions can capture many important aspects of music, they are useful for a wide variety of music applications and also useful for people who learn and perform…

  4. Geography Via the Audio-Visual-Tutorial Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.

    Geography teachers have available to them a wide variety of audiovisual aids. But the methods by which these materials should be used to produce the greatest impact upon learning deserve careful consideration. The Audio-Visual-Tutorial (ATV) laboratory at Carroll College purposes to improve the content of the freshman-sophomore course in physical…

  5. Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

  6. Audio-visual perception system for a humanoid robotic head.

    PubMed

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M; Bandera, Juan P; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  7. Sounds Good: Using Digital Audio for Evaluation Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Feedback on student work is problematic for faculty and students in British higher education. Evaluation feedback takes faculty much time to produce and students are often dissatisfied with its quantity, timing, and clarity. The Sounds Good project has been experimenting with the use of digital audio for feedback, aiming to save faculty time and…

  8. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  9. SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2008-08-01

    Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise.

  10. Ultrahigh and audio frequencies in a laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Casabella, P.A.; Gonsiorowski, T.; Leitner, A.

    1980-05-01

    The helium--neon lasers readily available in teaching laboratories usually operate in several photon modes simultaneously. The first-difference and second-difference beats lie in the uhf- and audio-frequency ranges, respectively, and can be detected as sinusoidal signals with photodiodes. These are instructive experiments which raise thought provoking questions about cavity resonance and negative dispersion.

  11. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  12. An Audio-Visual Lecture Course in Russian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Lauren G.

    1977-01-01

    An audio-visual course in Russian culture is given at Northern Illinois University. A collection of 4-5,000 color slides is the basis for the course, with lectures focussed on literature, philosophy, religion, politics, art and crafts. Acquisition, classification, storage and presentation of slides, and organization of lectures are discussed. (CHK)

  13. Iowa Virtual Literacy Protocol: A Pre-Experimental Design Using Kurzweil 3000 Text-to-Speech Software with Incarcerated Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulley, Yvette K.

    2012-01-01

    The problem: The increasingly competitive global economy demands literate, educated workers. Both men and women experience the effects of education on employment rates and income. Racial and ethnic minorities, English language learners, and especially those with prison records are most deeply affected by the economic consequences of dropping out…

  14. The Effect of Embedded Text-to-Speech and Vocabulary eBook Scaffolds on the Comprehension of Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Limited research exists concerning the effect of interactive electronic texts or eBooks on the reading comprehension of students with reading disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in oral retelling and comprehension performance on multiple-choice questions when 17 students with reading…

  15. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  16. Transcript of Audio Narrative Portion of: Scandinavian Heritage. A Set of Five Audio-Visual Film Strip/Cassette Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gerald D.; Olson, David B.

    The document presents the transcript of the audio narrative portion of approximately 100 interviews with first and second generation Scandinavian immigrants to the United States. The document is intended for use by secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs related to the Scandinavian heritage in…

  17. Subjective audio quality evaluation of embedded-optimization-based distortion precompensation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Defraene, Bruno; van Waterschoot, Toon; Diehl, Moritz; Moonen, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Subjective audio quality evaluation experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithms for mitigating perceptible linear and nonlinear distortion in audio signals. It is concluded with statistical significance that the perceived audio quality is improved by applying an embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithm, both in case (i) nonlinear distortion and (ii) a combination of linear and nonlinear distortion is present. Moreover, a significant positive correlation is reported between the collected subjective and objective PEAQ audio quality scores, supporting the validity of using PEAQ to predict the impact of linear and nonlinear distortion on the perceived audio quality. PMID:27475197

  18. Subjective audio quality evaluation of embedded-optimization-based distortion precompensation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Defraene, Bruno; van Waterschoot, Toon; Diehl, Moritz; Moonen, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Subjective audio quality evaluation experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithms for mitigating perceptible linear and nonlinear distortion in audio signals. It is concluded with statistical significance that the perceived audio quality is improved by applying an embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithm, both in case (i) nonlinear distortion and (ii) a combination of linear and nonlinear distortion is present. Moreover, a significant positive correlation is reported between the collected subjective and objective PEAQ audio quality scores, supporting the validity of using PEAQ to predict the impact of linear and nonlinear distortion on the perceived audio quality.

  19. Maintaining high-quality IP audio services in lossy IP network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Chodura, Hartmut

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we present our research activities in the area of digital audio processing and transmission. Today's available teleconference audio solutions are lacking in flexibility, robustness and fidelity. There was a need for enhancing the quality of audio for IP-based applications to guarantee optimal services under varying conditions. Multiple tests and user evaluations have shown that a reliable audio communication toolkit is essential for any teleconference application. This paper summarizes our research activities and gives an overview of developed applications. In a first step the parameters, which influence the audio quality, were evaluated. All of these parameters have to be optimized in order to result into the best achievable quality. Therefore it was necessary to enhance existing schemes or develop new methods. Applications were developed for Internet-Telephony, broadcast of live music and spatial audio for Virtual Reality environments. This paper describes these applications and issues of delivering high quality digital audio services over lossy IP networks.

  20. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  1. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  2. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  3. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  4. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  5. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  6. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  7. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  8. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  9. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

    2010-02-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual character of a product. We argue that this can be accomplished successfully only on basis of a thorough understanding of the impact of audio-visual interactions on product sounds. Two experimental studies are reviewed to show audio-visual interactions on both perceptual and cognitive levels influencing the way people encode, recall, and attribute meaning to product sounds. Implications for sound design are discussed defying the natural tendency of product designers to analyze the "sound problem" in isolation from the other product properties.

  10. Dynamic range control of audio signals by digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    It is often necessary to reduce the dynamic range of musical programs, particularly those comprising orchestral and choral music, for them to be received satisfactorily by listeners to conventional FM and AM broadcasts. With the arrival of DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) a much wider dynamic range will become available for radio broadcasting, although some listeners may prefer to have a signal with a reduced dynamic range. This report describes a digital processor developed by the BBC to control the dynamic range of musical programs in a manner similar to that of a trained Studio Manager. It may be used prior to transmission in conventional broadcasting, replacing limiters or other compression equipment. In DAB, it offers the possibility of providing a dynamic range control signal to be sent to the receiver via an ancillary data channel, simultaneously with the uncompressed audio, giving the listener the option of the full dynamic range or a reduced dynamic range.

  11. Audio-visual communication and its use in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Nessa; Khojainova, Natalia; Francavilla, John M; Gonzales, Gilbert R

    2002-02-01

    The technology of telemedicine has been used for over 20 years, involving different areas of medicine, providing medical care for the geographically isolated patients, and uniting geographically isolated clinicians. Today audio-visual technology may be useful in palliative care for the patients lacking access to medical services due to the medical condition rather than geographic isolation. We report results of a three-month trial of using audio-visual communications as a complementary tool in care for a complex palliative care patient. Benefits of this system to the patient included 1) a daily limited physical examination, 2) screening for a need for a clinical visit or admission, 3) lip reading by the deaf patient, 4) satisfaction by the patient and the caregivers with this form of communication as a complement to telephone communication. A brief overview of the historical prospective on telemedicine and a listing of applied telemedicine programs are provided.

  12. Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

  13. Evaluation of embedded audio feedback on writing assignments.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janet K; Goodman, Joely T; Hercinger, Maribeth; Minnich, Margo; Murcek, Christina M; Parks, Jane M; Shirley, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare embedded audio feedback (EAF), which faculty provided using the iPad(®) application iAnnotate(®) PDF to insert audio comments and written feedback (WF), inserted electronically on student papers in a series of writing assignments. Goals included determining whether EAF provides more useful guidance to students than WF and whether EAF promotes connectedness among students and faculty. An additional goal was to ascertain the efficiency and acceptance of EAF as a grading tool by nursing faculty. The pilot study was a quasi-experimental, cross-over, posttest-only design. The project was completed in an Informatics in Health Care course. Faculty alternated the two feedback methods on four papers written by each student. Results of surveys and focus groups revealed that students and faculty had mixed feelings about this technology. Student preferences were equally divided between EAF and WF, with 35% for each, and 28% were undecided.

  14. Cyclodextrin-based molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    This chapter overviews molecular machines based on cyclodextrins (CDs). The categories of CD-based molecular machines, external stimuli for CD-based molecular machines, and typical examples of CD-based molecular machines are briefly described.

  15. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  16. A calculable, transportable audio-frequency AC reference standard

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, N.M.; Hetrick, P.S. ); Zeng, X. )

    1989-04-01

    A transportable ac voltage source is described, in which sinusoidal signals are synthesized digitally in the audio-frequency range. The rms value of the output waveform may be calculated by measuring the dc level of the individual steps used to generate the waveform. The uncertainty of this calculation at the 7-V level is typically less than +-5 ppm from 60 Hz to 2 kHz and less than +-10 ppm from 30 Hz to 15 kHz.

  17. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF) nitrogen gas discharge (10 - 100 kHz) is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm) and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ˜ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 - 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  18. NFL Films audio, video, and film production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    The new NFL Films 200,000 sq. ft. headquarters is home for the critically acclaimed film production that preserves the NFL's visual legacy week-to-week during the football season, and is also the technical plant that processes and archives football footage from the earliest recorded media to the current network broadcasts. No other company in the country shoots more film than NFL Films, and the inclusion of cutting-edge video and audio formats demands that their technical spaces continually integrate the latest in the ever-changing world of technology. This facility houses a staggering array of acoustically sensitive spaces where music and sound are equal partners with the visual medium. Over 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space is comprised of an array of sound stages, music scoring stages, audio control rooms, music writing rooms, recording studios, mixing theaters, video production control rooms, editing suites, and a screening theater. Every production control space in the building is designed to monitor and produce multi channel surround sound audio. An overview of the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered for each sophisticated listening, recording, viewing, editing, and sound critical environment will be discussed.

  19. Guidelines for the integration of audio cues into computer user interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikawa, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    Throughout the history of computers, vision has been the main channel through which information is conveyed to the computer user. As the complexities of man-machine interactions increase, more and more information must be transferred from the computer to the user and then successfully interpreted by the user. A logical next step in the evolution of the computer-user interface is the incorporation of sound and thereby using the sense of ''hearing'' in the computer experience. This allows our visual and auditory capabilities to work naturally together in unison leading to more effective and efficient interpretation of all information received by the user from the computer. This thesis presents an initial set of guidelines to assist interface developers in designing an effective sight and sound user interface. This study is a synthesis of various aspects of sound, human communication, computer-user interfaces, and psychoacoustics. We introduce the notion of an earcon. Earcons are audio cues used in the computer-user interface to provide information and feedback to the user about some computer object, operation, or interaction. A possible construction technique for earcons, the use of earcons in the interface, how earcons are learned and remembered, and the affects of earcons on their users are investigated. This study takes the point of view that earcons are a language and human/computer communication issue and are therefore analyzed according to the three dimensions of linguistics; syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.

  20. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhaoxin; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  1. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability. PMID:25097883

  2. Efficient Query-by-Content Audio Retrieval by Locality Sensitive Hashing and Partial Sequence Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Joe, Kazuki; Downie, J. Stephen

    This paper investigates suitable indexing techniques to enable efficient content-based audio retrieval in large acoustic databases. To make an index-based retrieval mechanism applicable to audio content, we investigate the design of Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) and the partial sequence comparison. We propose a fast and efficient audio retrieval framework of query-by-content and develop an audio retrieval system. Based on this framework, four different audio retrieval schemes, LSH-Dynamic Programming (DP), LSH-Sparse DP (SDP), Exact Euclidian LSH (E2LSH)-DP, E2LSH-SDP, are introduced and evaluated in order to better understand the performance of audio retrieval algorithms. The experimental results indicate that compared with the traditional DP and the other three compititive schemes, E2LSH-SDP exhibits the best tradeoff in terms of the response time, retrieval accuracy and computation cost.

  3. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  4. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  5. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  6. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  7. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  8. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

  9. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  10. Paper-Based Textbooks with Audio Support for Print-Disabled Students.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akio; Ohsawa, Akiko; Takaira, Takuya; Tani, Yoshiaki; Fujiyoshi, Mamoru; Ota, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing invisible 2-dimensional codes and digital audio players with a 2-dimensional code scanner, we developed paper-based textbooks with audio support for students with print disabilities, called "multimodal textbooks." Multimodal textbooks can be read with the combination of the two modes: "reading printed text" and "listening to the speech of the text from a digital audio player with a 2-dimensional code scanner." Since multimodal textbooks look the same as regular textbooks and the price of a digital audio player is reasonable (about 30 euro), we think multimodal textbooks are suitable for students with print disabilities in ordinary classrooms. PMID:26294447

  11. A Virtual Audio Guidance and Alert System for Commercial Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Shrum, Richard; Miller, Joel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Our work in virtual reality systems at NASA Ames Research Center includes the area of aurally-guided visual search, using specially-designed audio cues and spatial audio processing (also known as virtual or "3-D audio") techniques (Begault, 1994). Previous studies at Ames had revealed that use of 3-D audio for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) advisories significantly reduced head-down time, compared to a head-down map display (0.5 sec advantage) or no display at all (2.2 sec advantage) (Begault, 1993, 1995; Begault & Pittman, 1994; see Wenzel, 1994, for an audio demo). Since the crew must keep their head up and looking out the window as much as possible when taxiing under low-visibility conditions, and the potential for "blunder" is increased under such conditions, it was sensible to evaluate the audio spatial cueing for a prototype audio ground collision avoidance warning (GCAW) system, and a 3-D audio guidance system. Results were favorable for GCAW, but not for the audio guidance system.

  12. ASTP video tape recorder ground support equipment (audio/CTE splitter/interleaver). Operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive handbook for the audio/CTE splitter/interleaver (RCA part No. 8673734-502) was presented. This unit is designed to perform two major functions: extract audio and time data from an interleaved video/audio signal (splitter section), and provide a test interleaved video/audio/CTE signal for the system (interleaver section). It is a rack mounting unit 7 inches high, 19 inches wide, 20 inches deep, mounted on slides for retracting from the rack, and weighs approximately 40 pounds. The following information is provided: installation, operation, principles of operation, maintenance, schematics and parts lists.

  13. Realization of guitar audio effects using methods of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buś, Szymon; Jedrzejewski, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    The paper is devoted to studies on possibilities of realization of guitar audio effects by means of methods of digital signal processing. As a result of research, some selected audio effects corresponding to the specifics of guitar sound were realized as the real-time system called Digital Guitar Multi-effect. Before implementation in the system, the selected effects were investigated using the dedicated application with a graphical user interface created in Matlab environment. In the second stage, the real-time system based on a microcontroller and an audio codec was designed and realized. The system is designed to perform audio effects on the output signal of an electric guitar.

  14. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  15. Music and audio - oh how they can stress your network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, R.

    Nearly ten years ago a paper written by the Audio Engineering Society (AES)[1] made a number of interesting statements: 1. 2. The current Internet is inadequate for transmitting music and professional audio. Performance and collaboration across a distance stress beyond acceptable bounds the quality of service Audio and music provide test cases in which the bounds of the network are quickly reached and through which the defects in a network are readily perceived. Given these key points, where are we now? Have we started to solve any of the problems from the musician's point of view? What is it that musician would like to do that can cause the network so many problems? To understand this we need to appreciate that a trained musician's ears are extremely sensitive to very subtle shifts in temporal materials and localisation information. A shift of a few milliseconds can cause difficulties. So, can modern networks provide the temporal accuracy demanded at this level? The sample and bit rates needed to represent music in the digital domain is still contentious, but a general consensus in the professional world is for 96 KHz and IEEE 64-bit floating point. If this was to be run between two points on the network across 24 channels in near real time to allow for collaborative composition/production/performance, with QOS settings to allow as near to zero latency and jitter, it can be seen that the network indeed has to perform very well. Lighting the Blue Touchpaper for UK e-Science - Closing Conference of ESLEA Project The George Hotel, Edinburgh, UK 26-28 March, 200

  16. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  17. Adaptive filter for reconstruction of stereo audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisowski, Krzysztof

    2004-05-01

    The paper presents a new approach to reconstruction of impulsively disturbed stereo audio signals. The problems of restoration of large blocks of missing samples are outlined. Present methods of removing of covariance defect are discussed. Model of stereophonic signal is defined and Kalman filter appropriate for this model is introduced. Modifications of the filter directing to the new method of reconstruction of block of missing samples are discussed. Projection based algorithm allows to recover samples of left (or right) stereo channel using additional information included in undistorted samples from the other channel.

  18. Debate: a strategy for increasing interaction in audio teleconferencing.

    PubMed

    Wuest, J

    1989-10-01

    Increased demand for audio teleconferenced undergraduate nursing courses for registered nurses in New Brunswick, Canada, has resulted in nurse educators being challenged to meet the needs of adult learners within the constraints of this technology. In this paper the problem of limited interaction among adult nursing students in a teleconferenced course is examined in light of the theoretical frameworks of adult education and distance education. The effects of implementing debate as a learning strategy to increase participation are discussed. The debate process increased site to site interaction and encouraged nurses to consider pragmatic issues from new perspectives.

  19. TV audio and video on the same channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmitting technique adds audio to video signal during vertical blanking interval. SIVI (signal in the vertical interval) is used by TV networks and stations to transmit cuing and automatic-switching tone signals to augment automatic and manual operations. It can also be used to transmit one-way instructional information, such as bulletin alerts, program changes, and commercial-cutaway aural cues from the networks to affiliates. Additonally, it can be used as extra sound channel for second-language transmission to biligual stations.

  20. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  1. Incorporating Auditory Models in Speech/Audio Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthi, Harish

    2011-12-01

    Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to

  2. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  3. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  4. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  5. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  6. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  7. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  8. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  9. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  10. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  11. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  12. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue. PMID:26170050

  15. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  16. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  17. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  18. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  19. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  20. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  1. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  2. Anthropomorphic Coding of Speech and Audio: A Model Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbauer, Christian; Kubin, Gernot; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan

    2005-12-01

    Auditory modeling is a well-established methodology that provides insight into human perception and that facilitates the extraction of signal features that are most relevant to the listener. The aim of this paper is to provide a tutorial on perceptual speech and audio coding using an invertible auditory model. In this approach, the audio signal is converted into an auditory representation using an invertible auditory model. The auditory representation is quantized and coded. Upon decoding, it is then transformed back into the acoustic domain. This transformation converts a complex distortion criterion into a simple one, thus facilitating quantization with low complexity. We briefly review past work on auditory models and describe in more detail the components of our invertible model and its inversion procedure, that is, the method to reconstruct the signal from the output of the auditory model. We summarize attempts to use the auditory representation for low-bit-rate coding. Our approach also allows the exploitation of the inherent redundancy of the human auditory system for the purpose of multiple description (joint source-channel) coding.

  3. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  4. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  5. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, M.

    2008-07-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  6. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual “bisensory” stimuli. Three metrics were measured—onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets. PMID:26778952

  7. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  8. Characteristics of the audio sound generated by ultrasound imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners use high-energy pulses to probe the human body. The radiation force resulting from the impact of such pulses on an object can vibrate the object, producing a localized high-intensity sound in the audible range. Here, a theoretical model for the audio sound generated by ultrasound scanners is presented. This model describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound. It has been shown that the sound has rich frequency components at the pulse repetition frequency and its harmonics. Experiments have been conducted in a water tank to measure the sound generated by a clinical ultrasound scanner in various operational modes. Results are in general agreement with the theory. It is shown that a typical ultrasound scanner with a typical spatial-peak pulse-average intensity value at 2 MHz may generate a localized sound-pressure level close to 100 dB relative to 20 μPa in the audible (<20 kHz) range under laboratory conditions. These findings suggest that fetuses may become exposed to a high-intensity audio sound during maternal ultrasound examinations. Therefore, contrary to common beliefs, ultrasound may not be considered a passive tool in fetal imaging..

  9. A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Kurttio, Anttu A.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo E.

    2010-06-01

    A compact (96×128×32 mm3, 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 μVrms at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW® and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

  10. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training. PMID:24465675

  11. Description of Audio-Visual Recording Equipment and Method of Installation for Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, James A.

    The Audio-Video Recorder System was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of in-flight audio/video recording as a pilot training technique for the U.S. Air Force Pilot Training Program. It will be used to gather background and performance data for an experimental program. A detailed description of the system is presented and construction and…

  12. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  13. 47 CFR 73.9005 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Audio. 73.9005 Section 73.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73... unscreened content or of marked content in digital form except in compressed audio format (such as AC3) or...

  14. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial filming, still photography, and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... schedule for still photography conducted under a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 applies to audio... of 43 CFR part 5, subpart A. Failure to comply with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of... photography, and audio recording. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  15. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of this section. (d) The location fee schedule for still photography conducted according to a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 will apply to audio... national wildlife refuges under the provisions of 43 CFR part 5. (b) Audio recording does not require...

  16. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with any provision of 43 CFR part 5 is a violation of this section. (d) The location fee schedule for still photography conducted according to a permit issued under 43 CFR part 5 will apply to audio... national wildlife refuges under the provisions of 43 CFR part 5. (b) Audio recording does not require...

  17. Attention to and Memory for Audio and Video Information in Television Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.

    A study investigated whether selective attention to a particular television modality resulted in different levels of attention to and memory for each modality. Two independent variables manipulated selective attention. These were the semantic channel (audio or video) and viewers' instructed focus (audio or video). These variables were fully…

  18. 78 FR 38093 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment ] DATES: The meeting will be held July 15-19, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  19. Rethinking the Red Ink: Audio-Feedback in the ESL Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes audio-feedback as a teaching method for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing classes. Using this method, writing instructors respond to students' compositions by recording their comments onto an audiocassette, then returning the paper and cassette to the students. The first section describes audio-feedback and explains…

  20. Students' Attitudes to and Usage of Academic Feedback Provided via Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Stephen; Orsmond, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study explores students' attitudes to the provision of formative feedback on academic work using audio files together with the ways in which students implement such feedback within their learning. Fifteen students received audio file feedback on written work and were subsequently interviewed regarding their utilisation of that feedback within…

  1. Active Learning in the Online Environment: The Integration of Student-Generated Audio Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Armier, David Des, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators have integrated instructor-produced audio files in a variety of settings and environments for purposes such as content presentation, lecture reviews, student feedback, and so forth. Few instructors, however, require students to produce audio files and share them with peers. The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical data on…

  2. Immediate Audio and Visual Confirmation; "Breakthrough" for the Low-Aptitude Language Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Theodore H.

    Students with low language aptitude have been found to have poor powers of auditory discrimination. To date, programed language instruction has relied on audio confirmation of oral response. A study was conducted to determine the value of adding visual confirmation to the audio model. A total of 170 experimental and 140 control students in second…

  3. Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

  4. Report to the Legislature: Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. Line Item 7061-0012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Final Report on the Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. The Department and Recording For the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D) have collaborated to provide audio-digital read-aloud editions of the Grade 10 English Language Arts and Mathematics MCAS tests for a small number of students with disabilities such as dyslexia and/or vision…

  5. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  6. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  7. A Management Review and Analysis of Purdue University Libraries and Audio-Visual Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaske, Jan; And Others

    A management review and analysis was conducted by the staff of the libraries and audio-visual center of Purdue University. Not only were the study team and the eight task forces drawn from all levels of the libraries and audio-visual center staff, but a systematic effort was sustained through inquiries, draft reports and open meetings to involve…

  8. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  9. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information, decreasing the…

  10. "Listen to This!" Utilizing Audio Recordings to Improve Instructor Feedback on Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Providing audio files in lieu of written remarks on graded assignments is arguably a more effective means of feedback, allowing students to better process and understand the critique and improve their future work. With emerging technologies and software, this audio feedback alternative to the traditional paradigm of providing written comments…

  11. Guidelines for the Production of Audio Materials for Print Handicapped Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    Procedural guidelines developed by the Audio Standards Committee of the National Library of Australia to help improve the overall quality of production of audio materials for visually handicapped readers are presented. This report covers the following areas: selection of narrators and the narration itself; copyright; recording of books, magazines,…

  12. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  13. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  14. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  15. 17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... video material. 232.304 Section 232.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in a document delivered to investors and others that is not reproduced in...

  16. Facilitating Discourse and Enhancing Teaching Presence: Using Mini Audio Presentations in Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.; Snyder, Martha M.; Terrell, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if instructors' use of mini audio presentations (MAPs) in online discussions serves as an effective facilitation method, particularly when the content contains specific facilitation markers including reinforcement, recognition, and reward (three Rs). Instructors posted MAPs as audio file attachments…

  17. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  18. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  19. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  20. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d...

  1. A Multi-Purpose Instructional Approach: An Audio-Tutorial Short Course in International Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duly, Leslie C.; Wadlow, Joan K.

    This paper describes the audio-tutorial short course as a method for introducing high quality instruction about new problems in international studies (IS) at the college level. The basic equipment to the audio-tutorial approach to learning is a booth with a tape recorder, a study guide, and a notebook with extra readings. Students listen to the…

  2. Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials. No. 1--Classrooms, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Intended to inform school board administrators and teachers of the current (1958) thinking on audio-visual instruction for use in planning new buildings, purchasing equipment, and planning instruction. Attention is given the problem of overcoming obstacles to the incorporation of audio-visual materials into the curriculum. Discussion includes--(1)…

  3. Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

  4. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  5. Machine learning and radiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

  6. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  7. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  8. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  9. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  10. Environment Recognition for Digital Audio Forensics Using MPEG-7 and MEL Cepstral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alghathbar, Khalid

    2011-07-01

    Environment recognition from digital audio for forensics application is a growing area of interest. However, compared to other branches of audio forensics, it is a less researched one. Especially less attention has been given to detect environment from files where foreground speech is present, which is a forensics scenario. In this paper, we perform several experiments focusing on the problems of environment recognition from audio particularly for forensics application. Experimental results show that the task is easier when audio files contain only environmental sound than when they contain both foreground speech and background environment. We propose a full set of MPEG-7 audio features combined with mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to improve the accuracy. In the experiments, the proposed approach significantly increases the recognition accuracy of environment sound even in the presence of high amount of foreground human speech.

  11. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  12. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  13. Wind motor machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecke, A.

    1984-12-25

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the rotor core body and the wing bodies. These stream guiding bodies extend in a desired streaming direction, that is normal to the rotational axis of the wind body, which insures substantially laminar air streaming within the intermediate space.

  14. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  15. Machine tools get smarter

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new generation of intelligent machine tools capable of optimizing their own grinding, milling, and molding processes. These brainy tools are allowing manufacturers to machine more-complex, higher-quality parts in shorter cycle times. The technology also lowers scrap rates and reduces or eliminates the need for polishing inadequately finished parts.

  16. Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

  17. Computerized Audio-Visual Instructional Sequences (CAVIS): A Versatile System for Listening Comprehension in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman-Centeno, Josefina R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development and evaluation of CAVIS, which consists of an Apple microcomputer used with audiovisual dialogs. Includes research on the effects of three conditions: (1) computer with audio and visual, (2) computer with audio alone and (3) audio alone in short-term and long-term recall. (EKN)

  18. Comparing the Effects of Classroom Audio-Recording and Video-Recording on Preservice Teachers' Reflection of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of audio and video self-recording on preservice teachers' written reflections. Participants (n = 201) came from a secondary teaching methods course and its school-based (clinical) fieldwork. The audio group (n[subscript A] = 106) used audio recorders to monitor their teaching in fieldwork placements; the video group…

  19. Data Machine Independence

    1994-12-30

    Data-machine independence achieved by using four technologies (ASN.1, XDR, SDS, and ZEBRA) has been evaluated by encoding two different applications in each of the above; and their results compared against the standard programming method using C.

  20. The TUM walking machines.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents some aspects of walking machine design with a special emphasis on the three machines MAX, MORITZ and JOHNNIE, having been developed at the Technical University of Munich within the last 20 years. The design of such machines is discussed as an iterative process improving the layout with every iteration. The control concepts are event-driven and follow logical rules, which have largely been transferred from neurobiological findings. At least for the six-legged machine MAX, a nearly perfect autonomy could be achieved, whereas for the biped JOHNNIE, a certain degree of autonomy could be realized by a vision system with appropriate decision algorithms. This vision system was developed by the group of Prof. G. Schmidt, TU-München. A more detailed description of the design and realization is presented for the biped JOHNNIE.

  1. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  2. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  4. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  5. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  8. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  9. A Function Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

  10. Opticam PM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-12-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center for Optics Manufacturing and the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board to design a multi-axis prism grinding machine. The Opticam PM is a three axis, high precision CNC reciprocating grinder. It is designed for the automated manufacturing of glass prisms. Unique features of the design incorporate electrolytic in- process dressing of the finishing wheel, nested grinding wheels and machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management).

  11. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  12. Detection of vibrations in the audio range using photorefractive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansurova, S.; Espinosa, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Gather, M.; Meerholz, K.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the use of a photorefractive polymer composite as the active material for a planar photo- EMF detector suitable for the adaptive detection of optical phase modulated signals in the audio range (10Hz-10KHz). The composite is based on a conjugated triphenyldiamine- phenylenevinylene polymer (TPD-PPV) and is sensitized with a highly soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM). We demonstrate experimentally that the responsitivity of such polymer based detectors can be remarkably enhanced if the polymer sample is biased by an external dc field. This effect is theoretically explained by the strong dependence of the charge carrier generation rate on the external dc field, which is an inherent property of organic photoconductors.

  13. Music information retrieval in compressed audio files: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampoglou, Markos; Malamos, Athanasios G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present an organized survey of the existing literature on music information retrieval systems in which descriptor features are extracted directly from the compressed audio files, without prior decompression to pulse-code modulation format. Avoiding the decompression step and utilizing the readily available compressed-domain information can significantly lighten the computational cost of a music information retrieval system, allowing application to large-scale music databases. We identify a number of systems relying on compressed-domain information and form a systematic classification of the features they extract, the retrieval tasks they tackle and the degree in which they achieve an actual increase in the overall speed-as well as any resulting loss in accuracy. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the field, and the potential research directions they open toward ultra-fast, scalable systems.

  14. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Knowland, Victoria C P; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael S C

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  15. The audio-visual revolution: do we really need it?

    PubMed

    Townsend, I

    1979-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, The audio-visual revolution has steadily gained converts in the nursing profession. Nurse tutor courses now contain information on the techniques of educational technology and schools of nursing increasingly own (or wish to own) many of the sophisticated electronic aids to teaching that abound. This is taking place at a time of hitherto inexperienced crisis and change. Funds have been or are being made available to buy audio-visual equipment. But its purchase and use relies on satisfying personal whim, prejudice or educational fashion, not on considerations of educational efficiency. In the rush of enthusiasm, the overwhelmed teacher (everywhere; the phenomenon is not confined to nursing) forgets to ask the searching, critical questions: 'Why should we use this aid?','How effective is it?','And, at what?'. Influential writers in this profession have repeatedly called for a more responsible attitude towards published research work of other fields. In an attempt to discover what is known about the answers to this group of questions, an eclectic look at media research is taken and the widespread dissatisfaction existing amongst international educational technologists is noted. The paper isolates out of the literature several causative factors responsible for the present state of affairs. Findings from the field of educational television are cited as representative of an aid which has had a considerable amount of time and research directed at it. The concluding part of the paper shows the decisions to be taken in using or not using educational media as being more complicated than might at first appear.

  16. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Railway Point Machines by Sound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Choi, Heesu; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Yoon, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    Railway point devices act as actuators that provide different routes to trains by driving switchblades from the current position to the opposite one. Point failure can significantly affect railway operations, with potentially disastrous consequences. Therefore, early detection of anomalies is critical for monitoring and managing the condition of rail infrastructure. We present a data mining solution that utilizes audio data to efficiently detect and diagnose faults in railway condition monitoring systems. The system enables extracting mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) from audio data with reduced feature dimensions using attribute subset selection, and employs support vector machines (SVMs) for early detection and classification of anomalies. Experimental results show that the system enables cost-effective detection and diagnosis of faults using a cheap microphone, with accuracy exceeding 94.1% whether used alone or in combination with other known methods. PMID:27092509

  17. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Railway Point Machines by Sound Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonguk; Choi, Heesu; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Yoon, Sukhan

    2016-04-16

    Railway point devices act as actuators that provide different routes to trains by driving switchblades from the current position to the opposite one. Point failure can significantly affect railway operations, with potentially disastrous consequences. Therefore, early detection of anomalies is critical for monitoring and managing the condition of rail infrastructure. We present a data mining solution that utilizes audio data to efficiently detect and diagnose faults in railway condition monitoring systems. The system enables extracting mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) from audio data with reduced feature dimensions using attribute subset selection, and employs support vector machines (SVMs) for early detection and classification of anomalies. Experimental results show that the system enables cost-effective detection and diagnosis of faults using a cheap microphone, with accuracy exceeding 94.1% whether used alone or in combination with other known methods.

  18. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  19. Feedback in sequential machine realizations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, C. A.; Coates, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for determining the realizability of a sequential machine with trigger or set-reset flip-flop memory elements when the feedback of the machine is given by a Boolean function. Feedbacks in several types of sequential machines with different memory elements are compared, showing the memory specifications allowing the realization of such machines.

  20. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  1. Comparative study of audio spatializers for dual-loudspeaker mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Shih, Geng-Yu; Lee, Chih-Chung

    2007-01-01

    MPEG-1, layer 3 handsets equipped with dual loudspeakers and three-dimensional audio modules have received much attention in the market of consumer electronics. To create spatial impression during audio reproduction, the head-related transfer function (HRTF) and the crosstalk cancellation system (CCS) are key elements in many audio spatializers. However, there are many factors that one should take into account during the design and implementation stages of an audio spatializer in the handset application. In the paper, a comprehensive study was undertaken to compare various audio spatializers for use with dual-loudspeaker handsets, in the context of inverse filtering strategies. Two deconvolution approaches, the frequency-domain method and the time-domain method, are employed to design the required inverse filters. Different approaches to design audio spatializers with the HRTF, CCS, and their combination are compared. In particular, two modified CCS approaches are suggested. Issues in the implementation phase such as regularization, complex smoothing, and structures of inverse filters are also addressed in the paper. Comprehensive objective and subjective tests were conducted to investigate the aforementioned aspects of audio spatializers. The data obtained from the subjective tests are processed by using the multianalysis of variance to justify statistical significance of the results.

  2. TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1-50 mM), flow rate (2-120 µL min-1) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ~10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems.

  3. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  4. Audio representations of multi-channel EEG: a new tool for diagnosis of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, François B; Dauwels, Justin; Musha, Toshimitsu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to develop audio representations of electroencephalographic (EEG) multichannel signals, useful for medical practitioners and neuroscientists. The fundamental question explored in this paper is whether clinically valuable information contained in the EEG, not available from the conventional graphical EEG representation, might become apparent through audio representations. Methods and Materials: Music scores are generated from sparse time-frequency maps of EEG signals. Specifically, EEG signals of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (healthy) control subjects are considered. Statistical differences in the audio representations of MCI patients and control subjects are assessed through mathematical complexity indexes as well as a perception test; in the latter, participants try to distinguish between audio sequences from MCI patients and control subjects. Results: Several characteristics of the audio sequences, including sample entropy, number of notes, and synchrony, are significantly different in MCI patients and control subjects (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Moreover, the participants of the perception test were able to accurately classify the audio sequences (89% correctly classified). Conclusions: The proposed audio representation of multi-channel EEG signals helps to understand the complex structure of EEG. Promising results were obtained on a clinical EEG data set. PMID:23383399

  5. Chaos based authentication watermarking scheme for combined video and audio data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yueyun

    2007-11-01

    Multimedia authentication techniques are used to prove the originality of received multimedia content and to detect malicious tampering. In this paper, we extend the Lin's theorem and utilize Fridrich's Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps to propose a new video/audio verify scheme. Different from most previous works, the single watermarking is used for authenticating two kinds combined multimedia in the new scheme. This method accepts appropriate MPEG compression while detecting malicious content tampering. Because the watermark has just only been added into video or audio signal, there is no distortion in audio block or video frame. So this method can be also used for some special purpose, such as military or medical.

  6. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  7. Method for reading sensors and controlling actuators using audio interfaces of mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Rafael V; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F; Gonçalves, Luiz M G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks.

  8. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  9. Non Contact Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Sebastiao, Pedro; Henriques, Bernardo G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems of the production of cables is the measurement of the thickness plastic cover at the production line. If for some reason the thickness of the plastic is smaller than the minimum necessary several meters of cable may be lost. If the problem exists in the middle of a long cable and the default is not detected in time, the loss will be significant. To solve this problem it is possible to use automatic measuring machines which may detect a default as soon as it happens. It is also possible to interact with the production line in order to avoid any losses. In this paper it is presented a non contact measuring machine, developed for this purpose. The machine uses a laser which is scanned through a field of 80 mm. The interruption of the beam gives information about the external dimension of the object. The technical study of the resolution, sensitivity and precision are presented on the paper. Also the hardware solution and the software are presented. The machine has an interface which allows communication with a PC. The PC may receive information from several measuring units and to interact with machines installed at the production line. The prototype is finished and is going to be tested in the industry.

  10. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Haney, S.J.; Sweeney, D.W.

    2000-02-29

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system is disclosed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10--14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  12. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  13. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  14. Machinable oxide ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Rayne, R.J.; Toth, L.E.; Jones, L.D.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Bender, B.A.

    1993-06-01

    A method of forming a machinable bulk superconductor by melt-casting the described comprising the steps of: weighing out amounts of powdered SrCO[sub 3], CuO, CaCO[sub 3], and Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] for the desired stoichiometry of the superconductor; combining the amounts of Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrCO[sub 3], CuO and CaCO[sub 3] to form a mixture of uniform color; removing the carbonates in the mixture; heating the mixture until the mixture melts completely, to form a melt; pouring the melt into a preheated, non-reactive mold; cooling the melted mixture in the mold to room temperature, to form a casting; inducing a superconducting phase having randomly oriented platelets within the casting; and machining, by a metal cutting technique, said casting having said induced superconducting phase; wherein said machining step is performed with a steel tool.

  15. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  16. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  17. Monitoring frog communities: An application of machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Watson, G.; Grigg, G.; McCallum, H.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic recognition of animal vocalizations would be a valuable tool for a variety of biological research and environmental monitoring applications. We report the development of a software system which can recognize the vocalizations of 22 species of frogs which occur in an area of northern Australia. This software system will be used in unattended operation to monitor the effect on frog populations of the introduced Cane Toad. The system is based around classification of local peaks in the spectrogram of the audio signal using Quinlan`s machine learning system, C4.5. Unreliable identifications of peaks are aggregated together using a hierarchical structure of segments based on the typical temporal vocalization species` patterns. This produces robust system performance.

  18. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  19. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  20. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  1. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  2. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  3. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  4. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  5. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Dion D.

    1993-01-01

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  6. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Dion D.

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  7. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  8. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  9. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group

  10. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  11. Energy balance in advanced audio coding encoder bit-distortion loop algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz; Pastuszak, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents two techniques of balancing energy in ScaleFactor bands for Advanced Audio Coding. The techniques allows the AAC encoder to get a better audio quality. The first one modifies Scale Factors assigned to each band after the quantization whereas the second finds and changes offsets in the quantization - just before rounding down. The implementations of the algorithms have been tested and results discussed. Results show that these techniques significantly improve the quality. At last hardware implementation possibilities are discussed.

  12. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  13. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  17. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  18. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  19. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  20. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  1. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  2. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  3. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  4. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  5. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video digitizers). (EJS)

  6. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  7. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  8. Audio watermarking forensics: detecting malicious re-embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Rührmair, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Digital watermarking has become a widely used security technology in the domain of digital rights management and copyright protection as well as in other applications. In this work, we show recent results regarding a particular security attack: Embedding a new message in a previously watermarked cover using the same key as the original message. This re-embedding can be the consequence of the absence of truly asymmetric watermarking solutions, especially if the watermark is to be detected in public. In public detection scenarios, every detector needs the same key the embedder used to watermark the cover. With knowledge of the embedding algorithm, everybody who is able to detect the message can also maliciously embed a new message with the same key over the old one. This scenario is relevant in the case that an attacker intends to counterfeit a copyright notice, transaction ID or to change an embedded authentication code. This work presents experimental results on mechanisms for identifying such multiple embeddings in a spreadspectrum patchwork audio watermarking approach. We demonstrate that under certain circumstances such multiple embedding can be detected by watermarking-forensics.

  9. An audio-magnetotelluric investigation in Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Trota, António; Soares, António; Luzio, Rafael; Lourenço, Nuno; Matos, Liliana; Almeida, Eugénio; Gaspar, João L.; Miranda, Jorge M.

    2006-08-01

    Ten audio-magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out along a profile crossing the Serra do Cume caldera in the eastern part of the Terceira Island (Azores). The main objectives of this investigation were to detect geoelectrical features related with tectonic structures and to characterize regional hydrological and hydrothermal aspects mainly those related to geothermal fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional numerical investigation showed that the data acquired at periods shorter than 1 s are not significantly affected by ocean effect. The data was analysed using the Smith's decomposition method in order to investigate possible distortions caused by superficial structures and to estimate a global regional strike. The results suggest that in general the soundings were not distorted. A regional N55°W strike was chosen for the two-dimensional data inversion. The low-resistivity zones (10-30 ohm-m) displayed in the central part of the 2-D geoelectrical model have been interpreted as caused by hydrothermal circulation. The low-resistivity anomalies at the ends of the profile might be attributed to alteration zones with interaction of seawater intrusion. High-resistivity (> 300 ohm-m) values have been related with less permeable zones in the SW of Cinco Picos and Guilherme Moniz caldera walls.

  10. Human performance measures for interactive haptic-audio-visual interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dawei; Bhatti, Asim; Nahavandi, Saeid; Horan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems. PMID:24808267

  11. Differentiated audio-tactile correspondences in sighted and blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Fasiello, Irène; Hayward, Vincent; Auvray, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the crossmodal correspondence robustly documented between auditory pitch and visual elevation has analogues in the audio-tactile domain. Across 4 experiments, the compatibility effects between intuitively congruent pairs of stimuli (i.e., outward tactile movement, going from the inside of the finger toward the fingertip and increasing pitch, or inward tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent pairs stimuli (i.e., the reverse associations) were measured. Two methods were compared to assess the behavioral effects of such a correspondence: One where participants have to respond to either the auditory or tactile stimulus presented simultaneously, while ignoring the other (speeded classification task), and the other where the auditory and tactile stimuli are presented sequentially and associated to different response buttons (implicit association test). No significant compatibility effect was observed under the speeded classification task. The implicit association test revealed a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the finger was placed vertically and horizontally. However, this implicit association between pitch and tactile movements was not observed in blind participants. These results have methodological implications for the explanation and testing of crossmodal correspondences, and the origin of the widely discussed association between pitch and vertical elevation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  13. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  14. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  15. Differentiated audio-tactile correspondences in sighted and blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Fasiello, Irène; Hayward, Vincent; Auvray, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the crossmodal correspondence robustly documented between auditory pitch and visual elevation has analogues in the audio-tactile domain. Across 4 experiments, the compatibility effects between intuitively congruent pairs of stimuli (i.e., outward tactile movement, going from the inside of the finger toward the fingertip and increasing pitch, or inward tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent pairs stimuli (i.e., the reverse associations) were measured. Two methods were compared to assess the behavioral effects of such a correspondence: One where participants have to respond to either the auditory or tactile stimulus presented simultaneously, while ignoring the other (speeded classification task), and the other where the auditory and tactile stimuli are presented sequentially and associated to different response buttons (implicit association test). No significant compatibility effect was observed under the speeded classification task. The implicit association test revealed a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the finger was placed vertically and horizontally. However, this implicit association between pitch and tactile movements was not observed in blind participants. These results have methodological implications for the explanation and testing of crossmodal correspondences, and the origin of the widely discussed association between pitch and vertical elevation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950385

  16. Lexicality drives audio-motor transformations in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Kotz, S A; D'Ausilio, A; Raettig, T; Begliomini, C; Craighero, L; Fabbri-Destro, M; Zingales, C; Haggard, P; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    Broca's area is classically associated with speech production. Recently, Broca's area has also been implicated in speech perception and non-linguistic information processing. With respect to the latter function, Broca's area is considered to be a central area in a network constituting the human mirror system, which maps observed or heard actions onto motor programs to execute analogous actions. These mechanisms share some similarities with Liberman's motor theory, where objects of speech perception correspond to listener's intended articulatory gestures. The aim of the current series of behavioral, TMS and fMRI studies was to test if Broca's area is indeed implicated in such audio-motor transformations. More specifically, using a classical phonological rhyme priming paradigm, we investigated whether the role of Broca's area could be purely phonological or rather, is lexical in nature. In the behavioral baseline study, we found a large priming effect in word prime/target pairs (W-W) and no effect for pseudo-words (PW-PW). Online TMS interference of Broca's area canceled the priming difference between W-W and PW-PW by enhancing the effects for PW-PW. Finally, the fMRI study showed activation of Broca's area for W-W pairs, but not for PW-PW pairs. Our data show that Broca's area plays a significant role in speech perception strongly linked to the lexicality of a stimulus. PMID:19698980

  17. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  18. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016. PMID:26625860

  19. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Gianpaolo; Cavaliere, Sergio

    2001-12-01

    We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  20. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    PubMed

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016.

  1. The effect of reverberation on personal audio devices.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gálvez, Marcos F; Elliott, Stephen J; Cheer, Jordan

    2014-05-01

    Personal audio refers to the creation of a listening zone within which a person, or a group of people, hears a given sound program, without being annoyed by other sound programs being reproduced in the same space. Generally, these different sound zones are created by arrays of loudspeakers. Although these devices have the capacity to achieve different sound zones in an anechoic environment, they are ultimately used in normal rooms, which are reverberant environments. At high frequencies, reflections from the room surfaces create a diffuse pressure component which is uniform throughout the room volume and thus decreases the directional characteristics of the device. This paper shows how the reverberant performance of an array can be modeled, knowing the anechoic performance of the radiator and the acoustic characteristics of the room. A formulation is presented whose results are compared to practical measurements in reverberant environments. Due to reflections from the room surfaces, pressure variations are introduced in the transfer responses of the array. This aspect is assessed by means of simulations where random noise is added to create uncertainties, and by performing measurements in a real environment. These results show how the robustness of an array is increased when it is designed for use in a reverberant environment. PMID:24815249

  2. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. PMID:25948255

  3. An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Eric M.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

  4. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  5. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  7. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  8. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  9. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  10. Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

  11. Association installs condom machine.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    On the occasion of World Population Day (11 July), India installed its first condom vending machine. The machine was inaugurated by Mr. Eruch Lala, an official of the Family Planning Association of India, as part of the association's campaign to help the country curb its rapid population growth rate and stem the spread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Each condom, called sangam ("union" in English) costs Rupees 2 (about 6.5 US cents). The machine is located at a textile mill in Bombay. The Association said it would install at least 60 such machines in Bombay over the coming months. "A psychological advantage of the machine is that the user need not personally meet the dispenser and can collect a condom without any embarrassment," Mr. Lala said. "The machine is expected to promote efforts at curbing population growth and prevent the spread of AIDS," he said. In a separate report, AIDS has been found to be racing through India just eight years after the first case was detected. Prostitutes, drug addicts and untested blood supplies are the conduits. More than half of the prostitutes in cities such as Bombay have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS. The truck drivers and itinerant workers they serve carry it to their own villages, according to the report by Mr. Thomas Wagner writing for the Associated Press. There are 43 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported each year in the country, according to the report. The HIV virus has been reported in all 25 states of India. Although the AIDS pandemic came to India later than most large countries, the National AIDS Control Organization estimates there are 1.62 million cases in the population, up 60% from 1993, according to the report. "AIDS is no longer just a problem of high-risk groups; it has spread to every area of India," Dr. P.R. Das Gupta of the national AIDS agency said in an interview. "So many people are migrating from their villages in search of jobs that this

  12. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  13. The Black Record: A Selective Discography of Afro-Americana on Audio Discs Held by the Audio/Visual Department, John M. Olin Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dain, Bernice, Comp.; Nevin, David, Comp.

    The present revised and expanded edition of this document is an inclusive cumulation. A few items have been included which are on order as new to the collection or as replacements. This discography is intended to serve primarily as a local user's guide. The call number preceding each entry is based on the Audio-Visual Department's own, unique…

  14. No, there is no 150 ms lead of visual speech on auditory speech, but a range of audiovisual asynchronies varying from small audio lead to large audio lag.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Savariaux, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of neuroscience papers capitalize on the assumption published in this journal that visual speech would be typically 150 ms ahead of auditory speech. It happens that the estimation of audiovisual asynchrony in the reference paper is valid only in very specific cases, for isolated consonant-vowel syllables or at the beginning of a speech utterance, in what we call "preparatory gestures". However, when syllables are chained in sequences, as they are typically in most parts of a natural speech utterance, asynchrony should be defined in a different way. This is what we call "comodulatory gestures" providing auditory and visual events more or less in synchrony. We provide audiovisual data on sequences of plosive-vowel syllables (pa, ta, ka, ba, da, ga, ma, na) showing that audiovisual synchrony is actually rather precise, varying between 20 ms audio lead and 70 ms audio lag. We show how more complex speech material should result in a range typically varying between 40 ms audio lead and 200 ms audio lag, and we discuss how this natural coordination is reflected in the so-called temporal integration window for audiovisual speech perception. Finally we present a toy model of auditory and audiovisual predictive coding, showing that visual lead is actually not necessary for visual prediction.

  15. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  16. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  17. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors.

  18. Machinations of thought

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1985-03-01

    After three decades of frustrating work, artificial intelligence is coming of age--moving out of the laboratories and into the marketplace. Expert systems, computer programs that give advice like a human specialist, are pinpointing mineral deposits and diagnosing diseases. Programs are taking shape that can do a pretty fair job of understanding plain English or French. Robotics will soon benefit from computer vision systems able to store a digitized photograph of an object or scene and recognize a good bit of what is there. As the more exuberant enthusiasts see it, we might soon have machines to advise us about our income taxes or the baby's fever; silicon tutors could help a child master the enthralling possibilities of geometry and numbers; trucks might drive themselves through the night and unload themselves at their destination. In short, we could one day have machines to do almost anything that now requires intelligence in a human.

  19. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  20. The Development of Audio-Visual Integration for Temporal Judgements.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy J

    2016-04-01

    Adults combine information from different sensory modalities to estimate object properties such as size or location. This process is optimal in that (i) sensory information is weighted according to relative reliability: more reliable estimates have more influence on the combined estimate and (ii) the combined estimate is more reliable than the component uni-modal estimates. Previous studies suggest that optimal sensory integration does not emerge until around 10 years of age. Younger children rely on a single modality or combine information using inappropriate sensory weights. Children aged 4-11 and adults completed a simple audio-visual task in which they reported either the number of beeps or the number of flashes in uni-modal and bi-modal conditions. In bi-modal trials, beeps and flashes differed in number by 0, 1 or 2. Mutual interactions between the sensory signals were evident at all ages: the reported number of flashes was influenced by the number of simultaneously presented beeps and vice versa. Furthermore, for all ages, the relative strength of these interactions was predicted by the relative reliabilities of the two modalities, in other words, all observers weighted the signals appropriately. The degree of cross-modal interaction decreased with age: the youngest observers could not ignore the task-irrelevant modality-they fully combined vision and audition such that they perceived equal numbers of flashes and beeps for bi-modal stimuli. Older observers showed much smaller effects of the task-irrelevant modality. Do these interactions reflect optimal integration? Full or partial cross-modal integration predicts improved reliability in bi-modal conditions. In contrast, switching between modalities reduces reliability. Model comparison suggests that older observers employed partial integration, whereas younger observers (up to around 8 years) did not integrate, but followed a sub-optimal switching strategy, responding according to either visual or auditory